The experiment aims to determine the solubility product constant of the ionic
salt Calcium Hydroxide. The prepared media containing the ionic salt were tested
by introducing different factors that affects the solubility such as temperature,
common-ion effect, diverse-ion effect and the solvent polarity. The data was
computed to yield varying concentrations of OH - from which the concentration of
Ca2+ was obtained, which is also the solubility of the compound. Further calculations
showed that the increase in ionic strength increases the solubility. Also, the effect of
common-ion and diverse-ion introduced to the solution was observed. The
experiment yielded an experimental value of 3.15 x10 -5 Ksp which deviates greatly
from the literature value. The experiment can be improved by accuracy in the
concentrations of saturated solutions and titration techniques.

Slightly soluble salts, when placed in
reaction. The following reaction is the
same as the equilibrium reaction
involved in this dissolution where AxBy
is a hypothetical solid:
AxBy(s)  xAy+(aq) + yBx+(aq) (1)
From this type of reaction the
equilibrium constant Keq can be
referred to as the solubility product
constant. A substance's solubility
mathematical product of its dissolved
ion concentrations raised to the power

of their stoichiometric coefficients.
Solubility products are relevant when a
sparingly soluble ionic compound
releases ions into solution. To calculate
for the solubility product constant of a
reaction, this equation is used:
Ksp = [Ay+]x[Bx+]y
In this experiment, te equilibrium
product constant of Ca(OH)2, Ksp, was
equilibrium reaction was expressed as:
Ca(OH)2(s)  Ca2+(aq) + OH-(aq)
Ksp = [Ca2+][ OH-]2


For each medium. medium E with 50 mL 0. Hence.50 M Kcl in room temperature and medium F with 45 mL distilled water and 5 mL 95% ethanol in room temperature. polar solutes dissolve in polar solvents. [1] This is governed by the ionic strength: μ = 1/2Σicizi2 (6) where ci is the molarity of ion i. The media were stirred for 5 minutes and were left for 10 minutes. There is no one measure of solvent polarity and so classification of solvents based on polarity can be carried out using different scales. For media B & C. Three drops of 1% phenolphthalein was added to each. presence of diverse ions and the change in solvent polarity. Dissolution often occurs when the solute-solvent interactions are similar to the solvent-solvent interactions.10 M HCl until the color of phenolphthalein vanished to colorless. A saturated solution has the following molar solubility: [Ay+} = xs . Medium D was prepared using 50 mL 0. whereas nonpolar solutes dissolve in nonpolar solvents. is its charge. and to analyze the effect of the aforementioned factors to the solubility of Ca(OH)2. Solubility changes with temperature. 25mL aliquot were drawn from each of the medium and were transferred to a 125-ml Erlenmeyer flask. METHODOLOGY In order to determine the molar solubility of Ca(OH)2. [By+} = ys (5) The solubility of salts in an aqueous solution is greatly affected by the following factors: temperature. presence of common ions. different media were prepared in 250-mL beakers. The effect of the presence of common ion is an application of Le Chatelier’s principle which states that when a common ion is added to a solution of dissociated solids.Ksp is also related to the molar solubility of the springly soluble salt. B and C were all 50 mL water in different temperature. given the enthalpy and entropy changes. and the summation is over all ions present in the system. The van’t Hoff equation: lnK = -ΔH/RT + ΔS/R (7) relates the equilibrium constant with the change in temperature. The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the relation between molar solubility and Ksp. the suspension was filtered. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION . Molar solubility is the number of moles of the solute that produce a liter of a saturated solution. Two trials of titration were performed for each medium. the tendency would be towards the precipitation of the dissolved solids. zi. it was made sure that the receiving flasks are of the same temperature as the suspensions.10 M CaCl2 in room temperature. the solubility product constant of Ca(OH)2 in various media is determined by titrating the saturated solution with (OH-). These were then titrated with 0. Ca(OH)2 was added vigorously until the solution became saturated. The diverse-ion on the other hand deals with interionic interactions of the ions present in the solution. Medium A. signified by the term like dissolves like. In this experiment.

