Revista Mexicana

de Ingenier´ıa Qu´ımica
Academia Mexicana de Investigaci´
on y Docencia en Ingenier´ıa Qu´ımica, A.C.

Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química
Volumen 11, N´
umero 2, Agosto 2012

No. 2 (2012) 269-278

ISSN 1665-2738


Volumen 8, número 3, 2009 / Volume 8, number 3, 2009



213 Derivation and application
of the Stefan-Maxwell
equations 2 and A. Soria1
S. Baz-Rodr´
ıguez1∗ , A. Aguilar-Corona

de Ingenier´
ıa dede
e Hidr´de
Universidad Aut´onoma Metropolitana - Iztapalapa, San
y aplicación
las ecuaciones
M´exico, D. F. CP. 09340, M´exico.
Stephen Whitaker
Facultad de Ingenier´ıa Mec´anica, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicol´as de Hidalgo, Francisco J. Mujica s/n,
Ciudad Universitaria, CP. 58040, Morelia, Michoac´an, M´exico.
Biotecnología / Biotechnology
Received October 9, 2011; Accepted March 10, 2012.
245 Modelado de la biodegradación en biorreactores de lodos de hidrocarburos totales del petróleo

An equation
to predict theenterminal
velocity of single bubbles in stagnant Newtonian liquids is proposed. The
suelos y rise
formulation combines a force balance obtained from the boundary layer theory for non-distorted bubbles and an
analytic equation
coming modeling
from a mechanic
of sludge energy
of totalWithout
in soil which are
difficult to and
the terminal
velocity in both the intermediate and inertial motion regimes. The proposed equation shows good agreement with
C.A. Lucho-Constantino,
L. Aguilera-Vázquez,
from bubblesS.rising
in pure liquids.
Moreover, for bubbles
rising in cleanA. water,
the effect of
helical trajectories
from experimental data trends and included in the formulation as a correction
González was
y M. estimated
factor for
terminal velocity.
sobrevivencia y adaptación de Bifidobacterium infantis a condiciones ácidas
Keywords: single bubble motion, terminal velocity equation, oscillatory bubble path, pure liquids.
(Growth, survival and adaptation of Bifidobacterium infantis to acidic conditions)

P. Bustamante-Camilo,
A. Gutiérrez-Nava,
E. Barranco-Florido
A. AzaolaSe propusoL. una
ecuaci´on para
predecir la velocidad
terminal del ascenso
de burbujasy aisladas
en l´ıquidos
La formulaci´on combina un balance de fuerzas obtenido de la teor´ıa de capa l´ımite para burbujas
una ecuaci´
on anal´
un balance
de energ´
mec´anica. Sin cerevisiae
la inclusi´oin
n de
of de
geom´etricos que son dif´ıciles de determinar, se asume que la ponderaci´on de las fuerzas dominantes es suficiente
para predecir
la velocidad
of Valfor® zeolite
NaA terminal en los reg´ımenes de movimiento intermedio e inercial. Las
predicciones de la ecuaci´on propuesta presentan buen ajuste con datos experimentales para burbujas ascendiendo en
de laascendiendo
de Saccharomyces
presencia de
l´ıquidos puros.
Adem´as, estadística
para burbujas
agua pura,
se estim´o el efecto
de lasen
a partir de zeolita
la tendencia
on de la
Valfor® zeolite NaA)
velocidad terminal.
G. Inei-Shizukawa, H. A. Velasco-Bedrán, G. F. Gutiérrez-López and H. Hernández-Sánchez

Palabras clave: movimiento de burbujas aisladas, ecuaci´on de velocidad terminal, trayectoria oscilatoria de
burbujas, l´ıquidos puros.
Ingeniería de procesos / Process engineering


271 Localización de una planta industrial: Revisión crítica y adecuación de los criterios empleados en
velocity defect caused by the wakes (Marks, 1973). If
esta decisión

one is dealing with bubble columns, the slip velocity

can be expressed in terms of a single
(Plant of
adequation criteria
in this decision)
Motion analysis
single bubble
in and
velocity and the gas volume fraction
J.R. Medina,
R.L. Romero
y G.A. Pérez
liquid is useful
to understand
and describe
bubbly flows. Let us consider a train of bubbles rising
unconfined through still liquid. Its rise velocity can
be approximated by that of a single bubble plus the

