Assessment Task One B

Science 2
Greta Brewin 3331054
James McKimmie 3434949
Zoe Pyke 3434801
Alice Turner 3233756

At a Glance
This is a unit designed for grade 5-6 students on Solids, Liquids and Gases
based around the Australian Curriculum science standard, Sciences: Solids,
liquids and gases have different observable properties and behave in different
ways (ACSSU077).
Our aim for this unit is that by the end students will be able to:
-Define the behaviours of particles within solids, liquids and gases
-Show their understanding that matter can move between different states due to
temperature and pressure changes
-Demonstrate their knowledge through multiple representations

Pedagogical Theory
Our unit is based around the 5 E’s model. This model focuses on students
building and cementing their knowledge as the unit progresses. This aligns with
the social constructivist theory, which Skamp (2012) states involves “students
engaging in inquiry oriented or investigative learning as a community of learners.”
(p.21). This is why our unit contains large amounts of group work, discussions
and authentic experiences to develop deeper understanding, before the formal
terminology and explanations are applied. We believe this unit aligns with
Skamp's (2012) belief that “learning science occurs on social and individual
plains, and that it can be viewed along two dimensions - namely,
acquiring/developing ideas and participating in a (scientific classroom) learning
community.” (p.17). We have planned our unit accordingly, to align with these
views.
Our unit has been planned in consideration of, and progresses through each
stage of Blooms Taxonomy. The activities are designed to develop lower and
higher order thinking skills across the cognitive and affective domain. An example
of this in our unit is when the students define and describe the properties of each
state of matter. This activity develops lower order thinking skills. An example of
the development of higher order thinking skills in this unit is in the final lesson
where students are required to create a set of memory cards and reflect and
evaluate their newfound knowledge.
According to Prain and Waldrip (2008), multiple representations allow students to
develop their understanding by using diverse portrayals such as models, tables,
graphs and diagrams which are more science based, as well as more generic
representations such as word walls, posters and role plays. Representations also
support learning by “allowing for complementary information or complementary
process” (Ainsworth, 2008, p.5). Throughout our unit we have made a conscious
effort to use multiple representation so we can engage a diverse range of
learning styles. We have used role-play in lesson three and six so that
kinaesthetic learners can connect to the content by acting out the behaviour of
particles in various states of matter. Throughout the unit when defining the states
of matter the student can use both visual diagrams as well as written descriptions

1

to show their understanding, this caters for both visual learners and those who
are literacy focused learners.

Assessment
Assessment for this unit is ongoing and embedded across all lesson of this unit.
The assessment aims to address the relevant science and literacy standards
from the Australian Curriculum. Throughout the unit we will use informal
assessment strategies such as observations and discussion as well as a variety
of formal assessment tools. These include diagnostic assessments, formative
assessments and summative assessment.
Diagnostic assessment occurs during the Engage phase of the unit. This style of
assessment is used to gauge the students’ prior knowledge. This information will
be used as a benchmark of the students’ understanding against the final
assessment. Diagnostic assessment can also help influence the implementation
of the next lessons. An example within this unit is the Voting Template in lesson
one.
Formative assessment takes place in the Explore, Explain and Elaborate phases
of the unit. This is used by the teacher to monitor students’ progression through
the unit and their understanding of the content. This style of assessment requires
the teacher to give feedback to the students to help their continual learning. The
formative assessment can also be used by the teacher to reflect on their lessons
and delivery, so that they can adapt future lessons if needed. An example within
this unit is the making slime worksheet questions in lesson five.
Summative assessment is the final assessment tool to judge whether the
students have met the aims of the unit and the Australian Curriculum standards. It
happens in the Elaborate and Evaluate phase of the unit. An example within this
unit is the memory cards in lesson six.

Science Outcomes
From the Australian Science Curriculum (2015):
Chemical Sciences - Solids, liquids and gases have different observable
properties and behave in different ways (ACSSU077)
Elaborations
- Recognising that substances exist in different states depending on the
temperature
- Observing that gases have mass and take up space, demonstrated by using
balloons or bubbles
- Exploring the way solids, liquids and gases change under different situations
such as heating and cooling
- Recognising that not all substances can be easily classified on the basis of their
observable properties

2

Literacy Outcomes
From the Australian English Curriculum (2015):
Literacy:

Use interaction skills, for example paraphrasing, questioning and
interpreting non-verbal cues and choose vocabulary and vocal effects
appropriate for different audiences and purposes ACELY1796

Clarify understanding of content as it unfolds in formal and informal
situations, connecting ideas to students’ own experiences and present and
justify a point of view ACELY1699

Use comprehension strategies to analyse information, integrating and
linking ideas from a variety of print and digital sources ACELY1703

Language:

Understand the use of vocabulary to express greater precision of
meaning, and know that words can have different meanings in different
contexts ACELA1512

Science background knowledge
All things living and nonliving are made up of matter. Matter has mass and takes
up space.
Matter is made up of small particles called atoms, which join to form molecules.
Whether something is in a solid, liquid or gaseous form depends on both the
pressure and temperature affecting the molecules. The states of matter that we
mostly come across are solids, liquids and gases. Less common states of matter
are the ‘Bose-Einstein condensate’ and plasma. The Sun is mostly made of
plasma. However at a primary level, students will only focus on solid, liquid and
gas.
Particles in a solid are close together; they vibrate but do not move out of place.
This is why solids have a fixed shape and a fixed volume. Solids do not have to
be hard and can be any shape or size. Sand is a solid that has the ability to be
poured like a liquid and take the shape of its container. However it is still a solid,
because each individual grain of sand has a shape of its own and keeps that
shape when combined.
Particles in a liquid are further apart than in a solid, they move and slide over one
another. This allows liquids to take the shape of the container they occupy.
Although they can change their shape, they do not change in volume. A liquid will
always move to the lowest point of the container it is placed in, as the force of the
gravity is stronger than the energy contained in the liquid.
Particles in a gas are fast moving and have no fixed shape and no fixed volume.
Gases spread out to fill the space of the container they are in and can be
compressed to take up less space. If you fill a balloon with air, the gas will be
evenly distributed in the balloon. If, however, you fill a balloon with water, the
water will sit in the bottom of the balloon.
All matter can change from one state to another under the right conditions. The
right temperature or pressure change can cause a solid to change to a liquid, a
liquid to a gas or a liquid to a solid. If enough heat is added or withdrawn from the
matter the change will occur. The boiling and freezing points differ from
3

substance to substance. E.g. the melting point of glass is much higher than the
melting point of an ice block.
Two chemicals mixed together can produce something new and they cannot
return to their original state.
Most liquids are known as Newtonian fluids. A Newtonian fluid is any fluid that
demonstrates a viscosity that stays constant even when a force is applied. If you
stir water vigorously with a spoon or allow it to sit in the bottom of the container,
its viscosity does not change.
If you combine cornflour and water you create a non-Newtonian fluid. A nonNewtonian fluids viscosity changes depending on the amount of stress you place
on it. When you place pressure by stirring the cornflour and water mix the
viscosity changes and it becomes thicker and is therefore more difficult to stir.
Once you stop stirring and remove the pressure the viscosity lowers again. This
is because the particles within the fluid lock together when a force is applied.
When the force is removed they are able to move over each other in a more fluid
motion.

Common Alternate Conceptions of Students



Students may not see the link between certain phenomena, such as liquid
becoming a solid or whether a gas can become a liquid or not.
Their misconceptions are often context based and developed by their own
everyday experiences, therefore can be difficult to change unless strong
evidence can be provided.
Language can be confusing, as the word “solid” is often used to refer to
things that are hard or large. They may find it difficult to recognise that
very thin objects are solids e.g. piece of paper, the same confusion maybe
for soft, malleable objects such as cushions and play-dough.
They may confuse the term “pour” with being connected only to liquids,
thereby mistakenly believing and labelling some solids (such as crushed
or small particles) as a liquid.
Students may only identify liquids as water or water based (milk, cordial)
and therefore not understanding that items such as oil or honey are also
identified as liquids. Similarly they may believe all liquids contain water
and that by melting them will result in a substance becoming water.
Students may not have many preconceptions about gas from what they
have experienced, e.g. air cannot be seen. Many students associate
gasses with functional objects such as a hot air balloon, gas stoves, bike
tyre, rather than naming the gas. Children will often identify gases as
being dangerous or flammable.

