Issue #1

The Islamic
Sayyid Rami al Rifai

Table Of Contents

1)The Prophet's Mission and The Significance Of Knowledge.
2) Man’s Place In The Universe and How Islam Encouraged People
To Think About Creation.
3) Islam's Spread Of Knowledge and The Significance of Purity In
4)Social and Scientific Development Under Islamic Rule.
5) Columbus Follows Islamic Travelers Into The New World.
6)The Great Islamic Explorer's.
7) From The Scientific Method To The Prophetic Method
Research Material
1)The Day of Oaths



‫بسم اهلل الرحمن الرحيم‬
Assalamu Alaikum,
The Islamic Journal is a unique Journal in that it doesn’t follow the
usual methods of other academic journals. It came about as a re
sult of a book I was writing called “The Knowledge Behind The
Terminology and Concepts in Tassawwuf and It’s Origin”, the title
is as descriptive as possible because the book was written in the
same style as classical islamic texts, a single document without any
chapter’s since they were a later invention which hindered the flow
of the book.
That book looked into the Islamic science of Ihsan, Human perfec
tion, were it’s terminology and concepts came from, what they
mean and the knowledge and science they were based on. I started
researching the subject some five or so years ago and it resulted in
a book whose current length is over 300,000 words, not counting
research notes.
Towards the end of the book I realized that the scientific subjects,
at the heart of Islam, needed to be looked into further because i
had learned some interesting things which needed to be investi
gated, so the book was put on hold as i looked at more research papers to gain deeper knowledge.


SunnahMuakada. which i have tried to make as descriptive as possible. essentially how should also be read in order starting from the first edition. the Journal through his physiology (mans body and senses). but i felt it was to technical for already been explained. world or the Quantum Universe. into one book that explains The Unseen World and Where Is It: Explaining The Technical Ter what the Light of Allah is in relation to modern science and the minology Of The Scholars”. so i decided to write a separate book with a smaller Journal and present all the information through this medium. All of the books mentioned can be downloaded from my Heavens and The Earth”. in scope entitled “Who Was al Khidr”. These works were only finished recently and are the reason why i This won’t be necessary for the earlier editions of the journal but decided to put this Journal together. The book was about how man gains knowledge from the world around him tle that wasn’t originally there and created simply for this Journal. the prophet Khidr (ra) was read from cover to cover. “What is the three articles i mentioned earlier. and because of that I to realize the best way to present the book would be to create a wanted to share what I already understood rather than having it sitting their. The Book it self was 80% eventually it will cover deeper knowledge regarding the unseen complete when I put it on hold. the first was light Of Allah In The Heavens and The Earth”. many people so this resulted in me writing three introductory So before reading this work one should read my other work “The works on the subject to ease people into it’s context. a subject at the though some articles within could be understood out of sequence heart of this Journal but not it’s entire scope. and “How Is Allah The Light Of The universe. others in the later editions may not as they require prerequisite The original book was the heart of all my research and this second knowledge as they build upon prior information that would have book represented it’s end product.The work was done entirely feesabililah. many verses in iii . each article has a ti is the essence of what a muslim is trying to under the books section. al Maarifa (gnosis) works from it’s scientific aspects. but because of it’s large scope i world (ghayb) which in todays language is called the subatomic needed to do more work on connecting it’s many topics together. what Allah’s Kursi (footstool) is. website. which combines “Human Physiology and It’s Relationship To Baraka”. discussing topics like what Allah’s but this would take almost another year given it’s length so I came Arsh (throne) is. small bites rather than a giant book that people would find hard to the perfect role model for the topic because his story in the Quran Because of how the original book was written.wordpres.

the most significant of this creation are the An the quantum universe. hence while we have the prophets (saws) words. so that it will become clear unto them that this [revela His understanding of space is outlined in the work “How Is Allah tion] is indeed the truth.the Quran mention them and ahadith even explain them. the prophet having been shown them earlier. created from a single type of particle. the scientific understanding of the Universe we have. the Photon more commonly known as Light. All of this relates to how man gain’s knowledge through his physiol Allah said regarding the prophet Muhammad (saws) when He saw ogy. hence they declared them unknowable. but the rotation of the Stars and Galaxy it Universe for them. something Allah mentions in clear terms in Surah al Shams Him on Israwal Miraj. in contrast to man. it means just that. sun and moon. but man before our time could not understand sight (of the spiritual world) never wavered. but Allah reveals things to mankind so "Allah is He. nor was it too bold. but how do you explain that knowledge to desert Arabs except in So when Allah makes a promise in the Quran that “In time We shall make them fully understand Our messages [through what their vocabulary. they perceive] in the utmost horizons [of the universe] and within themselves. Who is the only God. in it you will find a ally it would be possible for man to understand everything about very significant hadith mentioned by Imam Tabari which shows the Universe. the night He was taken into Heaven. found in the History of Tabari.”[Qur'an 41:53].” (53:17-18). eventu The Light Of The Heavens and The Earth”. and we are now living at the end of time when Allah that the prophet (saws) not only understood the rotation of the promised to mankind that he would unravel the mysteries of the earth. cules Allah has created an entire Universe of things from the finer The prophet (saws) himself understood the subatomic world and particles in space. self and how this is related to the expansion of the universe. the relationship between the things being mentioned. this is clearly indicated by many ahadith gels. “His (91) in the Quran.”(59:22) it then should not be a surprise that the Un they can be known and surpassingly the Quran itself explains what seen is the subatomic world. but they and He saw some of the greatest signs of his Lord (in the Uni were not understood by the early scholars of Islam who didn’t have verse). the first volume begins with the creation of the universe and what the prophet (saws) said about it. we were missing his understanding of space. the knower of the Unseen and the Observed. and while man is made from atoms and mole from man for 1400 years. all those extremely small particles they are once we understand the knowledge that has been missing that exist in space. iv .

Jazak Allah Khairan. each edition will be a part of the original Book.The Islamic journal will present the result of my research into this subject. slightly changed and split into articles so it can be read independently as much as possible. Sayyid Rami al Rifai Ramadan 1436 AH. wa Ramadan Kareem wa Mubaraak. v .

Issue #1 .

Allah almost making it impermissible for us to have tawakul (reliance) on any— "They know but the outer surface of this world's life. as the twinkling of an guide His Ummah to it. so that it will be come clear unto them that this [revelation] is indeed the gave up His (saws) self for Allah. and I did not see any good but I guided you to it" it was the prophets (saws) role to see and "[O MEN1) We have now bestowed upon you from on high discover the evil present in creation and in the actions of a divine writ containing all that you ought to bear in mind man. use your reason?" [Qur'an 21. then. whereas of the ultimate things they are utterly unaware. J is it not enough [for them to know] that thy Sustainer is witness unto everything?" [Qur'an 41:53] was capable of fulfilling this role fully. . whereas I have been sent to all mankind." [Qur' an 30:7) thing other than His prophet (saws). He (saws) earned His (saws) rank with Allah "In time We shall make them fully understand Our mes sages (through what they perceive] in the utmost horizons before our creation so His (saws) life was for Allah and Al lah sent him for our sake. then to "And Our Commandment is but one. and Jinn. 10) them. and it was his role to see and discover the good pre sent in creation and the actions of man.Section I The Prophet's Mission and The Significance Of Knowledge The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: "Every other Prophet was sent only to his people. [Still. In this way because the prophet [of the universe] and within themselves. then to warn his Ummah (people) about will you not. He was the one who solely looked after the needs of the Ummah because His character truth. and Jinn." [Qur'an 54:50] Allah so He could see His signs in the Heavens and the Earth for us." (Sahih al-Bukhari) The Messenger of Allah (saws) said "I did not see any evil but I warned you about it. it was also his role to be conscious of eye.