(Shah et al., 1982; Ruzicka et al., 2001). These facts
emphasize the importance of having equations that
predict the terminal rise velocity of single bubbles, sin-

∗ Corresponding author. E-mail:
Tel.: +52 55 58044648 Ext. 237

Publicado por la Academia Mexicana de Investigaci´on y Docencia en Ingenier´ıa Qu´ımica A.C.


rmiq. these approaches often require additional data such as aspect ratio (between minor and major axes) and (hemispherical) bubble distortion factor. 2007).. 1976. 2) intermediate region. Bozzano and Dente. see Fig. and 3) dominant inertia. However. Veldhuis et al. This working interval is usual in many industrial systems. until the bubble motion attains the inertial spherical cap regime. This symmetry gradually brakes as Re increases. 1). and then the terminal velocity is estimated as a function of the equivalent diameter and the fluid properties (Mendelson.18 cm for air in water.07 to 0. These parameters are difficult to obtain. 1976. No. and a transition from rectilinear to zig-zag or helical trajectories is observed (Duineveld./ Revista Mexicana de Ingenier´ıa Qu´ımica Vol.14-0. Even if some 270 doubt has been cast on the original approach because of its lack of physical basis (Lehrer. • Wave analogy. which obtained equations with the same basic form (Lehrer. expressing the aspect ratio in terms of We involves its own dependency on the terminal velocity. the onset of path instability occurs. 2010). 2001.65 cm for air bubbles ascending through pure water (Mendelson. for pure liquids it is difficult to estimate aspect ratios or distortion factors even experimentally (Tomiyama et al. bubble shapes are oblate ellipsoidal with fore-aft symmetry. 1965. 1990. 2001). for the case of air rising through water. The shape and terminal velocity of isolated bubbles vary as the equivalent diameter increases. 1966). 2007). which act by damping bubble shape oscillations (Celata et al. a simple equation to predict the isolated bubble terminal velocity is proposed in the present work. Fan and Tsuchiya.. according to three regimes (Tomiyama et al. 1995). Zudin. Bozzano and Dente. Other formulations for bubble terminal velocities have been proposed from some detailed bubble shape and external flow considerations (Moore. 1995. Moreover. 2002): 1) dominant viscosity. 11. 2008). often with fractional exponents. The inclusion of drag coefficients with non-linear Re dependency. 2002.. 1966. 2008). For this reason. Celata et al. When Re > 200.. Besides. Interfacial disturbances are assumed for bubbles whose dynamics is similar to propagating waves in an ideal fluid. 1965. Wellek et al. Tomiyama et al. The intermediate regime spans an equivalent diameter range from 0. A functional relation is proposed for these groups. Nevertheless.... The most representative solutions are obtained from drag in creeping and potential flows. 2007). which seems more appropiate to establish functional relations with this geometrical parameter (Celata et al. 2003. Sanada et al. The terminal velocity equations result from a force balance between drag and buoyancy. and the adjustable parameters are fitted from experimental or numerical data (Rodrigue... • Dimensional analysis. This is inconvenient when the terminal velocity is not the main objective of an engineering calculation.Baz-Rodr´ıguez et al. Predictions using this approach fit the main trend after the bubble size corresponding to the terminal velocity local maximum is attained (0. the terminal velocity is particularly sensitive to the presence of contaminants and even to the initial deformation induced by injection (Tomiyama et al. The terminal velocities reported in literature correspond to the axial component of the bubble center of mass velocity vector. 2002). 2 (2012) 269-278 ce it is a fundamental parameter in gas-liquid flows. surface tension and inertial effects should be taken into account. the intermediate one presents major difficulties since the force interactions and their effect on the terminal velocity is not yet well understood. 1967. This corresponds to particle Reynolds numbers (Re) between 80 and 1500 for normal pressure and temperature conditions. Sometimes the Weber number (We) is used instead (Moore. we believe that the proper weighting of the dominant forces is enough to assess this important parameter for the intermediate and inertial regimes. or aspect ratio that depends on We in any terminal velocity formulation implies solving non-linear equations. 1967). in contrast with the case of liquids contaminated with surfactants. Some investigations report the aspect ratio from experimental results on pure and contaminated liquids as a function of the E¨otvos number (Eo) (Wellek et al.. 2005): • Force balance. This approximation can be adequate to predict the rise velocity of small bubbles when viscosity effects are still dominant. 2001).org . However. the wave analogy approach can span some later investigations.. If geometrical considerations are avoided. 2008. Sanada et al. Out of the three regimes.. Besides. where viscous. There exist three basic approaches to establish the terminal velocity (Kulkarni and Joshi. approximately. Loth. Dimensionless groups are determined from the leading variables that govern the bubble motion. 2002). for Re ∼ 650-685.. it is important to take into account that rectilinear trajectories become www. Okawa et al.

