Design Document

DEC1603
Danfoss
Dr. Ponpandi
Davis Johnson - Team Leader
Bill Schellekens - Key Concept Holder
Michael Kenevan - Communications Leader
dec1603@iastate.edu
http://dec1603.sd.ece.iastate.edu/
Version 1

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Contents
1 Introduction.. 2
1.1 Project statement. 2
1.2 Purpose. 2
1.3 Goals. 2
2 Deliverables. 2
3 Design.. 4
3.1 System specifications. 5
3.1.1 Non-functional 5
3.1.2 Functional 5
3.2 PROPOSED DESIGN/METHOD.. 6
3.3 DESIGN ANALYSIS. 7
4 Testing/Development. 8
4.1 INTERFACE specifications. 8
4.2 Hardware/software. 8
4.2 Process. 8
6 Conclusions. 9

1 Introduction
1.1 Project statement
Danfoss Power Solutions has requested a system that will allow a supervisor to, at a
glance, assess whether or not any given employee is authorized to operate the
workstation they are currently at. In addition, the system needs to be able to indicate
different levels of competency, from allowing the employee to work freely, under

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supervision, or not at all. Due to the fact that Danfoss has factories in various countries
around the world, the system would also need to be scalable and available on a global
scale.

1.2 Purpose
A lack of ability to quickly and easily determine an operator's ability to run a
station, in particular during off shifts and weekends, has led to a number of quality
defects. These defects have a disproportionately large negative impact on both finances
and customer relationship Disproportionate because a mistake in a five dollar part costs
thousands of dollars to fix by the time someone has been flown to the location for
diagnosis and repair. The company therefore needs a way to ensure that the operator
building their product has been sufficiently trained to do so.Based on Danfoss’ research
there are currently no manufacturing companies operating a system to the one proposed
here. Though the idea of “Standard Work” or “Standard Operating Procedures” has
been around for a long time, they have not found any that companies that have taken
this idea to this level of automation.

1.3 Goals
The group’s main goal is to produce a system where workers can be tracked as they
move along an assembly line and verify that the worker is trained and certified to be
working that particular station. We want our system to identify possible dangerous
working conditions and alert any responsible managers.

2 Deliverables
1.1.

Tracking System

Danfoss has stated that they want a system to track and identify employees as
they move between different assembly stations. In order to detect employees that are
working at a station that they aren’t certified for we will need to be able to track
employees as they move from station to station. All Danfoss employees have an RFID
badge that they must be wearing while working in the factory so our tracking system will
most likely use RFID technology to detect and identify workers as they enter and exit
stations on the work floor. The tracking system will send its data (location and identity) to
our server where it will be cross referenced with the skills matrix to determine the
worker’s competency level. The tracking system is a very important part of the project
and if we cannot implement a working model, the rest of our project will be worthless.

1.2.

User Interface

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In order to use the Work Authorization System, managers will need access to the
system. This will likely be implemented as a webpage that managers can access. The
user interface will allow managers to access the system across different devices and
possibly access the system from outside Danfoss’s network.

1.3.

Skills Matrix

The Skills Matrix report is an auto-generated report that shows the competency
status for each worker for each station on the assembly line. Danfoss currently has a
skills matrix report but it is created by a person and is displayed by printing the report
and hanging it up wherever it needs to be. Danfoss has stated that they need an autogenerating report that can be displayed electronically. The skills matrix will also be used
to determine if an employee is authorized to work at a particular station.

1.4.

Competency Display

Since the main goal of our project is to reduce injuries and product defects from
unqualified employees, we need to be able to alert managers when there is an
unqualified employee working on the assembly line. We will do this by designing a light
based display to show the competency of the current workers at each station. This
display will most likely be a cluster of LEDs or a screen where our system will update via
the internet the color/screen based on the competency level of the worker.

1.5.

Interfaces

This is an abstract deliverable that is a part of all the other deliverables. Since
our system may be implemented in other Danfoss facilities, there is a chance that
different components of the system will be substituted or changed. Therefore, it is
imperative that we design the system to be highly modularized. We must provide clear
and thoughtful interfaces between every major component that would allow for easy
substitutions of components if necessary.This will allow danfoss to change the system as
their needs change in the future.

3 Design

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1.1.
System Description
There are several parts to this system. The core of it is a web service that can
take requests from a hardware layer which specifies an unique identifier for both the
user and the station, determine whether or not the user is allowed to:
1. Not authorized to perform work at that station
2. Authorized to perform work, but only under supervision
3. Authorized to perform work without constraints
Finally, this system will send a signal to an output device showing what the status
of the station is.
The interfaces to this core system are defined rather vaguely, and
purposefully so. The long term goal would be to implement this system in multiple plant
sites and allow for a different system to send user and station information as well as
interface with different display systems. This is also why the interface layers for the input
and output systems are separated out from the core, decision making, service.
Finally, the Cornerstone piece is one that is already in place. Danfoss
has contracted with a company called ToolingU (http://www.toolingu.com/) to handle
online training. Operators are required to complete a certain number of courses within
the first few months of employment and can take more to increase their pay. Updates
are sent tooling university to a system run by Cornerstone On Demand

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(https://www.cornerstoneondemand.com/) which is used for performance management.
It is this system we will link to to update our database which will contain a listing of of
operators and their competency level (0-4) at each station.

3.1 System specifications
1.1.

Functional Requirements

a. The system cannot cause any increases in
manufacturing time. (ex. tracking system cannot have workers stop and
identify before proceeding)
b. Operators must be tracked real time.
c. Station displays must update within 5 seconds of
an operator's arrival or departure, however, sooner is better.