and pro may be. Jinns and Humans. and none can bear wit– in it. because prophet is capable of living. whereas when evil be falls them. should thereafter have said unto people. "And to Allah are the Highest similitudes" (16:60). are signs for those who are con– Allah gives man good in life but evil comes into our life scious (of him). "Whatever good happens to thee his attributes includes the Angels. both good and evil befall his creatures through what they have earned from their own actions man can put together "It is not conceivable that a human being unto whom Allah this picture from his own experiences in life. man is capable of seeing Allah (not your fellow man). and whatever evil befalls thee is from thyself with the rest of His creatures. the responsibility and task] as Allah does. but He created the Universe to this Allah honoured them by calling them His Rahma represent His judgments so by understanding why things (mercy) for mankind." (3:79) All is from Allah. "Be come men of God by spreading the knowledge of the divine some [people] say. . This is from Allah. but rather [did he exhort them]. "and in all that Allah has created in that they are in no wise near to grasping the truth of what they are told?" (4:78). when a good thing happens to them. me beside Allah" . and an ex pression of His Will. along is from Allah. then. a state of existence that only a have occurred man can perceive Allah in creation. the heavens and the earth. ness [to it. "Worship towers raised high. This is from thee (O fellowman]' Say: revelation. they say. and if we When Allah gave the prophet (saws) his mission He revealed can t see him (see His qualities) then know that he sees to Mankind through Him knowledge about all areas of life yOu. AND WE have sent thee (O Muham though that metaphor by understanding creation and what is mad] as an apostle unto all mankind. and sound judgment. What. because of everything we know occurs.We see the extent of this responsibility in the special rules He is the creator of the Universe and through His creation that only the prophets were commanded to follow. " (Al Qur'an 10:6–7). This metaphor for through our own actions." The prophet (saws) said human perfection lies in man' s (4:79) ability to worship Allah as if we are seeing him. Yet. is amiss with these people Creation is a metaphor for Allah' s attributes. and by your own deep study (thereof). "Wherever you had granted revelation. death will overtake you – even though you be in phethood.

They wear the garment of good con– draw knowledge by way of analogy to life from the simili duct and follow the clear proof. hereafter. graves are in this world. Their souls with their hands raised as well as lowered. and faithful guardians. and yet. Almighty Allah has surrounded them with distinguished witnessing angels. and they weep privately when they Allah' s creation. just like ants. and they implore Him with their tongues hearts dwell in the heavens. and yet. and they rise to the nearness of their Lord through their link to the Ummah of Muhammad (saws) can contemplate and His messenger (saws). unpretentious. They sit in His blessed mosques Their bodies dwell on earth. and The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: "I was He has illumined their faces with effulgence as a sign of His informed by the heavenly hosts of angels that the most digni blessings upon them and as a demonstration of His satisfac fied among my followers are people who rejoice in public tion with them.and creation to help the Prophet (saws) in his work. and they happily examples are intended to help us in Life until the day of make the necessary personal sacrifices to meet judgment. Their it bears heavily on their hearts. its requirements. and their thoughts are focused on the for Him unceasingly." God' s messenger (saws) then . They pray to Him their spirits are connected to the divine Throne. When they look at His servants. outwardly with reverence and awe. Their feet stand on earth. humble. They read the Qur' an regu tude's in the Quran about creation Allah had revealed. contemplate rigorous punishment He reserved for the sinners and the deniers of the truth. and they are free of "We have explained in detail in this Qur' an. take their daily guidance from it. Allah They walk barefooted. these larly. and unno then said about what He granted His Messenger (saws). they antici when they ponder the vastness of Allah' s all-encompassing pate promising signs. without finery. They only worry about what may come. for the bene fit of mankind. They walk with dignity and serenity. every kind of similitude" (18:54). ticed. and their eyes are anchored morning and evening worshipping Him and celebrating His upon the heavens. and they yearn live in this world. and their praises inwardly. this is so self-adulation. They take little from people. They often contemplate the vastness of mercy and compassion. They breath on earth. and their ranks are exalted in Al lah' s sight.

and at other times it means spiritual signs we perceive and geology. Musa (as) received revela "behold. studied. this is because al Khidr was capa "behold." (29:20) prophets and they learnt about all his different Ayat (signs) through Maarifa (gnosis) Allah often asks man to gain that "behold." (Qur' an. understood and perceived we word Ayat in this specific case. biology thing. pointing to specific aspects of science so we can study If the verse is referring to the creation of man then Allah is the universe. there are messages indeed for people who think!" (30:21) knowledge through these means. knowledge about the laws science at other times it means to gain wisdom from some of science such as physics. and fears My warning. which is the meaning be hind the story of al Khidr (as) and Musa (as) in the Quran mentioned in surah al kahf (18). couraging and guiding people to contemplate Allah' s crea tion. because at times it refers to would find in it. chemistry. there are messages indeed for people who [are will ing to] listen!" (30:23) knowledgable than the prophet (as) because it takes an im– mense amount of knowledge to see and understand the uni verse through this manner. these are Allah' s Ayat (signs) in life. beside guidance. there are messages indeed for people who use their reason!" (30:24) ble of putting together the metaphors and smilies Allah had placed in the Universe for us from his knowledge of life and understand them. means there is information to be learnt how this information is gained and what is meant by the If the Qur'an is read. 14:14) (Hilyat-ul Awliya Wa Tabaqat al-Asfiya By Imam Abu Na im al The word signs and messages. the context of the verse tells us Arabic word Ayat. mathematics. asking man to study the world and discover that knowledge through scientific means.esty. but as Allah sent revelation to the "Say: "Roam the earth and observe how the creation was initiated. yet He (ra) was considered more "behold. there are messages indeed for all who are possessed of [innate] knowledge!" (30:22) tions from Allah while al Khidr (as) received knowledge through Maarifa (gnosis). there are almost 750 verses in the Qur'an en inwardly. usually translated from the Asfahani) by looking at these things. º .

Abu Dawwud. as He. Al lah. 'it. And he. are the medium the picture of life He is teaching them. Its meaning is 'increase in ease and removal of hardships in the seeking and acquiring provision . said. said. Allah will make easy for him the path lah bears witness that there is no god but Him. upon him be peace. and attending a thousand funerals . upon him be peace. "The scholars are the inheritors of the Prophets" (Ahmad. pleased with what he is doing. Exalted be takes responsibility for the sustenance of the seeker of knowl He. (58:11) edge. this is it s path in life. Tirmidhi and others).while Musa (Moses) Allah was still teaching. in relation to our own understanding the wretched of life and Allah' s creation. 'one who travels a path seek lah said in reference to the excellence of the scholars: ing sacred knowledge. 'Allah under those who do not know by many degrees. gels and the people of knowledge. pressed in His words "There is not a creature on the earth but that Allah bears its sustenance" (11:6). upon him be peace. 'attending Allah. the Messenger of Al between the Messenger of Allah (saws) and the Muslims. that is. said: "are they the same – those who know and those who do not know?" (39:9) the gatherings of sacred knowledge is greater than the per "They are not equal either in this world nor the Hereafter. as do the an– to the Garden . has said: "Allah will raise in rank those of you who be lieve and those that have been given knowledge" . this is the conversation Allah is having with each person to help them develop and complete "The scholars that embody their knowledge. and so He sent general responsibility for all creatures on the earth as ex him to al Khidr (ra) to learn this from him. meaning to perform the actions of it s peo ple. upon him be peace. This responsibility is a special responsibility beyond His . upholding justice" "Al (3:18) Allah associated them with His angels in bearing wit– ness to His Oneness and maintaining His justice on earth. visiting a thousand rather Allah has preferred the people of knowledge over sick people.' And he. formance of a thousand prayer cycles. said. In regards to science the Prophet (saws) said. the Messenger. upon him be peace. said. said. In a long Hadith. this it s magnitude. 'the angels lower their wings for the seeker of sacred knowledge. And he. sacred The nature of many verses in the Quran encourage us to un knowledge. Exalted be He. is inspired in the felicitous and prevented from derstand their depths.