When liquid becomes gas- e.g. boiling water becoming steam- students may just
assume the matter has disappeared and see no need to explain where it has
gone. Because the evaporated water is usually unseen, there may be difficulty
comprehending that it has taken on a new form.

4

Lesson One - Engage
Students Names: Greta Brewin, Zoe Pyke, Alice Turner, James McKimmie
Unit: States of Matter
Science Topic: Solids, Liquids, Gasses
Lesson: 1 of 6
5E’s Stage: Engage
Student Level: Grade 5-6
Date of Lesson: 20/05/15
Australian Curriculum (Aus-Vels) Learning Focus):
Chemical Sciences - Solids, liquids and gases have different observable properties and behave in different ways (ACSSU077)
Main science ideas related to the science learning focus that you are addressing in this lesson:
Students classify objects as a solid, liquid or gas and begin to develop a shared understanding of the observable properties of each state
Science Learning Objectives for students:
 Students will be able to vote on whether they think materials are solids, liquids or gasses
 Students will be able to explain what their initial thoughts about solids liquids and gasses are
 Students will be able to have a basic awareness of the different forms of matter
 Students will be able to draw conclusions to help categorise different forms of matter through observation
Materials and equipment: (be specific)
10 sealed and taped containers labelled 1-10 filled with:
 Water
 Detergent
 Oil
 Cream
 Block of wood
 Sand
 Paper
 Flour
 Jelly
 Air
Yellow post-it notes
A3 chart for Solids, Liquids, Gasses
Voting template 1 per student*

Organisation of class:
Students sit as a whole group at the front of class for introduction
and icebreaker game. They then move to their table groups to
explore the containers of different states of matter. The students
return to the front of the class for the plenary style discussion.
Students move back to table groups to engage in discussion and to
write definitions. Students then come back together on the floor for
discussion of the posters.

5

*Appendix One
Teaching procedure
Introduction: 30 minutes
To begin the lesson we will introduce our selves, explain why and
how long we are going to be working with the students for and tell the
students what the unit is about and give them an idea of some of the
things we will be doing. We will then use an icebreaker activity to
engage the students and learn their names. This will involve asking
the students to one at a time introduce themselves and state an area
of science that interests them.
Then we will explain to all the students that we are in the engage
phase of the unit and let them know a little bit about todays lesson.
Students will be presented with a variety of containers filled with
different states of matter. They then explore these containers and
work to classify objects as liquid, gas or solid by observing their
visual differences. Students record their responses on the Voting
Template* provided. These will be collected and the responses will
be recorded for diagnostic assessment purposes.
*Appendix One
Body: 20 minutes
Students then come together at the front of the class and are
encouraged to reflect on the decision making process they used to
cast their votes using a plenary style discussion model. Questions
will be asked to prompt reflection and discussion, such as: “Why do
you think it is a solid”, “What makes this a liquid?” “Did you group any
containers together?”

Explain and justify your lesson
This unit works though the cognitive domains of Bloom’s Taxonomy
and has been purposefully designed to develop students through
the first stage of the taxonomy, which is Knowledge. This is done by
encouraging students to exhibit their previously knowledge by
recalling facts, terms, and basic concepts of the states of matter.
We did this because we want to give students hands on experience
that will help us understand their preconceptions on the topic. This
acts as a diagnostic assessment tool to aid the delivery of the unit
content and to give us a benchmark for the summative assessment
at the end of the unit.
This unit follows the 5E’s teaching model, which is linked to the
Social constructivist theory. This theory is incorporated into the first
Engage lesson, as students are involved in hands on activity that
creates an authentic learning experience of the different states of
matter. The students use their own language within groups to
construct definitions and categorise each state of matter.
The social constructivist approach continues into the final activity
when students discuss their findings as a group and share their
ideas. This allows them to make connections between what they
know and the ideas of their peers.

Then back in table groups, students collaboratively create definitions
and decide on the properties of solids, liquids and gases. Students
can choose to use both visual and/or written methods in their
explanations. These definitions can then be recorded on yellow postit notes and stuck to the corresponding state of matter A3 poster kept
at the front of the classroom. Group members are allowed to
disagree and stick up multiple post-it notes.
Wrapping it up: 10 minutes
The class will come together again and discusses the posters as a
6

group. Then we will inform the students about what they will be doing
in the next lesson after lunch and then we will dismiss them.

References:

Australian Academy of Science (2012, December). What's The Matter?. Primary Connections, Retrieved April 10, 2015, from
http://www.primaryconnections.org.au/.

Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2015). Science Curriculum. Retrieved April 9, 2015, from
http://ausvels.vcaa.vic.edu.au/Science/Curriculum/F-10#level=6

Australian Science Teachers Association. (2013). Background Information. Retrieved April 9, 2015, from
http://scienceweb.asta.edu.au/verve/_resources/asta_4-1-1_bi_solids_yr5_v4-2.pdf

Australian Science Teachers Association. (2013). Solids, liquids and gases. Retrieved April 9, 2015, from
http://scienceweb.asta.edu.au/years-5-6/unit1/overview/yr56-unit-overview.html

Enhancing Education: A Producers Guide (2002), The 5 E’. Retrieved April 12, 2015 from
http://enhancinged.wgbh.org/research/eeeee.html

Kaput, J. J. (1989). Linking representations in the symbol systems of algebra. In S.Wagner & C. Kieran (Eds.), Research
Issues in the Learning and Teaching of Algebra (pp. 167-194). Hillsdale, NJ: LEA.

Skamp, K. (2012). Teaching Primary Science Constructively (4th ed.). South Melbourne, Australia: Cengage Learning.
(Original work published 1998)

7

Appendix One
Voting Template
Name:________________________________
Containers

Solid

Liquid Gas

Why?

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
How would you describe solids, liquids and gasses? Write or draw your answer.
Solids are…

Liquids are…

Gases are…

8

Lesson Two - Explore
Students Names: Greta Brewin, Zoe Pyke, Alice Turner, James McKimmie
Unit: States of Matter
Science Topic: Solids, liquids and gasses
Lesson: 2 of 6
5E’s stage: Explore
Student Level: Grade 5-6
Date of Lesson: 20/05/15
Australian Curriculum (Aus-Vels) Learning Focus:
Chemical Sciences - Solids, liquids and gases have different observable properties and behave in different ways (ACSSU077)
Main science ideas related to the science learning focus that you are addressing in this lesson:
 Matter in the solid state maintains a fixed volume and shape.
 Matter in the liquid state maintains a fixed volume, but has a variable shape that adapts to fit its container.
 Matter in gas state has no fixed shape and will take on the shape of the space available.
Science Learning Objectives for students:
 Students will be able to observe properties of a solid and identify that solids hold their shape
 Students will be able to observe properties of a liquid and identify that liquid materials flow and take the shape of their container
 Students will be able to observe properties of a gas and identify that gasses take up space and fill the container they are in
Materials and equipment:
Introduction:
Deflated ball
Electronic scales
Ball pump
Body:
Solids Mini Lesson1 tile
1 block of wood
1 stone
1 packet of jelly snakes

Liquids Mini LessonSand
Water
Milk
Dishwashing detergent
Honey
10 Tupperware containers in a variety
of sizes
8 magnifying glasses
5 spoons
1 copy of Appendix Two per student

Organisation of class:
At the beginning of the lesson, students will be gathered at
the front of the classroom for the introduction. The students
will be split into three even groups to participate in rotating
mini lessons. These lessons will be held in three different
locations around the classroom. Once the mini lessons are
complete, students will return to the front of the classroom for
a discussion.

