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Fall 2016

Lecture 2

Dr. Ahmed Abdelmaksoud

1

**Part I: Introduction (Two weeks)
**

* Basic concepts of electric power; Various sources of electrical

power generation; hydroelectric, wind, solar, fossil-fuel, nuclear,

geothermal; Power in single and three-phase AC circuits overview.

*** Per-Unit quantities, changing the base of per-unit quantities;
**

Single line diagrams; Impedance and reactance diagrams; Per-unit

impedances in single-phase and three-phase transformers.

2

**- Single line diagrams
**

- Impedance and reactance diagrams;

- Per-Unit quantities

- Per-unit impedances in 1-phase and 3-phase transformers.

- Changing the base of per-unit quantities;

3

How to represent power network? Power Component M Symbol Power Component or Symbol = Generator = Circuit breaker = Transformer = = Motor = Feeder + load = Busbar (substation) Transmission line 4 .

M Single-line diagram 5 .one-line diagram / single-line diagram • Interconnected the power system === one-line diagram or single-line diagram. • single-line diagram is converted to its equivalent reactance or impedance diagram.

c) The loads are usually inductive represented by resistance and inductance. d) The transformer core is assumed to be ideal. 6 . the lineto-ground capacitance is assumed to be negligible. and the transformer may be represented by a reactance only. e) The transmission line is represented by its resistance and inductance. b) The internal resistance of the generator is assumed to be negligible compared to the reactance.Impedance diagram a) A generator can be represented by a voltage source in series with an inductive reactance.

Generator G1 Station A Transformer T1 Transmission Line TL Transformer T2 Station B G2 G3 G4 Load L1 Load L2 Single-line diagram of a power network 7 .

Transformer

T1

Transmission

Line

TL

Transformer

T2

Station B

Station A

j XT1

j X1

j X2

G1

G2

RTL

j XTL

j XT2

RL1

RL2

j XL2

j XL1

j X3

G3

j X4

G4

Impedance diagram

8

**Impedance values in per-unit based on common one base, then we
**

can calculate total resultant impedance.

5 MVA

Xg = 16%

100 MVA

275 kV/132 kV

Transmission line

j 3.48 Ω

50 MVA

132 kV/66 kV

XT2 = 0.04 p.u

XT1 = 0.1 p.u

Load

40 MW, 0.8 p.f. lagging

Transformer

T1

j 0.1 p.u.

j 0.32 p.u.

Transmission Line

TL

j 0.0195 p.u.

Transformer

T2

j 0.08 p.u.

1.6 p.u..

Generator

G

Load

j 1.2 p.u.

9

**Per-unit System and Calculations
**

# The main problem in power system analysis is:

- presence of various of elements and variables

- each element has its own bases

- many transformers, especial treatment due to

referring issue as per the transformer side:

primary or secondary

10

(PU or pu) quantity in per unit = actual quantity base value of quantity 11 . Impedance.…) This normalization ==== per unit analysis. Power.Per-unit System and Calculations # We can solve that difficulty by normalization of all system variables (Voltage. Current.

Per-unit Analysis Steps (1 phase sys.) 1. Select Sbase in VA for the whole system 2. Select Vbase for the whole system 3. Considering the different voltage levels especially with respect to transformer turns ratios That lead to multiple Vbase in each voltage section 12 .

) 4. Convert all actual values to per-unit values Per-unit analysis concerns the magnitudes only (no change in angles). Determine ZBase = (VBase)2/SBase 5.Per-unit Analysis Steps (1 phase sys. Determine IBase = VBase/ZBase 6. 13 . Per-unit quantity has no units.

Convert back from the pu values to actual values Actual Value = pu Value * corresponding Base 14 . solve and get results and answers 8.) (maybe the system be in pu directly) 7.) Convert to per-unit (p.Per-unit Analysis Steps (1 phase sys. Analyze.u.

currents. impedances are described in per-unit basis as: Actual value Quantity per unit = Base value of quantity It is usual to pick two base values: voltage and power.Summary of Per-unit Procedure: In per-unit analysis. 15 . powers. the electrical variables as voltages.

