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You are on page 1of 11

: 12 JUL 08

Page 1

Grading Sheet

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

MIME 3470Thermal Science Laboratory

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Experiment . 4

FLOW METERS

POINTS

10

5

10

APPEARANCE

ORGANIZATION

ENGLISH and GRAMMAR

MATHCAD

ORDERED DATA, DIMENSIONS, PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

VENTURI METER: COMBINED PLOT: hflow vs. Qtheo & hflow vs. Qact

PLOT OF Cv vs. Re

ORIFICE METER: COMBINED PLOT: hflow vs. Qtheo & hflow vs. Qact

PLOT OF Co vs. Re

TURBINE METER: PLOT OF Qact vs. Qind

REGRESSED & PLOTTED CALIBRATION LINE

ROTAMETER:

PLOT OF Qact vs. Qind

COMBINED PLOT: h fric vs. Qact FOR THE 4 METERS

DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

CONCLUSIONS

ORIGINAL DATASHEET

5

5

5

5

5

8

5

5

10

10

5

TOTAL

100

Comments

SCORE

TOTAL

GRADER

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Experiment . 4

meter and relating the pressure difference to the flow rate yields

p2 p1 V12 V22

2 gc

FLOW METERS

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

NAME

NAME

SECTION

EXPERIMENT TIME/DATE:

NAME

NAME

NAME

TIME, DATE

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

student with few of the more common types of flow meters used in

engineering applications and to compare performances. The students

will construct calibration curves and determine meter flow

characteristics such as discharge coefficients and friction drop.

INTRODUCTIONThere are many different meters used to

measure fluid flow: the turbine-type flow meter, the rotameter, the

orifice meter, and the Venturi meter are only a few. Each meter

works by its ability to alter a certain physical property of the

flowing fluid and then allows this alteration to be measured. The

measured alteration is then related to the flow. The subject of this

experiment is to analyze the features of certain meters.

THEORYThe operating principles of these various meters need

to be developed in order to meaningfully compare their performance.

The Venturi Meter The Venturi1 meter is constructed as shown in

Figure 1. It has a constriction within itself. When fluid flows through

the constriction, it experiences an increase in velocity. This increase

in velocity causes a decrease in static pressure at the constriction

(throat). The greater the flow, the greater the pressure drop at the

throat. The pressure difference between the upstream and the

downstream flow, hflow, can be found as a function of the flow rate.

Page 2

observing the phenomenon upon which the operation of the Venturi tube (later

invented by Clemens Herschel) depends. [2]

Certain difficulties are encountered in attempting to restore (downstream of the

throat) the original pressure by decreasing the velocity to its original value. In order to

do this, it is necessary to increase the cross section gradually from the narrowest

section to the original cross section. This type of arrangement, shown in Fig. 208, is

called a Venturi meter. Herschel* first suggested its use for the measurement of

delivered volume in pipe lines. In order to find the relation between the pressure

difference and the mean velocity in the pipe a calibration curve of a geometrically

similar Venturi meter has to be known. In addition, in cases where the velocity of

approach is not very small with respect to the velocity in the throat this geometrical

similarity has to be extended to the approach as well. For Venturi tubes of the

shape shown in Fig. 208 the velocity coefficient is approximately 1.00.

or

2

1

p 2 p1 h flow g Qtheo

gc

2gc

A12

1

.

A22

(2)

h flow

the velocities V1 and V2 using Bernoullis equation.

p1

p

g V12

g V22 4

.

z1

2 z2

1

gc 2gc 2

gc 2gc

2

(3)

Basel, Switzerland, that started with Jakob I [aka Jacob, Jacques, Jaques, and James]

(16541705); prof. of mathematics at U. of Basel (from 1687); pioneer in application

of Leibnizian calculus to a variety of problems; introduced term integral; studied

catenaries, and applied calculus to bridge design. Author of Conamen novi systematis

cometarum (1682), Dissetatio de gravitate aetheris (1683), Ars conjectandi (contains

binomial distribution, pub. posthum. by Nikolaus in 1713), etc. His brother Johann I

(16671748); prof. of mathematics at U. of Basel (from 1705); was a pioneer in

exponential calculus; teacher of Euler, and collaborator of LHospital. Their nephew

