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VibrationMatters

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The Vibration Analyst’s Newsletter

In this issue:
Featured Lesson:
Rolling Element Bearings – Stages
of faults; #3
page 1

----------------------------

Series 3, Issue 7 – August 2016
FEATURED LESSON

Rolling Element Bearings: Stages of Faults; #3
In our last issue of Vibration Matters, we

o

Harmonics due to impacts

Featured Training Video:
Bearing Failure, Detection and
Prevention

identified the four stages of bearing faults

o

Modulation (sidebands) due

page 2

download it here.

---------------------------Upcoming Global Vibration
Analyst Certification Courses
Page 5

----------------------------

and began by looking at stages one and
two. If you missed the last issue, you can

Matters, we will examine Stage 3.

points

summarize

the

in Stage Three:

More significant damage:

>Click to learn more

o

----------------------------

o

Minor damage through to
more significant damage
Bearing can fail in many ways
for many reasons

Mobius Institute can come to
your location:
>Learn about our on-site courses

Very high frequency vibration
continues to increase in amplitude.

Envelope (demodulation) spectrum will
be effective
o

Filters must be set up
correctly

bearing defect frequencies, but there is no
vibration patterns that indicate the fault.

characteristics observed when a bearing is

Mobius Institute North America
complete listing of courses:

spectrum may have exhibited peaks at the
doubt that the velocity spectrum will have

Stage Three Bearing Faults
following

The spectrum is now very important. The
acceleration spectrum and log velocity

In this issue, we will this issue of Vibration

The

to cyclical change in load

Classic patterns appear in spectrum:

FEATURED TRAINING VIDEO:

1.

Bearing Failure,

Outer race fault (inner race
rotating)

Detection and

If there is a spall on the outer race

Prevention

Because there will be impacts, we will
see harmonics of the BPFI frequency.

2.

race and the vibration must travel

(probably right in the load zone), there will

through the balls to the outer race and

harmonics of BPFO present in the data. To

on to the measurement location.

begin with it is possible that the harmonics
are weak, but as the fault develops the
harmonics will get stronger, and will likely
increase in amplitude as the frequency
gets higher.

Because the damage is on the inner

Therefore the amplitude may be lower.
3.

Because a spall travels around the
bearing once per revolution, the
impacts will not be equal in amplitude.
So we will witness 1X sidebands. If the
outer race is rotating then there will be
no sidebands because the force
behind each impact will be equal.

In this webinar, Jason Tranter first
discusses the most common
reasons why rolling element
bearings fail, including lubrication
problems, lubricant contamination,
excessive loading, and installation
and handling. Next, the webinar
summarizes how a variety of
condition monitoring technologies
can be utilized to determine the
condition of rolling element
bearings, including basic and
advanced vibration analysis, oil
analysis, wear particle analysis, and
thermography.
Length: 47 min

Outer race fault (outer race
rotating)
If the outer race is rotating, then the
pattern will change.

There will still be

Ball or roller damage

harmonics; there always are harmonics

If there is ball or roller damage, then we

when impacts occur.

expect

The forces in the

to

see

a

peak

at

BSF

with

impact will no longer be consistent. When

harmonics.

the damaged area travels through the load

harmonics will be stronger as the damaged

zone,

stronger

area on the rolling element may make

compared with the impacts (and vibration

contact with the inner and outer race each

level) when the damaged area is at the top

rotation.

the

impacts

will

be

of the bearing where it may be lightly

It is likely that 2xBSF and

loaded.

There will also be FT (cage rate) sidebands.

This rise and fall in the vibration amplitude

will go into the load zone of the bearing at

generates sidebands in the spectrum.

the rate defined by the fundamental cage

Because the outer race would be rotating

frequency, which will be less than half

at the turning speed, the sidebands would

turning speed if the inner race is rotating, a

be spaced at 1X.

little over 0.5X if the outer race is rotating.

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Inner race fault
If there is damage on the inner race on the
bearing, we will observe three important
characteristics:

As the balls move around the bearing they

Knowing the forcing frequencies can be

rate

very helpful; especially if there is more

frequencies, especially in multi shaft

harmonics

or

other

forcing

than

your

machines. If you routinely take one

However

spectrum with a high Fmax (say 60x)

knowing that the defect frequencies are

then it is a good idea to zoom in and

non-synchronous,

view the data from 0-10x or 0-20x so that

one

bearing

measurement

generate

close

location.
and

harmonics,

to

that

and

they

that

1X

you can clearly see the bearing tones.

sidebands indicate an inner race fault,
and FT sidebands indicates a ball or

The two plots above are the same data,

Logarithmic graph scales

the bottom plot is in a Log format; the

roller fault, then we can determine with a

top one is linear. A bearing tone and

lot of confidence that the bearing fault

One of the tricks for quickly identifying

harmonic are indicated by the red boxes

exists.

bearing problems is to format the data in

– note that the tone is not visible at all in

a way that accentuates them. Log and dB

the top graph. The bottom graph also

graph scales on the “Y” or vertical axis

shows signs of looseness (1x harmonics)

serve exactly this purpose.