9

1 block of soap
1 sponge
1 glass
1 elastic band
Play-doh
Flour
Rice
Wool
Cotton
8 metal forks
8 blunt butter knifes
8 magnifying glasses
1 copy of Appendix One per
student

Gasses Mini Lesson
8 empty and clear clean plastic
bottles
Dishwashing detergent
Hot tap water
16 tubs
Cool tap water
Butchers paper
Markers
Wrap It Up:
Same as the introduction

Teaching procedure
Introduction: 7 minutes
Welcome students back from lunch and remind them of our names. Then
as a whole class weigh a deflated ball. Ask students predict if it will weigh
more when inflated. Record the weight when deflated.
Then explain to the students we are in the 5E’s Explore phase and that
today we will be exploring each of the states of matter. Explain the structure
of the lesson and allocate students into three groups.
Body: 45 minutes
This lessons structure will contain three mini lessons running for 15 minutes
each. The students will be split into three rotating groups. Students will get
hands on experience of each state of matter in these lessons. One RMIT
student will run one of the mini lessons three times over the whole session.
The fourth RMIT student will assist where necessary.
Mini Lesson 1: Solids
RMIT student: James
In this mini lesson, by using a collection of solid items (see materials list)
students will explore the properties of a solid and note down any significant
visual features in the solids template.
Introduce materials to students, by naming item

Explain and justify your lesson
The social constructivist approach incorporating the 5 E’s
approach is used in this lesson.
Primary Connections (2015) explains that in the Explore phase
students’ carry out hands-on activities specific to each state of
matter. At this stage they will use their own words to hypothesise
and explain phenomena. This allows students to acquire a
common set of experiences which they can make sense of the
new concept or skill.
The basketball experiment will be used to engage students at the
beginning of the class. We have decided to set up the experiment
at the beginning of the class and have students make their
hypothesis before the mini lessons and then we will complete the
experiment at the end of the class. This allows students to use
their new knowledge from the mini lessons to change their
hypothesis. We believe this social constructivist teaching method
will allow for students to be actively involved in the learning
process allowing them to reflect on previous misconceptions and
new learning.
Mini lessons
Within the Explore phase hands on experiments are incorporated
10

Students to touch look and feel the item.
Think about what makes this item a solid.
Students now manipulate the item by doing the following:
Cut thread, stretch elastic band, scratch Wood, shake flour, cut soap,
sharpen pencil (Retaining Sharpenings)
Discuss with students what happens to these items, e.g.: Are the small
particles still a Solid?
Dust? Sharpenings? What happens to the thread when it is cut?
All of these occurrences when manipulating the item do not change the
state of the matter; the physical size or shape is changed. (Dust is small
particles of the original solid) Students record observations of properties in
a pre-prepared template*
*Appendix One

to challenge possible misconceptions e.g. for the gas mini lesson
that the bottle is empty. Students will write a hypothesise in their
own language, the teacher will not correct any misconceptions at
this stage or introduce formal language. Throughout our unit we
have been aligning our lessons with the domains of Blooms
Taxonomy, in this lesson students will be working within the
Knowledge phase as they are taking part in activities where they
discuss and record results, and moving into the comprehension
phase as they will make predictions and infer outcomes. These
are known as lower order thinking skills.

Mini Lesson 2: Liquids
RMIT student: Greta
This mini lesson will involve students exploring a variety of liquids and one
solid commonly confused for a liquid (see material list). Using a collection of
containers students can explore stirring and pouring the materials. They
can also observe the materials under a microscope. The purpose is for
students to observe specific properties of liquids and identify the
observational differences between liquids, gasses and solids. The students
will record their observations in a pre prepared template* which aims to
help students question, observe and group the materials.
*Appendix Two
Mini Lesson 3: Gasses
RMIT student: Alice
Students will conduct an experiment to help them understand that even
though gases cannot be seen they exist and takes up space.
Students work in pairs, each pair will conduct this experiment, following the
teachers instructions:
1/ Place the rim of a bottle in detergent to make a seal
2/ Place the bottle in a tub of hot tap water- the heat will expand the gas
inside the bottle creating a bubble on the lip.
3/ The bottle is then placed in a tub of cold tap water- the bubble will retract
into the bottle.
11

Students are asked to write down a hypothesis using both pictures and
words to explain what is happening inside the bottle when it is placed inside
the hot water and then when it is place in the cold water. This will be done
on sheets of butchers paper using pens and markers, each pair will come
up with a hypothesis, these will be shared with the whole group to conclude
the mini lesson.
Wrapping it up: 7 minutes
Bring the class back together and as a class weigh the ball from the
beginning of class which is now inflated (RMIT student pumps it up during
the mini lessons). Before revealing the new weight, ask if any initial
predictions have changed, do the students think it will weigh more? Reveal
the weight to the class to show that air has weight.
Briefly discuss with students the observational properties of a solid, liquid
and a gas.

References

Australian Academy of Science (2012, December). What's The Matter?. Primary Connections, Retrieved April 10, 2015, from
http://www.primaryconnections.org.au/.

Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2015). Science Curriculum. Retrieved April 9, 2015, from
http://ausvels.vcaa.vic.edu.au/Science/Curriculum/F-10#level=6

Australian Science Teachers Association. (2013). Background Information. Retrieved April 9, 2015, from
http://scienceweb.asta.edu.au/verve/_resources/asta_4-1-1_bi_solids_yr5_v4-2.pdf

Australian Science Teachers Association. (2013). Solids, liquids and gases. Retrieved April 9, 2015, from
http://scienceweb.asta.edu.au/years-5-6/unit1/overview/yr56-unit-overview.html

Primary Connections. (2015). 5E's Teaching and Learning Model. Retrieved April 13, 2015, from
https://www.primaryconnections.org.au/about/teaching

Skamp, K. (2012). Teaching Primary Science Constructively (4th ed.). South Melbourne, Australia: Cengage Learning. (Original work
published 1998)
12

13

Appendix One
Solids Mini Lesson
Name____________________________
Object

What I observed
Describe the Texture, Size and Weight

Is this object a Solid? Why?

Wool

Thread

Wood

Flour
Soap

Elastic Band

Tile

Glass

Stone

Rice

14

Appendix Two

Liquid Mini Lesson

Name:____________________________
Objects to be Tested
Test

Dishwashing Detergent

Water

Milk

Sand

Honey

Is it hard?
Can it be stirred?
Does its shape change
easily?
Does it pour easily?
Does its shape depend
on its container?

Do you think it is a solid
or liquid?
Why?

15

Lesson Three - Explain
Student Name: James McKimmie.
Science Topic:
Lesson 3 of 6
Solids- Liquids – Gasses
Student Level: Level 5 & 6
Australian Curriculum (Aus-Vels) Learning Focus:
Science Understanding/Chemical Sciences
ACSSU077 Solids, liquids and gases have different observable properties and behave in different ways. (ACARA)
Science Inquiry Skills /Questioning and predicting
ACSIS231 With guidance, pose questions to clarify practical problems or inform a scientific investigation, and predict what the findings of an
investigation might be. (ACARA)
Main science ideas related to the science learning focus that you are addressing in this lesson:
How solids, liquids and gases have different observable properties and behave in different ways.
Science Learning Objectives for students: (Students will be able to…)
 Discuss and define the differences of Solids, Liquids and Gasses.
 Define Solids, Liquids and Gasses – with written and/or visual representations.
 Explore and explain the movement of particles at a microscopic level for each state of matter – solid, liquid, gas.
Materials and equipment:
 Pink Pos-It Notes
 Samples of Solids
o Wood, Metal, Wool, Paper, Sand, Flour
 Liquids
o Water, Detergent, Oil, Cream
 Gases
o Sealed Container, Filled Balloon
 A3 Poster – from lesson 1 – definitions of states of matter
 Student data sheets from lesson 2 – defining matter
 Pens
 Markers
 Appendix 2. Printed for each student
 White board or interactive white board
o Internet connected computer

