Ethan Vukelich

Notes
The Rise and Fall of Islam

The Origins of Islam
The Arabian Peninsula Before Muhammad








Arabs were used to protect the Sasanids and Byzantines from attackers
Southern Arabs were Isolationists
Arabian Peninsula consisted mostly of farmers
Started Caravan Trade: nomads protected merchants during their trade
routes
Caravans traded mostly with Mesopotamia and Syria
Invented camel saddles
Ox carts and wheeled carriages replaced with Pack Camels and Donkeys
Some nomads adopted the culture of the Byzantines and Sasanids, becoming
familiar with Christianity
Mecca: Late blooming caravan city

Muhammad in Mecca










Muhammad was born in Mecca, 570 CE, as an orphan
Involved in trade
Meditated in the mountains around Mecca
“Night of Power and Excellence”: Night the Qur’an was received my
Muhammad
Muhammad only shared ideas with Friends and Family
Heard the words of God
Spread by his close friends and family
Muslim: person who submit to the word of God
Islam: to the will of God
Ka’ba: shrine that is the focus of Muslim prayer, built by Abraham
(considered to be first Muslim)
Kinship is the most important factor of Muslim society

Formation of the Umma



Mecca’s leaders persecuted Muhammad’s followers due to fear of being
overthrown
Muhammad + Followers fled Mecca and took home in Medina
o This hijra (immigration or flight) marks the start of the Muslim calendar
Medinan leaders saw Muhammad as a inspired leader who could calm their
feuding
Medinans and Meccan immigrants bound themselves into a single umma

632-1258CE The Islamic Conquest.Meccan surrendered to Muhammad  People traveled to see Muhammad and then passed his word onto others  632. Paying alms 5. support first three caliphs The Rise and Fall of the Caliphate. Avowal that there is only one god and Muhammad is his messenger 2. 634-711         Arab conquest out of Arabia started under Umar Wrenched Syria and Egypt away from the Byzantines Then Tunisia In 711. Fasting during the lunar month of Ramadan 4. Umma: community defined by acceptance of Islam and of Muhammad as the “Messenger of God”  Muslims fought against the nonbelieving Meccans  Expelled or Eliminated all Jews  This war convinced many Meccans that God favored Muslims  630. Making the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once during one’s lifetime  Caliphate: office established in succession to the Prophet Muhammad  Collected Muhammads teaching in a book. the conquest of Spain began by Arab led Berbers from North Africa Sub-Saharan Africa saw the spread of Islam through peaceful trade Umar prohibited Arabs from owning a conquered territory Not many people knew the Arabic language No records of Missionary efforts to spread Islam The Umayyad and Early Abbasid Caliphates. 661-850 CE       Umayyad Caliphs presided over an Arab realm rather than a religious empire Ruled from Damascus Silver dirhams and gold dinars were official coinage of the empire Ymayyad dynasty fell in 750 after a period of unrest Shi’ites and Kharijites launched a rebellion agains Umayyad dynasty Abbasid Caliphate: descendants of the Prophet Muhammad’s Uncle.Muhammad Died  Abu Bakr or the Khalifa succeeded him     Five Pillars of Islam 1. Prayer five times a day 3. the Quran  The Third Caliphate Uthman was assassinated  Ali took control  Ali was thought to be Muhammad’s natural heir  Shi’ites believed this  Governor of Syria Mu’awiya became the Caliphate after Ali’s murder  Umayyad Caliphate: first dynasty of Muslim caliphs  Sunnis: “People of Tradition and Community”. overthrew the Umayyad Caliphs and ruled from the capital Baghdad .

took over Anatolia Baghdad was reduced to ruins after not repairing damage to the city from natural disasters Tigris and Euphrates canal systems were destroyed Mesopotamia underwent large amounts of population loss The Christian Crusaders reached the Holy Land and Captured Jerusalem Crusades had little impact on the Islamic states Muslims unified to face the European enemy in the 12 th century Islamic Civilization Law and Dogma     Shari’a: Law of Islam. the entire empire was going through an urbanization phase Science and technology flourished . 1050-1258          Turks were now seen as ferocious and unsophisticated Seljuk family established a Turkish Muslim state based on nomadic power Attacked Byzantines.   Mongols killed Abbasid Caliphate in 1258 Gradual conversion to Islam among the conquered population accelerated in the Ninth Century Social Discrimination against non-Arabs faded away Political Fragmentation    Conversion to Islam accelerated Large amounts of Muslim Revolts with little military response Mamluks: Turkish slaves purchased to be the standing army of the Abbasid Caliphate  Many groups attacked Arabs and Muslims while the Turks controlled Samarra by influencing of the selection of their rulers.     Ulama: Muslim religious scholars Assault from Within and Without.  Ghana: first known kingdom in sub Saharan West Africa  Ghana was able to gain and prosper from the sub-Saharan’s improved trading by trading their own gold via caravan. provides foundations for Islamic Civilizations Hadith: tradition relation the words or deeds of the Prophet Muhammad Most hadith dealt with ritual matters Others had answers to legal questions not mentioned in the Quran Converts and Cities      Few converts spoke Arabic or read the Quran Conversion meant migrating to a Muslim governing center Arab military settlements Kufa and Basra evolved into cities and sites of Muslim cultural activities By the tenth century.

urban lived in seclusion and didn’t leave their home without covering themselves Men could have 4 wives at most More legal rights than Jewish and Christian women Could inherit money and land Could remarry if divorced Islam allowed slavery but not enslaving other Muslims The Recentering of Islam   The rise of the Ulma as community leaders did not prevent growing fragmentation Immigrant scholars were warmly received . Farther ahead of their European counterparts Women and Slaves        Women seldom traveled Rural women worked in fields.