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Harbour - A sheltered area of the sea in which vessels could be launched,

built or taken for repair; or could seek refuge in time of storm; or provide for
loading and unloading of cargo and passengers.


Natural Harbour - This is a type of harbor in the form of creeks and basin.


Depression - A closed hachured contour line represents,


Natural roadsteads - A deep navigable channel with a protective natural

bank or shoal to seaward


Jetties - Structures that divert current away from the river bank to prevent
scouring action.


Breakwaters - It is a massive port structure made of masonry or large stone

blocks laid in the sea to protect the harbour from waves and current.


Port - A location on a shore containing one or more harbors where ships can
dock and transfer cargo/ people to/from land


Wharf - any structure of timber, masonry, cement, or other material built

along or at an angle to the navigable waterway, with sufficient depth of water
to accommodate vessels and receive and discharge cargo or passengers.


Pier - structures which are built perpendicular or oblique to the shore of a

river or sea.

10. Track Gauge - It is defined as the spacing of the rails, and measured
between the inner faces of the load bearing rails.
11. Peak Hour Volume - maximum number of vehicles that pass a point on a
highway during a period of 60 consecutive minutes.
12. Vehicle Miles of Travel - It is a measure of travel along a section of road. It
is the product of the traffic volume and the length of roadway in miles to
which the volume is applicable.

Flow Nets - Are constructed to calculate the groundwater flow in the media
that combine flow line and equipotential lines.

Compaction - The densification of soil by removal of air is called

10. Swelling - The process opposite to consolidation which involves an

increase in volume of voids is called
11. Footings supporting a 2-storey structure shall have a minimum depth of
450 mm below undisturbed ground surface unless another depth is
warranted, as established by a foundation investigation as per Section 305 of
NSCP 2010.
12. Under Sec. 305.4 of NSCP 2010, it is stated by how much % will be the
surface of the ground slope shall be level or shall be stepped so that bot top
and bottom of foundation of all building are level. Ans. More than 10%
13. Under Sec. 307.3.1 of NSCP 2010, concrete used in metal-cased
concrete piles shall have a specified compressive strength fc of not less than
how much strength? Ans. 17 MPa
14. Gradation - It is the distribution in the particle size of the soil.
15. Equipotential Line - A line along which the potential head at all points
are equal.
16. The slope of cut surfaces as per NSCP 2010 shall be no steeper than
50 % slope unless a geotechnical engineering report stating that the site has
been investigated and a cut at a steeper slope will be stable and not create a
hazard to public or private property is approved.
17. The slope of fill surfaces as per NSCP 2010 shall be no steeper than
50% slope unless substantiating slope stability analyses justifying steeper
slopes are submitted and approved.
18. Consolidation - The process involving a gradual compression
occurring simultaneously with a flow of water out of the soil mass is called


19. Flow line - a line along which water particle will travel from upstream to
the downstream side in the permeable soil medium


Cohesion - The component of shear strength of a rock or soil that inter

particle friction is called.

20. unrestrained slope - An exposed ground surface that stands at an

angle with the horizontal. It is slope that can either be natural or constructed.


Uniform flow - If the steady flow in any length or reach of a stream, the
average velocity at every cross section is the same in that reach, the flow is
said to be

21. Slope Stability Analysis - It is an analysis which involves determining

and comparing the shear stress developed along the most likely rupture
surface with shera strength of the soil


Shear - Soil derives its strength from its capacity to resist.

22. Specific gravity of soil - It tells us how many times the soil grain is
heavier than water.


Steady - If the discharge passing a given cross section of a stream is

constant with time, the flow at the section is called.


Archimedes Principle - A body placed in a liquid is buoyed by a force equal

to the displaced liquid. The principle of buoyancy is attributed


Flow - The volume of liquid passing a cross section of a stream.


Liquefaction - A process by which water-saturated soil sediment temporarily

loss strength and acts as a fluid.