and considering a helical trajectory. the terminal velocity for a bubble in potential flow can be used (Levich. 2 numbers smaller than unity (Tomiyama et al. Hadamard equation is only valid for Reynolds 1 ∆ρgde2 36 µL (2) where ∆ρ is the density difference between the liquid and gaseous phases. 1990. For this reason. also. (1) was suggested by Jamialahmadi et al. This procedure improves the fit to experimental data in the equivalent diameter range that correspond to the oscillatory motion of the bubble. an equation can be obtained. 2010. Eq. 1994). Contrary to Hadamard solution. The resulting equation is as follows #1/2 " (gde )1/2 (6) VT 1 = VT pot 1 + 0. a correction factor was obtained as a function of the mean slope of the helix. and truncating to the second order term. The form of Eq. (1994) and remains in use (Kulkarni and Joshi. de is the diameter of a spherical bubble of equivalent volume. (1) ensures that the contribution of VT 2 is neglected. In the former case it is reasonable to propose an equation developed from the force balance approach. Consequently. which overestimates the terminal velocity for moderate Re. 2001).. The proposed formulation for the terminal velocity is given here by the following combination of the corresponding effects. The opposite occurs with VT 1 at larger bubble diameter. Nevertheless. No. Eq. Jamialahmadi et al. (6) is valid for spherical isolated bubbles rising under the effect of a hydrodynamic boundary layer and buoyancy force. www. When viscous effects are losing their influence. the potential solution underestimates them. the boundary layer solution must be more appropriate when the bubble rise at moderate Re. which is valid for a wide range of equivalent bubble diameters. can be combined with another one that is valid when surface tension effects are significant (Fan and Tsuchiya. a similar form but with fitting parameters was previously proposed by Fan and Tsuchiya (1990).36833 = 0 (5) Expanding a Taylor series around the potential flow solution.73667 VT pot Eq. (1) is just the terminal rising velocity coupled between the two velocities VT 1 and VT 2 ./ Revista Mexicana de Ingenier´ıa Qu´ımica Vol. respectively. In the intermediate region. Buoyancy and drag as expressed by Moore (1963) gives the following equilibrium:    1  2. and they are preferably valid until significant surface tension effects appear. Bozzano and Dente.21 (3) 6πµL de VT 1 1 − 1/2  = πde3 ∆ρg 6 Re 1 where de VT 1 ρL (4) µL Rearranging Eq. The above allows obtaining an approximate solution for the bubble velocity avoiding numerical solving of Eq. Proceeding this way. 11. 1976. (1994) proposed the equation developed by Hadamard (1911) and that of Mendelson (1967) for VT 1 and VT 2 .. VT = q 1 1 VT2 1 + 1 VT2 2 (1) where VT 1 is the rise velocity when viscous effects are still important and VT 2 is the corresponding velocity when surface tension effects are significant. Using the governing equations of motion for the boundary layer on a spherical bubble. which is valid when viscous effects are still important. This suggests that an equation for the bubble terminal velocity.. In the later it would be sensible to use a wave analogy 271 . µL is the dynamic viscosity of the liquid and g is the acceleration of gravity.Baz-Rodr´ıguez et al.rmiq. an equation for the terminal velocity is obtained. 1962) Terminal velocity formulation VT pot = Considering the intermediate region.. This is important because the terminal velocity equations from wave analogy yield values too high below the intermediate velocity maximum. 2 (2012) 269-278 unstable above some critical Re. the solution for the terminal velocity for potential flow appears Re1 = 1 V 3/2 1/2 T 1 VT1/2 pot (gde ) − VT1/2 pot (gde )1/2 VT1/2 1 − 0. inertial effects are combined with viscosity and surface tension effects. (3). 2002) and Mendelson equation seems not to have an adequate basis to justify its deduction (Lehrer. Duangsuwan et al. Cai et al. Jamialahmadi et al. before the surface tension and inertial effects start to cause deviations from the spherical bubble shape. Moore (1963) obtained a correction for the potential solution of drag force which fits particularly well for moderate regime motion (50 < Re < 200). (5). 2011). 2005. When viscous effects are important and the bubble diameter is small.