Per-Unit System Pick: Vb = Vrated Sb = S rated After that. Calculate base values of currents and impedances: Sb Ib = Vb Vb Vb2 = Zb = Ib Sb 16 .

S actual = Sb I p.u .u . Z actual = Zb Percentage of Zbase : Z % = Z p.Per-Unit System In per-unit system is: V p. Vactual = Vb S p. ×100% 17 .u .u .u . I actual = Ib Z p.

) Steps are typically as 1 phase except to pick 3 phase VA base. 2. Select VB. LN ) 2 3S 1Bφ = VB2. Select 3 phase VA base of the whole system. impedance bases by single phase Sbase and Vbase 18 . LL S B3φ = ( 3 VB .LL : base voltage for each different voltage Section 3. LN S 1Bφ as the 1 ph.Per-unit Analysis Steps (3 phase sys. and to use line-line voltage bases 1. Determine the impedance base ZB = VB2.

Convert all actual values to per-unit values 19 . LN VB . LN as Ibase in 1 phase 5.) 4.Per-unit Analysis Steps (3 phase sys. Determine IB I B3φ S B3φ 3 S 1Bφ S 1Bφ = = = = I B1φ 3 VB . LL 3 3 VB .

u) Sbase = 3Vbase I base V base Z base = 3 I base 20 .Base impedance (Zbase) Z pu Z actual = Z base per-unit (p.

V base Z base = 3 S base 3V base Z base [ kV base ]2 = MVAbase kVbase and MVAbase in 3-φ form 21 .

Draw the p. Solution: (1) Calculate load resistance V2 V2 (120) 2 P= ⇒R= = = 28. equivalent circuit. power: 500 watt.u.8Ω R P 500 Z = 28. Calculate the per-unit and percent impedance of the load.0 22 .8∠0Ω power factor = 1.Problem (1) Electric load with rated voltage: 120 volts.

u.8∠0 = = = 1∠0 p.(2) Pick base values: Sb = 500VA Vb = 120V (3) Calculate base impedance Vb2 (120) 2 Zb = = = 28. Z 28. Zb 28.8 23 .u .8Ω Sb 500 (4) impedance in pu is: Z p.

24 . Z = 1∠0 p.u.(5) Percent impedance: Z % = 100% (6) Per-unit equivalent circuit: VS = 1∠0 p.u.

u .u. Vb 120 Z p. If the voltage upon the load becomes twice the rated value.u. Solution: Vb = 120V V p.Problem (2) Electric load is rated 120 volts. 500 watts.u . V 240 = = = 2∠0 p. = 1∠0 p. calculate the load current by per-unit analysis. 25 .

2∠0 = = 2∠0 p. I b = 2∠0 × 4. = V p.u. 1∠0 S b 500 Ib = = = 4.Equivalent circuit in per unit: VS = 2∠0 p.334∠0 A 26 . Z p.u . Z = 1∠0 p.u .167 A Vb 120 I actual = I p.u .u.u .167 = 8.u. I p.

load voltage and load power by per-unit calculations considering SB of 100 MVA.Problem (3) In the shown circuit. 80 kV and 16 kV. . and voltage bases of 8 kV. respectively. find the current.

64Ω 100MVA Z BMiddle Z BRight 802 (kV) 2 = = 64Ω 100MVA 162 (kV) 2 = = 2.56Ω 100MVA 28 .Solution: Z BLeft 82 (kV) 2 = = 0.

8° = 0. (not amps) 3. Z SG = 1.22∠30.8° p.22∠ − 30.22∠ − 30.327 VL = 1.189 p.327∠90° I = = 0.22∠30.91 + j 2. 29 .0∠0°× 0.0∠0° = 0.u.859∠ − 30.8°× 2.8° p.1.u. 2 V S L = VL I L* = L = 0.8° p.u.0∠0° − 0.u.

