ECD 1543












INSTRUCTION: Circle the correct answer.

1. Special needs is a term used to describe _________________.

A. individuals who have achieved special awards in Paralympics Games.
B. individuals who have special talents in defining Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
C. individuals who have been clinically diagnosed who require assistance
for disabilities that may be medical, mental or psychological.
D. individuals who have been prescribed with special drugs from doctor.

2. Ahmad learns together regular students in the class. He is a very jovial and
favoured by other friends but he is unable to move freely like other children
because he suffers from vision problems since birth. Ahmad may be defined as
having a _________________.

A. family problem
B. physical problem
C. mental problem
D. emotional and behavioural problem

3. Kogilan is a quiet and shy pupil who does not want to interact with other pupils
and often isolates himself. He does not respond to the questions asked by the
teacher and does not pay attention to what is going on in the classroom. Although
quiet, he sometimes is aggressive for no reason. Kogilan may be defined as
having a _________________.

A. family problem



CONFIDENTIAL FE/ECD/DEC16/ECD1543/V1 B. mental problem D. physical problem C. emotional and behavioural problem CONFIDENTIAL 3 .

reading B. Mathematics C. May May is a rough and violent pupil who always interferes and fights with other pupils. Children with learning disabilities struggle in following areas of learning EXCEPT A. most probably requires _________________. emotional and behavioural problem 5.CONFIDENTIAL FE/ECD/DEC16/ECD1543/V1 4. special educational needs (SEN) C. She does not focus while studying and often damages school property. communication. family problem B. May May may be defined as having a _________________. and taking care of self. A person with learning difficulties or disabilities that make it harder for him or her to learn than most of other children in one or more of the following areas: thinking. mental problem D. A. needs analysis D. getting along with others. movement. special school needs (SSN) 6. physical problem C. special prescription needs (SPT) B. A. Her classmates do not like her and label him a troublemaker. writing CONFIDENTIAL 4 .

intimate 8. intrapersonal C. dyslexia B. Children with emotional disorder experience difficulty in learning and maintaining good _________________ relationships with peers and teachers. A. married D. A bright-eyed seven-year-old. it was an utter shock when his father Rahim was informed by teachers that Jalil was identified as an underachiever who had problems progressing to Year Two. able to produce unique ideas C. Therefore. Jalil might be experiencing _________________.CONFIDENTIAL FE/ECD/DEC16/ECD1543/V1 D. life skills 7. Jalil understands the stories well and likes to relate them to his family members and friends. 9. All of the above. Jalil loves to listen to stories read to him by his teachers and parents. A. hearing impairment C. Gifted and talented children are _________________. emotional behaviour disorder CONFIDENTIAL 5 . interpersonal B. A. active in imagination D. Like many children. high achievers in academic studies B.

expected difficulty in learning to read 11. unexpected difficulty in learning to speak B. The following are some of the signs and symptoms of dyslexic children in reading EXCEPT A. Oral reading is choppy. expected difficulty in learning to speak C. not fluent and smooth B. giftedness 10.CONFIDENTIAL FE/ECD/DEC16/ECD1543/V1 D. Ignore punctuation when reading D. Reads words in the wrong order C. Good reading comprehension CONFIDENTIAL 6 . unexpected difficulty in learning to read D. The most obvious sign of dyslexia is _________________. A.

as if driven by a motor 14. Improper use of uppercase and lowercase letters 13. Collection of information from all professionals involved in the care of the care. Handwriting looks adult-like even into the teenager years B. Often sitting quietly D. Direct observation of the child D.The following are the types of diagnostic evaluations that should be conducted before early intervention can be conducted EXCEPT A. Is always “on the go”.CONFIDENTIAL FE/ECD/DEC16/ECD1543/V1 12. Talk excessively C. Irregularly shaped letters C. When should intervention for autistic children begin? CONFIDENTIAL 7 . Constantly fidget and squirm B. Interviews with parents/caregivers B. Improper pencil grip D. Attending forest school 15. The following are the symptoms of hyperactivity in children with ADHD EXCEPT A. C. Dyslexic children with dysgraphia experience below difficulties EXCEPT A.

Right after birth B. After conception CONFIDENTIAL 8 . Between 1-2 years C. Between 2-4 years D.CONFIDENTIAL FE/ECD/DEC16/ECD1543/V1 A.