1.2.

Non-Functional Requirements

a. The company is a “Windows Shop” therefore
everything must run on the Windows operating system.
b. The language of choice for the company is C# so
any server side code must be in C#, specifically, web applications will be
MVC 5 applications and web services will be Windows Communication
Foundation services.
c. All hardware components used in the design must
be commercially available.

3.2 PROPOSED DESIGN/METHOD
1.1.1.

Tracking System

Our group hasn’t implemented or tested a tracking system yet but we have
decided that we will use RFID zone tracking to identify and track Danfoss
employees. RFID zone tracking is essentially an RF transceiver that can
communicate with certain RFID tags. Danfoss employees are all issued ID cards
that contain an RFID tag that can be read by RFID zone tracking antennas.
Danfoss employees are also required to have their ID cards on their person at all
times. Our design uses a RFID antenna at each station to read any RFID tags
within its range and send that reading out to our core system. Since stations are
close together and there are many employees moving from station to station, we
will have to restrict the area that the antenna can read from. We can orient the
antenna such that it its “visible” path is restricted or narrowed, this would prevent
employees that are next to the station from having their cards read. We can also
adjust the power of the antenna to reduce the distance that the antenna can read
from.

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1.1.2.

Competency Display
By design the system will be modular so that different assembly lines and plants
can implement different interfaces for the Competency Display. For the first
implementation we plan on using serial controlled LED strips. These can be
purchased with different densities of LEDs per meter. We have some ordered for
testing with 60 LEDs/meter. To communicate with the LEDs we will use a device
made by Lantronix called a UDS-1100. This device is a that allows one to
connect any serial device to the network. It can be configured either as a virtual
COM port on a PC or can be communicated with via TCP/IP. We will use TCP/IP
with a static IP address as this allows the configuration to exist in the database
rather than being dependant on the server on which the application is running.
This in turn allows us to stand up a replacement server, should the first fail, in far
less time as well as allow the configuration to be done interactively via web
interface, a COM device cannot be installed this way.

1.1.3.

Web Interface
The web application will be an ASP.NET MVC 5 application. It will use
JavaScript, CSS, and HTML for the client side and C# on the server. We will also
use SQL Server Reporting Services (SSRS) to provide output from the system.
SSRS provides an easy, modular way to show the data stored in the system.
Some known use cases will be:
● The ability to map the Cornerstone data to this
systems data (stations, users etc.)
● The ability to set a competency within this system,
this would then be overridden the next time the data updates from
Cornerstone.
● A report showing the training matrix that is currently
required to be displayed in all cells.
Though not part of our project, we can see further development of this system
including the ability to provide the work assignments for a shift as well. If the
system knows the competence of all employees at all stations in the plant it
should be able to create assignments that can be optimized based on criteria like
maximizing productivity or maximizing training opportunities.

3.3 DESIGN ANALYSIS
1.1.4. Tracking System
Our tracking system design fits our requirements nicely. The employee doesn’t
have to do anything differently and the design has no impact on production time.
The design will still have issues with nearby employees because the work
stations don’t have clear boundary lines and while we will be able to control the
area we read from, it won’t be perfect. However, we can easily remedy this

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problem on the software side by analyzing the readings. The only potential
obstacle that would prevent us from using this design would be the cost of
components. We will need one antenna per work station and the antennas could
be very expensive.

1.1.5. Competency Display
The only real requirement for the display is the ability to show three different
states, not authorized, authorized with supervision, and authorized. Our LED
choice will be able to do this easily (red, yellow, green). Other options
considered were the use of tablets or iTouches, either of these could support not
just a color but a message as well if desired. The cost of such a device would be
relatively small if one factors in installation costs of other options. However, the
development cost and complexity of setting up a web page to show the status at
each station was considered prohibitive for this project without any any real
value.
1.1.6.

Web Interface
The web interface will follow the standards for Danfoss including the technology
stack (Microsoft ASP.NET MVC) as well as colors and fonts.

4 Testing/Development
4.1 INTERFACE specifications
We don’t have any interface specifications for software or hardware other than using C#
on all our server side applications. Our client didn’t require any interfaces because there aren’t
any compatibility concerns and there aren’t any pre existing components that our team would
have to work with.

4.2 Hardware/software
Our team won’t be using any third-party hardware or software to test our design. Our design
won’t require any testing outside of normal software testing procedures and since most of our
hardware will be coming from third-parties we won’t need any specialized hardware to test it.

4.2 Process

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1.1.7.

Tracking System

The tracking system will be very straightforward to test. Since our server side
applications will take care of identifying workers, the tracking system just needs
to be able to read cards and send the information to the server. So in order to
test this part we will use set up our tracking system as it would in real life and
then test by using a card nearby. We would test the boundary, multiple cards in
the area, and the correctness of the readings.

1.1.8. Competency Display
Testing here will be straightforward. Initial testing can be done by simply sending
commands to the LEDs via serial. We can then setup test users in a test
database and set user locations as well. We can then watch the display as we
change users and competency levels in the database to see the colors change.
1.1.9. Web Interface
For server side code unit tests will be created to make sure they are working
properly. The user interfaces will need to be tested manually. We will involve
users from the business to test this as well.

5 Conclusions
In summary, we plan to develop a solution that will help Danfoss improve the quality of it’s
products and the safety of its employees by ensuring that workers are always performing work
they are qualified for. We can accomplish this through proper usage of RTLS combined with
robust software to achieve a system that is superior to any other system of it’s kind.