Nikolaus (16871759); prof. of mathematics at Padua (171622), then of law and logic

at U. of Basel; contributed to probability theory and infinite series. Johanns sons:

Daniel (17001782), mathematics prof. at St. Petersburg (172432), of anatomy,

botany, and physics, and then of philosophy, at U. of Basel; discovered Bernoullis

principle relating fluid velocity and pressure; contributed to probability, kinetic theory

of gases, celestial mechanics; author of Hydrodynamica (1738) and works on

acoustics, astronomy, etc.; and Johann II (17101790), prof. of eloquence and of

mathematics, known for his contribution to theories of heat and light. Two sons of the

last named: Johann III (17441807), astronomer to the Acad. of Berlin, author of

Recueil pour les astronomes (177276); and Jakob II (17591789), prof. of

mathematics at St. Petersburg. Christoph (17821863), grandson of Johann II and

nephew of Johann III and Jakob II, was naturalist and prof. at U. of Basel (from 1818);

author of Vademecum des Mechanikers (1829), etc. [2]

Bernoulli may well be the most famous mathematical family of all time. There

were 8-12 Bernoulli mathematiciansthe confusion arises as the same given

names were used in more than one generation [5].

Bernoullis Equation: applies to incompressible (Mach < 0.3 for gases),

inviscid, irrotational fluids. If applying the equation along a streamline, can drop

the irrotational partconstant energy along a streamline.

Students will often refer to g, the acceleration of gravity, as the gravitational constant.

The gravitational constant is the gc shown in Bernoullis equation above. In the

gc 1

This equation relates the pressure difference, hflow, to the flow rate

Qtheo, and represents the theoretical curve for the Venturi meter.

* Herschel, Cl., The Venturi Meter, paper read before the Am. Soc. Civil Eng.,

(1)

kg m

s2

kg m

N s2

gc 1

lbm ft

lbf s 2

. In the SI system

With increasing flow, values for the discharge coefficient level off

at around Co 0.8 for the orifice meter.

p1 p 2 gh flow

V 2 V12

gh flow 2

(4)

Q1

A1

Q2

A2

2

1

A12

(5)

Thus,

2 gh flow

1

A2 A2

1

2

1

Qtheo

(6)

viscous shear and frictional effects. Thus, for any hflow, the actual

flow rate will be less than the theoretical flow rate.

Qact

Cv

Qtheo

to Points

and . However, because it is difficult to place a

1

Q

2 gh flow V22 V12 2

A2

Page 3

actually made at and . So the reader asks: how accurate can

2

the flow at is almost the same as the slug of flow at

and thus

2

the pressures are almost the same. This is true for a short distance

downstream of the orificethen pressure recovery sets in. With

these assumptions, Bernoullis equation is the same, except

pressure measurements are made at instead of .

2

the flow quality.5

(7)

increases, the discharge coefficient for a Venturi meter levels

off at about 0.9. Note: Reynolds number for the Venturi meter is

based on the inlet diameter not the throat diameter.

The Orifice Meter: The orifice meter consists of a throttling device

(an orifice plate) inserted in the flow. This orifice plate creates a

measurable pressure difference between its upstream and

downstream sides. This pressure is then related to the flow rate. Like

the Venturi meter, the pressure difference varies directly with the

flow rate. The orifice meter is constructed as shown in Figure 2.

2

2

sharp-edged orifice plate. Note: the jet emerging from the hole is

somewhat smaller than the hole itself; in highly turbulent flow the jet

necks down to a minimum cross section at the vena contracta. Note that

there is some backflow near the wall. (b) It is assumed that the velocity

profile at

is given by the approximate profile shown. It is also

2

1

2

2

p 2 p1 h flow

g

Q 2

gc

2g c

and

yields

1

1

A2 A2 .

2

1

(8)

flow rates: the theoretical flow rate from the above equation and

the actual flow rate measured in the laboratory. As in the Venturi

meter case, the difference between these flows is indicated by a

discharge coefficient ,Co, defined as

Co

Qact

.