M 0. This may be caused by some deviations of the experiment procedure.014 Ksp 0.0 42 0. the equation to determine experimental Ksp for different temperatures was deduced wherein. slope is the enthalpy change divided by the ideal gas constant and the intercept is the entropy change divided by the gas constant.034 0. Table 1 Experimental Data Media A B C D E F - 2+ [OH ].04 36 [Ca2+ ]. the filtration was necessary since only the amount of dissolved solids were quantified to obtain the Ksp. During the preparation.and Ca2+ in the solution.M 0. x is 1/T. The titration process was performed to determine the molar solubility of Ca2+ which was obtained from the concentration of OH-. Graph of Van't Hoff Equation f(x) = 1613.02 x 10-6. Table 2 Ionic Strength of Solvent Mediu m A B C [OH-] . Comparing the Ksp of medium A which is in room temperature the literature value of 5. y is the lnK. Using the equation the enthalpy change obtained is -13.043 6 0.039 0. The results yielded by the researchers are listed in table 1 and further computations are located in the appendix.0 59 0. an indicator which is phenolphthalein was added to the supernate to determine the equivalence point.098x1 0-5 4.02 18 Solubili ty 0. Another cause may be the use of different volume of aliquot.14x10-5 0.94 J.87 R² = 0.15. M 0. Before the titration.42 kJ and the entropy change is 131. it is concluded that the reaction is exothermic. when the supernate of the suspension were obtained.0199 0.69x .014 0.01 99 0.0 65 .187 1. the percent error is more than 100. The molar solubility can also be obtained and it is equal to the concentration of Ca2+ because for every Ca(OH)2 that dissolves.15x10-5 1.72 0. the Ksp for the calcium hydroxide solid can be obtained by using .0218 μ 0.028 [Ca ]. The preparation of all the medium were necessary to investigate the effect of different factors mentioned to the molar solubility and the solubility product constant of the ionic salt.0218 3.03 9 0. From these data.99x10-5 By obtaining the concentration of the hydroxide ions present in the solution.36 0. Ca2+ forms with the same amount because they have a 1:1 mole ratio.0199 0. the concentration of calcium ions (Ca2+) can be computed also by using the stoichiometric coefficients (2).53x10-5 0. The equilibrium reaction is expressed in (3).56 Graph 1 1/T vs lnK The graph representation of Van’t Hoff equation shows the relation of 1/T and lnK. M 0.In this experiment the solubility of the ionic salt Ca(OH)2 was measured.02 8 0.124 0.048 0.0172 5.01 4 0. And by using the equilibrium concentration of OH. From this.

Lemay. the experiment is a failure quantitatively since it yielded a large percentage error. Sample Calculations Trial 1 . However.. On the other hand. Harwood. Ralph H. Al.9 ionic Solubility vs Ionic Strength When the solubility is plotted against the ionic strength of the solution (excluding Ca2+ and deionized water solution) an increasing trend is observed which means that as the number of diverse ions present in the solution. 2009. et. CONCLUSION The Ksp values obtained from the experiment deviates from the literature value by more than a 100 percent. Qualitatively the experiment is a success since it did show the effects of different factors to the solubility and determination of Ksp. the medium with a diverse ion effect increased the solubility. There may be different levels of saturation. This would have affected the concentration values obtained. thus increasing Ksp. Another cause would be the titration procedure.5 2 0.7 0.04 8 0. (n. The determination of equivalence point may not be accurate. 8th _html/CH201/data/Solubility_Product_C onstants. This experiment can be improved by reducing systematic errors other than those that were discussed discussion. Theodore E. Eugene.01 72 0.36 0. the greater the solubility of the solid species.12 4 0. the data obtained can be corrected upon careful actions. Chemistry: The Central Science. in the results and The medium were the common-ion effect was observed showed that the solubility did increase which resulted from adding a common ion to the solution. proper use of apparatuses and accurate measurement of reagents.03 4 0.. REFERENCES: [1] Brown. PrenticeHall. Pearson Education Inc. As a conclusion. The errors of results may have come from the preparation of the suspension.pdf A. 2002 [6]Solubility Product.d. William S.ncsu. General Chemistry.124 0.72 0.).36 0. Herring. Retrieved from http://www4. H. 11th edition.D E F 0. 0.0172 Graph 2 Solubility Strenth of Solvent vs. and Geoffrey F.. [2] Petrucci.

7 x 10-5 μ = ½[(0.866 Ksp @ 298 K 1/lnK = 1613.1 M)/25 mL = 0.059 linear equation from Van’t Hoff equation Ksp = -10.7)(8.7(1/298K) – 15.866)(8.[OH-] = (10.5mL)(0.0199)(2)2] = 0.021 y = 1613.314) = 131.021)3 = 3. = ΔS/R ΔS = (15.7x – 15.042 M [Ca2+] = [OH-]/1 = 0.866 VTIT = (10 mL + 7.314) = -13.5 mL)/2 = 9 mL S = [OH-]/2 = [Ca2+] Ksp = 4S3 = 4(0.45 lnK = -ΔH/RT + ΔS/R slope = -ΔH/R ΔH = (-1613.42 kJ y-int.039)(-1)2 + (0.94 J .