9∠0° MVA SGActual = 0.859∠ − 30.7∠ − 30.22∠30.* Convert back from the pu values to actual values Actual Value = pu Value * corresponding Base V LActual = 0.8° MVA I BMiddle 100 MVA = = 1250 Amps 80 kV Actual I Middle = 0.8° kV S LActual = 0.0∠30.8°×1250 = 275∠ − 30.8° Α 30 .189∠0°× 100 MVA = 18.8°× 100 MVA = 22.8°× 16 kV = 13.22∠ − 30.

the generator is Y-connected so its VL-L is 13. 3 phase circuit in pu as 1 phase circuit 31 .Problem (4) Resolve as 3 Phase Per-unit Problem Considering 3ph.8 kV.8 kV.6 kV. VL-L bases of 13. base with 300 MVA. 138 kV and 27.

S L = VL I L = Z SG = 1.189 p.u.22∠ − 30. The results is typically similar 32 .8°× 2.0∠0° − 0.u.91 + j 2.22∠30.22∠30.0∠0°× 0.u.859∠ − 30.8° = 0.327 VL = 1.327∠90° = 0.u.22∠ − 30.Solution: 1.8° p.0∠0° I = = 0.8° p.8° p. 2 VL * = 0. (not amps) 3.

8°× 1250 Amps = 275∠ − 30.The difference between 1 ph.8°× 300 MVA = 66.8° kV SLActual = 0.189∠0°× 300 MVA = 56.8° Α 33 .6 kV = 23.22∠ − 30. and 3 ph.8∠ − 30. is in returning back from pu to actual values VLActual = 0.22∠30.8° MVA I BMiddle 300 MVA = = 1250 Amps (same current!) 3 138 kV Actual I Middle = 0.859∠ − 30.8°× 27.7∠0° MVA SGActual = 0.0∠30.

Changing the base of per-unit Z. when the values of two components are referred in per-unit on a different base. 2 Z NEW kVbase OLD MVAbase NEW × ( pu ) = Z OLD × 2 MVAbase OLD kVbase NEW 34 . The changing Zbase is expressed as.

Converting from base to another Base 1 Sb1 = S A Vb1 = VA Vb21 Z b1 = Sb1 ZL Z pu1 = Z b1 Base 2 Sb 2 = S B Vb 2 = VB Vb22 = Sb 2 ZL = Zb2 Zb2 Z pu 2 35 .

new × = Z pu . new b . old 36 .old S V b .Converting from base to another Z pu 2 Z pu1 Z L Z b1 Z b1 Vb21 Sb 2 = × = = × 2 Z b 2 Z L Z b 2 Sb1 Vb 2 2 Z pu 2 Vb1 Sb 2 × = Z pu1 Vb 2 Sb1 2 Z pu .new Vb .old Sb .

Converting from base to another ( P. S ) pu _ on _ base _ 2 S base1 = ( P. Z ) pu _ on _ base _1 (Vbase 2 ) 2 S base1 During analyzing of particular power system. Q. Z ) pu _ on _ base _ 2 Vbase1 Vbase 2 (Vbase1 ) 2 S base 2 = ( R. all the calculations should be performed referred to one certain base. X . S ) pu _ on _ base _1 S base 2 V pu _ on _ base _ 2 = V pu _ on _ base _1 ( R. Q. X . 37 .

Transformer in per-unit Analysis Referring of HVS and LVS of transformer: RS XS + j a2 a2 RS + jX S VLV VHV N1 N 2 S * Ref. to HVS 38 . to LVS VLV VHV a= VLV N = 1 <1 VHV N 2 * Ref.

Vb1 = VLV . it is normally selected to be as the rated values.rated For Zbases ratio: S b = S rated VHV 1 Vb 2 = Vb1 = Vb1 VLV a Vb21 Z b1 = Sb Zb2 Vb22 = Sb Z b1 Vb21 Vb21 = 2 = = a2 Z b 2 Vb 2 ( 1 V ) 2 b1 a 39 .During selecting the bases values.

u .u .2 RS jX S RS jX S + 2 + 2 2 2 RS + jX S a a a a = = = Z b1 Zb2 Z b1 a2 Z p.u .u .2 40 .1 = Z b1 Z p.RS + jX S Z p.1 = Z p.

ref. to LVS Z S .RS + jX S Z b1 S N1 VLV Vb1 VLV N a= = 1 <1 VHV N 2 N2 VHV Vb 2 actual ref. pu Z S . pu Vb1 Vb 2 1:1 Vb 2 Vb1 Sb p.u. to LVS 41 .

pu Vb 2 1:1 Vb 2 Vb1 Sb p. to LVS 42 . ref. to LVS Z S . pu Vb1 Z S .RS XS + j a2 a2 S N1 VLV N1 a= = <1 VHV N 2 Zb2 N2 Vb1 VLV VHV Vb 2 actual ref.u.