This does not go. will you not use your intellects?" with Allah when it benefits the servants of Allah. devoid of its true mean ing and reality. upon him be peace. 'learn what you will. regarding the excellence of knowledge and delude him— words). said. upon him be peace. meaning 'its spirit.What is meant here is that those who have knowledge will The Messenger. upon him be and blessing goes and only the outer form remains (empty peace. then he is like a burning candle that him be peace. the Messenger of Allah. for. shell and mere image of knowledge. 'one who increases in knowledge and illuminates for the people. upon him be peace. "knowledge invites to ac stripped of this status.' And he. Exalted be He. Ibn 'Abbas (ra) reported. The Messenger of Allah.' Knowledge only gains that high rank "Do you order people to devoutness and forget yourselves when you recite the Book. it will not If the scholar teaches his knowledge to people and they de be accepted from you until you act upon it. said. said. Some of the righteous predecessors may Al "The scholar who does not act upon his knowledge is lah's mercy be upon them. scholar whom Allah did not benefit by his knowledge. When a (2:44) scholar does not derive benefit from his knowledge. Allah. like my preference over the lowest of my companions'. how can others derive benefit from it? So recognise the loss of excel lence that will befall one who has knowledge but does not act upon it. said. In an– used to seek refuge from knowledge that does not benefit and other version. light been mentioned by Allah and his Messenger. The Messenger of Allah. it has been said 'like the moon on the night from a heart that does not feel humility. upon rive benefit from him. Either he answers or it leaves. has said: does not increase in guidance increases in nothing but dis– tance from Allah. upon him be peace. by Allah.' edge without action.' For 'the preference of the scholar over the worshipper (abid) is that reason. that the Messenger of Allah (saws) advised a group of his companions: "When you pass by the meadows of Paradise indulge freely in it!" They said: . The scholar that when it is full over the rest of the planets" does not act upon his knowledge has nothing but the empty (which look like normal stars). but rather stays as evidence self into thinking that he is included in that solely by knowl 9% against the blameworthy scholar. 'the person most be raised above those who believe (but do not have knowl severely punished on the Day of Judgement will be the edge). He should not be misled by what has tion. said.

. they are unlike any other place. This similitude the prophet (saws) employed is real. the effect of this can be perceived from the atmosphere in gatherings where knowledge is sought and learned. and not an empty metaphor. because He (saws) said the Angels lower their wings for any person seeking knowl edge. so the prophet (saws) was reveal– ing to us the reality that exists in the unseen part of our world that brings about this atmosphere we perceive when learning."O Messenger of Allah! What are the meadows of Para dise?" He said: "The circles of Ilm (knowledge)" (At Tabarani).

[Al ing of Mans nature when Allah mentioned He would make Man lah] said: "Did I not say unto you. `Verily. alone art all-knowing." At that time. the names of things named. Ghayb al Samawati wal Ard. which He has encouraged us to think about in the Qur'an. and know all that you bring into the open and all that you would conceal'?"(2:31-33) “And He taught Adam the names. in response the Angels referred to their understand Said He: "O Adam. Allah says to his Angels who live in the Unseen part of our world and see what is veiled to us. if you speak truly’." And as soon as [Adam] had conveyed unto them their names. convey unto them the names of these [things]. I "And He imparted unto Adam the names of all things. that is. all of them. if what you say is true. to the angels and said.” (Tafsir al Jalalayn) its creator. truly wise. “Did I not say unto you. inform Me. in your claim that I would not create anything more knowl ‫بسم اهلل الرحمن الرحيم‬ edgeable than you (Angels).Section 2 Man’s Place In The Universe and How Islam Encouraged People To Think About Creation reality of the heavens and the earth. things named. then He presented them…the majority of which concerned intellec tual beings. the names of these. ‘Now tell Me. “of brought them within the ken of the angels and said: "Declare unto the Heavens and the Earth”. Verily. in other words how the heavens and Me the names of these [things]. `Verily. Allah was referring to a They replied: "Limitless art Thou in Thy glory! No knowledge type of Ghayb (Unseen reality) the Angels did not see which was have we save that which Thou hast imparted unto us. Thou the Laws of the Heveans and the Earth. but in reply to them Allah re 14 ." the earth work and the laws they run by. or that you are more deserving of this vicegerency (responsibility). the response to the conditional sen Islam methodically encouraged people to think about creation and tence is intimated by what precedes it. by placing knowledge of them into his heart. Allah mentions all the laws of creation. then He alone know the hidden reality”. I alone know the hidden ferred to the Nature of the Universe when He Answered them re His Khalifah (vicegerent) on earth. to them in reproach.

" They said: "Wilt Thou place on it such as will spread corrup him why He objected."(2:30) Said ble than him while satan was limited in what he was capable of un derstanding. which through them He would surpass the Angels in lies in what Allah had granted Adam at that time. the names of all worth. so they came to be Who created you and gave you shape.garding Man. because they where perfect they This entire affair is reading man’s body in relation to the Angels and Jinn’s bodies. and know all that you bring into ble of knowing Allah. implying Mans connection to the hidden Laws of the Universe. you do not know the Hidden realities of the Heavens physiology. Adam would become more knowledga less glory. and praise Thee. fire be tion thereon and shed blood -whereas it is we who extol Thy limit ing knowledge not strength. and hallow Thy name?" [Allah] an swered: "Verily. this was their reality as flawless beings. convey unto them the names of these [things]. This same shortsightedness Iblis (satan) suffered from in regards "AND LO! Thy Sustainer said unto the angels: "Behold. In re vented thee from bowing down when I commanded thee?” He said: “I am better than he: Thou didst create me from fire. but not strength and ability. when He objected to Adam surpassing him. his body. He replied he was stronger than him. and they bowed down. that you are objecting about and the nature of and the Earth. Adam had a higher rank than the Angels said: "Did I not say unto you. what this connection is the universe. He lieve they where the Highest of Allah's creations and took this as a refused to be of those who bow down. so He replied in terms of He: "O Adam. [Allah] was regarding knowledge. and him sponse to this Allah said to them I have created Man and in re ing able to burn clay. to know him. I know that which you do not know. (Allah) said: “What pre given. The Angels understood they where a perfect creation. and had just shown the Angels. saying to them there is a connection between mans gards to him. not so Iblis (satan). having seen none of his other creatures surpass them. I alone know the hidden real because of knowledge. they could not perceive how a crea tion more exalted than them could be created. but the example Allah had just set was regard 15 . then We bade the angels bow down to Adam. the one with more knowledge is better capa ity of the heavens and the earth. I am to man. things. He was a lessor creation. and that is the reason why Allah created the the open and all that you would conceal'?"(2:31-33) Universe. Allah asked about to establish upon earth (a Khalifah) one who shall inherit it." And strength while the point Allah was making to the Angels and Jinn as soon as [Adam] had conveyed unto them their names. “It is We thought they were complete. Allah makes this clear in the Quran. which you haven’t learnt yet. `Verily.

and is established on the throne of His almightiness.from clay.” (7: 11–13) In another verse Allah mentions the command (laws) in His crea tion. His is all creation and all command (they are mentioned separately). for thou art of the meanest (of crea tures).” (Allah) said: “Get thee down from this: it is not for thee to be arrogant here: get out. the Sustainer of all the worlds! (In the Universe)” (7:54) When Allah mentioned “all creation” along with “all command” the rules of tafsir say the matters relate to each other. so in fact Al lah is referring to the Laws of creation which are his command in creation. 16 . your Sustainer is Allah. He covers the day with the night in swift pursuit. Hallowed is Allah. verily. who has created the heav ens and the earth in six aeons. with the sun and the moon and the stars subservient to His com mand (Laws): oh. “VERILY.

between 609 ‫بسم اهلل الرحمن الرحيم‬ AD and 632 AD. Ibn Hazm said its proof pable of judging the truth and knowing right from wrong.Section 3 Islam's Spread Of Knowledge and The Significance of Purity In History said “I have been sent with the shortest expressions bearing the widest meanings”. knowledge that helped shape the Islamic and Abu Huraira related that Allah's Apostle said referring to the Qu Modern world. cast into the hearts of the enemy). and while I was sleep man. (Buk much of it was in. yet the was “that the Sun is always vertical to a particular spot on Earth”. the masses em judge truth from falsehood. began to decline and Europe began referring to it as a sick and fear. Qur'an is for all mankind not just the intelligent. are bringing out those treasures. in anticipation of one day finally surpassing it technologically ing. The truth and es meaning if you where to follow the sun to where you perceived it sence of any matter is felt in a persons heart and it is what guides to be setting. and the knowledgable people can derive knowledge from them as they understand their depths. the simple minded can understand the expres sions and the essence of what they mean through the descriptive imagery they employ. in this way all society benefited from the Quran’s guidance. ran. "I have been sent with the shortest expressions bearing the Until the mid 19th century When the last Islamic Khalifah. the Ot widest meanings. Muslim Scholars took from the Qur'an. Over the last 1400 years of Islam. and I have been made victorious with ru'b (awe tomans. people." Abu Huraira added: Allah's Apostle has left the having spent centuries in it’s shadow. then uneducated people would be inca braced the notion and took it for granted. hari) By only the 9th century muslim scientist’s had discovered the If intellectual strength was solely what gave mankind the ability to world was round and in comparison to Europe. the keys of the treasures of the world were brought to me and put in my hand. Islam had advanced the en tire world in all areas of knowledge lifting it from the dark ages world and now you. you would always find it vertical (up in the sky) to all mankind towards their actions. This is why Rasul Allah (saws) 17 . which was revealed in stages over 23 years.