Bland´ın-Arrieta (1997). 3 Results and discussion Predictions from Eqs. especially surfactants. 1976). (1994) Rodrigue (2001) 2 0 1 0 0 0 . This happens because the solution proposed by Hadamard -and used by Jamialahmadi et al. (1) it is possible to calculate the terminal velocity for a large range of bubble sizes in pure liquids for the intermediate and inertial regimes. overestimates the terminal velocity value for Re larger than one. (6) and (8). !1/2 gde ∆ρ 3σ + (8) VT 2 = ρL de 2ρL Haberman and Morton (1953) Haberman and Morton (1953) Peebles and Garber (1953) Okazaki (1964) Aybers and Tapucu (1969) Blandín-Arrieta (1997) Leifer et al. A similar situation occurs with Fan and Tsuchiya (1990) equation. (2003) Talaia (2007) Eq. and finally it is dissipated by the wake. (6) and (8) Fan and Tsuchiya (1990) Jamialahmadi et al. 11. 0. (1994) for dominant viscous effects-. (1) (Fan and Tsuchiya. Predictions of three other formulations are also presented./ Revista Mexicana de Ingenier´ıa Qu´ımica Vol. (8) can predict the terminal velocity when the dominant effects come from surface tension and inertia. as the equation developed by Tomiyama et al. The right hand side of Eq. (1) with Eqs.. Aybers and Tapucu (1969). rigidifying it and reducing its shape oscillations during rise. This potential energy is then transformed in kinetic energy [left hand side of Eq. Rodrigue (2001) equation results particularly inadequate to predict the existence of local extrema on the typical terminal velocity curve.1 1 d e (c m ) Fig. (2008) for gas bubbles ascending through various pure liquids. Comparison between predictions of equations and experimental data for bubble terminal velocity through distilled water (7. were compared with experimental data from Haberman and Morton (1953). Fig. (2008) determined experimentally the rise velocity of bubbles moving through ultra-purified water with rectilinear trajectories (20 < Re < 685). (2003).Baz-Rodr´ıguez et al.01 < Eo < 475) at 20-28 ◦ C. Duineveld (1995). 272 6 0 5 0 3 0 T (c m /s ) 4 0 V 1 31 1 πd ρL ν2 = σπde2 + πde3 ∆ρgde (7) 6 e2 6 where σ is the surface tension and ν is the liquid velocity when it is displaced by the bubble passing by. 1 shows the comparison of the experimental data for distilled water case in a wide equivalent diameter range with the terminal velocity predicted from equations. including distilled and ultra-purified water. and lines to predictions from the equations. No. combined according to Eq.002 < We < 245. The prediction of terminal velocity by Jamialahmadi et al. 1. Leifer et al. 1990. (2000) Okawa et al. Two of them propose a weighting similar to that of Eq. Markers correspond to experimental data. Additionally. The proposed formulation in this work properly predicts the typical behavior of the terminal velocity along the whole range. (7)] as the bubble moves. Duineveld (1995) and Sanada et al. According to the combination proposed by Eq. Jamialahmadi et . the following equation is obtained (Lehrer. (2002). (2000). 1994). (1994) equation fails before the local maximum.rmiq. 0. (7) is the potential energy increase of the displaced liquid due to surface tension and buoyancy during the bubble motion over a distance de . 2001). 2 (2012) 269-278 When surface tension effects are important. Okawa et al. Lehrer (1976) states a mechanical energy balance generated by bubble displacement in the liquid: Eq. and does not fit the experimental data at this maximum. Distilled water can still contain contaminants that affect the rising motion of a single bubble. and the other one was obtained by dimensional analysis (Rodrigue. The liquid motion is considered uniformly accelerated. (1). which is based on a parameter fit. 2 shows the comparison of those experimental data with predictions of the proposed formulation and some other from the literature. Peebles and Garber (1953). The presence of such pollutants. The latter equation requires the knowledge of the aspect ratio. Assuming that the necessary time for the potential energy to be transformed into kinetic energy is that corresponding to a displacement de of the bubble moving at a steady velocity. Okazaki (1964). Fig. Talaia (2007) and Sanada et al. For small equivalent diameters it is still acceptable to relate this parameter www.4 < Re < 32500. changes the interface characteristics.