Qtheo

2

(9)

very ancientin many of its units. For example, the English inch is a smidgen off an

ancient inch, found for example in the Great Pyramid of Giza. This ancient (at least

3500 years old) inch can be found by dividing the polar diameter of the earth by

500,000,000;

e.g.,

Meter: The turbine-type

flow meter consists of a

section of pipe into which a

small turbine is placed. As

the flow travels through the

turbine blades, the turbine

spins at an angular velocity

5

While through a Venturi meter the pressure drop is very small (about 15 to

20 percent of the pressure drop in the throat), its practical application is limited by

its large (long) size. Therefore standardized orifices as shown in Figs. 209 and 210

are used more frequently. The pressure diagrams in these two figures show that with

this kind of apparatus, the loss in pressure is from 60 to 70% of the pressure drop in the

orifice. The velocity coefficient has been found to be 0.96 to 0.98 with the

standardized (German) rounded-approach orifice (Fig. 209). For the sharp-edged

orifice shown in Fig. 210 the coefficient depends very much upon the ratio of the

cross sections a/A. For instance, for a/A = 0.15, we have =0.61, whereas for a/A =

0.75, the velocity coefficient is = 0.91.

. Our modern inch has been maintained to with in 0.001in of its original value. Isaac

Newton was aware of this ancient measure and verified two ancient cubits based on its

length.

operation of the turbine-type

flow meter [1]

[3]

the turbine sends an electrical pulse to a preamplifier which, in turn,

sends the pulse to a digital totalizer. The totalizer in effect sums the

pulses and translates them to a digital readout which gives the

volumetric fluid flow that pass through the meter. In addition, the

totalizer will show the actual flow rate of the fluid. Figure 4 is a

schematic of the turbine-type flow meter.

The Variable Area Meter (Rotameter): The variable area meter

consists of a tapered metering tube and a float that is free to move

inside the tube. The tube is mounted vertically with the inlet at the

bottom. At any flow rate within the operating range of the meter, fluid

entering the bottom raises the float and the tube inside diameter

increases (because of the tapering). The flow rate is indicated by the

float position read against the graduated scale.

Page 4

Venturi MeterSee warning just above about maxing out the

manometers. Two manometers are associated with this meter. The

first manometer measures the total frictional pressure drop across the

entire length of the Venturi meter, hfric, as a difference in head pressure. The second manometer measures the head pressure difference,

hflow, between points and of Figure 1. From hflow, the theore1

For your report, on one graph, plot hflow vs. 6 Qact and hflow vs. Qtheo. On

a separate graph, plot Cv vs. React, (Reynolds number based Qact). In

making this second plot, use an absolute (starting at zero) scale on

the vertical axis. Using a marker, plot the expected discharge

coefficient of 0.9.

enters, it causes the float to rise to a position

of equilibrium. The position of equilibrium

is at the point where the weight of the float is

balanced by the weight of the fluid it

displaces (the buoyant force exerted on the

float by the fluid) and the pressure due to

velocity (dynamic pressure). The higher the

float position the greater the flow rate.

Note that as the float rises, the annular area

formed between the float and the tube

increases. Maximum flow is at maximum

annular area or when the float is at the top of

the tube. Minimum area, of course,

represents minimum flow rate and is when

the float is at the bottom of the tube.

Measure flow at

corner of float

1. Percent of maximum flowa meter factor is given or determined to convert a scale reading to a flow rate. Many fluids can

be used with the meter, the only variable being the scale factor.

2. Diameter ratio typea calibration curve is associated with the ratio

of the tubes cross-sectional diameter to the diameter of the float.

3. Direct readinga scale shows actual flow rate in the desired units.

Experimental Procedure: The fluid meter apparatus is shown in

Figure 6. It consists of a centrifugal pump that draws water from a tank

and pumps it to any of the four meters. In testing any of the four meters,

the actual flow, Qact, is measured by diverting the flow to the collection tank (volumetric measuring tank) which is graduated in gallons,

and measuring with a stopwatch how long it takes to collect a volume

of water. Strive for collection times in excess of 1 minutea little

extra time spent in collecting good data significantly improves the

quality of the results.