4 Km. mentioned as simply a light without using the description that it shines or radiates even though light does that naturally. None of this has Allah created without [an inner] truth. to teach man there is a difference between the than 200 Km from the exact figure in accuracy. exactly how large was the looks at the moon at night and thinks about these words it be earth.” (Al Qur'an 10:5-6) Many verses in the Quran point to the nature of things in the Uni Allah says a God Fearing people would see His signs in creation verse. fearing people. Allah men and the moon a light [reflected]. most sci entists up to the modern age where in fact religious and devout people who had mastery over multiple disciplines. in the alternation of night and day.”(10:5) God fearing people who studied creation and science because they Other translations read “He it is Who made the sun a shining brightness and the moon a light” the significance of the moon and sun is in their specific description. vances in the Islamic world occurred because of this. and in all that Allah over the years one scientific discovery built upon another scien has created in the heavens and the earth there are Signs for a God tific discovery. In the early 800s.that location even though from your original location it may ap source of light.” Muslim scientist measured its circumference at 40. to create the Day itself dad who calculated the earth’s circumference and were off by only by it’s radiating Light. Allah made a deliberate distinction and em 4% of it’s actual size. the sun is mentioned as a were not preoccupied with wealth and the material world. Our world by comparison Ara bia 1400 years ago is entirely focused on scientific endeavours. that notion dawned on Galileo 500 years later. but Clearly does He spell out these messages unto people of [innate] in the old Islamic world from 609 AD onwards it was precisely the knowledge. If one “The debate in those days. was about. less phasis on the suns role in being the producer of light but did not do so for the moon. for almost 1300 years. embody and the acts they perform. “He it is who has made the sun a [source of] radiant light and advance scientifically as they come to know them.253. many scientific ad two. an object that gives out light while the moon is pear to be setting. 18 . and hence “Indeed. and has determined for it phases tions this for a God fearing people because of the qualities they so that you might know how to compute the years and to measure [time]. the Abbasid Caliph al-Ma’mun assembled comes clear that the moon is serving its function as a light at night the brightest minds of the day (including al-Khawarizmi) in Bagh which is different than the suns function.

and the bene Even though cleanliness helped change Europe the extent of it’s fits of washing regularly did not spread to Europe until after the importance was still not realized among the mass’s because by the crusades in 1095 AD when they began to take back with them all 14th century when the Black Death wiped out an estimated 200 the advances of the Islamic world. Allah bless him and grant him peace. million people. it was a key factor in uplifting the European mentality. the world would not have reached up to this that state. muslims began to pray regularly it changed the Arab world entirely from that point. the cleaner and 19 . better so than a person who does not began to catch up scientifically. a lack of Cleanliness in society not just personnel life was responsible for the spread of the disease. and in Islam wudu (washing the body) is performed at society and the world. It was only after this point in time that Europe began to pull itself washing. people who are born into a world in which they did not point without them as no one else was capable of doing this work know what it felt like to be clean. When the had come before it. more than one day a week. but it would take them another few hun dred years to rid themselves of the archaic institutions that domi We only need to imagine what we would feel like if we didn’t wash nated the landscape and their old ways of thinking. then the psychological impact of because of their lifestyles and the conditions they lived under in a introducing regular washing on that society would be significant pre-modern world. in fact soap was a muslim invention. The basic act of worship in Islam begins with and requires wudu. once washing spread through out wash on a regular basis. the change began and so they started struggling to least five times a day. the European renaissance not common in Europe or Arabia before the lifetime of the began in the 12th century and was vastly different than any that Prophet (d. Since washing now became a fundamental aspect of life that al lowed them to focus on the finer realities of the world around By comparison to the Islamic world washing on a regular basis was them and make advances in knowledge. this act cleanses the body and mind and allows man to fo- out of the Dark Ages it was in for the past few hundred years and cus on finer details in life. keeping in mind the state of the world at the time.632). could we work with the same productiv ity and have the same clarity in our self. and dramatic. change their old belief’s.So it was religious people who laying the scientific foundations of If people only washed once a week and society as a whole was in the modern world.

fevers and eye diseases. and no attention was paid to religion. it had 24 physicians on staff including specialists catego requiring surgical procedures. Mansur Qalaun. Fol city and watched how much and how quickly they putrefied.generally more rat-free environment of Islamic communities. employed or un comparison to Europe and the rest of the world. A well-known physician. There are no conditions of consideration and payment. physically or mentally ill. completed in 1248 AD under the rule of the Mameluke ruler of Egypt. a Persian city. He lowing the tenets of the Waqf document. blind or sighted. whether they are resi to see it’s significance in other ares of life and develop on it. race or creed. was invited to head the new bimartistan. in There was a guiding text called the Waqf document which set the which medicine and health were far more advanced than in the standard of care for all Hospitals well into our own time. But the first none is objected to or even indirectly hinted at for non-payment. rich or poor. Jibrail Bakhtishu. The hospital garnered many endow The great Islamic physician Al-Razi selected the site for the Audidi ments for its functioning. true Islamic hospital which set the standard for later hospitals The entire service is through the magnificence of Allah.” tion was the slowest and the least! This showed the inception of the concept of germs carried through the air. the first hospital employed. The Mansuri rized as physiologists. men and women. in Jundishapur. forestalled the spread of Plague eastward and it part of the oath taken by modern physicians." Rashid (786-809 AD) in Baghdad. which stated: "The took relatively few victims there. no one was turned away then advised the Caliph to locate the hospital where the putrefac and there was no limit to how long patients could stay. Khaliph (705-715 AD). the gener around the world was built during the reign of Khaliph Harun-ul ous one. it achieved great fame and so other hospitals were built in Baghdad. hospital shall keep all patients. an Ummayad literate. oculists. strong or weak. this allowed them whether the people come from afar or near. Hospital had its own pharmacy. All costs are to be borne by the hospital Because of the Islamic societies focus on purity. library and lecture halls. until they are completely recovered. such as those opened. surgeons and bonesetters. and is West at that time. Men and women were admitted to differ hospital by having pieces of meat hung in various quarters of the ent wards. By dents or foreigners. “One of the largest hospitals ever built was the Mansuri Hospital in Cairo. There was 20 . learned or il in the world was founded by Khaliph Al-Walid I. When the hospital “There were different wards for different conditions.

Probably the most impressive aspect of this invention was its mission. the treatment of all people who came to it. as well as a chapel for Christian patients.also a mosque for Muslim patients. not just for these obvious reasons but to uplift man so he can reach the higher aspects of life and work to make them a reality. especially those established by princes. regardless of their status. 21 . Islamic prayer began with purity and as a result it became the foun dation of It’s Empire.” If we contrast this to the Black death that almost wiped out Europe then the significance of Purity can be clearly understood. Some were even converted from palaces. rulers and viziers.” “The physical conditions of many of these hospitals were actually lavish.” “The invention of the hospital was one of the greatest achieve ments of Islamic medicine.

