Annotated Bibliography

Boushey, Heather. “To Grow Our Economy, Start with Paid Leave.” Northwest, Washington
DC: Cato Institute, November 2014.
Boushey’s essay gave important points on how paid leave positively affects
economic growth. She first gave a background on the rise of dual-income families in the
recent decades. She emphasized how modern American families have to juggle with work
and child rearing. Boushey also gave a potential blueprint for a proposed paid leave
program to replace the current one. Later on, she provides a comprehensive argument
detailing the possible benefits of paid family and medical leave on both businesses and
The essay was direct and matter-of-fact in its enumeration of points. Boushey
cited statistics and past studies to support her claim, and she gains credibility for doing
so. Her writing is student-friendly, and the essay can be used as a foundation for a propaid maternity leave argument. She also included an alternative for the current family and
medical leave policy to strengthen her stance.
The whole read, although fact-heavy, can easily be understood by readers who are
not familiar with the topic. Several of her points are relevant to recent issues, and her
stance is logically backed up by statistical evidence. Although the essay is not necessarily
a research report, it still gave strong insight on the paid maternity leave debate.
H.R., 103rd Cong., U.S. Dept. of Labor, Employment Standards Administration, Wage and Hour
Division (1993) (enacted). Print.
The Family Medical Leave Act of 1993 details the provisions that come with
taking a leave in the workplace. The law states the eligibility requirements, employer

coverage, leave entitlement, intermittent or reduced scheduled leave, substitution of paid
leave, and other factors surrounding the implementation of the FMLA. Signed by Bill
Clinton in 1993, the law sought to provide easier balance between family and work for
the American citizens.
The law is meticulous and in depth when explaining the conditions of the FMLA.
As an academic resource, it is infallible as it is a federal document. To the average
American citizen, reading the entire policy might be too technical. The document is full
of branching subsets, most of which make use of government and business jargon.
The purpose of citing the FMLA is for this essay to have a legal foundation. As
was stated earlier, the credibility of a legal document is nigh infallible, and it provides a
strong supporting backbone for the argument at hand.
Linda Houser, Ph. D. & Thomas P. Vartanian, Ph. D. Pay Matters: The Positive Economic
Impacts of Paid Family Leave for Families, Businesses, and the Public. New Brunswick:
Rutgers Center for Women and Work, 2012. Document.
Houser’s and Vartanian’s report on the positive impacts of paid leave provides
detailed insight on the economic aspect of the paid leave debate. Their study sample
included women and men aged 30 and under who reported a child’s birth and at least 20
hours per week of work in the 3-4 months prior of birth. They relay their key findings,
specifically, on labor force attachment, wages, and public assistance and food stamp use.
Their study was not completely inclusive to all Americans, especially in regards
to age. The study did not include people above 30. However, the researchers specified
how this was such because the National Vital Statistics Report showed 63.3% of live
births in the US in 2008 were from women aged 29 and under. Another important thing to

note in the study was that the researchers provided a control for the respondents’ wages
before birth, number of work hours, family income relative to the poverty line, spouse’s
salary, health status prior to the birth, race, family size, age, education, and marital status.
The content of the report was relevant to current times, and the source material
provided an in-depth analysis of the benefits of paid leave. The study also included
counterarguments and statistics to bolster its overall credibility. Lastly, the entire report
could be understood by the lay person; Houser and Vartanian did not delve too deeply
into the technical side of their argument. The report could serve as a good source for
students researching a similar topic.
Maternity Leave and Why the United States is the Only Developed Nation Without It. Directed
by Tracy Wares, 2016.
The above documentary talks about the United States’ current stance on paid
maternity leave as compared to other developed nations. Currently, the US does not
guarantee paid leave, and the documentary puts emphasis on why women in the
workforce need a new mandated law to aid them.
The documentary was an interesting watch. In the beginning, it detailed the
experiences of a mother who lost her three-month old son at daycare and how she needed
a better paid leave policy from her company. The video also showed accounts from labor
experts, political figures, and medical authorities to shed different perspectives on the
situation. Above all, the video was an informative and enlightening watch to enlighten
people of the need for paid maternity leave.

As a source, the documentary was eye-catching because of the inclusion of real
life accounts from both mothers and experts. Both students and teachers will be able to
appreciate the educational content the documentary has to offer.
Miller, Claire Cain. “The Economic Benefits of Paid Parental Leave.” The New York Times. 30
January 2015.
The content of the article is essentially the title — the economic benefits of paid
parental leave. Miller gives the experiences of Jennie Pasquarella and Larisa Casillas in
regards to paid maternal leave. Because both live in California, a state that offers paid
leave, both share their reflections on the importance of income-supported leaves on their
familial life. The article also sheds light on the need for a change in workplace culture.
From a reference standpoint, the article shares a balanced mixture of statistical
and qualitative data. The text has a personal perspective to accompany the hard data. It
can also be easily be understood by the common person, as its language is very direct in
style without being overly didactic.
This article serves as a journalistic perspective for the paid maternity leave
argument. As a research source, it is both credible and easily understandable. Students
would find this as a valuable and informative resource for future study on paid maternity
leave, especially in recent contexts.
The Economics of Paid and Unpaid Leave. Issue Brief. Northwest, Washington DC: The
Council of Economic Advisers, 2014. Document.
This report by the Council of Economic Advisers shows the situation of paid
leave in the US at the midway point of President Obama’s administration. The report also
details evidence of the pressing need for a better paid family leave policy that both

supports the working class and does not have a costly impact on businesses. As a whole,
the document analyzes the matter from the socio-economic and political perspective.
As a source, the report is comprehensive with its findings. There are valid
statistics and graphs to justify the researchers’ findings. Because this document is as
official government report, there are many terms that may not be understood by the lay
person. Lastly, there seem to be hints of political bias as this report was written by an
organization under the Obama administration.
The report was an efficient source in terms of statistics. Also, as a legal document,
it provided high credibility. One section of the source, specifically Section IV, was very
concise in explaining the economic aspect of paid family leave to businesses. Students
could very well use this as a research source in the future.