For all four meters, the flow is regulated by the upstream valve. For

several valve positions, record the appropriate meter data that

indicates flow rate, the actual flow rate, and the pressure drop across

the meter, hfric, which is measured with a manometer. Be extremely

careful that the pressure differences to be measured by

manometers are not so great that the water column on either side

of the manometer goes over the top of the inverted U-shaped

manometer tube. Thus, it is recommended that one establishes a

maximum flow that does not cause this problem by adjusting the

upstream valve. Then subsequent, lesser, flow can be set by

slightly closing the valve.

Orifice MeterUse the procedure and write up requirements as specified for the Venturi meter. The expected discharge coefficient is 0.8.

Turbine-Type Flow MeterThe totalizer reading is the measure of

indicated or theoretical flow.

The actual flow is still measured

using the collection tank and a

stopwatch. For your report, plot

the measured flow rate against

(vs.) the flow rate reading and

determine and plot a regressed

line of this data all on the same

graph. This is a calibration curve.

The Mathcad linear regression

function is documented at the

right (source Mathcad Help).

RotameterFor the rotameter, record the position of the float, the

pressure drop across the meter, and the measured flow rate. For

your report, plot the measured flow rate vs. indicated flow rate.

Again a calibration curve; but without regression.

Finally, on one graph, plot friction pressure drops, hfrict, across

each meter vs. the actual flow rate through the meter.

6

A is the dependent variable (vertical axis). Thus, A vs. B could be alternately stated as A

as a function of B.

REFERENCES

1. Flowmeters:

Introduction,

efunda

(engineering

fundamentals),

http://www.efunda.com/DesignStandards/sensors/flowmeters/flowmeter_intro.cfm

2. Simon & Schuster New Millennium Encyc. & Reference Library, 2000

3. Prandtl, L., and Tietjens, O.G., Applied Hydro- and Aeromechanics, Dover

Pubs., 1957. [Based on Prandtls Lectures. Composed by Prandtls

Page 5

student, Tietjens, who turned the lecture notes into a text. Translated by J.P.

Den Hartog. First published by United Engineering Trustees, Inc., 1934]

4. Bird, R.B., Stewart, W.E., & Lightfoot, E.N., Transport Phenomena,

John-Wiley & Sons, 1960.

5. Ross, S.M. (1998), A First Course in Probability, 5th ed., Prentice-Hall

MATHCAD OBJECT--DOUBLE CLICK TO OPEN

DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

Page 6

CONCLUSIONS

Page 7

Page 8

APPENDICES

Appendix AClepsydras (water thief), Ancient Fluid Meters

When one thinks of a fluid meter, they envision a device that

ascertains a flow rate per unit of time. The ancients looked at

flow meters the other way aroundthey used fluid meters to

determine a unit of time per flow rate.

In this experiment, the student used a stopwatch to time a flow

into a catch basin to determine a flow rate. With water clocks, a

known flow rate is used and the tank becomes the stopwatch.

Water Clocks

Source: National Institute of Standards and Technology Physics Laboratory

Water clocks were among the earliest timekeepers that didn't depend

on the observation of celestial bodies. One of the oldest was found in

the tomb of Amenhotep I, buried around 1500 BC. Later named

clepsydras (water thief) by the Greeks, who began using them about

325 BC, these were stone vessels with sloping sides that allowed water

to drip at a nearly constant rate from a small hole near the bottom.

Other clepsydras were cylindrical or bowl-shaped containers designed

to slowly fill with water coming in at a constant rate. Markings on the

inside surfaces measured the passage of hours as the water level

reached them. These clocks were used to determine hours at night, but

may have been used in daylight as well. Another version consisted of a

metal bowl with a hole in the bottom; when placed in a container of

water the bowl would fill and sink in a certain time. These were still in

use in North Africa this century.

More elaborate and impressive mechanized water clocks were developped between 100BC and 500 AD by

Greek and Roman horologists and

astronomers. The added complexity

was aimed at making the flow more

constant by regulating the pressure,

and at providing fancier displays of

the passage of time. Some water

clocks rang bells and gongs, others

opened doors and windows to show

little figures of people, or moved

pointers, dials, and astrological

models of the universe.