and others. in order to receive in Islam all races on the ba made specific mention of dimensions not commonly considered sis of absolute equality. later to become not only the what part of creation to study. but also in other branches of learning. they effaced their own personality. they were a cause for ini “The first Muslims were almost all Arabs. has since passed. the major discover richest of all languages of the time. this language of the illiterate Bedouins developed has ceased to be.” So the verses of the Quran encouraging man to investigate the world. that Christians. under the Qur'an. and the patronage of learning so perfect. Berbers. A remarkable characteristic of Mus lim science is the rapidity of its development. The of their language. Turks. Magians. Indians. Their religious tolerance was so great. which was the repository of the Word of Allah world was seen in a general sense before the revelation of the and of His Prophet. Greeks. should be understood in that light. The Qur’an was the creation which caused him to investigate them further.” “The part played by Muslims in the development of the social sci As man progressed through time He began to notice aspects about ences has been very important. but these verses influence of Islam. not only in the domain of their respective religious litera ture. Abyssinians. yet with the exception tially directing man to what he should investigate in creation. Bud dhists and others collaborated with a view to enrich the Muslim sciences. a tree was a tree and water was water. in the cur rent time we live in. ing. Jews.Section 4 Social and Scientific Development Under Islamic Rule embraced Islam. and the age in which man needed guidance on into one of the richest in the world. since it was the official language of the Muslim State whose territory extended ‫بسم اهلل الرحمن الرحيم‬ from China to Spain. Therefore it is that all races have partici before and the impact on society this had would be world chang pated in the progress of the “Islamic” sciences: Arabs. Iranians. but also an international lan ies regarding the old beliefs of the world have already been made. guage for all sorts of sciences. Scarcely two hun sake of exploitation the wonderment that existed in previous ages dred years later. Arabic had spread more widely than any other language of the world. who have 22 . an age where everything is investigated for the first book ever written in the Arabic language.

for you to seek your Lord’s Therefore. They signify restora the Universe can’t be illustrated better than in the works of Imam tion to life after death. Soul). Decidedly the second form (the way the water now in a manner never seen before on Earth. In this case. since we signs and all the Phenomena of nature. You should. the cause is nection between Mathematics and astronomy about which Allah the same (a thrown stone). then darkened the night and made the daylight for seeing. is al Ghazali (died 1111) who combined many fields of knowledge to within the power of Allah. a circular wave is produced. Sirius)”. they are possible. Religion teaches us to believe in it which will be accompanied by the resurrection of “He is the Rabb (Lord) of Ash-Shera (the mighty star. like the first act of creation. if they occur in is always changing. but the effect is different.How these great minds of the Islamic Ummah contemplated Al the traditions. which. therefore. and the Day of Judgment.” (Al Qur'an 17:12) comprehend what Resurrection really means. it can be safely inferred that a time may come which is bounty and to know how to count the years and calculate. life. both of which have been mentioned in 23 .” (Taken from Mysteries of the Human understand Allah and His creation. “It is not necessary that every preceding end since change is always occurring and the consequences of simi revolution of the heavenly bodies should resemble the one follow lar actions will result in different effects because the environment ing it…If we throw a stone in water. he said. be lah’s signs in creation. They are real and belief in them is obligatory. Imam al Ghazali wrote about the possibility of an afterlife using The Imam illustrated that it isn’t necessary that creation has no Fluid Dynamics. The Qur'an made a con looks) would be different from the first. because some revealed. an old manner of seeing the science behind cause. and the second in the and mathematics became important throughout the Islamic World moving water. We have different from all other times which have passed. of the properties of the standing water mixed with those of the moving water. sciences like astronomy threw the first stone in the standing water. believe in the resurrection of the dead 53:49. it is not Because the Qur'an caused Muslim Scholars to contemplate these necessary that the same form of the wave would follow. according to reason. we throw another stone immediately after the first one. So we can easily explained everything in detail. “We made the night and the day as two signs.

Planes and Cars it is oning and calculation. as he not only not exist limiting mans understanding of what Mathematics can initiated the subject in a systematic form but also developed it to do. He adopted the use of al-jabr w’al-muqabala to solve problems posed by the Islamic laws zero. He was widely adopted throughout the world. and He also refined the geo never considered before. He de prevailing knowledge on various branches of science but also en veloped Algebra (derived from the word al Jabr) in his book Hisab riched it through his original contributions. Al-Khwarizmi influenced mathematical thought called arithmetic of positions and the decimal system." In addition to introducing the Arabic Algebra is one of the foundations of Modern Mathematics which numerals. 24 .“The sun and the moon run their courses according to a fixed reck from Computers and software to Buildings. which led them. metric representation of conic sections." or "Algorizm. Al Islamic scholars took ideas from the Qur'an and investigated Khwarizmi also developed the calculus of two errors. they then developed and discovered areas of knowledge him to the concept of differentiation. leading up to the so of Inheritance. the extent of giving analytical solutions of linear and quadratic His pioneering work on the system of numerals is well known as equations. tions. as from the life of Muhammad Ibn Al Khwarzimi (d. he is also famous as an astronomer and geographer. His approach was sys was the founder of several branches and basic concepts of mathe tematic and logical. prior to this around the world to a greater extent than any other medieval Zero was not known around the world and decimal numbers did writer. He is recognized as the founder of Algebra.” (Al Qur'an 55:6) used extensively in all fields of Engineering whose role in the mod ern world is to invent. "Algorithm. which were later extrapolated to tangent functions. He de The Arabic word used in this verse is “Bi Hisabun” the word for veloped in detail trigonometric tables containing the sine func mathematics in Arabic has the same root as this word. and not only did he bring together the then matics. he developed several arithmetical procedures.840) one of Is tronomy and geography is well established in history as his work lam’s and the Worlds Greatest Mathematicians and Scientist. An example of scientific development under Islam can be seen The influence of Al-Khwarizmi on the growth of mathematics. a numeral of fundamental importance. including almost all calculations use in order to develop and design anything operations on fractions. design and create most things we use.

His geography book entitled "Kitab Surat-al tion. and the one on Algebra. but also cor 25 . This book was used until the six teenth century as the principal mathematical text book of Euro pean universities. people who write this software use a method for (known world) in 830 C. Seventy geographers worked under Khwar puter language to instruct the computer on how the software izmi's leadership and they produced the first map of the globe should behave. Kitab al-Jam'a wal-Tafreeq bil Hisab al-Hindi." including maps. ordered by the Khalif Mamun al the world toady can exist. His astronomical tables were also translated into European languages and. was also translated into other languages the Hindu Art of Reckoning) gave rise to the word algorithm de around the world from which many latter maps of the world would rived from his name. Al-Khwarizmi wrote a treatise on Rashid. are known only from Latin translations. later. Algoritmi de numero Indorum (in English Al-Khwarizmi on Ard. Several of his books were translated into Latin in the early l2th century. which hindered even basic accounting.The foundation of modern computers is software which uses com rected them in detail. He not only revised Ptolemy's views on geography. It was this later translation which introduced the new science to the West "unknown till then" and who were stuck with roman numerals for a long time. into Chinese. He is also reported to have collaborated this known as algorithms without which no complex software in in the degree measurements.E. Al-Maqala fi Hisab-al Jabr wa-al-Muqabilah. the Arabic text is lost but a Latin transla ence of the earth. rely on. “In addition to an important treatise on Astronomy. Al-Khwarizmi wrote a book on astronomical tables. they were aimed at measuring the volume and circumfer Hindu-Arabic numerals.” “The contribution of Al-Khwarizmi to geography is also outstand ing. The treatises on Ar ithmetic.

” eight Muslim explorers. He was re corded as being the first on the ship to sight land. major cit ies. Al-Idrisi whose full name was Abu Abd Allah Muhammad al-Idrisi “Christopher Columbus embarked on four journeys to the New was born in Ceuta Spain in 1099. This was the period between the doba. and this was against the backdrop of the Spanish Inquisi Idrissi's works that mentioned the discovery of a new continent by tion and the persecution of Moriscos and Muslims. lakes and rivers.1465).Section 5 Columbus Follows Islamic Travelers Into The New World tain of the Pinta. He received his education in Cor World.000 Muslims and Moriscos. On his voyage he brought with him a copy of Al to Islam. but on his return to Spain in 1493 he converted Americas in 1492. Muslims who had been forcibly converted to Christianity under the Spanish inquisition to purge Spain of Islam. and his brother Vicente Pinzon the captain of the Nina. charge of ships traveling with him. He fall of the Islamic Andalus city of Granada and the final expulsion combined his own findings with the available knowledge of his of Muslims from Spain between 1492 and 1609. then flourished at the Norman court in Palermo (Italy). between 1492 and 1502. plains and mountains.” the seven continents with trade routes.” Christopher Columbus used Al-Idrisi's “On his first voyage he had two captains of Muslim origin in work and relied on Muslim knowledge of the Globe on his voyage. Martin Alonso Pinzon. The Pinzon family were related to Abuzayan Muhammad III. It is not surprising “Al-Idrisi constructed a circular world map of pure silver that that quite a few found their way to the New World who had weighed approximately 400 kilograms and precisely recorded on it Knowledge of earlier Islamic Maps. the Moroccan Sultan of the Marinid Dynasty (1196 . Franciso served as the pilot of the Pinta” “Rodrigo de Trana also known as Rodrigo de Lepe after a town in ‫بسم اهلل الرحمن الرحيم‬ Al Andalus sailed with Columbus on his first voyage. that is. Rodrigo was Columbus is viewed as the discoverer of the New World. the cap 26 . During this period time and became famous for his comprehensive knowledge of all there where an estimated 500. the born a Christian. parts of the world. Franciso Pinzon was the third of the Pinzon brothers to sail with Columbus in 1492.

