h

1
2
3
4
5
6

Frecuencia
60
120
180
240
300
360

Período (ms)
16.7
8.3
5.6
4.2
3.3
2.8

Cargas No Lineales

C
G

G
C

Actividad
Industrial
Comercial
Doméstico

L

Equipos
Alimentación conmutada, Variadores de velocidad
Computadoras, Impresoras, Fotocopiadoras, Fax, etc.
Televisores, VHS, Horno Microondas, etc.

n=(k.p) 1

Nº Pulsos
4
6
12
18
36

Tipo de Carga
Computadoras, Impresoras, Televisores, etc.
Motores Trifasicos de Corriente Continua
Convertidores
Variadores de Velocidad de 18 pulsos
Palas Mecáncias

Armónicos Característicos
3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, …
5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 25, …
11, 13, 23, 25, 35, 37, …
17, 19, 35, 37, 53, 55, ...
35, 37, 71, 73, …

harmonic voltage distortion at PCC due to propagation
of harmonic currents through the system impedance
customer with linear and nonlinear loads

sinusoidal
source voltage

nonlinear loads (e.g., switched-mode
power supplies, AC drives, fluorescent
lamps) drawing nonsinusoidal currents
from a perfectly sinusoidal voltage source

system impedance
(e.g., cables, lines,
& transformers)

point of common
coupling (PCC)

linear loads
customers with linear loads

harmonic voltage
distortion imposed
on other consumers

Hora

23:15

22:30

21:45

21:00

20:15

19:30

18:45

18:00

17:15

16:30

15:45

15:00

14:15

13:30

12:45

12:00

11:15

10:30

09:45

09:00

08:15

07:30

06:45

06:00

05:15

04:30

03:45

03:00

02:15

01:30

00:45

00:00

Demanda (MW)

fusión
refinado

Diagrama de Carga del Día 6 de Febrero de 2009
S.E. INDEPENDENCIA (220kV)
L-2217

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

C
I

B

R

FL
C

S

B

I

FL
C

T
N

B

I
L

In

FL

M
G

C

EFECTOS INSTANTANEOS

ARMONICOS

EFECTOS

EFECTOS RETARDADOS










VRMS  V1RMS 1  THDV2
I RMS  I1RMS 1  THDI2

S  S1 1  THDI2 . 1  THDV2

f .d . p  fdesp. fdist

X L  w.L.h  2 . f .L.h
XC 

1
1

w.C.h 2 . f .C.h

Q

Xr
R

I

Vbus

Xs

Vs

Z
Ic
Xc

fr

f0

hr 

X Cpu
X Spu

Vbuspu 

SCC pu
QCpu

1
hr2

Qc (MVAR)
S (MVA)
Q (MVAR)

ø2
ø1
P (MW)

QC  P.(tan 1  tan 2 )

22kV
300kV

Xs

Scc

Carga
50MVA
Cosø=0.9

80MVA
Xt=12%
Xc

2,000 MVA

 (i .h)
K
i
h 1

h

h 1

2
h

2

PERD (W )  K RES . I h2  K EDDY  h 2 I h2
h 1

I h (%) 

h 1

I h ( A)
I rms ( A)

1.15
1  0.15K

I MX (%) 

CARGA MAXIMA DE UN TRANSFORMADOR
1
0.9
0.8

CARGA MAXIMA (%)

0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

FACTOR K

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

V

G
C

Puente de Diodos

Carga

Campo Magnético
Fundamental

Campo Magnético
5ta Armónica
Motor

´

´

´

THD
10 %

Voltage Distortion is
highest at the load

5%
1%

I2
FASE
FUENTE
NEUTRO

1:1

I h
FASE
CARGA NO LINEAL
NEUTRO




MT / BT

CARGAS SENSIBLES

CARGAS SENSIBLES

CARGAS NO-LINEALES

CARGAS NO-LINEALES

115 kV

Case #1
Substation / distribution
three-phase transformer

7.62 kV
pole
transformer

120 V
I

I128

+
V

I128

=?

