Ironmaking process using carbon deposition by

Chemical Vapor Infiltration (CVI) method
Rochim Bakti Cahyono
Supervisor: Prof. Tomohiro Akiyama
Laboratory of Energy Media
Center for Advanced Research of Energy and Materials
Hokkaido University

Brazil. Steel statistical yearbook 2013. 2 .Research background Steel consumption and income per capita World crude steel production 20 Crude steel production [102 million ton] EAF BF OHF BF BOF Total 15 10 5 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Year [-]  Steel consumption is one of indicators in prosperity and industrialization.  The steel demand would increase significantly to fulfill to economic growth in the potential countries such as China. [2] World steel association. Walsh. Steel Logistics conference 2007. Indonesia and India Ref: [1] M. [3] The Japan Iron and Steel federation. Hatch Beddows.

gr/en/production/steelmaking.Research background Iron and steel production Raw materials: High grade coal = 690 kg/ton-pig iron High grade iron ore = 1390 kg/ton-pig iron Limestone = 120 kg/ton-pig iron Non-renewable resources Limited amounts Expensive [3] The Japan Iron and Steel federation.aspx 3 .profisol. [4] http://www.

iron ore mineral commodity summaries (2003-2011). [7] IEA.3% of input energy  CO2 emission: 1519 kg-CO2/ton-pig iron 1996 1999 2002 Year [-] 2005 2008 Industrial worldwide CO2 emission Ref: [5] USGS. worldwide trends in energy use and efficiency (2008). [6] K. Morita.Research background Coal: reserves vs production Iron ore production and price 3500 100 Price [US dollar/ton] 80 2500 2000 60 1500 40 1000 20 500 Ore price [US dollar/ton] Ore production [million ton] Production [million ton] 3000 Ratio of reserves to production [-] 700 600 Bituminous and antracite [HGC] Sub-bituminous [LGC] Lignite [LGC] 500 400 300 200 100 0 1993 0 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Year [-]  Consumes around 5% of the total world energy[=24 EJ]  Energy recovery: 25. IEEJ 13 (2013). 4 . November issue.

za/evrazhighveld. H2 Palm fiber Carbon neutral Less CO2 emission High energy saving Advanced ironmaking process is strongly needed to solve the problems simultaneously. [9] 5 . Ref: [8] : Ironmaking Problems Resources Environment Iron ore & coal Expensive & depletion Large emission of CO2 Energy Consume >10 % of Japan primary energy [=2018 PJ] Our solutions Low grade ore and coal Biomass Carbon cycling HC Waste heat utilization CO2 BF Heat Wooden Cheap and stable supply [10]

Springer-Verlang.Xu and X-T. Ore Coke Coke Hr large cm mm μ~n Distance between ore and carbon small Existing BF: slow reduction rate and high temperature (1900oC) 6 . Sec New agglomeration High Reaction rate Formation of coating on surface Ionic exchange Vicinity arrangement of ore and carbon Ferro-coke Carbon composite Min Blast furnace Layer thickness control Mixing layer Ore Low (1) Gas penetration into boundary layer (2) Diffusion into pore Unique process which matrix material is infiltrated into porous material by the use of reactive gases to form fiber-reinforced composites. 2010. Shimizu (private communication). Chemical Vapor Deposition.  Close arrangement of carbon and iron ore gives fast iron reduction reaction. Ref: [11] Y. [12] Prof.Chemical Vapor Infiltration (CVI) process CVI=Chemical Vapor Infiltration (3) Adsorption onto the pore surface (4) Occurrence of chemical reactions (7) Return to the bulk gas (6 Diffusion outwards of by-products (5) Desorption of by-products  CVI can be applied to the production of carbon-carbon composites and ceramic matrix composites.Yan.

CH4. CO. Tar(CnHm) Low grade ore (FeO-OH) Chapter 6 General conclusions H2.Key Technology : CVI Ironmaking Chapter 1 General introduction Chapter 2 Carbon deposition through CVI process over low grade ore • Tar decomposition and carbon deposition from various solid fuels • Effect of temperature on low grade coal-tar decomposition for enhancing reactivity of iron ore • Optimum temperature for maximizing carbon deposition within ore Pyrolysis Fuel Char High grade coal Low grade coal Biomass H2. CO Chapter 4 Structure of deposited carbon within ore Porous ore (Fe2O3) CVI ore (Fe3O4+C) Heat CVI process: Reduction/ treatment Tar decomposition oxidation Dehydration process FeOOH Fe2O3 + H2O Fe2O3 + CnHm (Fe3O4 + C )+ CO + H2 Reduced/ oxidized ore Fe3O4 + C (Fe + FeO) + CO 2Fe3O4 + C 3Fe2O3+ CO2 Chapter 3 Kinetic analysis of tar decomposition Chapter 5 Exergy analysis and its application of CVI ironmaking 7 .