In brief,

and a raised noise floor which is not

bearing

when a graph is presented in a Log or dB

visible in the top graph. Finally, also note

summarized

format, one is able to see very small

that the data in both graphs are order

peaks in the presence of very large

normalized

peaks. In a machine, bearing tones may

resolution (and space) between the shaft

be much smaller in amplitude than 1X or

rate harmonics so it is easy to find non

a vane pass frequency. When looking at

synchronous tones.

Overview of techniques
The

effectiveness

detection

of

technique

each
is

below:

and

there

is

plenty

of

the graph in a linear scale, one might
only see these dominant peaks and the

Time waveform analysis

bearing tones might be down in the
noise.

The time waveform will have clear signs

With a Log or dB amplitude scale one
The following table summarizes the
possible actions you could take at this
stage:

can see two peaks in the same graph
even if one peak is 1,000x higher in
amplitude than the other! If you want to

of the defects. A waveform in units of
acceleration will contain each of the
impacts. Modulation will also be clearly
visible in the data.

try to visualize this, consider trying to
take a photograph of a person standing
next to a very high tree. The problem is,
you always have to have the top of the
tree in the photo. If you stand far
enough back to capture the top of the
tree, the person will look like a little
speck of dust at its base. This is your
bearing

tone

compared

to

1x.

As

mentioned, if you simply change the
scale to Log or dB you will be able to

Spectrum analysis
Remember

that

clearly see the person and the entire tree
bearing

defect

frequencies are non-synchronous. In
order to quickly identify which peaks are
synchronous and non-synchronous it is
helpful to order normalize the data. It is
also

important

to

have

enough

resolution in the spectrum to separate
bearing defect frequencies from shaft

in the image even if the tree is 1000x
taller that the person.
Even if a bearing tone has a low absolute
amplitude, if its amplitude doubles or
triples then it indicates there is a serious
problem – so it is very important to be
able to see these tones even if they are
quite small.

Time waveform analysis is particularly
effective with low speed machines.

IMVAC

ORLANDO, FLORIDA

INTERNATIONAL
MACHINE VIBRATION ANALYSIS
CONFERENCE

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USA | MIDDLE EAST | EUROPE

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analysts at IMVAC™.

AN EXCELLENT OPPORTUNITY FOR ALL VIBRATION ANALYSTS

+ Five keynote sessions

+ Exhibition hall

+ Three streams of workshops & presentations

+ Networking sessions

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+ Round table discussions

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+ IMVAC Theater

The International Machine Vibration
Analysis Conference™ (IMVAC) is a
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increasing the analyst’s critical skills and
knowledge, the related condition monitoring
technologies, precision maintenance
techniques, program management and
reliability improvement strategy.

IMVAC is presented and managed by:

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IMVAC delivers three streams of great
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and ideas to take back to the plant and put
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Upcoming Vibration Analyst Certification Courses
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Location

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Duration

Vibration Analysis ISO Category II: Intermediate

Taiwan, CN

7/18/2016

5 days

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7/18/2016

4 days

Vibration Analysis ISO Category IV Part 2: Master

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7/18/2016

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Shaft Alingment July 2016

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7/18/2016

2 days

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7/19/2016

3 days

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7/20/2016

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7/25/2016

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3.5 days

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8/1/2016

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8/1/2016

1 days

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8/7/2016

4 days

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8/8/2016

4.5 days

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8/9/2016

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8/14/2016

5 days

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Muntinlupa City, PH

8/15/2016

4.5 days

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8/21/2016

4.5 days

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8/22/2016

5 days

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8/22/2016

4.5 days

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8/28/2016

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8/29/2016

4.5 days

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9/5/2016

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9/5/2016

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9/5/2016

5 days

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3.5 days

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9/12/2016

5 days

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9/12/2016

4.5 days

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9/13/2016

3.5 days

Vibration Analysis ISO Category I: Basic

Heverlee, BE

9/13/2016

3 days

Vibration Analysis ISO Category I: Basic

SENLIS, FR

9/13/2016

4 days

Vibration Analysis ISO Category I: Basic

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9/13/2016

4 days

Vibration Analysis ISO Category I: Basic

Houston, TX, US

9/13/2016

3.5 days

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