Prof. Ureah Thea A. Sevilla

Nucleic Acids

Some nucleotides are subunits of nucleic acids such
as DNA and RNA

Some nucleotides have roles in metabolism


a nitrogen-containing base. and one or more phosphate groups  ATP A nucleotide with three phosphate groups  Important in phosphate-group (energy) transfer Component structures of nucleotide:  Pyrimidine and purine bases  Sugar  Phosphate * When molecule consists of base and sugar only. 2 . it is called a NUCLEOSIDE.1/26/2016 Nucleotides  Nucleotide A small organic molecule consisting of a sugar with a five-carbon ring.

1/26/2016 Nitrogen-containing base of Nucleotides Nucleoside = Base + Sugar 3 .

ATP Polynucleotides PHOSPHODIESTER BOND 4 .phosphate Adenosine triphosphate.1/26/2016 Nucleotide = Nucleoside + phosphate Name = nucleoside + mono-/di-/tri.

1/26/2016 Polynucleotides 3’-5’ PHOSPHODIESTER BOND 5’  3’ Polynucleotide Chain 5 .

 Important in protein synthesis  Three types of RNAs: rRNA – ribosomal RNA mRNA – messenger RNA tRNA – transfer RNA 6 .1/26/2016 Nucleic Acids  Nucleic acids  Polymers of nucleotides in which the sugar of one nucleotide is attached to the phosphate group of the next  RNA and DNA are nucleic acids RNA  RNA (ribonucleic acid)  RNAs are single-stranded polynucleotides that are used to express genetic information.

T Deoxyribose double 7 . U ribose single DNA type of bases used sugar used polynucleotide strand A G. coded in the order of nucleotide bases carries the genetic information. G. C. C.1/26/2016 DNA  DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)  Two chains of nucleotides twisted together into a double helix and held by hydrogen bonds  Contains all inherited information necessary to build an organism. Differences between RNA and DNA RNA A.

p.1/26/2016 Four Nucleotides of DNA 3 phosphate groups sugar (deoxyribose) adenine (A) base with a double ring structure thymine (T) base with a single ring structure guanine (G) base with a double ring structure cytosine (C) base with a single ring structure Fig. 48 The DNA Molecule Double-stranded polynucleotide covalent bonding in sugar– phosphate backbone hydrogen bonding between bases 8 . 3-21.

This pairing of bases is called complimentary base pairs: A=T and CG The orientation of the 2 strands is anti-parallel to each other.   BASE-PAIRS OF DNA CYTOSINE – GUANINE base pair H N N O H CH C N N C N C H N N C O CH H N R THYMINE – ADENINE base pair R H H3C O H N N H CH C 3 hydrogen bonds formed N N C H N C CH NH N O 2 hydrogen bonds formed 9 .1/26/2016 James Watson and Francis Crick’s model of the DNA The DNA molecule consists of 2 strands of polynucleotide held together through hydrogen bonding interaction of the bases contained in the 2 strands.

1/26/2016 Chargaff’s Rules (Erwin Chargaff)   The amounts of thymine and adenine in DNA are the same. %T of the DNA with 32%G? A 5000bp DNA was found to contain 950 adenosine. What is its percentage composition of A. Proportion of adenine and guanine differs among species Problems   What is the %A. and the amounts of cytosine and guanine are the same: A = T and G = C percentage base pair equality: %A = %T and %G = %C. T and C? 10 . G. %C.

1/26/2016 The DNA Molecule  The two strands are in antiparallel direction to each other Forms of DNA A-form B-form Z-form 11 .

1/26/2016 Forms of DNA Parameters Direction of helical rotation A Form Right B Form Right Z Form Left Residues per turn of helix 11 BP 10 BP 12 BP Occurence Favored at dehydrated condition Favored at high water concentration Favored at high salt concentration Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids   Nucleotides have major metabolic roles and are building blocks of nucleic acids Two kinds of nucleic acids. and translating information about building proteins 12 . interact as the cell’s system of storing. retrieving. DNA and RNA.

Brooks/Cole. Biochemistry 4 th edition.. John Wiley & Sons.  13 . Voet and Pratt. 2010. and Grisham. Cengage Learning.  Garret. R. C. 2008. Principles of Biochemistry.1/26/2016 References: Voet. 3rd edition. Inc.