6

CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction
The analysis of dynamically loaded structures has received a continuous
but varying level of attention over the past 50 years. Due to the infinite
number of permutations of structural parameters and due to the costs of
performing tests on such structures, the amount of available experimental
data, while broad, is also scant relative to any particular combination of
structure and dynamic load.
The finite element method has been applied with great success to
geometrical and material nonlinearities in continuum and structural
problems. The geometric nonlinearities is modeled by well known
formulations, the total or updated Lagrangian, while success in modeling
the material nonlinearities depends on the validity of the constitutive
models used. Although adequate models exit for the nonlinear behavior of
steel, the development of an accurate and reliable model for the nonlinear
response of plain concrete is still an active area of interest in the civil
engineering community.
In this chapter a review of studies on reinforced concrete stiffened
shells is presented for static analysis. A review on stiffened shells for
dynamic analysis is presented. A review on reinforced concrete structures
for nonlinear dynamic analysis is also presented.
2.2 Reinforced Concrete Stiffened Shells
Several works on the analysis of reinforced concrete stiffened shell have
been studied for static analysis [1,13,20]. Arnesen [1]studied the behavior
of reinforced concrete cylindrical shells strengthened with edge beam,
which was tested by Bouma [1]. The same problem was also studied by
Ram and Kompfner [13]. Both studies modeled the cylindrical shell as

The concrete is modeled with biaxial formulation that acts in the shell surface and includes cracking. The edge beam was modeled as being connected to midheight to the shell whereas in reality it is connected to the top.7 well as the edge beam by the shell elements. near the failure this agreement no longer exists. nonlinear stress-strain relationship in compression. compression failure and tension stiffening. and unsatisfactory results were obtained. The rising (upward displacements) of the center of the shell observed in the test was not predicted in the analysis and on the contrary downward deflection was obtained. Different responses were produced in this analysis depending on the way in which the beam was connected to the shell. Ram and Kompfner [13] modeled the material nonlinearities by layers throughout the thickness of the element. Arnesen used endochronic theory for material nonlinearity and large deformation formulation with small strain applied for geometric nonlinearity. Stiff results were obtained when the shell is connected at the top of beam and soft results were obtained when the shell is connected at the mid-height of the beam. Modeling of the edge beam by shell element was again ineffective. Ram and Kompfner investigated in-between distance (between the top of the . Arnesen had clearly stated the difficulties as: It was difficult by the present element to model correctly at the same time both the geometrical and bending properties of the beam. The reinforcements were represented by smeared layers. It is therefore desirable to include an eccentric beam element in the computational model in order to get the correct representation of eccentric stiffeners and edge beams. The results obtained were very good compared to the test results at the initial and intermediate stage of the response.

8 beam and at the mid-height of the beam) to produce good results. In this section a brief review for dynamic analysis of stiffened shells is presented. The connection between the shell and the beam represents the real case in nature. Nonlinear transient behavior of isotropic stiffened plates and stiffened cylindrical shells is investigated under blast load. Layered formulation was adopted to represent the steel reinforcement and to simulate progressive concrete cracking and concrete yielding through the thickness. but downward deflection was also obtained at the longitudinal centerline of the shell. 2. The upward deflection is obtained as in the test. with independent rotational and translational degrees of freedom was employed. The plasticity theory of Von Mises yield criterion was used with associated flow rule. Thannon [20] developed a nonlinear finite element analysis for reinforced concrete stiffened shells through layers based on linear work of Jirousek [7]. Jiang and Olson [6] and Olson [12] modeled the stiffened plate and shell by the finite strip method. The drawback in the previous studies does no longer exist. which assumes isotropic hardening of the material. Elastic-plastic model was used for concrete in compression. The degenerated three dimensional isoparametric shell element.3 Dynamic Analysis of Stiffened Shells The published work on the analysis of stiffened shells under dynamic loads is restricted to isotropic and anistrotopic materials as far as our knowledge and there is no work on reinforced concrete stiffened plates and shells or on T-beam structures. . The deflection gives good agreement with test results without using any modification in geometry. The stiffeners were modeled by three dimensional degenerated beam elements.

Triangular elements were used to represent the shell and the stiffeners were represented by beam elements.18] analyzed stiffened shells with arbitrary shapes under dynamic loads using the shallow finite element method. For more information about this section the reader can return to reference [17]. These stiffeners are related to the natural coordinate of the shell elements. In compression.9 The numerical results were compared with test and other studies and gave good agreement. respectively. The characteristic equations to find the natural frequencies. Sinha and Mukhopadhyay [16. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the effect of in-plane forces on dynamic stability of stiffened and non-stiffened plates and shells. which must be transformed finally to global axes. 2. Liao and Cheng [8] studied the dynamic stability of laminated composite stiffened plates and shells subjected to in-plane pulsating forces. a three dimensional non-linear elastic constitutive law is introduced for the concrete.4 Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Members Rebora et al [14] analyzed reinforced concrete plates and shells under dynamic transient loading. The isoparametric three dimensional elements of twenty-node brick element have been used to simulate the concrete and the one dimensional bar element with three nodes for the steel reinforcement. A three dimensional degenerated shell element and three dimensional degenerated curved beam element are used to model plates/shells and stiffeners. buckling loads and their corresponding mode shapes are obtained from the finite element equation of motion. and triaxial failure surface .17. The numerical results were compared with published results and gave good agreement. Only elastic analysis is employed in this study.