as compared www.0 8 0 . 2008). up to Eo about 0. This overestimation might be caused by the presence of contaminants in the water or by oscillatory trajectories. 2007).. (2 0 0 2 ) (% E R o d rig u e (2 0 0 1 ) (% E rr = 2 4 1 0 (% E rr E rr = 2 E rr = r r = 9 . e 0 . 1). Sanada et al. 0. (1) [with substitutions of Eqs. and trajectories become zig-zagging or helical. E= 0 .. approximately (Mendelson.Baz-Rodr´ıguez et al.67 cm. the middle diameter is embedded in the intermediate regime with oscillatory trajectory. as shown in Fig. Velduis et al. 2006.17 − 0. the rise regime is dominated by inertia.2 0 (c m ) (2007) equation (Eo < 0. 3 shows a comparison between the predictions of Eq. and lines to predictions from the equations. The local maximum coincides with the path instability onset. Veldhuis et al. 11. The corresponding bubble size range spans between the local extrema of the typical terminal velocity behavior (see Fig. (1 ) w ith E q s . This seems to confirm that viscous effects are concentrated in a thin boundary layer for the bubble size ranging from 0. (1) and the single bubble velocity vector magnitude from Aybers and Tapucu (1969). This occurs until the inertial regime is reached.02 < Eo < 0. the description of the bubble motion within the oscillating trajectory range is a very complex task.7 ) 3 5 .. (6). 2008. (6) and (8)] to the obtained data for the velocity magnitude. Tomiyama et al. 2. The percent relative error has an average of 5. 3. These local extrema are important because they indicate significant transitions in the bubble rise mechanics. 0.. 1967.1-1 cm following helical paths.0 4 0 . and bubbles adopt the characteristic spherical cap shape. three bubble diameters are possible. Fig. which is the next better fit. they overestimate slightly the terminal velocity for larger bubbles.5 %.1 ) ) A y b e rs a n d T a p u c u (1 9 6 9 ) E q . 2 one can observe that the relative average error (percentage.3 d Fig.04 to 0. 2010). 1. Here. Markers correspond to experimental data.925 0 . As the bubble diameter increases.2 ) 1 . The lowest diameter corresponds to a motion with rectilinear path. For pure water these extrema are between de ∼ 0. (2002) equation.2 (9) In Fig. and the largest diameter corresponds to a preferably inertial regime and spherical cap shape for the bubble. Aybers and Tapucu (1969) measured both the velocity magnitude and its axial component (terminal velocity) for bubbles in the equivalent diameter range between 0. while the local minimum indicates the point where inertial effects become dominant over surface tension effects in Eq.5) was used 1 1 + 6. 2 (2012) 269-278 to the Eo (Celata et al. Mougin and Magnaudet. (6 ) a n d (8 ) F a n a n d T s u c h iy a (1 9 9 0 ) (% J a m ia la h m a d i e t a l. Shew and Pinton. In this sense. 4 0 3 6 3 0 |V | ( c m / s ) 2 0 1 8 T (c m /s ) 2 7 V D u in e v e ld (1 9 9 5 ) S a n a d a e t a l. 2006a. (2 0 0 8 ) E q . 2008). Loth. Even if the predictions proposed in this work fit the experimental data with pure water for many practical applications (Re between 25 and 685) best than other predictions. % Err in the figures) is significantly smaller for the formulation proposed in this work (3. (6 ) a n d (8 ) 9 0 . Terminal velocity from experiments on ultra-purified water (25 < Re < 685.5) at 20-23 ◦ C. (8).2 .1 6 0 .5.2 %. For larger bubble size. (1 9 9 4 ) (% T o m iy a m a e t a l.18 cm of equivalent diameter.1 2 d e 0 . No.65 cm. and according to the proposed formulation between de ∼ 0.2 % absolute). 1995. Sanada et al. obtain a relative average error of 9. 2002. For the terminal velocity between the local extrema.4 (c m ) Fig. Comparison between predictions of Eq./ Revista Mexicana de Ingenier´ıa Qu´ımica 273 .rmiq. with the trajectory becoming approximately rectilinear again.02 < We < 3. (1 ) w ith E q s ..4 ) = 3 . the onset of path instability occurs (Duineveld.36.5Eo1.15 − 0. according to the approximation from Eq.1 0 0 . and it remains a research topic in recents numerical and experimental works (de Vries et al.