Organisation of class:
Classroom/Learning area requirements
 Clear floor space for sitting near interactive whiteboard
 Tables and chairs – grouped together to cater for groups of
up to 7 students
 Large space for final game play – outside open area is
suited best to this activity.
Introduction of Lesson- Tuning in
Students together on floor – whole class discussion about findings
from lesson 2
Body of Lesson
Students in table/floor groups – discussing findings from session 2
in further detail. These groups are the same groups from lesson 2.
Students work in groups at tables or floor (any workable area in
room)-students choice as to where they work
16

Lead teacher to monitor student progress - assisting students
when required– preparing for next step in lesson.
 Support Teachers to assist student groups with discussions,
keep discussion student focused and students on task.
After group discussions and completion of work sheet
 Student’s will grouped together for discussion on floor
Wrapping it Up
Introduction of game students seated on floor.
Game play – students free movement around the space
Gather students together on floor to conclude game and lesson.
Teaching procedure – Set out as steps and indicate time you will spend on
each step
Introduction:
1. Review previous lessons referring back to A3 Poster. Focus student’s
attention to what they recorded about Solids, Liquids and Gasses.
2. Ask Students to think about what they have learned about Solids, Liquids
and Gasses. Ask students to write down a description for each state on a
piece of paper.
3. Read out some of the definitions created in week 1 for each state of matter.
Ask students if their descriptions have changed since lesson 1?
4. Ask students to name an Example of a Solid? Example of a Liquid?
Example of a Gas?
Body:
5. Students to work in groups, developing descriptions for each of the terms –
Solid – Liquids – Gases- from the work completed so far in the unit.
6. Students to share there new group definitions with the class, group
spokesperson to share with class from group location.
7. Write new definitions onto Pink Post-It note – add the A3 Poster from
lesson 1
8. Lead teacher writes official definition on whiteboard – leaving out naming
which definition relates to the state of matter.
(See Teacher Hints/Definitions)
Read out these definitions to students
Support Teachers to hand out definitions sheet to student groups.
1 sheet per students (Appendix 2)
9. Students discuss presented definitions, on whiteboard, together in a group.

Explain and justify your lesson
This lesson is aligned with the Social Constructivist approach and
the 5E’s Teaching model. The lesson reflect the explain phase of
the 5E’s learning theory. In the explain phase students are
introduced to conceptual tools that can be used to interpret the
evidence and construct explanations of the phenomenon. During
this stage students are able to Construct multi-modal explanations
and justify claims in terms of the evidence gathered. (Australian
Academy of Science) This approach caters for the varied range of
learning styles present in modern classrooms. This lesson reflects
Skamp's (2012) belief that “learning science occurs on social and
individual plains and that it can be viewed along two dimensions namely, acquiring/developing ideas and participating in a (scientific
classroom) learning community.” (p.17) by encouraging group
participation to enhance personal science learning’s.
During the body of this lesson students are given the opportunity to
Compare explanations generated by different students and other
student groups. This discussion can support development of
conceptual understanding of the concepts introduced.
Formative assessment is applied during this lesson to provide
feedback to students as well as teachers about the development of
investigation skills and conceptual understanding.
This lesson reflects the application stage of Blooms Taxonomy.
Students are able to Demonstrate, Apply and Construct

17

Students complete definitions sheet individual – Discussion in groups is
encouraged.
10. Lead teacher draws illustration on White board of states of matter. (See
Appendix 1)
If interactive whiteboard available use:
http://exploration.grc.nasa.gov/education/rocket/Images/state.gif
11. Students to move to floor for further – Teacher guided discussion- Referring
to the illustrations of states of matter.
What is the difference between the three states of matter?
Can solids be soft as well as hard?
12. Ask students with this new definition of knowledge if they can describe how
the particles of different states of matter may act when looked at on a
microscopic level.
13. Teacher to write the following definitions on board.
(These definitions are needed for reference in Wrapping It Up step)
Particles in a:
Gases are well separated with no regular arrangement.
Liquid are close together with no regular arrangement.
Solid are tightly packed, usually in a regular pattern.
Particles in a:
Gases vibrate and move freely at high speeds.
Liquid vibrate, move about, and slide past each other.
Solid vibrate (jiggle) but generally do not move from place to place. (Purdue
University)
Link to visual representation of particle movement at microscopic level:
http://www.chem.purdue.edu/gchelp/atoms/states.html

representations of the different states of matter using their own
language that is informed by minimal teacher input.
Teacher Hints/Definitions
Liquids
Liquids flow and will spread out when poured. The shape of a liquid
depends on the container it is in. Even when liquids Change their
shape, they always take up the same amount of space. (Australian
Academy of Science, 2012)
Solids
Some solids are hard, such as stone and wood, some are soft,
such as sponges and wool, and others are powders, such as flour
and coffee, where each particle is a tiny solid. (Australian
Academy of Science, 2012)
Some solids can be scratched such as wood and hard plastics.
Gasses
Gases can be compressed. They are floating around us or are
trapped inside a solid. They spread out and fill up the size or shape
of the container they are in. Gases are often invisible. (Australian
Academy of Science, 2012)
Examples of matter
Solids
Ice, Wood, Stone, Cotton, Metal, Flour, Coffee Beans, Seeds
Liquids
Water, Yoghurt, Petrol, Paint, PVA Glue
Gasses
Helium, Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, Steam

Wrapping it up:
Teacher guided activity.
Open space or outside required
Referring to white board teach calls out Solid/Liquid/Gas Role Play game.
Students act out how particles move when seen at a microscopic level in
differing states of matter.
18

Solids – Divide class into groups of 4-6
Students stand close together with elbows and shoulders touching.
Students attempt to stay still- with little movement as possible –
Keeping the original shape they started with
Liquids – Whole class together
Students spread out around the space
Keeping in touch with at least one other student
Move slowly around space
If bumping into other student/s – join together- keep moving Slowly
Gasses – Whole class together
Students to be individual
Movement is fast
Trying to touch other students but keeping other students away from
them- ‘bouncing’ off each other – filling the room like a fast moving gas.

Gather students together on floor to conclude game with a quick discussion of the
energy they have just used to represent a state of matter.
Teacher for next lesson to give a quick introduction to what will be happening after
lunch in the next lesson.
Dismiss students from this science lesson.

References
Australian Academy of Science. (2012, December 01). Primary Connections. What’s the Matter? Retrieved March 25, 2015 from
https://primaryconnections.org.au/: http://www.scootle.edu.au/ec/viewing/S7162/Whats-the-matter-2012/index.html
Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2015). Science Curriculum. Retrieved April 9, 2015, from
http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/science/curriculum/f-10
Purdue University,Chem.purdue.edu,. (2015). States of Matter. Retrieved 14 April 2015, from http://www.chem.purdue.edu/gchelp/atoms/states.html
Skamp, K. (2012). Teaching Primary Science Constructively (4th ed.). South Melbourne, Australia: Cengage Learning. (Original work published 1998)

19

Appendix 1
Illustrations of states of matter
Solids

Liquids

Gasses

20

Appendix 2

States of matter
Solids, Liquids and Gasses
Fill in the blank spaces.

 ________ Flow and will Spread out when poured.
The shape of a ________ depends on the container it
is in.
Even when ________ change their shape, they
always take up the same amount of space.

 Some ________ are hard, such as stone and wood.
Some ________ are soft, such as sponges and
wool, and other are powders, such as flour, where
each particle is a tiny________.

 ________ can be compressed. They are floating
around us or are trapped inside a solid. They spread

21

out and fill up the size or shape of the container they
are in. ________ are often invisible.