” Spain). One was in 999 and was led by Ibn Far in the later Medieval period.” Cairo that it actually upset the gold market around the world well Through history two more voyages from Muslim Spain to the into the next century. Abu Bakr was the that spoke Arabic. Mecca with thousands of slaves and soldiers. and were never heard from “There is another part of the Muslim world that had contact with again. which he sailed with person tact between the Arab world and the Americas. they traded with the natives. Mansa Abu Bakr tives. Abu Bakr sent a fleet of sailed back to al-Andalus and told their tale. Only 1 ship returned. During his reign. they sailed west into the ocean. but this account is the existence of an Arabic speaker among the na reported that they found a land across the ocean." So much gold was spent in the markets of refers to it as “the unknown land”. His brother. Al Mansa Musa performed many acts of charity and "flooded Cairo Masudi records this land across the ocean in his famous map and with his kindness. They were taken prisoner by “The caravan of over 60. wives and officials. In West Africa in the 1300s. Americas are recorded. Eventually.000 people made an impression every the Native Americans on that island for a few days. The important part of 400 ships to explore the Atlantic Ocean. The most 27 . from Granada. indicating that there must have been more unrecorded con then outfitted a fleet of 2000 ships. where they went. They eventually Mansa before he was. The voyage left from the port of Delba (the same place Co “Mansa Musa had passed through Cairo making his pilgrimage to lumbus’’s voyage would begin) and sailed for months westward. and then returned to Europe. where Mansa Musa told the they were freed when a translator who lived among the natives. story of how he came to power. arranged for their release.” erful and incredibly wealthy empire called Mali existed. of a group of Muslims who sailed west from Lisbon for 31 days and landed on an island in the Caribbean. and the most Masudi wrote in 956 of a voyage in 889 from al-Andalus (Muslim memorable event of his reign was his epic hajj journey in 1324. West Africa may have been producing rukh. He wrote almost two-thirds of the world's supply of gold!” which gave rise to legends such as king solomon’s mines. Mali's gold was important all over the world.“The great Muslim historian and geographer. this may have been the origins of the africans now found in the Americas before Columbus. a pow the Caribbean. They eventually found a large landmass across the ocean where One hundred camels each carried one hundred pounds of gold.” ally. Abu al-Hasan al famous leader of this empire was Mansa (king) Musa. including Egypt. The other is recorded by al-Idrisi.

“While there is no record in Mali of the result of that voyage. which the Mandinka language were found in the United States as well. “Piri wrote that his map was based on earlier sources. Columbus records that zil is shown in incredible detail.” lumbus never went to South America. Turkey. which were not “In 1498. with many rivers accurately placed on the map. Co the native word in that area for gold is guanin. even explored by Europeans until the 1520s. and probably comes from the Arabic word for wealth. of a map drawn there is evidence of their arrival in the Americas. a full decade after the heading towards America. The coast of Bra the Muslims of West Africa. Early Spanish explorers and pirates recorded including ancient Greek and Arabic maps.” “Once he got to the Americas. filled with Africans who were probably drawing of Piri’s map!” on their way to trade with Native Americans. as is in the correct position with regards to Africa. that Malian presence. There are numer in the year 1513 by the Ottoman cartographer Ahmed Muhiddin ous archaeological sites in North and South America that attest to Piri (d. He commented on the gold that “The map clearly shows the eastern coast of South America.” forced historians to re-evaluate the Columbus theory of explora tion. ghanin. Piri’s map includes the Andes Mountains. including maps by Chris abandoned cities in Brazil that had inscriptions identical to the lan topher Columbus. 28 . so Piri must have gotten that from earlier Muslim maps that he used as sources. Columbus also re cords in his own personal journal that Native Americans told him of black Africans who came regularly to trade with them.1553). who had sailed only 21 years earlier. a discovery was made in Istanbul. which is very simi lar to the Mandinka word for gold. What is re guage of the Mandinka (the people of Mali). which the natives had. ghina’. Although Piri used Columbus’s maps as a source. In 1929. which was made the same way. it was to enrich his country and the rule of his Queen.Columbus knew that he was not the first to cross the Atlan tic Ocean” and the Idea of being first was not his priority. Furthermore. More inscriptions in markable about this map is the level of detail of the map. Columbus recorded seeing a ship loaded with goods. in the same alloy. Further more. Columbus records numerous exam ples of Muslims already present.

Hajj.000 miles visiting the ditions that sailed to present day Malaysia. Indonesia. “Ma” is known in China as short for “Muhammad”. Zheng He led 7 expe most 29 years and he covered around 75. or "Dar al-Islam”.Section 6 The Great Islamic Explorer's region of Yunnan to a Hui family (a Muslim Chinese ethnic group).” ‫بسم اهلل الرحمن الرحيم‬ “In 1405. so Zheng He came from a devout Muslim family. such as Ma Huan. when his childhood friend Zhu Di became emperor he decided to send out a giant fleet of ships to explore and trade with There have been many great Islamic travelers in history. (Dwarfing) many nas greatest Explorer.” Muslim peoples they encountered on their journeys. the family name is said first. Kenya. In all. Sri Lanka. He was born in 1371 in the southern China times the size of Columbus’s ships that sailed across the Atlantic. This was 20 years old in 1325. It is probable that during one of his jour travels took him from one end of the Islamic world near China to neys. he chose Zheng He to lead the expedition Battuta was Histories greatest explorer. It is known today as translator who spoke Arabic and was able to converse with the “The Travels of Ibn Batuta. but his traveling went on for al voyage (undertaken). In China. His and many other countries.My Travels. Thailand.” Near the end of Ibn Battuta's own life. who was Chi Zheng He commanded were up to 400 feet long. Somalia. Between 1405 and 1433. his travels began when he (Zheng was an honorific title given to him by the Emperor). The ships Another of histories major explorers was Zheng He. Iran. the Sultan of Morocco in “Zheng He was not the only Muslim on these expeditions. Yemen. followed by the given name. governments of the various Muslim Khalifs. Both his father and his grandfather were able to travel all the way to Makkah and complete the Hajj. “His birth name was Ma He.000 sailors were in each Hajj. Oman.”. Saudi Arabia. almost 30. Many sisted that He dictate the story of his travels to a scholar. but Ibn the rest of the world. or Pilgrimage to Makkah.” 29 . a work came to be called "Rihla . that of his advisors were also Chinese Muslims. His main reason for traveling was to go on expedition was massive. In equivalent of 44 modern countries all of which where under the dia. Zheng He was even able to go to Makkah to complete the the other in west Africa visiting the Kingdom of Mali.