When these values are substituted into Eq. 2002.054de (13) Taking into account all the aforementioned facts. 2006a. 2008). along with Eqs. Aybers and Tapucu (1969) obtained the following relationship between the axial velocity component and its vectorial magnitude 2 4 2 0 0 . Shew et al. 2001. 0./ Revista Mexicana de Ingenier´ıa Qu´ımica Vol. It should be remarked that when de < 0. (1) (with VT ≈ |V|). 2006a).2) Jamialahmadi et al. (10) (% Err = 5. Eq. Yet it is necessary to know the trajectory to determine the velocity magnitude and its axial component for oscillating motion. For the case of small bubbles (de < 0.4 d 0 . so these trajectories usually become helical at large (Ellingsen and Risso. Helical trajectories are much more common that zig-zagging ones (Shew and Pinton. This allows us to state that if the approximation fits into Eq. |V| is the velocity magnitude and ϕ is the helix angle with respect to the horizontal plane. 2006. then its axial component can be determined from the bubble trajectory. 1969). 1998. but with a stationary terminal velocity during the bubble ascent (Shew and Pinton. No.3 < We < 5. all with a relative average error of about 5 % (absolute). Markers correspond to experimental data. which is given by ! h (11) ϕ = tan−1 πDH h corresponds to the vertical bubble displacement that corresponds to a full oscillation cycle and DH is the helix diameter. one has ! VT f ϕ = tan−1 (12) 2πA where f is the frequency and A is the amplitude. 2006a. 2010). Ford and Loth. (6) and (8) can also be used to calculate the bubble terminal velocity for pure liquids. As a result. Shew et al. there are still no adequate mathematical descriptions of the bubble oscillatory motion and its perturbation effect on the surrounding liquid. and correspond to the observed motion well above the nozzle (Aybers and Tapucu. Fig. 1997. The following equation was consequently fitted ϕ = 71. Comparison between predictions of equations and experimental data for bubble terminal velocity in distilled water (560 < Re < 1500. velocity.5 e 0 .9) a 20-28 ◦ C. Shew and Pinton. This correction depends on the amplitude. 11. Aqueous solutions and water are most relevant for practical purposes. 2 (2012) 269-278 VT = |V| sin ϕ (10) where VT is the axial component. 4 plots the predictions of Eq. (10) considering the helical paths followed by the bubbles. (1). It has been observed experimentally that the oscillations amplitude A ∼ 0. frequency and experimental values for the terminal velocity. From the vectorial description of a helical path. Even. The corrected fit is similar to that of Fan and Tsuchiya (1990) and Jamialahmadi et al. or terminal.9. ..17) and large ones (de > 0. (1994) (% Err = 5. 2006). 274 Haberman and Morton (1953) Peebles and Garber (1953) Okazaki (1964) Aybers and Tapucu (1969) Blandín-Arrieta (1997) Leifer et al. 2006a).2) 3 2 T (c m /s ) 2 8 V with experimental data by Aybers and Tapucu (1969).2 0 .7 (c m ) Fig. In terms of amplitude and frequency of oscillation.388 − 12.0035 m and frequency f ∼ 5 Hz (Loth. Bland´ın-Arrieta.6 0 . it is advisable to assume that helical trajectories characterize the whole range of oscillatory motion. Veldhuis et al.17 and de > 0.3 0 . 4.67. and lines to predictions from the equations.rmiq. Zig-zagging trajectories are associated to an unstable wake. Brucker. Experimental data for other liquids than water are scarce. There are several investigations that studied the oscillatory motion of single unconfined bubbles (Aybers and Tapucu. Wu and Gharib.. 1999.. (10). Even if there are some investigations that explore analytically the effect of the non-steadiness of the flow in unconfined single rising bubbles. This is because the helix angle determination in Eq. Ellingsen and Risso. (12) a correction for the terminal velocity is obtained in Eq. (10) had to be done from empirical data. 2001.67) the velocity module corresponds approximately to its axial component.7) Fan and Tsuchiya (1990) (% Err = 4.b. 2. (1994) equations.Baz-Rodr´ıguez et al. 1969. Shew and Pinton. then ϕ = 90◦ and the trajectory is rectilinear (sin ϕ = 1). (2000) Eq.5 < Eo < 5.