22

Lesson Four - Elaborate 1
Student Name: Zoe Pyke
Science Topic: Solids, liquids, gasses – Elaborate 1 lesson
Student Level:

Year 5/6

Australian Curriculum (Aus-Vels) Learning Focus:
ACSSU077 Solids, liquids and gases have different observable properties and behave in different ways
Main science ideas related to the science learning focus that you are addressing in this lesson:
Exploring how the state of matter changes with temperature and pressure changes.
Science Learning Objectives for students:
By the end of this lesson, students will be able to:
• Make predictions, provide evidence for their predictions and compare them with results
• Work in teams to safely use appropriate equipment to complete an investigation
• Review the investigation and identify further questions for investigation
• Explore the way solids, liquids and gases change under different situations such as heating and cooling
• Recognise that substances exist in different states depending on the temperature
• Use multi representational records to explain the changes that took place.
Materials and equipment:
Snap lock bags (1 for each group)
Ice cubes pre-prepared
Effervescent tablets – Eno or aspirin
Butchers paper for teams to record their findings in multi modal ways
Large textas

Organisation of class:
Students will start on the floor for group discussion to refresh and
then move in groups to tables.
They will then move to tables to work on their experiments.
Students will gather on the floor for discussion on findings and then
back to desks to create their “letter to Grandma” and listen to what will
occur in next lesson.

Teaching procedure
Introduction: (10 mins)

Explain and justify your lesson
INTRO:
23

Start lesson by discussing with students what they have already
learnt about the properties of G/S and L.
Ask them to explain the properties and behaviours of these types of
matter. Have some students volunteer to draw diagrams/images on
board of how a gas behaves, liquid behaves etc.
Give students their Learning Intention and explain that they are going
to look at what can happen to G/S & L when temperature and
pressure changes occur. Don’t go into too much detail about this – let
them experiment first and then discussion/explanation can take place
after.
Body: (20 mins)
Split class into groups (3 or 4 in each group)
Explain that each group needs to be writing down observations as
they go.
Have tubs prepared (may need to give ice cubes separately so they
don’t melt before experiment) with all items and ask one team
member to collect. Groups move to a desk space.
Have groups come up with a hypothesis of what will occur.
Ask students to now try and melt the ice cube inside the snap lock
bag as fast as possible.
Note how they did it, what was their strategy.
Now students are asked to add the effervescent tablet to the bag. Reseal the bag once it’s in and observe the bag expand due to the gas.
Ask them to note what is happening.
In their groups students use the butcher’s paper to create posters on
what took place at each stage of the investigation. They can write
and use diagrams to explain the changes.

I will start the Elaborate 1 lesson by revising what students have learnt
in previous lessons on S/L&G so prior information is being
remembered and cemented.
Next I will explain to them what they will be looking at in this lesson.
(Learning Intention) However, I want to prepare them for what will be
happening, giving them a structure for the lesson yet I don’t want to
explain what they’ll be doing or the findings they will make as I want
the students to discover it themselves, questioning as they go.
BODY:
In the Elaborate lesson, the students should be applying ideas
established during the Explain lesson to new contexts, therefore
extending and bringing together their learning. (Skamp, p.531, 2012).
By having the students perform the experiment and give an
explanation for what they think is happening before we discuss the
findings as a class, I am drawing on some of their prior knowledge
from previous lessons as well as encouraging them go deeper with
their thinking. This falls under the Social Constructivist theory that the
5E’s lesson model is based on.
“Constructivism is a learning strategy that draws on students' existing
knowledge, beliefs, and skills. With a constructivist approach, students
synthesize new understanding from prior learning and new
information.” (Enhancing Education: The 5 E’s, para 8, 2002)
Students use the butcher’s paper to start presenting their findings. I
want them to do this with multiple representations so they can easily
explain and also understand their own findings by using whichever
learning style suits them best. Putting it into diagrams or words helps
cement the knowledge they’ve just gained and this can also be used
as a formative assessment tool.
Using multiple representations to present their understandings gives
them an opportunity to show and re-show their learning as it
progresses through the model. (Australian Academy of Science,
2012). Kaput (1989) suggests, “the cognitive linking of representations
creates a whole that is more than the sum of its parts”.
24

Wrapping it up: (25 mins)
Have students come to the floor as a whole class to discuss what
they observed and how they explained it on their poster.
“What happens when you heat a solid?” E.g. ice
What happens when you heat a liquid? E.g. water
What happens when you cool a gas? E.g. steam
What happens when you cool a liquid? E.g. water
Discuss findings and talk about the behaviours of these matters. The
ice (solid) turned into a liquid when it was melted at a higher
temperature. When it is a solid it keeps its shape, however when it
turns to a liquid it fills the bottom of the bag/space that it’s in. When
we added the effervescent tablet a gas was formed and those
molecules made the bag expand as they were trying to get as far
away as possible from each other.
Talk about different melting point and boiling points for different
materials.
Now have the different groups go back to their desks and write ‘a
letter to Grandma’. How would they explain what they occurred to
another person who may not have any prior knowledge of this? They
will do this using the information they discovered as a group and also
by what they learnt from their peers.
Briefly go over what will take place in the next lesson (Elaborate 2).
- We have looked at how temperature and pressure changes affect
simple gases, solids and liquids but how does the viscosity of a liquid
change? Does pressure or temperature affect it?

I want this to be done first so each group is putting down their own
ideas and not being influenced by the class or myself.
I have used hands on experiments firstly to engage the students in
their learning by being active participants. The lesson will cater to a
range of learning styles, asking the students to present their
understanding in multiple representations and having a final class
discussion where the teacher will provide some formal information and
students can ask questions or confirm their findings.
By using hands on activities, the opportunity to show understanding
through multiple representations and in group collaborations I am
aligning myself with Skamp's (2012) thoughts that “learning science
occurs on social and individual plains, and that it can be viewed along
two dimensions - namely, acquiring/developing ideas and participating
in a (scientific classroom) learning community.” (P.17).
Throughout this unit we have been guided by Bloom’s Taxonomy
learning objectives and in the Elaborate 1 stage students are working
towards Higher Order thinking which is demonstrated by analysing
what is occurring, making hypotheses, taking part in group work and
producing a multi representational report on what has occurred.
WRAP UP:
Now as a group we can discuss findings and talk about the behaviours
of these matters.
I will now ask the groups to do an activity where they ‘write a letter to
Grandma’. This is done firstly so they can finalise and collaboratively
work to use the information they discovered to explain it in simple
language. The result of this activity can be used as formative
assessment.
After this I will introduce what they will be looking at next week.

25

References

Australian Academy of Science (2012, December). What's The Matter?. Primary Connections, Retrieved April 10, 2015, from
http://www.primaryconnections.org.au/.

Enhancing Education: A Producers Guide (2002), The 5 E’. Retrieved April 12, 2015 from
http://enhancinged.wgbh.org/research/eeeee.html

Kaput, J. J. (1989). Linking representations in the symbol systems of algebra. In S.Wagner & C. Kieran (Eds.),Research Issues in
the Learning and Teaching of Algebra (pp. 167-194). Hillsdale, NJ: LEA.

Skamp, K. (2012). Teaching Primary Science Constructively (4th ed.). South Melbourne, Australia: Cengage Learning. (Original
work published 1998)

26

Lesson Five - Elaborate 2
Student Name: Greta Brewin s3331054
Unit: States of Matter
Science Topic: Non-Newtonian Fluids
Lesson: 5 of 6
5E’s Stage: Elaborate lesson 2
Student Level: Grade 5/6
Date of Lesson: 03/06/15
Australian Curriculum (Aus-Vels) Learning Focus:
Chemical Sciences - Solids, liquids and gases have different observable properties and behave in different ways (ACSSU077)
Main science ideas related to the science learning focus that you are addressing in this lesson:
Recognising that not all substances can be easily classified on the basis of their observable properties
Science Learning Objectives for students: (Students will be able to…)

Students will be able to recognise that not all substances can be easily classified based on their observable properties.

