ELE 107-Week 1-B: History of Computers

Technology
in Action

Technology in Action

Alan Evans  • Kendall Martin

Technology in Focus:
The History of the Personal
Computer

Mary Anne Poatsy
TenthEdition

Copyright © 2014  Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Copyright © 2014  Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

The First Personal Computer:
The Altair

Chapter Topics






The First Personal Computer: The Altair
The Apple I and II
Enter the Competition
Other Important Enhancements
The Graphical User Interface
The Internet Boom
Making the Personal Computer Possible:
Early Computers

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

• 1975
– Sold as a kit
– No keyboard: Used switches for input
– No monitor: Used lights for output

• Bill Gates and Paul Allen among first
owners
– Wrote compiling program

2

The Apple I and II

3

Enter the Competition
• Apple’s success fostered competition

• Built by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak
• Operating system stored in ROM

Copyright © 2014  Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Copyright © 2014  Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

4

Copyright © 2014  Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

5

1

ALGOL. Publishing as Prentice Hall Other Important Advancements The Importance of BASIC (cont. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6 Copyright © 2014  Pearson Education. Inc.) Other Important Advancements Advent of Operating Systems • Beginners All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) • Early programs and data saved on audiocassettes – Introduced in 1964 – Revolutionized software industry • Programs needed to be rewritten each time – Easily learned by beginning programmers • Floppy disk drive was introduced in 1978 – Became key language for PC • Programs could be saved so operating systems were developed – Led to creation of Microsoft Copyright © 2014  Pearson Education.5 pounds – Started at $1. Inc. and COBOL • Other advances in – Used mainly by businesses – Programming languages – Used to create financial.795 • Weighed 24. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 9 10 Copyright © 2014  Pearson Education. Inc. and engineering programs – Operating systems – Application software • Led to more useful and powerful machines 8 Copyright © 2014  Pearson Education. Inc.565 • 5 inch screen – Sold at retail outlets (Sears) • Overnight success – 1982: Named “Machine of the Year” Copyright © 2014  Pearson Education.ELE 107-Week 1-B: History of Computers Enter the Competition IBM PCs Enter the Competition The Osborne: The Birth of Portable Computing • Prior to 1980: Known for mainframes • 1981: Entered small-computer market with IBM PC • Introduced in 1981 • Cost $1. Publishing as Prentice Hall 7 Other Important Advancements The Importance of BASIC Other Important Advancements • 1970s and 1980s: Computer hardware was developing • Programming languages in the 1950s – FORTRAN. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Copyright © 2014  Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall 11 2 . statistical.

 Publishing as Prentice Hall 13 Other Important Advancements Software Application Explosion Including disk drives in personal computers set off an explosion of software applications Spreadsheets VisiCalc Lotus 1-2-3 Microsoft Excel Word Processing WordStar Word for MSDOS WordPerfect 14 Copyright © 2014  Pearson Education.) • Operating systems coordinate with specific processor chip – Apple computers – Motorola chips: Disk Operating System (DOS) OS (1977) Other Important Advancements Advent of Operating Systems • 1980: Microsoft developed MS-DOS – Operating system for IBM PCs – Created by Bill Gates – PCs using Intel chip used MS-DOS – PCs – Intel 8080 chips: Control Program for Microcomputers (CP/M) OS Copyright © 2014  Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall 12 Other Important Advancements Software Application Explosion: VisiCalc and Beyond Copyright © 2014  Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall 17 3 . Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 16 Copyright © 2014  Pearson Education. Inc. Inc. Inc. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 15 Copyright © 2014  Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall The Graphical User Interface Xerox: Birth of the GUI The Graphical User Interface • Graphical User Interface (GUI) allowed users to interact with computer more easily • Xerox Alto (1972) • Previously used command or menu driven interfaces • File Management system with directories and folders • GUI not invented by a computer company • Mouse and network connectivity • Introduced “What You See Is What You Get” (WYSIWYG) • Never sold commercially Copyright © 2014  Pearson Education. Inc.ELE 107-Week 1-B: History of Computers Other Important Advancements Advent of Operating Systems (cont.