A Greek astronomer, Andronikos,

supervised the construction of the

Tower of the Winds in Athens in the

1st century BC. This octagonal structure featured a 24-hour clepsydra

A Brief History of Clocks:

and indicators for the eight winds

From Thales to Ptolemy

By: Jesse Weissman

from which the tower got its name,

http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/Gre

and it displayed the seasons of the

ekScience/Students/Jesse/CLOC

year and astrological dates and

K1A.html

periods. The Romans also developped mechanized clepsydras, though their complexity accomplished

little improvement over simpler methods for determining the passage

of time.

In the Far East, mechanized astronomical/astrological clock making

developed from 200 to 1300 AD. Third-century Chinese clepsydras

drove various mechanisms that illustrated astronomical phenomena.

One of the most elaborate clock towers was built by Su Sung and his

associates in 1088 AD. Su Sung's mechanism incorporated a waterdriven escapement invented about 725 AD. The Su Sung clock tower,

over 30 feet tall, possessed a bronze power-driven armillary sphere for

observations, an automatically rotating celestial globe, and five front

panels with doors that permitted the viewing of changing mannikins

which rang bells or gongs, and held tablets indicating the hour or other

special times of the day.

Since the rate of flow of water is very difficult to control accurately, a

clock based on that flow can never achieve excellent accuracy.

http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0855491.html

clock. The University of Houston's

College of Engineering presents

this series about the machines

that make our civilization run, and

the people whose ingenuity

created them.

When 16th-century Jesuit missionaries went to China, they found

time-keeping in a deplorable

state. Not even sundials were

reliable! And the clocks they

brought as gifts were seen only as

playthings. Timekeeping was

hardly on China's radar screen.

Of course, the purpose of all

ancient clocks was not so much

The Invention of ClocksPart 2:

the simple telling of time as it was

Sun Clocks, Water Clocks, Obelisks

display. Old clocks typically had

http://inventors.about.com/library/wee

kly/aa071401a.htm

bells and dials, and they displayed

planetary motions.

In the West, water clocks had evolved from remote antiquity until

mechanical clocks finally replaced them seven hundred years ago.

The Greek name for a water clock was clepsydra. That means "a

stealer of water" because all water clocks depended on a steady flow of

water to meter time. Greco-Egyptian engineers of the 2nd century BC

had added feedback control to regulate the water flow. That idea was

carried forward by Arab artisans until the Moors of medieval Spain were

building the finest clocks in the West.

The Chinese had also built water clocks for millennia, but without feedback control. In Western water clocks, a float on the surface of a steadily draining tank drove the displays. But float indicators exerted scant

force for driving extra machinery. The Chinese, on the other hand,

created a new kind of water-wheel-driven clock during the 8th to 11th

centuries. A steady inflow filled buckets around the rim, one at a time.

As each bucket became heavy enough to trip a mechanism, it fell

forward carrying the bucket behind into place under the water spout.

That water wheel provided power to drive displays of lunar cycles, the

movements of the heavens, and time as well.

Those clocks reached their apogee when the emperor of the Sung

dynasty charged an official, Su-Sung, with creating the grandest clock

that'd ever been built. Su-Sung assembled a team and finished the

clock by 1092. It was hugeforty feet high.

The tick-tock motion of the falling buckets has caused some historians

to call it a mechanical clock. But it had nothing resembling the inertial

escapement that began turning European clocks into precision

instruments by 1300. Neither did it have the feedback control of Arab

water clocks.

Invading Tatars stole the clock when they ended the Sung dynasty in

1126. They couldn't get it running again, and the high art of Chinese

clockmaking disappeared. Even before the Tatar invasion, Taoistic

reformers had come into power and let the great clock fall into disrepair.

When Jesuits eventually brought Su-Sung's book on clockmaking

back to Europe, it astonished the West -- even though the escapement

clock was then light-years beyond it.

Su-Sung's clock seems to've been pretty accurate. Whether it reached

the fifteen-minute-a-day accuracy of the best Western water clocks, we

don't know. But, for a time, the Chinese were ahead of the West once

again, with the grandest clock in the world.

I'm John Lienhard, at the University of Houston, where we're interested

in the way inventive minds work.