Students will be able to make and discuss evidence-based claims about solids liquids and gasses.

Students will be able to identify some properties that distinguish solids, liquids and gasses.

Assessment:
This lesson will allow for formative assessment to take place. Making observations throughout the lesson will provide information on the students’
conceptions and understandings of the observational properties of the different states of matter. Through verbal discussions and reviewing students
answers to the questions on the making slime* worksheet, I will be able to assess the individual students progression through the unit and identify any
possible misconceptions still present. The use of class discussions will also aid in this area.
*Appendices one

27

Materials and equipment:
Introduction:
1 blown up balloon
Jelly in a clear container
Blue tack
1 soccer ball
Body:
Making Slime worksheet 1 per student
1 large plastic bowl per group
4 packets of cornflour
Tap water
Bucket for tap water
1 plastic cup per group
1 plastic spoon per person
Newspaper to cover tables
1 pen or pencil per student
Wrapping it up:
AV equipment to watch video
Teaching procedure
Introduction: 15 minutes
Play is it a solid, liquid or gas?
This involves assigning and labelling 3 tables in the classroom for each of the
different states of matter and one table as the ‘other’ category. Hold up different
materials and objects and ask students to use the information they have learnt
about the observable properties of different materials to decide whether or not these
substances are a solid, liquid or gas. Students should then move to the different
tables dependent on their decision. The students are then given 60 seconds to work
as a table to explain their thinking and come up with a justification as to why their
group is correct.
Use a blown up balloon, blu tack, jelly, a can of hair spray and a soccer ball.
The blown up balloon and the soccer ball can be considered gas, solid or both
under the other category.
The hair spray could be considered any of the four categories. The can is a solid,

Organisation of class:
The lesson will begin with all the students gathered at the front of
the class facing me. After playing is it a solid, liquid or gas? The
students will return to the front of the class so I can explain the
remainder of the lesson.
For the making slime activity, students will work in table groups of
approximately 4. Ideally this lesson would be conducted in the
classroom, but if the room does not facilitate such a messy
activity, it could be held outside under shelter. Although if it is to
be held outside, consideration of the weather must be made. After
making slime each group will tidy their work area with the
assistance of the RMIT students before returning to the front of
the class.
Then once the discussion and explanation of non-Newtonian
fluids is complete, student will remain at the front of the class to
watch the Mythbuster video. This is dependent on Morelands AV
situation, and we may be required to move to another room for
this component of the lesson. The lesson will finish with a
discussion at the front of the class, before dismissing the students
to lunch.
Explain and justify your lesson
I have chosen to introduce the lesson with a game to engage the
students. The students will not be accustomed to having new
people come in and teach them, so by getting them up and
moving, they will be hooked into the lesson and engaged by the
active nature of the game. This kind of physical activity will help to
engage many different learning styles including kinaesthetic and
visual learners.
The introductory game is also designed to employ the lower level
thinking skills outlined in Blooms Taxonomy. The act of identifying
and describing the properties of different states of matter, and
then justifying their decision with this knowledge helps to achieve
this. By doing this, I will be aided in confirming that the students
are retaining and demonstrating concepts and knowledge gained
in the previous lessons.
28

while it contains both a liquid and gas particles.
Blu tack is a solid as is jelly.
Bring students back together and explain that we are working in the elaborate stage
of the 5E’s and explain what we will be exploring in todays lesson.
Body: Activity 15 minutes, clean up, discuss and explain 15 minutes
Provide each team with a copy of the worksheet Making Slime* and the materials
and equipment necessary to complete the activity. The other RMIT students will
assist in handing out equipment and materials and maintaining a clean and safe
work environment. Once they have made their slime allow them the time to
investigate its properties and try to determine whether or not it is a solid, liquid or
gas.
*Appendices one
Note: Dependent on the classroom facilities, this may be held outside in an
undercover area. This is also dependent on weather conditions.
Remind students that any substances used in science are not to be eaten or tasted
unless given specific permission from the teacher. And encourage students to keep
a clear, work environment to minimise risk.
Clean up the classroom and then discuss as a class what they found when applying
varying pressure to the slime and facilitate a student led discussion to decide if it is
a solid or liquid. Remind students that temperature and pressure can cause a state
of matter to change to another state of matter.
Introduce students to the term non-Newtonian Fluid and explain its meaning.
Remind students of the term viscosity and its meaning.
Wrapping it up: 15 minutes
As a class, view the video Mythbusters: walking on ‘water’. Discuss with the
students what they saw. Ask them how the cornflour and water mixture behaved
when placed under pressure.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5GWhOLorDtw
Ask students to share their thoughts on the classification of the substances they
used during the lesson. How easy were they to classify? What made it difficult?

This main activity hopes to implement a social constructivist
perspective of teaching science. This is to be done by engaging
students with inquiry-oriented investigative learning as a
community of science learners. This is why I have chosen to have
the students work in teams to make and explore the slime,
because I think learning as a group is a more effective method
within the science classroom.
Skamp (2012) believes that students “learn by constructing ideas
and developing competencies.” (p.1) This is in broad terms refers
to the learning theory ‘constructivism’, which is the learning theory
this unit is following. The activity of making slime will be taught in
a manner that does not provided students with the knowledge of
non-Newtonian fluids until after they have had the chance to
explore and develop hands-on understanding of one. The
teacher’s roll is to facilitate the learning journey towards
understanding, not just hand them the answers. This style of
teaching aligns with Skamp’s, who argues, “students construct
rather than absorb ideas.” (2012, p.13) meaning students learn
from actively generating meaning through authentic experiences.
I chose to wrap the lesson up by using a video to summarise the
lessons learning. This is because I think it is important for
students to learn through multiple representations to reinforce
knowledge and to engage different learning styles. This is also a
core view of the constructivist model. Constructivist teachers
encourage students to constantly assess how the activity is
helping them gain understanding, by questioning themselves and
their strategies. The discussion held at the end of the lesson aims
to achieve this concept.
29

References

Australian Academy of Science (2012, December). What's The Matter?. Primary Connections, Retrieved April 10, 2015, from
http://www.primaryconnections.org.au/.

Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2015). Science Curriculum. Retrieved April 9, 2015, from
http://ausvels.vcaa.vic.edu.au/Science/Curriculum/F-10#level=6

Australian Science Teachers Association. (2013). Background Information . Retrieved April 9, 2015, from
http://scienceweb.asta.edu.au/verve/_resources/asta_4-1-1_bi_solids_yr5_v4-2.pdf

Australian Science Teachers Association. (2013). Solids, liquids and gases. Retrieved April 9, 2015, from
http://scienceweb.asta.edu.au/years-5-6/unit1/overview/yr56-unit-overview.html

Educational Origami. (2014). Bloom's Digital Taxonomy. Retrieved April 11, 2015, from
http://edorigami.wikispaces.com/Bloom's+Digital+Taxonomy

Skamp, K. (2012). Teaching Primary Science Constructively (4th ed.). South Melbourne, Australia: Cengage Learning. (Original work
published 1998)

University of Sydney. (2014). Constructivism. Retrieved April 11, 2015, from
http://sydney.edu.au/education_social_work/learning_teaching/ict/theory/constructivism.shtml

WiseGEEK. (2015). What is a non-Newtonian Fluid?. Retrieved April 10, 2015, from
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-non-newtonian-fluid.htm

30

Appendix One
Making Slime
Name: _______________________________
Materials



1 bowl
1 cup of cornflour
About ¼ cup of water (the amount of water
required will vary)
1 spoon per person

1

What happens when the slime is squeezed?

Procedure
1. Place the cornflour in the bowl.
2. Use the spoon to stir the cornflour while you add
some water, a little at a time. (It is easier to add
more water than it is to take some away if you add
too much.)
3. Keep adding the water, a small amount at a time,
until a thick slime forms.
4. If the slime is too runny add more cornflour to
thicken it to the required texture.