Visual Processing Disorder C. Dysfunction B. A child who is not able to process the information they hear in the same way as others because their ears and brain do not fully coordinate is said to has _________________. Dyscalculia C. and understanding abstract concept such as place value and fractions are called _________________. Disable 17. The following are several types of EBD that can affect children EXCEPT A. memorizing facts. Eating disorders CONFIDENTIAL 9 . Specific Phobias B. Auditory Processing disorder B. Information Processing Disorder 18. Toileting disorders D. A. Children with difficulties in recognizing numbers and symbols. A. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) C. aligning numbers. Distractor D. Sensory Processing Disorder D.CONFIDENTIAL FE/ECD/DEC16/ECD1543/V1 16.

Simplified Worry Disorder C. A child who has excessive anxiety and worries in events and activities that he or she involved in daily basis is considered to experience _________________. Generalised Anxiety Disorder CONFIDENTIAL 10 . A.CONFIDENTIAL FE/ECD/DEC16/ECD1543/V1 19. Generalised Worry Disorder B. Simplified Anxiety Disorder D.

CONFIDENTIAL FE/ECD/DEC16/ECD1543/V1 20. Stressful events or transitions. such as moving to a new town or parent separation B. Many children experience separation anxiety between 18 months and three years old. The following are the reasons for separation anxiety EXCEPT A. A child’s employment of “safety behaviour” D. A child’s exaggerated beliefs about the dangerousness of being without parents C. Genetic inheritance CONFIDENTIAL 11 .

grammar. Cerebral palsy affects a person’s spine and causes the body to be bent and eventually succumb to paralysis. A child who can only hear sounds at 90 dB and above is said to 3. however special education services are necessary to succeed in education. A child who is not able to master the components of language 10. skills. morphology. 6. and Mental Disability are two categories of disabilities that were proposed by IDEA. Children with special needs should be identified as early as 2. syntax. to learn. Children with muscular dystrophy find it hard to move and have to use wheelchair and many die when reaching adolescence. including objects or light sources. possible to ensure that they receive the special help needed in life. semantic and pragmatic aspects. have difficulty in hearing. child being included with typical students for regular activities. Children with low vision are those who unable to see anything. Visual impairment does not affect intellectual capacity or ability 7. NO STATEMENT . Giftedness 4. Hearing loss can affect the ability to read and understand 5. 9. 8.CONFIDENTIAL FE/ECD/DEC16/ECD1543/V1 SECTION A (ii) (10 MARKS) INSTRUCTION: Circle ‘T’ for true statement and ‘F’ for false statement. CONFIDENTIAL 12 . TRUE FALSE T F T F T F T F T F T F T F T F T F T F Getting assistance in the areas of special need can lead to a 1. is said to has language problems. phonology.

CONFIDENTIAL FE/ECD/DEC16/ECD1543/V1 SECTION A (iii) (10 MARKS) INSTRUCTION: Fill in the blanks with the correct answers. 3. they will have difficulties with speaking and understanding what is going on in their environment. which relates to the student’s ability with respect to sight vocabulary. CONFIDENTIAL 13 . If children have hearing problems that goes undetected and untreated. 6. they picture an out-ofcontrol kid in constant motion. 2. understanding disrupting intrusive memory severity diagnosis aptitude development recognition hearing 1. and the availability of supportive resources for the child. bouncing off the walls and disrupting everyone around. When many people think of attention deficit disorder. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is characterised by unwanted and intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and feeling compelled to repeatedly perform rituals and routines (compulsions) to try and ease anxiety. Gifted individuals are those who demonstrate outstanding levels of aptitude or competence. the age at which treatment is started. 5. Students with learning disabilities often have difficulties with word recognition. 4. The outlook for people with autism varies depending on the severity of symptoms.

Children with hearing disabilities are divided into several groups based on the level of hearing loss. 9. Early Intervention is a concept which applies to children who are discovered at a young age to have special educational needs which may affect their development. 8. poor memory and sequencing skills. Several countries (such as the United States) use the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the International Classification of Diseases as guidelines for clinical diagnosis of disabilities. The difficulties faced by children with dyslexia include weaknesses in processing the sounds of language. CONFIDENTIAL 14 . 10.CONFIDENTIAL FE/ECD/DEC16/ECD1543/V1 7.