04 cm). The formulation uses a weighting of the force balance obtained from boundary layer theory for nondistorted bubbles and an analytical equation coming from a mechanical energy balance. which bound the onset of the path instability (local maximum) and the point where inertial effects begin to dominate (local minimum). 2 (2012) 269-278 Table 1. improving the results obtained by other similar formulations that do not require bubble shape geometrical parameters.13 0. 5. (1994) equations. the local extrema.1 d e (c m ) 1 Fig.13 0.12 0. In general. No. other than water.Baz-Rodr´ıguez et al. are still necessary to explain satisfactorily the motion of bubbles and their corresponding regimes. With respect to the path instability critical diameter prediction. These results are similar to those obtained by using Fan and Tsuchiya (1990) and Jamialahmadi et al. shown in Table 1. Anyway.rmiq. 72 % of the points have a relative error less than 25 %./ Revista Mexicana de Ingenier´ıa Qu´ımica Vol. Predictions obtained this way fit better the available experimental data for bubbles rising through pure water (de > 0. as well as through Grant CB-2005C01-50379-Y. An equation was obtained for the terminal velocity of bubbles rising in pure liquids. www. Finally.18 0. Oscillatory motion is the only situation that required the introduction of a correction. Critical equivalent diameter (dec ) for the onset of path instability of rising bubbles in pure liquids at 20-22 ◦ C. 11.17 0. Even if the error values are not as small as for pure water.11 0. it is possible that the oscillatory regime could not be clearly observed.22 Duineveld (1995) Hartunian and Sears (1957) Hartunian and Sears (1957) Hartunian and Sears (1957) Zenit and Magnaudet (2008) Zenit and Magnaudet (2008) Pure water Methanol Ethanol Benzene Silicone oil (DMS-T00) Silicone oil (DMS-T02) 8 0 6 0 R e la tiv e e r r o r (% ) Conclusions A n ilin e E th y l E th e r A c e to n e M e th a n o l B e n z e n e T o lu e n e E th y l A c e ta te Is o p ro p y l A lc o h o l A c e tic A c id M in e ra l O il V a rso l T u rp e n tin e M e th a n o l 1 0 0 4 0 2 0 0 -2 0 0 .12 0. For bubbles rising in viscous liquids. (1) with (6) and (8)] dec (cm) (Experimental data) Reference 0. according to the comparison against experimental results. In Fig. are well predicted by the proposed formulation. assuming helical rising paths.16 0. Liquid dec (cm) [Eq.12 0. particularly valid for the intermediate and inertial regimes of bubble motion. the formulation proposed in this work showed to be adequate to predict terminal velocity of rising bubbles in pure liquids. Relative error (%) for the predictions of the proposed formulation compared to experimental data for various pure liquids.17 0. since it can be inhibited by viscous effects. more thorough studies for pure liquids. the formulation of this work is good for bubbles rising in pure liquids of low viscosity. 5 the relative errors for the formulation predictions of this work with respect to experimental data by Haberman and Morton (1953) and Peebles and Garber (1953) are shown.19 0. Acknowledgments The authors respectfully acknowledge the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnolog´ıa (CONACyT M´exico) for their support through a Graduate scholarship (SBR).org 275 .

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