_

sensitive loads
(e.g. computing equipments)

distorting
nonlinear load

=1A

115 kV

Case #2
Substation / distribution
three-phase transformer

7.62 kV
pole
transformer

120 V
120 V
1 : 1 isolation
transformer
120 V

I

I128

=1A

+
V

I128

=?

_

sensitive loads
(e.g. computing equipments)

distorting
nonlinear load

115 kV

Case #3
Substation / distribution
three-phase transformer

7.62 kV

7.62 kV

pole
transformer

dedicated isolation
pole transformer

120 V

120 V
I

I128

+
V

I128

=?

_

sensitive loads
(e.g. computing equipments)

distorting
nonlinear load

=1A

PRIMARIO

I L3 = 0

SECUNDARIO
I3

I3
I3

I3
I3

I3
TRANSFORMADOR DELTA - ESTRELLA

Ir
Is
CARGA

It

In

Fecha y Hora

04/10/2009 07:50

04/10/2009 02:40

140

04/09/2009 21:30

160

04/09/2009 16:20

04/09/2009 11:10

04/09/2009 06:00

04/09/2009 00:50

04/08/2009 19:40

04/08/2009 14:30

04/08/2009 09:20

04/08/2009 04:10

04/07/2009 23:00

04/07/2009 17:50

04/07/2009 12:40

04/07/2009 07:30

04/07/2009 02:20

04/06/2009 21:10

04/06/2009 16:00

04/06/2009 10:50

04/06/2009 05:40

04/06/2009 00:30

04/05/2009 19:20

04/05/2009 14:10

04/05/2009 09:00

04/05/2009 03:50

04/04/2009 22:40

04/04/2009 17:30

04/04/2009 12:20

04/04/2009 07:10

04/04/2009 02:00

04/03/2009 20:50

04/03/2009 15:40

04/03/2009 10:30

Corriente (A)

Niveles de Corriente
Transformador de Aislamiento
Lado Secundario 380V

180

Fase S

Fase R

Fase C

120
Fase N

100

80

60

40

20

0

00:00
00:45
01:30
02:15
03:00
03:45
04:30
05:15
06:00
06:45
07:30
08:15
09:00
09:45
10:30
11:15
12:00
12:45
13:30
14:15
15:00
15:45
16:30
17:15
18:00
18:45
19:30
20:15
21:00
21:45
22:30
23:15

I (A)

Niveles de Corriente
Transformador de Aislamiento
Nivel 380V

180

160

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

Fase S
Fase R
Fase C
Fase N

Espectro de Armónicas de Corriente

Ih (A)
180

160
140
120
100

80
60
40
20

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

Fase R

111.9

1.4

50.4

1.2

20.2

0.7

7.3

0.5

7.1

0.6

6.2

0.6

4.0

0.5

4.0

Fase S

129.9

0.9

50.1

0.8

17.6

1.1

13.3

0.3

6.6

0.3

5.9

0.6

3.6

0.4

Fase T

123.0

1.3

54.4

1.3

19.4

0.0

6.5

0.6

5.2

0.0

5.2

0.0

3.9

0.6

3.9

Fase N

35.6

2.6

158.0

2.6

5.8

0.6

5.2

0.6

13.6

0.6

2.6

0.0

3.2

0.6

11.7

4.6

Espectro de Armónicas de Corriente

Ih (%)
500%

450%
400%
350%

300%
250%
200%

150%
100%
50%

0%

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

Fase R

100%

1%

45%

1%

18%

1%

6%

0%

6%

1%

6%

1%

4%

0%

4%

Fase S

100%

1%

39%

1%

14%

1%

10%

0%

5%

0%

5%

0%

3%

0%

Fase T

100%

1%

44%

1%

16%

0%

5%

1%

4%

0%

4%

0%

3%

1%

3%

Fase N

100%

7%

444%

7%

16%

2%

15%

2%

38%

2%

7%

0%

9%

2%

33%

4%