Teaching special skills or the use of devices that enable successful functioning. 3. and/or vocational. 2. Compensatory Intervention 1. social (getting along with others. i. physical development and increasing the - English proficiency of Special Needs children. CONFIDENTIAL 15 . Teaching a substitute (i. writing. To teach the person with disabilities skills for indeoendent and successful functioning. 2.CONFIDENTIAL FE/ECD/DEC16/ECD1543/V1 SECTION A (iv) (20 MARKS) INSTRUCTION: Answer these questions in short and complete sentences. To give a person with disability an asset that nondisabled individuals do not need – whether it be a device such as a headstick or special training such as mobility instruction for a child without vision. reduce stress on the family. 1. (3 Marks) 2. and other daily routines).. Actions that reduce a problem or condition that has already been identififed. and overcome the obstacles that might keep an individual with disabilities from learning and from full and active participation in school and society. 3. Eliminate specific effects of a disability. (3 Marks) ii. Keep potential or minor problems from becoming a disability.Enhance the intellectual. following instructions. those skills may be academic (reading. i. 2. Remedial Intervention 1.e. compensatory) skills that enables a person to perform a task in spite of disability. Explain the approaches in early intervention. Actions that stop an event from happening. Special Education is a purposeful intervention designed to prevent. eliminate. Prevent the existence of other problems. schedules. Define early intervention. 3. (career and job skills to prepare secondary students for the world of work). Describe the three basic types of intervention. Preventive Intervention 1. computing). . personal (eating. In school. using the toilet without assistance). dressing. and reduces the construction of special institutions. (3 Marks) iii.

Appropriate for students who are able to control their own behaviour - on the assumption that students can control their own behaviour. (3 Marks) iv. and demonstrations. a. (3 Marks) Student-Centred Intervention . giving instructions to children and monitor their iii. . Teacher should determine the type of strategy used. and able to deal with disappointments and how to overcome them. Students play a major role but still getting some guidance from - classroom teachers. but with appropriate help. (3 Marks) SECTION B (40 MARKS) INSTRUCTION: Answer only TWO (2) questions. Define Dyslexia.A type of learning disability (a specific learning disability) CONFIDENTIAL (2 Marks) 16 . .An effective method to teach and control student learning and - behaviour problems. (2 Marks) ii. progress. 1.CONFIDENTIAL FE/ECD/DEC16/ECD1543/V1 - The need for special education at the school level can be reduced and savings in healthcare and education. Each dyslexic has his own personal set of difficulties. . most of them can learn to read and write well enough to become successful students. Teacher-Centred Intervention . Teachers play a major role in teaching and learning.When the child is seen as part of a family system.Strengthens family relationships and enhances the understanding of the needs of individuals with special needs. define realistic goals. Students will be taught self-control procedures. Family-Centred Intervention . models.Require a strong commitment from every member of the family.

teasing from peers. They have trouble following instructions. may write tail as trail.text or book at the level of the child’s current skills and not beyond – if or she struggles – may demotivate 2. to. may write caft instead of craft. The misspell word often has the same beginning and - ending. For example.Reads words in the wrong order.Inserts extra letters in a word when reading. (4 Marks) . or bring completed work to school. Define ADHD.Involves repetition .Skips small words such as a. For example. and hyperactivity are also signs of ADHD which can affect a child’s ability to learn and get along with other. Deletes letters in a word when reading. CONFIDENTIAL 17 . (6 Marks) d. a. not fluent and smooth. the misread word often has the same beginning and ending letter.They demand attention by talking out of turn or moving around the - room. They often forget to write down homework assignments. daydream - during class. scolding and punishment. (4 Marks) c.Oral reading is choppy.Inserts extra letters in a word when spelling. Deletes letters in a word when spelling. were. . Inattention.Children with dyslexia have problem with reading and spelling b. of. . List two challenges presented by children with ADHD. impulsivity. . may read tail as trail. and low self-esteem. For example. The misread word often has the same beginning and - ending. b. Students with ADHD pay the price for their problems in low grades. (2 Marks) .Unexpected difficulty in learning to read . or get fidgety at the dinner table. Give two examples of these problems.Recognises a word on one page but not on the next page. Again. the misspelled word often has the same beginning and ending. . do them. especially when they’re - presented in a list.Provide structured reading scheme that: . act without thinking.Introduces new words slowly – may forget the meaning if too fast .Allows the child to develop confidence and self-esteem when reading . For example. Discuss the procedures a teacher can implement to help a dyslexic child read better. Explain the types of reading problems dyslexic children encounter. . Dyslexic children have problem with spelling. the. Again. .Children with ADHD occasionally forget their homework.CONFIDENTIAL FE/ECD/DEC16/ECD1543/V1 . (8 Marks) . from. may read sag instead of sang.