Temple, R., The Genius of China. New York: Simon & Schuster Inc., 1986, pp. 103-110.

The following website provides a great deal of information on Su-Sung's clock as well as

detailed drawings in PDF format: http://www.lucknow.com/horus/etexts/susung1.html.

http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi1580.htm

SU-SUNG'S CLOCK

Besides the gnomon or sundial, the Egyptians used the water clock,

which had the advantage over the former of showing time during the

night as well as during the day.

A complete example was found in the Amon Temple of Karnak

(Thebes), 25.5 north of the equator. This water clock dates from the

time of Amenhotep III of the Eighteenth Dynasty, father of Ikhnaton.

The jar has an opening through which water flows out; marks are

incised on the inner surface of the jar to indicate the time. Since the

Egyptian day was divided into hours which changed in length with the

length of the day, the jar has different sets of markings for the various

seasons of the year. Four time points are prominently important: the

autumnal equinox, the winter solstice, the vernal equinox, and the

summer solstice. The equinoxes have equal days and nights in all

latitudes. But on the solstices, when either the day or the night is the

longest of the year, the length of the daylight varies with the latitude:

the farther from the equator, the greater is the difference between the

day and the night on the day of the solstice. This difference also

depends on the inclination of the equator to the plane of the orbit or

ecliptic, which is at present 23 . Should this inclination change, or in

other words, should the polar axis change its astronomical position

(direction), or should the polar axis change its geographical position

with each pole shifting to another point, the length of the day and night

(on any day except the equinoxes) would change, too.

The water clock of Amenhotep III presented its investigator with a very

strange time scale.7 Calculating the length of the day of the winter solstice, he found that the clock was constructed for a day of 11 hours 18

minutes, whereas the day of the solstice at 25 north latitude is 10 hours

26 minutes, a difference of fifty-two minutes. Similarly, the builder of the

clock reckoned the night of the winter solstice to be 12 hours 42 minutes, where as it is 13 hours 34 minutesfifty-two minutes too short.

On the summer solstice, the longest day, the clock anticipated a day of

12 hours 48 minutes, where as it is 13 hours and 41 minutes, and a

night of 11 hours 12 minutes, where as it is 10 hours 19 minutes.

On the vernal and autumnal equinoxes the day is 11 hours and 56

minutes long, and the clock actually shows 11 hours and 56 minutes;

the night is 12 hours 4 minutes long, and the clock show exactly 12

hours 4 minutes.

The difference between the present values and the values of the day

for which the clock is adjusted is very consistent: on the winter solstice

the day of the clock is fifty-two minutes longer than the present day of

the winter solstice in Karnak, and the night is fifty-two minutes

shorter; on the summer solstice the day is fifty-three minutes shorter

on the clock and the night fifty-three minutes longer.

The figures on the clock show a smaller difference between the

length of the daylight on the solstices or between the longest and

the shortest days of the year than is observed at Karnak at the

present time. Thus the water clock of Amenhotep III, if it was

correctly built and correctly interpreted, indicates either that Thebes

was closer to the equator or that the inclination of the equator

toward the ecliptic was less than the present angle of 23 . In

either case the climate of the latitudes of Egypt could not have been

the same as it is in our age.

As we find from the present research, the clock of Amenhotep III

became obsolete in the middle of the eighth century; and the clock

that might have replaced it at that time would have been make

obsolete in the catastrophes of the end of the eighth and the

beginning of the seventh centuries, when once more the axis

changed its direction in the sky and its position on the globe as well.

Worlds in Collision, Immanuel Velikovsky,

Delta Book (Dell Publishing Co.), Inc., 1950

In 1952, this was on the New York Times Best Seller list. Despite this,

Velikovsky upset academics in many fieldshistory, religion,

astronomy (including physics), . Those of astronomy [see below],

told Velikovskys then publisher that if they continued to publish the

book that their schools would no longer purchase that publishers

textbooks. The publisher caved. So much for academic freedom.