Per unit impedance of transformer unit The ohmic values of impedance of a transformer depend on whether they are measured on the high or low tension side of transformer In the per unit system. the per unit impedances of a transformer is the same regardless of whether it is determined from ohmic values referred to the high tension or low tension side of the transformer. 43 .

8 p. 0.04 p. values for bellow single-line diagram and get the impedance diagram.f. 5 MVA Xg = 16% 100 MVA 275 kV/132 kV XT1 = 0. lagging 44 .Problem (5) Calculate p.48 Ω 50 MVA 132 kV/66 kV XT2 = 0.u Load 40 MW.u Transmission line j 3.u.1 p.

p.1 p.u..Solution: Pick base: it is ususally to select the largest “rated” values as bases. 132 kV and 275 kV Per-unit calculations: Generator G1: 2 Z NEW kVbase OLD MVAbase NEW × ( pu ) = Z OLD × 2 MVAbase OLD kVbase NEW X g ( pu ) = 0 . V = 66 kV.u. therefore Sbase = 100 MVA.16 × Transformer T1: 100 = 0 . 45 .32 50 X T 1 ( pu ) = 0.

.87o ×100 Transformer T2: = 87.u.12∠36.8 87.u.Transmission line TL: [kVbase ]2 Z base = MVAbase X TL ( pu ) = Inductive load: Z actual = Z 3. p.u.4 × 100 132 2 pu Z a c tu a l Z base = = 0.2) X T 2 ( pu ) = 0 .12∠36.0195 p.87o or (1. 66 ×103 3 40 ×106 Z L ( pu) = Ω 3 × 66 ×103 × 0.87 o 662 = 2∠36.04 × 100 = 0 .08 50 p.6 + j1.

u.08 p. 0.u Load 40 MW. Transformer T2 j 0.. 5 MVA Xg = 16% 100 MVA 275 kV/132 kV Transmission line j 3. 1. j 0. we can calculate the resultant total impedance. lagging Transformer T1 j 0.u XT1 = 0.u.04 p.48 Ω 50 MVA 132 kV/66 kV XT2 = 0.after getting the p.u.f.32 p.2 p. Generator G Load j 1. impedances for the same common base.6 p.1 p.u.1 p.8 p.0195 p.u. Transmission Line TL j 0. 47 .u.u.

Determine and draw equivalent circuit in p. values 48 .8 PF lagging Assume Vbase for generator circuit with Sbase=100MVA. not later” j100Ω G 20 kV 22kV/220kV 80MVA 14% 220kV/20kV 50MVA 10% 50MVA 0.u.Test yourself…… “now.

34500/277 volt with ∆-Y connection. SC = 2010V I Line .u. SC = 912W Calculate and draw equivalent circuit in p.26 A P3φ . SC = 1. Short circuit test (SCT) is performed at HVS: VLine . 49 .Problem (6) 3 phase transformer: 25-kVA.

Solution: (a) Through Y-side I SC = 1.47V 3 1160.47 = = 921.26 VSC = Z SC 50 .26 VSC = RS + jX S 2010 3 Sb = 25000VA 34500 277 3 2010 = 1160.00Ω 1.

58V 3 19918.48 + j 900.HV Vb .Y = 191.0568 pu 15869. pu .482 = 900.99Ω 25000 Z SC .582 = = 15869.99 51 .012 + j 0.26 2 Z SC − RS2 = 9212 − 191.912 Pφ = = 304W 3 XS = Then RS = Pφ 2 I SC = 304 = 191.86Ω Sb = 25000VA Z b. HV = 34500 = 19918.48Ω 2 1.86Ω Z SC = 191.48 + j 900.86 = 0.