5. How does the slime feel when it is poked rapidly?

6. What happens to the slime when it is placed on the palm of your hand?

7. What happens when a finger is pushed slowly into the slime?

8. Is it a solid, liquid or gas? Why?

31

Lesson Six - Evaluate
Student Name: Alice Turner
Science Topic: Solids, Liquids and Gases
Student Level:
Grade 5-6
Australian Curriculum (Aus-Vels) Learning Focus
Chemical Sciences: Solids, liquids and gases have different observable properties
and behave in different ways (ACSSU077)
Main science ideas related to the science learning focus that you are addressing in this lesson:
Matter in the solid state maintains a fixed volume and shape, with component particles close together and fixed into place. Matter in the liquid state
maintains a fixed volume, but has a variable shape that adapts to fit its container. Its particles are still close together but move freely. Matter in the gas
state has no fixed shape and will take the shape of the space available.
Learning objectives for students:
 By the end of this lesson, students will be able to define the behaviours of particles within solids, liquids and gases.
 They will each complete a summative assessment in the form of illustrated and/or written descriptions of these behaviour to identify what they
have learnt over this unit.
Materials and equipment:
Organisation of class:
Students will begin the lesson finding a space within a defined area for
-Matter Card Templates 1 per student
role play activity
-Pens and/or pencils
-Glue sticks
Students will sit at tables and work independently drawing or writing
-Templates for solid, liquid and gas descriptions 1 per student.
descriptions of how they behaved when they were a solid, liquid and gas.
-Memory Card game 1 per student
-Template to record matches from Memory Game
Students move into pairs and play the memory card game at the tables
and or on the floor. They will remain here while they stick the matches
together.
Students will move to the floor to create the final definition of the
properties of solids, liquids and gases.

32

Teaching procedure
Introduction:
5 minutes
Kinaesthetic refresher activity on the way particles within different states of
matter behave.
Students will be asked to move freely around the defined area. I will call the
state of matter for them and they need to respond by acting like a particle
from either a solid, liquid or gas.
Body:
10 minutes
Students will be given a template (Appendix 1) they will record how they
behaved when acting as a particle in each state of matter. This may be
written and/or drawn.
-This template will be used as a final assessment of the students’ learning
and to judge the success of teaching throughout this unit.
25 minutes
Students get into pairs to play a memory card game, which includes the
states of matter used in Explore lesson (Appendix 2).
Once they get a match, they glue the matches together on a separate piece
of paper.
This will be used as a summative assessment.
Wrapping it up
15 minutes
Students will move back to the floor sitting in a circle. Through shared writing
we will come up with a final definition for each state of matter this will be
written on butcher’s paper.

Explain and justify your lesson
A Kinaesthetic activity at the beginning of the class has been chosen to
get students tuned in and reenergise the classroom by encouraging
brain stimulation.
This activity aims to enhance understanding of the behaviours of
particles within difference states of matter, but specifically provides a
representation to target kinaesthetic learners by providing an
experience where abstract ideas are brought to life through role-play
(Wolfman and Bates, 2005).
Blooms taxonomy has been taken into consideration throughout the
unit to promote a more holistic understanding of properties and
behaviours of solids, liquids and gases. Students have moved through
the domains of learning in the previous 5 classes and in this final class
will:
-Analyse their learning by revisiting the activity in the first class and
reflecting on their new found knowledge
-Rewrite and create final definitions
The social constructivist approach incorporating the 5 E’s teaching
model has been used throughout the unit will continue in this final
Evaluate lesson. Students have opportunities to represent and rerepresent their understanding in this lesson through:
-Role play
-Illustration
-Written definitions
Students review and reflect on their learning by revisiting the same
solids, liquid and gases from the first engage lesson, this allows them
to evaluate changes to their understanding, beliefs and skills (Primary
Connections, 2015)
Skamp (2012) notes the importance of learners coming to “understand
the ideas of science through their interactions in and with a community
of learners” (p.11).
This theory has shaped my lesson in the following aspects:
-Students working collaboratively to play the memory card game
-Shared writing to compose final definitions

33

References

Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2015). Science Curriculum. Retrieved April 9, 2015, from
http://ausvels.vcaa.vic.edu.au/Science/Curriculum/F-10#level=6

Primary Connections. (2015). 5E's Teaching and Learning Model. Retrieved April 10, 2015, from
https://www.primaryconnections.org.au/about/teaching

Skamp, K. (2012). Teaching Primary Science Constructively (4th ed.). South Melbourne, Australia: Cengage Learning. (Original work
published 1998)

Wolfman, S. A & Bates, R, A. (2005) Kinaesthetic learning in the classroom. 21(1), 203-206.

34

Appendix One

35

Appendix Two
Detergent

It is a Liquid
1/ Takes the shape of the container
2/Particles move freely
3/ Fixed volume

Oil

It is a Liquid
1/ Takes the shape of the container
2/Particles move freely
3/ Fixed volume

Block of Wood

It is a Solid
1/ Holds its shape
2/ Particles close together
3/ Fixed shape and Volume

Sand

It is a Solid
1/ Holds its shape
2/ Particles close together
3/ Fixed shape and Volume

Paper

It is a Solid
1/ Holds its shape
2/ Particles close together
3/ Fixed shape and Volume

Flour

It is a Solid
1/ Holds its shape
36

2/ Particles close together
3/ Fixed shape and Volume
Steam

It is a Gas
1/ Has no fixed shape
2/ Takes the shape of the space available
3/ Particles move quickly

Air

It is a Gas
1/ Has no fixed shape
2/ Takes the shape of the space available
3/ Particles move quickly

37

Inflated balloon

It is a solid with gas inside

Can of hairspray

It is a solid with gas inside

Soccer ball

It is a solid with gas inside

Blu Tac

It is a solid
1/ Holds its shape
2/ Particles close together
3/ Fixed shape and Volume

Milk

It is a Liquid
1/ Takes the shape of the container
2/Particles move freely
3/ Fixed volume

Jelly

It is a Solid
1/ Holds its shape
2/ Particles close together
3/ Fixed shape and Volume

Snow

It is a Solid
1/ Holds its shape
2/ Particles close together
3/ Fixed shape and Volume
38

Rain

It is a Liquid
1/ Takes the shape of the container
2/Particles move freely
3/ Fixed volume

39

Unit Overview
PHASE

ACTIVITIES

LITERACY FOCUSES/
PRACTICES

COOPERATIVE
LEARNING
ACTIVITIES

ASSESSMENT
FOCUS

ENGAGE

Students are presented with a variety of containers filled with
different states of matter. They then classify objects as liquid,
gas or solid and begin to observe their visual difference. A vote
for each container is taken and the answers will be tallied and
recorded for diagnostic assessment.
Students reflect on the decision making process for each vote.
Questions to prompt reflection and discussion are asked: “Why
do you think it is a solid” “What makes this a liquid?”
In groups, students collaboratively create definitions and decide
on the properties of solids, liquids and gases. This can then be
written out on yellow post-it notes and stuck to the
corresponding state of matter A3 poster. Group members are
allowed to disagree and stick up multiple post-it notes.

Students will need to write
questions as well as
definitions for the class
poster.
Record their reasoning
about solids, liquids and
gases.
Students will verbally reflect
on solid, liquid and gas
choices and listen to their
peers opinions and
thoughts.

In groups students come
up with
definitions/properties of
G/S/L
These activities will
encourage their
awareness of how
science shapes our
environments.

Diagnostic
Student misconceptions
are gauged through the
defining state of matter
task in both the voting
and written tasks.
Questions raised by
students will determine
areas of interest and
those that require extra
focus.