d. usually work better than having students seated around tables or facing one another in other - arrangements. What is Autism? (2 Marks) . (4 Marks) . If possible. Use visuals: charts. Children with Autism who received Early Intervention tend to have better brain function.Accommodation: what you can do to make learning easier for students - with ADHD Instruction: the methods you use in teaching Intervention: How you head off behaviours that disrupts concentration or distract other students. affecting the development of the person’s communication. Student work: Create a quiet area free of distractions for test-taking - and quiet study. colour coding.Seating: Seat the student with ADHD away from windows and away - from the door. a wide range of social interactions. Put the student with ADHD right in front of your desk unless that would - be a distraction for the student.Complex developmental disability as a result of a neurological disorder that has an effect on normal brain function. Discuss the classroom organisation for ADHD kids. Information Delivery: Give instructions one at a time and repeat as - necessary. such as orally or filling in blanks. b. Explain the teaching and learning practices for a lesson with ADHD children? (6 Marks) . 18 . a. 3. Seat in rows. work on the most difficult material early in the day. Create worksheets and tests with fewer items: give frequent short - quizzes rather than long tests. c. or with an odd rhythm or pitch. Speaks in abnormal tone of voice. Follows a rigid routine. with focus on the teacher. Avoids eye contact. Describe the sign and symptoms of Autism in social and communication context. pictures. Create outlines for note-taking that organize the information as you - deliver it. Reduce the number of timed tests. which makes note-taking difficult and handwriting a trial to read.Appears disinterested or unaware of other people or what’s going on - CONFIDENTIAL around them. an activities that include an element of play and/or banter. Test the students with ADHD in the way he or she does best. communication skills and overall social behaviour compared to Autism children with no early intervention. (8 Marks) .CONFIDENTIAL FE/ECD/DEC16/ECD1543/V1 - They often lack fine motor control.

and reviewed and revised regularly in light of children’s progress and ongoing needs. . Individual Plan (IP) is designed to best fit children needs and strengths.CONFIDENTIAL FE/ECD/DEC16/ECD1543/V1 c. Explain the possible causes of autism.Children are given comprehensive multidisciplinary (8 Marks) diagnostic assessment from an interdisciplinary team of experienced clinicians - and based on national and internationally agrees criteria. Intervention begins as early as possible in the child’s life. Discuss the types of early intervention strategies that are possible to be conducted for autistic children. (6 Marks) . CONFIDENTIAL 19 .Genetic problems .Environmental factors d. developed in consultation with parents.

phrases. (12 Marks) . Explain the signs of giftedness among toddlers.The practice of integrating special needs students in the same class with regular students or normal. Discuss how a teacher could support gifted children in mainstream classroom. using the toilet. a psychologist. (2 Marks) .Compact the curriculum – if the students already know the content. b. plan and make decisions. feed themselves. Define inclusive education. a. flexibility and hand-eye coordination of a child.Aims to maximise social integration between children with SEN and their mainstream peers. let - them move into an area that they don’t know. 3. CONFIDENTIAL 20 .May speak late. The term gifted children was first used in 1869 by Francis Galton.Gifted individuals are those who demonstrate outstanding levels of aptitude or competence in one or more domains. washing hands and so on. . plan for the weakest and the strongest students. Cognitive Development – includes skills such as counting skills.For activities. a. Define ‘gifted’.Frequently reach ‘milestones’ such as walking and first speech earlier than average . Adaptive Skills – determine the needs of children with special needs in adaptive skills such as being able to wear clothes without assistance of others. (2 Marks) . 4.Indicates that there is a problem or several problems among children in the following areas: 1. remembering things they have done in the past. and non-verbal communication involving movements of the hands and limbs. (6 Marks) . 2. Social and Emotional Development – detect the level of emotional and social development of children with special needs. (10 Marks) . but then speak in complete sentences c. sentences and sounds. eye concentration and so on. 5. Motor Development – indicate the level of strength.Infants – need less sleep . State the purpose of Diagnostic Testing (8 Marks) . Describe the integrated programmes in mainstream schools. Provide ownership to capable students.CONFIDENTIAL FE/ECD/DEC16/ECD1543/V1 4. 5. One issue that is still being debated is whether students with mild disabilities should be placed in the same class as normal or regular students. Communication and Language Development – measure both verbal communication involving the use of words.Infants – may get fussy if facing one direction for too long . brushing teeth. c. b.Infants – appear alert .

Two educational approaches are being practiced are segregation and - inclusion. Visual impaired children are usually segregated from mainstream learning during their early years of primary schooling. and also due to logistical - difficulties. Children who are perceived as unable to benefit from inclusion in mainstream classes are educated separately in special education - classes.CONFIDENTIAL FE/ECD/DEC16/ECD1543/V1 - Increase in demand for formal education opportunities by parents of children with visual and hearing impairment. END OF QUESTION PAPER CONFIDENTIAL 21 .