Most academics and pedestrians having not read this and subsequent

works formed their opinions from hearsay. Einstein was no different at

first. Once Velikovsky, who also lived in Princeton, got Einsteins atten7

Page 9

study and his hypotheses deserved much more research. This does

not mean that Einstein fully agreed with Velikovsky; instead, the

weight of evidence more than justified further investigation. Einstein

wrote the following:

Dear Mr. and Mrs. Velikovsky!

At the occasion of this inauspicious birthday [Einsteins], you have

presented me once more with the fruits of an almost eruptive

productivity. I look forward with pleasure to reading the historical book

that does not bring into danger the toes of my guild. How it stands with

the toes of the other faculty [the book, Ages in Chaos, would upset the

historians], I do not know as yet. I think of the touching prayer: Holy St.

Florian, spare my house, put fire to others!

I have already read carefully the first volume of the memoirs to Worlds

in Collisions and have supplied it with a few marginal notes in pencil

that can easily be erased. I admire your dramatic talent and also the art

and the straight forwardness of Thackeray [Thackrey], who has

compelled the roaring astronomical lion [Shapley] to pull in a little his

royal tail, yet not showing enough respect for the truth. Also, I would

feel happy if you could savor the whole episode for its humorous side.

Unimaginable letter debts and unread manuscripts that were sent in,

force me to be brief. Many thanks to both of you and friendly wishes.

Your

A. Einstein

Velikovsky Reconsidered, by the editors of Pense

Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1966

If this person has the story correct, Einstein told Velikovsky that he must

make scientific predictions based on his historical research if his

hypothesis of early history was ever to get scientific attention. One of

Vs predictions was that there was an electromagnetic belt around the

earth. At the time, astronomers considered the mechanisms of the

solar system and universe to be governed simply by Newtonian gravitational phenomena. Velikovsky proposed that electromagnetic attractions / repulsions also were in play. This greatly incensed astronomers

being instructed by someone outside their field. Yet, early space

exploration did indeed establish the existence of such an electromagnetic beltit is known to us today as the van Allen radiation belt.

The historical appendices to these labs have been added for a reason.

They exist to help round out the student. Think of them as brain candy

light facts that you will not be tested on. But, there is a further reason.

Velikovskys works were truly interdisciplinaryincorporating history,

astronomy, cosmology, psychology, geology, and paleontology. With

such a broad base, he was able to advance truly astounding ideas.

Maybe one of you might catch the bug. There is often money to be

made where two fields overlap. More important than money, however,

is the excitement of truly unearthing something new not just

developing a better brake system.

Using a water clock and an inclined plane, Galileo was able to determine the

rate of acceleration due to gravity. by timing how long it takes for the ball to

roll from the marked distances.

[He found that] it takes one unit of time for the ball to roll one unit of distance,

two units of time to roll four units of distance, three units of time for the ball to

roll nine units of distance, .

NovaGalileos Battle for the Heavens

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/galileo/expe_inpl_2.html#clock

Galileo made an amazing contribution to timekeeping, simply by not paying

attention in church. In 1581, Galileo was 17 and he was standing in the Cathedral of Pisa watching a huge chandelier swinging back and forth from the

ceiling. Galileo noticed that no matter how short or long the arc of the chandelier was, it took exactly the same amount of time to complete a full swing.

The chandelier gave Galileo the idea to create a pendulum clock. While the

clock would eventually run of energy, it would keep accurate time until the

pendulum stopped. If the pendulum was set swinging again before it stopped,

there would never be a loss in accuracy. Because of this, pendulums caught

on and are still widely used today. The History of Time

http://library.thinkquest.org/C008179/historical/basichistory.html#galileo

Page 10

Time/Date:

___________________

Lab Partners

____________________________

____________________________

____________________________

____________________________

____________________________

____________________________

hflow

hfriction

inH20

inH20

hflow

hfriction

inH20

inH20

Flow Indicated

by Counter, %

hfriction

Venturi Meter:

Water in tank

gal.

Time

s.

Water in tank

gal.

Time

s.

Water in tank

gal.

Time

s.

Water in tank

gal.

Time

s.

d

d

d

d

d

Orifice Meter:

d

d

d

d

d

Turbine Flow Meter:

d

d

d

d

d

Rotameter:

inH20

% of Flow

d

d

d

d

d

hfriction

inH20

Page 11

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