EXPLORE

As a whole class weigh a deflated ball. Students predict if it will
weigh more when inflated. Record the weight when deflated.
Three mini lessons rotating in three groups. Students get a
hands-on experience of each state of matter.
Mini lesson 1: solids
Collection of solid items (tiles/wood/metal, wool, cushion etc.)
and implements that can be used to manipulate these items.
Students are then asked to explore the items and determine
which are solid and why. Students record observations of
properties in a pre-prepared template
Mini lesson 2: liquid
Give students a variety of liquids and a solid commonly confused
for a liquid (flour or sand) and a collection of containers. Student
record observations of properties in a pre prepared template and
determine which items are liquids.
Mini lesson 3: gas
Student will conduct a quick experiment to help them understand
that gas exists. The rim of a bottle is sealed with detergent. This
is then placed in hot water- heat expands the gas inside the

Groups will discuss and
compare results from each
mini lesson.
Record their observations
of the properties of
solids/liquids/gasses for
later comparison

Students working
collaboratively in small
working groups.

Formative
Collected records from
observations made in
each mini lesson will
provide information on
what ideas students
have at this stage
regarding the different
matter.
By discussing possible
new predictions of
weight of ball, will
provide us with an
indication of student’s
new knowledge.

40

bottle creating a bubble on the lip. The bubble retracts when
bottle cools. This is designed to prove there is something in the
bottle. Student visually record observations of the experiment
and make predictions.
As a class weigh the ball from the beginning of class which is
now inflated. Before revealing the new weight, ask if any initial
predictions have changed.
EXPLAIN
James

ELABORATE
Lesson 1
Zoe

After students have had the opportunity to have hands on
experience with each state of matter, students can now work in
groups to add to or change their previous definitions and
descriptions of the properties of solids, liquids and gases. These
new descriptions can be written up on pink post-it notes and
stuck to the corresponding state of matter A3 poster. They will
also be asked to share these definitions with the class. Students
will be encouraged to pose questions on how these definitions
were created and justified.
Now the teacher will introduce their definitions of each state of
matter and the properties associated with each. Students will be
asked to agree or disagree with these statements, and justify
their response.
Students will be presented with an info graphic or visual
representation of how particles of each state of matter move at
the microscopic level. Teacher explains this to students.
Participation in role-play activity, with students representing a
particle of each state of matter.
Ask students if this new knowledge has changed ideas?

Read and discuss a text
about solids, liquids and
gases present to the
students by teacher.

Working in groups to add
to their definitions and
discuss any changes
they’d make and why.

Formative
Verbal discussion and
comparison of class
results.

Discuss and compare
results

Role play activity requiring
whole student
participation

By participating in role
play activity will give
teachers an indication
of students knowledge

Exploring how state of matter change with temperature and
pressure changes.

Students will discuss any
questions they have with
other; if unanswered they
will
Discuss how to find
answers to these questions.
Discuss and compare
results

Students work in groups
to perform the
experiments.

Formative
Students record
findings, questions and
document
understanding.
This could be done in a
written or drawn
context. (multi modal)

Start by having students refresh their knowledge of how matter
behaves and the properties of it. Ask some to volunteer to draw
a diagram of behaviour on board. Would anyone change
anything?
Students work in groups for the following activities making
observational notes as they go:
Melt ice cube as quickly as possible in snap lock bag.

Groups will also ‘write a
letter to Grandma’
explaining what

41

Discuss strategies to melt ice
Once ice is melted, students add an effervescent tablet and
observe the bag expanding due to the gas.
Discuss what was observed and why.
What happens when you heat a solid? E.g. ice
What happens when you heat a liquid? E.g. water
What happens when you cool a gas? E.g. steam
What happens when you cool a liquid? E.g. water
Discuss changes in other materials. Talk about different melting
point and boiling points for different materials
ELABORATE
Lesson 2
Greta

Play is it a solid, liquid or gas?
Explore non-Newtonian fluids with the Make Slime activity and
handout. Explain and discuss non-Newtonian fluids.
Watch Mythbusters video of slime.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5GWhOLorDtw

EVALUATE
Alice

-Students act out behaviour of particles in solids, liquids and
gases.
-Students reflect on this activity by drawing or writing how the
particles behave in S/L/G. This will be a summative assessment.
-A memory card game is played, where one card has listed a
solid, liquid or gas. And the matching card has 3 properties of
that state of matter.
-Students then have the opportunity to play against each other.
-Once they get a match they stick them together on a piece of
paper.
-As a whole class create a final definition for a solid, a liquid and
a gas through shared writing.

occurred during the
activity and why.

Students will participate in
class discussions and read
the instructions to make
slime.
They will also discuss,
record and compare
results.

Students are working in
table groups in both the
introduction game and
when making slime.

Formative
Again, record
observations and class
discussion.

Express behaviour of S/L/G
particles through written
descriptions.

Whole class discussions,
students can voice
varying ideas and
reasoning while solidifying
their scientific knowledge.
The activities both
individual and group
based mean they are
working with multi modal
representations.

Summative
Can students draw and
write a description of
particles behaviour in
different states of matter

By using their newly
acquired scientific literacy
they should be able to
explain scientific
phenomena more readily.

Can students correctly
identify and match the
properties of each state
of matter
Can students write a
concise and correct
definition for each state
of matter.

42

References:

Ainsworth, S. (2008). The Educational Value of Multiple-representations when Learning Complex
Scientific Concepts. Visualization: Theory and Practice in Science Education Models and
Modelling in Science Education, 3, 191-208.

American Chemical Society. (2015). Air, It's Really There. Retrieved April 13, 2015, from
http://www.middleschoolchemistry.com/lessonplans/chapter1/lesson5

Australian Academy of Science (2012, December). What's The Matter?. Primary Connections,
Retrieved April 10, 2015, from
http://www.primaryconnections.org.au/.

Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2015). Science Curriculum.
Retrieved April 9, 2015, from
http://ausvels.vcaa.vic.edu.au/Science/Curriculum/F-10#level=6

Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority. (2015). English Curriculum. Retrieved
April 8, 2015, from http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/english/curriculum/f-10?
layout=1#level5

Australian Science Teachers Association. (2013). Background Information . Retrieved April 9,
2015, from
http://scienceweb.asta.edu.au/verve/_resources/asta_4-1-1_bi_solids_yr5_v4-2.pdf

Australian Science Teachers Association. (2013). Solids, liquids and gases. Retrieved April 9,
2015, from
http://scienceweb.asta.edu.au/years-5-6/unit1/overview/yr56-unit-overview.html

Chem4Kids. (2015). Changing States of Matter. Retrieved April 6, 2015, from
http://www.chem4kids.com/files/matter_changes.html

Core Knowledge. (1997). Matter Matters: Solids, Liquids, Gases. Retrieved April 13, 2015, from
http://www.coreknowledge.org/mimik/mimik_uploads/lesson_plans/480/Matter%20Matters
%20%20Solids%20Liquids%20and%20Gases.pdf

Educational Origami. (2014). Bloom's Digital Taxonomy. Retrieved April 11, 2015, from
http://edorigami.wikispaces.com/Bloom's+Digital+Taxonomy

Kind, V. (2012). Beyond Appearances: Students’ Misconceptions About Basic Chemical Ideas.
Retrieved April 13, 2015 from http://www.rsc.org/images/Misconceptions_update_tcm18188603.pdf

Prain. V and Waldrip. B (2008) A study of teachers' perspectives about using multimodal
representations of concepts to enhance science learning. Canadian Journal of Science,
Mathematics and Technology Education, 8 (1). pp. 5-24. ISSN 1492-6156

Primary Connections. (2015). 5E's Teaching and Learning Model. Retrieved April 13, 2015, from
https://www.primaryconnections.org.au/about/teaching

Purdue University,Chem.purdue.edu,. (2015). States of Matter. Retrieved 14 April 2015, from
http://www.chem.purdue.edu/gchelp/atoms/states.html

Skamp, K. (2012). Teaching Primary Science Constructively (4th ed.). South Melbourne,
Australia: Cengage Learning. (Original work published 1998)
43

44