multiply. Publishing as Prentice Hall – Designed by Charles Babbage – First automatic calculator – Based on Difference Engine – Never developed – Drawings and descriptions similar to today’s computers 22 Copyright © 2014  Pearson Education. drop-down menus. automated weaving complex patterns • Process adopted later. Inc. subtract. and divide • Basic design used in mechanical calculators for 300 years Copyright © 2014  Pearson Education. Inc. Inc. Inc. Inc. a file system with folders and files • 1995: Internet Explorer introduced by Microsoft – Very expensive • 1998: Netscape became open source • Apple Macintosh (1984) – 1/3 cost of Lisa – Introduced 3½-inch floppy disk Copyright © 2014  Pearson Education.) 21 Making the Personal Computer Possible: Early Computers Babbage’s Engines • Analytical Engine: 1834 • Created by Joseph Jacquard • Revolutionized fabric industry • Cards had punched holes. record and read data in computers using punch cards Copyright © 2014  Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall 23 4 . Publishing as Prentice Hall 20 Making the Personal Computer Possible: Early Computers The Pascalene Calculator and the Jacquard Loom (Cont. Publishing as Prentice Hall Copyright © 2014  Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall 18 Copyright © 2014  Pearson Education. icons.ELE 107-Week 1-B: History of Computers The Graphical User Interface The Lisa and the Macintosh The Internet Boom • Apple Lisa (1983) • 1993: Mosaic browser introduced – First successful PC using GUI • 1994: Netscape launched – Windows. Publishing as Prentice Hall 19 Making the Personal Computer Possible: Early Computers Making the Personal Computer Possible: Early Computers The Pascalene Calculator and the Jacquard Loom • Computers are the compilation of the results of individual inventions • First accurate mechanical calculator • Early machines helped create the personal computer of today • Used revolutions of gears to count by tens • Created by Blaise Pascal in 1642 • Could be used to add. Inc.

 Inc. Inc. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 24 Copyright © 2014  Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall 25 Making the Personal Computer Possible: Early Computers Making the Personal Computer Possible: Early Computers Z1 and Atanasoff-Berry Computer (cont. Publishing as Prentice Hall • Infinite tape that could be read. precursor to today’s RAM 28 Copyright © 2014  Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall 26 Copyright © 2014  Pearson Education.) Z1 and Atanasoff-Berry Computer (cont.ELE 107-Week 1-B: History of Computers Making the Personal Computer Possible: Early Computers Making the Personal Computer Possible: Early Computers Hollerith Tabulating Macinine Z1 and Atanasoff-Berry Computer • 1890: Created by Herman Hollerith • Z1 (1936) – Created by Konrad Zuse – Mechanical calculator – Included control unit and separate memory functions – Important breakthrough for future computer design – U. Census Bureau: Tabulate census data – Automatically read data from punch cards • 1896: Hollerith started the Tabulating Machine Company – Later became International Business Machines (IBM) Copyright © 2014  Pearson Education. Inc. Inc. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 27 Making the Personal Computer Possible: Early Computers Making the Personal Computer Possible: Early Computers Harvard Mark I Turing Machine • Created by Howard Aiken and Grace Hopper • Used by U.) • Atanasoff–Berry Computer (ABC) (1939) – Created by John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry – First electrically powered digital computer – Used vacuum tubes to store data – First computer to use the binary system Copyright © 2014  Pearson Education. and erased. Publishing as Prentice Hall 29 5 . Navy for ballistic and gunnery calculations • Hopper’s greatest contributions: • Abstract computer model: Could perform logical operations • Hypothetical model: Mathematically defined a mechanical procedure – Inventing the compiler – Coining the term computer bug Copyright © 2014  Pearson Education. written to.S.S.

not punch cards . Publishing as Prentice Hall 30 Copyright © 2014  Pearson Education.000 vacuum tubes – Last to use vacuum tubes to store data . Inc. Inc.) • Transistors (1945) • Integrated circuits (1958) – Invented at Bell Laboratories – Invented by Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments – Replaced vacuum tubes – Small chip containing thousands of transistors – Considered second generation computers – Enabled computers to become smaller and lighter – Considered third generation computers Copyright © 2014  Pearson Education. Inc. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 32 Making the Personal Computer Possible: Early Computers Microprocessor Chip 33 Computer Generations • First-generation (1944) • Introduced by Intel Corporation in 1971 – Used vacuum tubes to store data • Small chip containing millions of transistors • Second-generation (1945) – Used transistors to store data • Functions as the central processing unit (CPU) • Third-generation (1958) – Used integrated circuits • Intel and Motorola became leading manufacturers • Fourth-generation (1971–today) • Considered fourth generation computers Copyright © 2014  Pearson Education.Big and clumsy – Considered first-generation computer .800 square feet Copyright © 2014  Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall – Use microprocessor chip 34 Copyright © 2014  Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall 35 6 .Used 18. Publishing as Prentice Hall Copyright © 2014  Pearson Education. Inc. Inc.ELE 107-Week 1-B: History of Computers Making the Personal Computer Possible: Early Computers Making the Personal Computer Possible: Early Computers ENIAC UNIVAC • Universal Automatic Computer • Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer – First successful high-speed electronic digital computer – First commercially successful digital computer – Operated on magnetic tape.Filled 1. Publishing as Prentice Hall 31 Making the Personal Computer Possible: Early Computers Making the Personal Computer Possible: Early Computers Transistors and Beyond Transistors and Beyond (cont.