in addition to being total plastic strain or work dependent. The nonlinear dynamic response has been carried out with an explicit central difference time integration algorithm. Several examples were analyzed which showed good agreement with published results. The numerical results gave good agreement with the published experimental results. The ultimate load is reached when the algorithm does not converge. For steel a yield criterion is selected. The degenerated three dimensional isoparametric shell element. The concrete model also simulates both the compressive crushing and the tensile cracking behavior and implicit Newmark algorithm is employed for time integration of the equation of . To include the dynamic feature for material nonlinearities. cracking of concrete and yielding of steel were taken into account for modeling the material nonlinearities. with independent rotational and translational degrees of freedom. Two and three cracking surfaces in which no component of stress is transmitted are accounted for. A layered thick shell finite element procedure is considered for determining the dynamic transient nonlinear response of plates and shells. is employed. The concrete is modeled by brick elements and the reinforcement is modeled by smeared approach. strain rate was included which effects the dynamic yielding function of concrete.10 expressed in the stress invariant is used. Freiman and Trop [3] analyzed a reinforced concrete beam under impact load using the finite element method. Layered formulation is adopted to represent the steel reinforcement and to simulate progressive concrete cracking through the thickness. Yielding. The dynamic yielding function is assumed to be a function of current strain rate. determining crushing and cracking. Liu and Owen [9] analyzed reinforced concrete plates and shells under dynamic transient loading.

Several numerical examples were presented and the result gave good agreement with other sources. The comparison between the predicted results and the test results were shown to agree well overall. and the yield surface which indicates the initiation of yielding state. The three dimensional isoparametric element with 20 nodes is used to simulate the concrete. The strain rate is included in the model. The smeared approach is used to represent the reinforcement in the elements. This model consisted of two spring elements and a damper element for reinforced concrete. which combines the finite difference technique and the finite element method. A viscoplastic model is used to simulate the concrete in compression with two surfaces. Steven et al [19] analyzed two shallow buried reinforced concrete arches under blast loading using explosive –generated pressure applied to soil surface. Several examples were analyzed with different loading conditions. In this model a strut and tie with three element Maxwell model is used. Shimazaki and Wada [15] analyzed reinforced concrete shear wall structures considering strain rate effect. Hinton [4] analyzed reinforced concrete plates and shells under transient dynamic loading. coupled with a nonlocal continuum damage /plasticity model for plain concrete. a ratedependent cap model for soil and an elastic /strain hardening plasticity model for steel. Some modifications of material properties are needed to accommodate this model.11 motion. A hybrid numerical approach. The obtained results gave good agreement with other sources. the failure surface which indicates the initiation of degradation of material. which fits the . The nonlinear behavior of steel is simulated by a simple visco-plastic formula. Cracking and crushing of concrete are taken into account.

The concrete nonlinearity. The results of dynamic response showed very good agreement with test results. The calculations were performed sequentially from the elastic range to failure. Explicit procedure is employed to solve the nonlinear dynamic equations. Thabet and Haldane [21] applied the triaxial failure criterion with the theory of plasticity to model the behavior of reinforced concrete structure subjected to impact loading. A Drucker-Prager elastic-plastic criterion is used for concrete and a visco-plastic regularization technique is applied in order to prevent appearance of unphysical strain localizations. The test was performed as one of the dynamic model tests for evaluation of seismic behavior of nuclear reactor buildings. Lopez Cela et al [10] analyzed a thin reinforced concrete shell subjected to impact load. Numerical examples were presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed technique. The damping effect is considered by assuming equivalent viscous damping which can give good cyclic behavior of inertia force vs. A shear wall is modeled as a quasi-three dimensional structure which is composed of plane elements considering the in-plane stiffness of orthogonal flange panels. Inoue et al [5] analyzed reinforced concrete shear wall structures subjected to earthquake motions. The comparison with the test results showed that this approach produces good accuracy.12 experimental data test on strain rate. The proposed constitutive model is based on the nonlinearity of reinforcement and concrete in which tension stiffening in tension and the degradation of stiffness and strength in compression of concrete after cracking are considered. displacement relationships. the . This numerical method was applied to a test specimen of a reinforced concrete shear wall with Hshape section which was vibrated up to failure by using a large scale shaking table with high-performance.

In tension. The reinforcing bars were represented by tensile stiffeners that were smeared in the appropriate direction over the element cross section. Implicit Newmark algorithm is employed for time integration of the equation of motion. .13 cracking in the elements. smeared cracked model was used with a tension softening model for retained postcracking stresses. Miyamoto et al [11] used a triaxial failure criterion with nonassociative flow theory of plasticity for modeling the concrete in reinforced concrete slabs subjected to impulsive loads. Verification of the analytical procedure is carried out by means of comparison with the test results on a full scale reinforced concrete slab. the post-failure behavior as well as the failure modes. and the loading and unloading were simulated by using elastic-plastic fracture model. cracking in concrete elements and loading and unloading phenomena are adopted in the study. A provision for material nonlinearity. can be predicted accurately by using the proposed procedure. the propagation of the crack. The influence of loading rate of concrete can be readily introduced by modifying the level of yield and loading surfaces. and the failure modes. Four-node Mindlin type rectangular element with reduced integration scheme is used. can be predicted with reasonable accuracy by using the proposed approach. It was found that the maximum impact load. It is found that the ultimate behavior. as well as from a test on a full scale reinforced concrete beam. Verification of the numerical procedure was carried out using published results from scale model test on reinforced concrete beam and portal frame.

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