RB. Rozhan. Catalytic coal-tar decomposition to enhance reactivity of low-grade iron ore. T. Cahyono. N. Akiyama Carbon deposition using various solid fuels for ironmaking applications. S.Academic achievements International Journal (first author): 1. Hosokai. N. T. T. Yasuda. Yasuda. Energy Fuels 28 (2014): 2129– 2134 RB. T. Akiyama. Nomura. T. N. Nomura. Cahyono. Yasuda. Yasuda. Akiyama. Saito. T. RB. RB. 5. Optimum temperatures for carbon deposition during integrated coal pyrolysis–tar decomposition over low-grade iron ore for ironmaking applications. AN. Energy and Fuels 26 (2012): 7340-7346. Hosokai. Yasuda. Fuel Processing Technology 119 (2014): 272-277 RB. Cahyono. AN. N. Nomura. Energy Fuels 27 (2013): 2687–2692. ISIJ International 55. S. AN. Nomura. Rozhan. RB. Purwanto. 6. Fuel 109 (2013): 439-444. Rozhan. 3. Cahyono. T. Carbon deposition from biotar by fast pyrolysis using CVI within porous. Rozhan. Porous ore structure and deposited carbon type during integrated pyrolysis-tar decomposition. International Journal (co-author): 1. Cahyono. N. Fuel Processing Technology 113 (2013): 84-89. Yasuda. Yasuda. Kashiwaya. AN. Y. Integrated coal-pyrolysis tar reforming using steelmaking slag for carbon composite and hydrogen production. T. N. Energy Fuels 26(2012): 3196-3200. 2 (2014) In press RB. T. Carbon Deposition of Biotar from Pine Sawdust by Chemical Vapor Infiltration on Steelmaking Slag as a Supplementary Fuel in Steelworks. T. No. T. Rozhan. S. Kashiwaya. N. H. Nomura. H. RB. Nomura. Y. Nomura. Utilization of low grade iron ore (FeOOH) and biomass through integrated pyrolysis-tar decomposition (CVI process) in ironmaking industry: Exergy analysis and its application. T. low-grade iron ore for ironmaking. and Tomohiro Akiyama. Akiyama. 2. Yasuda. T. Hosokai. Akiyama. N. T. AN. 2. 8 . Cahyono. Nomura. S. Cahyono. Hosokai. Akiyama. Cahyono. Akiyama. 4. Purwanto. T. G.

RB. 2013 RB. The 5th Regional Conference on Chemical Engineering (RCChE). Manila Philippines. T. The 168th Iron and Steel Institute of Japan (ISIJ). Nomura. Dec 12-14. Tomohiro Akiyama. Akiyama. Nomura. Pattaya. Oral presentation. Dec 2-3. 2. T. Application of chemical vapor infiltration for new iron-making process. Rochim B. Effect of temperature on carbon deposition during integrated coal pyrolysis−tar decomposition over low grade iron ore. Cahyono. Cahyono. Thailand. 2013 RB.Academic achievements International Conference: 1. Cahyono. Optimum temperatures for carbon deposition during integrated coal pyrolysis–tar decomposition (CVI ironmaking). 4. Nomura. Tomohiro Akiyama. Japan.21-23 9 .09. Yasuda. 3. The 167th Iron and Steel Institute of Japan (ISIJ). Cahyono. Kanagawa. N. Naoto Yasuda. N. Ironmaking process by Chemical Vapor Infiltration (CVI) using low grade iron ore and tar material. Takahiro Nomura. T. Cahyono. Oct 2-4. Symposium on Green Energy and Technology 2013. Feb 7-8. Hayama. 2013. Akiyama. Akiyama. Takahiro Nomura. 2013 RB. T. T. Naoto Yasuda. N. Tokyo Institute of Technology 2014. Cahyono. Takahiro Nomura. The 6th Regional Conference on Chemical Engineering (RCChE). Yasuda.. 2. Reduction Improvement of Low-grade Iron Ore by Carbon Deposition through Chemical Vapor Infiltration (CVI) of Pyrolysis Tar.26-27 Rochim B. Nagoya University. T. Naoto Yasuda. 2014. Domestic Conference: 1. Kualalumpur Malaysia. Innovative utilization of steelmaking slag waste for improving the energy efficiency of pyrolysis process.03. Tomohiro Akiyama. Yasuda. International Conference on Smart Carbon Saving and Recycling for Ironmaking (ICSRI).

Cahyono. 日本鉄鋼協会 第166回 秋季講演大会(2013) 口頭発表.03. 安田尚人. Naoto Yasuda. 安田尚人. Rochim B. Alya Naili Rozhan. アンモニア濃度 がヘマタイト還元に及ぼす影響. Rochim B. Iron-making process through carbon deposition from various solid fuels. Cahyono,望月友貴,坪内直人,秋山友宏. Cahyono.9. 秋山 友宏. 廃熱と低品位鉱石 を利用するCVI製鉄の可能性. 8. 9. The 165th Iron and Steel Institute of Japan (ISIJ). Tomohiro Akiyama. Rochim B. 細貝総. 6. Integrated coal pyrolysis-reforming using hot steelmaking slag for carbon composite and syngas production. 日本鉄鋼協会 第164回秋季講演大会 Rochim B. Increasing the degree of reduction and reactivity of low-grade iron ore. 7.Academic achievements Domestic Conference: 3.03. Matsuyama.27-29 安田尚人,能村貴宏,Rochim B. 秋山友宏. Tomohiro Akiyama. 能村貴宏. Cahyono. Tomohiro Akiyama. 5. 4. Hadi Purwanto. Tokyo Denki University campus 2013. アンモニアによる ヘマタイトの還元および窒化挙動. 2012.9. Japan.19 10 . Sou Hosokai.9. 秋山友宏. Oral presentation. 愛媛 大学城北キャンパス 2012. The 163th Iron and Steel Institute of Japan (ISIJ). Takahiro Nomura. Alya Naili Rozhan. Oral presentation. 2012. 化学工学会 第78年会 一般講演(口頭発表)大阪大学豊中 キャンパス 2013. Naoto Yasuda. 柏谷悦章. Ehime University.17 Rochim B. Sou Hosokai. Cahyono.17 Rochim B. Takahiro Nomura. Cahyono. 金沢大学 2013. アンモニア分解に対するゲーサイト鉱石の 触媒特性. Alya Naili Rozhan.17 安田 尚人. 能村貴宏. Cahyono. 日本鉄鋼協会 第164回秋季大会 一般講演(口頭発表). Yokohama National University. The 164th Fall Meeting of the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan. Oral presentation.28-30 能村貴宏.3.