” “Zheng He established Chinese Muslim communities in Palem bang. Bor neo and others. spreading Islam. Zheng He actively supported the continued growth of Islam in these ar eas. as well as strengthened and diversified the growing Muslim commu nity. Islam had started to spread in Southeast Asia a few hundred years before through trade from Arabia and India. other Chinese Muslims continued his work in Southeast Asia. This brought more people to Islam in Southeast Asia. 30 . Sumatra.“Zheng He and his Muslim advisors regularly promoted Islam wher ever they traveled. In the Indonesian islands of Java. and along Java. These communities preached Islam to the local people and were very important to the spread of Islam in the area.” He is seen as one of the greatest figures in spreading Islam in Southeast Asia. The fleet built masjids and provided other social services the local Muslim com munity would need. Zheng He found small communities of Muslims Zheng He Ship In Comparison to Columbus already there. Chinese Muslim traders in Southeast Asia were encouraged to intermarry and assimilate with the local people on the islands and Malay Pen insula. the Malay Peninsula. which is now one of the largest centres of Islam on earth.” “Even after the death of Zheng He in 1433. and the Philippines.

which was not the case in the of physics.” ‫بسم اهلل الرحمن الرحيم‬ This is what famous western thinkers like Roger Bacon. but this was entific instruments and installations like his camera obscura”. or simply attributed to the ac tions of the gods. to the modern world. it is even more difficult to combine knowledge from many cation. the great polymath who lived from 965 to 1040. Galileo It is easy to understand an idea or concept that is explained and Galilei. accomplishments. taught to us but it is extremely difficult and rare to be the person who first discovered and conceptualised that idea. it requires that “Ibn al haytham’s research in optics offered a framework for shap you understand the nature of the components of that science. The scientific method is the method that today all scientist use to “When learning about the Muslim scholars of the past. which consisted of combining geometry then to innovate and produce something new from that knowl with physics in the context of experimental demonstration. One scientist’s contribution in particular stands out. and he wrote over 200 books before his death. common in the Islamic world as they first looked at the fundamen tals of science. Each provided a lasting legacy that changed 31 . including the design and use of sci different fields to produce something entirely new. and contributions duct experiments to find new discoveries. and Isaac Newton built their understanding upon. the scientific method. which by now we ourselves have built upon. and controlled testing.Section 7 From The Scientific Method To The Prophetic Method the world in their time and today. verifi edge. past. Ibn al-Haytham. it is easy to make discoveries and outlines the basic principles by which to con be amazed by their brilliance. so it which was something akin to the first television that projected the outside world as it moved onto a wall in a darkened room. The Greeks believed that scientific fact can be discovered through reason. he made has become less common in our time that a scientist is qualified in many other contributions to science such as his mathematisation more than one area of knowledge. and ing the scientific method. Ibn al-Haytham was the first scientist in history to insist that everything be proven through a given method for dis covering new information.

and then released me and said: tion (basry/vision) and from the mischief of my tongue and from (٣)‫( ٱقرأ وربكٱألكرم‬٢)‫( خلقٱإلنسـن منعلق‬١)‫قرأ بٱسم ربكٱلذىخلق‬ the mischief of my heart”. The Prophet replied 'I do not know how to read'. read afterwords because of it either. The Prophet (saws) understood the delusions that the self can fool a person into believing. The angel came to him and low and carry out what He was being commanded to do squeezed asked him to read. more. He used to take with him food tion that was repeated a number of times by Jibril (Gabriel). but again I replied. being and heart against that of the prophets (saws) until the prophet (saws) pressed me so hard (against his chest) that I could not bear it any could not take it. Allah did not grant Him (saws) the ability to bright daylight (i. He pressed his chest. “Allah I seek refuge in you from the mischief (Shari) of my hearing. Who has created (all that ex delusions and to be wary of any falsehoods that his mind may con ists). and where inspired to understand the and pressed me a second time till I could not bear it any more. although the Prophet himself where he used to worship (Allah alone) continuously for many days guages through what Allah had given him. and from the mischief of my percep caught me for the third time and pressed me. till suddenly the truth descended upon him (saws). Thereupon he caught me again achieved in his character. 'The angel caught me (forcibly) and him after each command to “Iqra”. He world they lived in just as He (saws) was instructed to see the signs then released me and again asked me to read. miraculously granted others the ability to understand other lan 32 . Lord is the Most Generous (96: 1-3) Aisha (r. He then released me and again asked me to read and I re they followed his footsteps and his way of life to achieve what He plied.e. in creation. true) and then the love of seclusion was be stowed upon him. to protect his understanding from self "Read! In the Name of your Lord. has created man from something that clings. so He (saws) used to make "I do not know how to read" (or what shall I read?).a) related “The commencement of the divine inspiration The First word of Revelation was “Iqra” (Read) to a man (saws) to Allah's apostle was in the form of good dreams which came like who could not read. then Jibril in order to aid the prophet with the ability to fol while he was in the Cave of Hira'. The Prophet added. Read! And your jure. "I do not know how to read". The word was an instruc before his desire to see his family.All muslim scientists followed the Sunnah of the prophet (saws). Thereupon he Dua (prayer) to Allah saying. He used to go in seclusion in the Cave of Hira'. affirm for the stay and then come back to (his wife) Khadija to take his ing and establishing that “read” was an instruction to the Prophet food likewise again.

“We detail Our signs for people who ters important to human beings. hence message Muhammad. Allah is all hearing and all seeing” instructing people to read various kinds of signs that Allah created (22:75). “ALL PRAISE is due to Allah. and so because Fi and the earth. at times Mika’il is responsible for. since this was the first word and command of revelation it to the elder angel. me deliver my Message: Gabriel and Michael. endowed with wings. or three. so He is responsible for guiding man to the obvious assumption is not the correct one especially when we Allah as man sees these signs around him and the Angels are mes know the Prophet (saws) never learned to read or write and we sengers responsible for His signs. two. “That is. Gabriel (Jibril). Rasul Allah (saws) was being commanded to read the signs in crea The Prophet said: “Allah gave me two celestial assistants to help tion." The Prophet gave it to Michael. Originator of the heavens for us. Gabriel and Michael visited the Prophet Revelation only descends through Jibril (as).” (35:1). who causes the angels to be (His) message-bearers. Michael (Mika’il). Mans Ability to read the and He was given the ability to do so by Jibril (as). It was reported that once. the Ullumah signs relates to his connection with the world around him. self and heart and observe them. [Unceasingly] He adds bril did not bring with him a book to read we know the instruction to His creation whatever He wills: for. or four. which (scholars) have said that the Qur'an explains the Qur'an." Allah instructed man to read the same signs elsewhere in the He used to always send for Gabriel and Michael concerning mat Qur'an in the same manner. verily. The latter had a toothstick in bearers here means Angels who are responsible for making Allah’s 33 . was created before the Angel lah's first instruction to his prophet (saws) was to read the signs in charge of revelation. to open his mind. “On the earth are Signs for those with certainty in the heavens is Gabriel and the prayer-leader (imam) is Michael. The caller to prayer (muezzin) in know” (6:97). Gabriel said: "O Muhammad! give tended. Allah has the power to Iqra (read) was to read the signs and not the pages of a book.In the instruction to Iqra and the response by Jibril to what the hand which he immediately handed to Gabriel. the angel who con prophet (saws) said is the answer to what kind of reading was in stantly brought him Revelation. to will anything. Peace be upon him. Tafsir al Tustari). we also know what occurred to previous peoples who ig nored the signs of Allah and failed to read them. “Allah selects messengers from know the word "sign" appears more than 351 times in the Qur'an both angels and from mankind. Al Faith”(51:20). Al in charge of earth. [signs] for the arifun (Awliya) by which they lah created the Angels in ranks one after the other and the Angel find evidence for their ma’rifa (gnosis)”(51:20.

wind. that they would worship only Allah. before bringing them into life Allah took an oath from every soul that would be 34 . as we contemplate Allah’s persons essence as you feel them and that hug stays with you.signs and messages to mankind clear for them to understand. their seeds. in life this translated to Angels are the beings who guide all creation to see Allah’s signs man’s instinct of believing in a creator. stinct) as we rely on our senses in life. and made them testify about themselves” (7:172-3). Mika’il is responsible for Allah created Michael. so the Messenger of space that doesn't have an angel in it. trate to Adam. Hugging a person is a very personnel thing that brings us closer to that person. it was like imprinting on the prophet Jibril’s personality. revelation. Jibril (ra) helped the messenger Allah to read the said by the prophet (saws) that their isn’t a span of four fingers in signs by hugging and squeezing him. al Israwal Miraj. from their loins. who is higher in rank than the Angel of the signs mankind and Jinn perceive. and put him in charge of nature itself. self and qualities. and they are the two Angels who purified the heart of Rasul Allah (saws) for his night Journey. “And remember when your Lord took to sense to something more. the rain. command. it is more intimate than a hand shake or a kiss on the cheek. this words. it gives us a sense and feeling of who they are as peo The ability to read the signs in nature is related to our Fitrah (in ple. When Allah asks mankind to read the signs in creation he points thunder. so Fibril in squeez with our ability to worship only him. snow. Allah (saws) could feel what Jibril felt like. While Jibril is responsible for revelations. what it was like to be a Mika’il and Jibril were the first angels to obey Allah’s order to pros being who constantly sees and reads the signs of Allah in creation. and clouds etc. while revelation itself is re especially when both people care for each other. and Oneness in creation. Allah placed our ability to be true to our fitrah (instinct) all relates to our instincts and ability to sense. lightning. you drink of that lated to our higher human functions. the born. These angels are countless like the size of the Universe and no-one other than Allah knows their number because it was The scholars said. from the Children of Adam. Allah appointed a com to the things in creation the Angels are responsible for governing plete creation of angels to assist him and placed them under his so in this way they are the messengers for them. because of an Oath mankind ing the prophet was opening up the prophets instincts and ability took on the day of Oaths.