(b) Through ∆-side I SC = 1.26 3 Z SC .79Ω 0.26 = 0.727 A 3 2010 = 2764.727 52 .∆ = I SC = 1.∆ Sb = 25000VA VSC = 2010 34500 277 VSC = 2010V Z SC .

30Ω Z SC = 191. HV = 34500V 345002 = = 47610Ω 25000 Z SC .48 + j 900.18Ω 2 0.∆ = Pφ 2 I SC = 304 = 575.18 + j1704.79 2 − 575.HV Vb .∆ = 2764.012 + j 0. pu .∆ = Then RS .30 = 0.∆ − RS2.∆ = 575.182 = 2704.912 Pφ = = 304W 3 X S .0568 pu 47610 53 .86Ω Sb = 25000VA Z b.727 2 Z SC .

96 (ii) per phase basis Sbase kVA = 50000/3 = 16667 kVA Vbase kv = 120 / √ 3 =69.u = 115 / 120 = 0. Solution: (i) Three phase basis Sbase kVA = 50000 kVA Vbase kv = 120 kv (line to line) Sp.u.u.8 Vp. = 40000 / 50000 = 0. 40000 kVA three phase power and 115 kV line-line voltage in per unit values on (i) 3-phase basis and (ii) per phase basis. = (40000 / 3) / 16667 =0.8 Vp.Problem (7) Consider a 3-phase wye – connected 50000 kVA. 120 kV system.u = (115 / √ 3 ) / 69.28 KV Sp. Express.96 54 .28 = 0.

The base for calculations is 20 KV and 800 MVA. Solution: 55 . Find Xg on the new base.Problem (8) The reactance of a generator Xg is given as 0. 500 MVA.25pu based on generator nameplate rating of 18 KV .

Problem (9) A single phase transformer is rated 110/440. 2. leakage reactance measured from low tension side is 0. Determine leakage reactance in per unit. Base MVA= 2. Solution From the low tension side: Base KV1=110×10 -3 .06 Ω.5 kVA.5×10 -3 56 .

2.Note: 1. the multiplying factor is the square of the ratio of line to line voltages regardless of whether the transformer connection is 57 . To transfer the ohmic value of impedances from the voltage level on one side of 3 phase transformer to the voltage level on other. The base kVA is the same on each side. so it doesn’t appear in the equations.

Determine the per unit resistance of the load on the base for the low tension side.81 kV are connected with a balanced load of 0. Then determine the load resistance referred to high tension side and the per unit and the per unit value of this resistance on the chosen base. Solution: (1) on the low tension side The base for low tension side is 75 MVA.Problem (10) The three single phase transformers each rated 25 MVA. 38.1/3.1935 Ω 58 .6 Ω .81 kV Actual value = 0. Choose a base of 75 MVA. 3.connected resistors. 66 kV for the high tension side of transformer and specify the base for the low tension side.812 /75) = 0.6Ω Base value = (3.

59 .

Coming Soon….Next Lecture 60 .

Next Lecture •Transmission Line •Transmission Line Conductors •Transmission Line Models • Transmission line parameters include series resistance and inductance and shunt capacitance.Coming Soon…. • We will study the various models of the line. • The line models are classified by their length. 61 .

Coming Soon….Next Lecture The transmission line classifications are • Short line model for lines that with less than 80 km long. 62 . • Medium line model for lines with lengths are between 80 km to 250 km. • Long line model for lines that are longer than 250 km.

ABCD Parameters for TL • In this the sending and receiving end voltages are denoted by Vs and Vr respectively. • Also the currents Is and Ir are entering and leaving the network respectively. • The sending end voltage and current are then defined in terms of the ABCD parameters as Vs= A Vr + B Ir Is= C Vr + D Ir 63 .

no −load − V pu . or below rated voltage Vno-load: The no load voltage when the primary voltage is the desired voltage in order the secondary voltage be at its desired value at full load 64 . above. full −load V pu . It may be equal to. full −load ×100% Vfull-load: Desired load voltage at full load.Voltage Regulation Voltage regulation is defined as: VR = Vno −load − V full −load V full −load ×100% In per-unit system: VR = V pu .

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