The Islamic Journal .

Exalted is He: ‘Am I not your Lord?’ Then He manifested His omnipotence [to them]. took the prophets from the loins of Adam (while he was still in Heaven). We took from the prophets their pledge: as (We did) from you and from Noah [33:7]. and made them testify about Contents themselves. His commandments and prohibitions. as is stated in His words.25 Thus did God gather what He wanted (murād) from His creatures.. Exalted is He. The Day of Oaths God. their seeds. with His words. we tes tify’ [7:172]. He [Sahl] said: 1.Section 1 Research Material The Day of Oaths ‫بسم اهلل الرحمن الرحيم‬ Tafsir al Tustari: [7:172] And remember when your Lord took from the Children of Adam. in the shape of specks] possess-ing intellects (ʿuqūl). Then He called them all to affirm His lordship. from their loins.. Exalted is He. Then he took from the prophets their pledge (mīthāq). The Covenant that they were bound to was that they would convey from God. since this was in the manner of a trial 36 . and then He extracted from the back of each prophet his progeny in a molecular form [lit. and the beginning and end that was in store for them in their saying ‘Yes’. so They said: ‘Yes.

Exalted is He. your fat yoghurt. Perse He (Imam Tustari) was asked.29 your being provided with riches in your misses the congregational prayer while he is close to the mosque. ‘What is propriety?’ [He answered]: upon the water. your sweetmeat dates. and subsequently cleanliness. heart. protection in obedience. your splendour Then He returned them to the loins of Adam. your journey’s provision (zād) be mindful on the day when they affirmed what they affirmed. Moreover. ‘What are the signs of happiness vere in this until you die. Whoever is inspired with propriety (adab) in that he misses the Hajj while he is in Mecca. and truly among the signs of happiness is the expansiveness Three of the signs of wretchedness (shaqāwa) are that a person of your heart in faith.31 and your ref uge (maljaʾ) and the one who helps you (nāṣir) be your Lord. you He sent the prophets (to mankind) to remind them of His Pact and Covenant (on that day).32 (saʿāda) and wretchedness (shaqāwa)?’28 He (Imam Tustari) said: He also said: Truly. within His knowledge should let your work consist in being content (irtiḍāʾ) — or he said contentment (riḍā) —. and your adornment wariness (ḥadhr). which is between him and God. were those who ness of God (taqwā). your houses be mosques. your resolve (ṣamma) and will not arrive until every person who made the Covenant has ap your aspiration (himma) be for contemplation (tafakkur). Imam Sahlal heart. your lamp the moon. will be purified of [Returning to the interpretation of the verse 7:172]. and bestowed with happiness.30 your peared. and that world] (zuhd). your condiment salt.(ibtilāʾ). said: And His Throne was He was asked. reflective thought (naẓar) be to take example (ʿibra). that He might try you [11:7].26 Indeed. has said. 37 . There is nothing more exact Tustari said: ing than preserving propriety. You should let your alted is He. your eating be at night.27 and the last hour your speech be remembrance (dhikr). would deny it and those who would verify it. among the signs of wretchedness is the denial of His omnipo tence. the sun. Exalted is He. your sleep in the day. your source of light (first). Furthermore. God. as God. Ex [It is that you should] let your food be barley. and success in renouncing [the that he misses the congregational prayer while in Medina. and made them testify concerning themselves clothes be of wool. your perfume water. He also made the prophets testify for themselves as a proof (ḥujjatan).

has been served by the children of Adam up to the time Kºšº-Jº (º) gº isº- e-ºº-ºº-ººººººº-ſº (w)ºrº-5-ºxºg (**) . they experience trial[s] (ib tilä’).E. and increase in knowledge (‘ilm). zººls ſº-ºngºls (º) sº-Lºnglº-Lº-Lº * Lºg-li-diaziºlºg: God. - i Lºgº (V) Glºsſes 3-lºgiſts . and the veracious (Siddiqun).'s agooº-ºº-º-º-º-º: --- : --~~ Jºe gººd sºilſs(\\) -ºidſ&lr= icºſis. and who know that God ob serves them in all their states.4-al--> 3-ºº-º-ºut (w) tº lººt-lºſſeſ º ~369 º ‘….. Quran ()--gº-gº toº-º-º-º-º-º-º-º-º-º-º-tºe):…gººgººr-º-º-º-º re-º-º & L-333-seats (YV) 3-cuſ (º) Geºlºlº (º) º ſº cº-º-º-º-º-º-º-º-º-º: sº-ºº-ºº! Lºletºs) Sºº-º-º-ºººººººº-ººººº-ºº-ººse) +3-3-4 jº (V) ºr Glºº (º) (. (-) &lººr-tººtºg Lºlº (º)& Jºº-jigºlº iſº(\A) tºº-juºſºsie. 3's leiſts (\) sº tºsh - $10.sº 3-lºſſºstº (\) (sºJºſé. whose hearts bear witness to their faith according to their [different stations (maqāmāt). or captured by him.A. they seek protection. ºssº.A.34 they recognise harm (durr) and benefit (naf').4-gººn Jºãº si-jū (\) sº tºº-º-º: when He sent our Prophet. - &n (Vv) ſºlºssu. save the prophets. Jº (º) (. ººglºſſ..S. Likewise according to the measure of their poverty (faqr) and need (fāqa) for Him. *(*) ºr gº CŞissº-Jº-Jº (º) alsº digiºussºlº (*) ſº-ju (v) sº-º-º-º-º-º-º: slºw) Jºãº Then he said: re-º-º God has not placed a burden of service (khidma) upon any of the prophets as great as that which he placed upon our Prophet. ºpºsiº (º) (ca. ºtº-º-º-º-º: --------- - *č3-4-3-3 Jºsis (x \) JST 3-58. ā-3s. there is not a position of service in which God.14. Furthermore. - tººl-Jº (º) ºn *Is Lºlºis (VY) jeº (º) ºs Lººe. ºutsºs (v) ſº-º-º: iºn (^) ſºlº & ~1313. may God curse him. ) ºn Jº 20:33. and according to the measure of their experience of trials. 63.1.) =&a (*) slº Øssigº (º) sºlº (v) sºlº sail-º (º) & Jºzseſ.A. Lašjū ( ). Fur 1–13 tº 4G) sº-Lºis-3º ºgº (º) --~sºlºiº (\) gºſs-ºu-i.jū (\xi) ſº-3 iss 3–3. a sist thermore.. 231-2-doº) ºf 293&4.380t.. Exalted is He. L. & A) sº-sº-ſºl-1. according to the meas ure of their witnessing (mushāhada).E. Jºlº. in which our Prophet has not served ºil-º-º-º-º: ºil lºs (. under standing (fahm) and reflective thought (nazar). sº cº-evºlº-acºustº (**) tº sºlº-Jº Jº-º-º-.There is no one who is not overcome by Iblis. lººdlºg ºf $10 *Jºtsº-ºils (**) --~~~~ (. tºº ºld Gºº &Leº & Jº (V) < gºes. (\\) L.

isim. ‫يا حنان يا منان حنانا من لدنك وزكوة‬. Therefore they are ours and will be with us in Paradise. Jazak Allah Khairan.Imam Ali (ra) said: Allah the Almighty selected us from His Crea tion and selected for us our followers who assist us.Allah@outlook. 39 .com All rights to this work have been reserved. They give up their lives and property for our cause. 2015. but it can be redistributed feesabilillah. They are pleased when we are pleased and are sorrowful in our sorrows. You can reach me @ Bi. as a non profit project without alteration.