4 views

Uploaded by Aysun Güven

experiment

- Boiler Instrumentation.ppt
- Boiler Instrumentation Standards.ppt
- Fluid Mechanics Lab
- ValveTypesSelection - ControlsWiki
- Control and Instrumentation
- APT Specification
- OLGA Exercises
- 2327_V3_Rev_B.pdf
- Wind Effects in a Harbor Environment
- k Calibration of Venturi and Orifice Meters
- (EDITED-FINAL)Sludge - Storage Calculation
- (EDITED-FINAL)Sludge - storage calculation.xls
- Manifolds
- Manual Vortex Foxboro
- Users Guide FMG Series electromagnetic flowmeter
- Ficha Medidor ALTAIR V4
- Practical
- report.docx
- Exp 1 Lab Report
- FM and H lab Manual

You are on page 1of 6

Introduction

This report will investigate the operation and accuracy of three types of flow meters:

1. Venturi meter

2. Orifice plate

3. Variable area meter

The theory behind each meter will be discussed, and the results from accuracy experiments

will be presented and evaluated.

Theory and Method

Meter, Variable Area Meter, and Orifice Plate

The real flow rate through the system (see Figure 1) will be measured through measuring the

time for a chosen volume of water to exit the system, and then converting this into a

meaningful rate (m3s-1). This real flow rate can then be compared against the flow rate

calculated from each of the three meters, outlined below, to compare accuracy and losses.

1. Venturi Meter

The Venturi meter (shown in Figure 2) is based upon the results of Bernoullis equation[1].

Tubes are located before the narrowing, at the narrowest point, and afterwards[2]. The height

of the water in each tube is then measured and used to calculate the pressure at the linked

point in the meter, using the equation P=gh where P is pressure, is density, g is the

gravitational constant and h is the measured height.

The flow rate can then be calculated using Bernoullis equation[3]:

height (in this case the height difference is zero and irrelevant).

Since flow rate is velocity multiplied by area (Q=VA), Bernoullis equation can be

rearranged into an equation to calculate Q:

Here A1=7.92x10-4m2 and A2=1.77x10-4m2, and the values for pressures P1 and P2 are

calculated from the heights measured in the tables (see the Results section).

2. Variable Area Meter

The Variable Area Meter consists of a weight in a tube of graduated area that balances the

force of gravity with the force of the flow, resulting in an output height. (See Figure 3.) This

height is effectively the flow rate[4].

3. Orifice Plate

In a similar way to the Venturi Meter, the Orifice Plate (see Figure 4) measures volumetric

flow by converting displaced water into pressure values at certain points and inputting these

figures into a rearranged form of Bernoullis equation[6].

The volumetric flow rate will be measured (in all three meters) for three different flow rates:

5 litres/second, 12 litres/second, and 20 litres/second. Since the very nature of the

investigation means there is no certain way of attaining this flow, these values will be

recorded from the Variable Area Meter. (VAM in the tables below.)

Potential Errors and Minimising their Effects

There are four main errors that could affect the accuracy and validity of results.

1. Parallax Errors. This occurs if the level on a gauge is read from a non-normal angle,

or more importantly an inconsistent angle. The degree of error varies depending on

thickness of glass and size of scale, and this could effect the pressure calculations for

all meters as well as the real flow calculations.

This potential error can be tackled by ensuring all gauge readings are taken from 45.

2. Surface Tension. When measuring the height of a water surface, it is possible for

inconsistency to occur due to the curved nature of surface because of surface tension.

The surface height in the tubes (at the centre of Figure 1) is used to calculate the

pressure, making this a major potential error.

To reduce error, readings are taken from the lowest possible surface point.

3. Human Reaction Times. The base volumetric flow is measured by timing the period

to output a specified volume of water, but this rate could be inaccurate because of the

variable quality of human reactions.

There is no full-proof way to eliminate this error, though vigilance will be key. A

large volume of water will also be used to ensure any error will be minimised.

4. Waves. The real volumetric flow is measured by timing the period to output a

specified volume of water, but this rate could be inaccurate because of the wavy

nature of the scale to measure water volume.

A large volume of water will be used to minimise wave influence.

Accuracy Results

Table 1 shows the results from the first attempt at measuring flow rates and the associated

pressures. The experiment was repeated (Table 2) and the average was taken for greatest

accuracy (Table 3).

Table 1 First results

VAM

Volume/m3

Time/s

Q/m3s-1

5

12

20

0.010

0.024

0.040

120.22

140.72

129.69

8.32x10-5

1.71x10-4

3.08x10-4

/mm

/mm

/mm

/mm

/mm

/mm

/mm

/mm

274

314

370

258

243

196

265

285

330

263

275

297

210

215

228

210

218

230

201

171

107

205

187

149

VAM

Volume/m3

Time/s

Q/m3s-1

5

12

20

0.010

0.024

0.040

122.41

121.15

125.35

8.17x10-5

1.65x10-4

3.19x10-4

/mm

/mm

/mm

/mm

/mm

/mm

/mm

/mm

255

237

195

255

237

195

265

281

331

263

269

300

211

210

230

212

213

236

205

165

105

206

181

149

VAM

Volume/m3

Time/s

Q/m3s-1

5

12

20

0.010

0.024

0.040

121.32

130.94

127.52

8.24x10-5

1.68x10-4

3.17x10-4

/mm

/mm

/mm

/mm

/mm

/mm

/mm

/mm

273

312

381

257

240

196

265

283

331

263

272

299

211

213

229

211

216

233

203

168

106

206

184

149

Using the values in Table 3, the calculated flow rate through each meter can be compared to

the real flow rate (measured by timing a certain volume output). The comparison can be

seen in Table 4 below.

Table 4 Comparison of calculated volumetric flow rates

Real Q Venturi-calculated Q VAM-calculated Q Orifice Plate-calculated Q

8.24x10-5

1.03x10-4

8.33x10-5

7.84x10-5

-4

-4

-4

1.84x10

2.16x10

2.00x10

1.75x10-4

3.14x10-4

3.46x10-4

3.33x10-4

2.87x10-4

To illustrate the difference visually, Figure 5 shows the difference graphically.

Fig. 5 Chart showing the calculated flow rate for certain rates

From the data and the chart, it is easy to see that the Variable Area Meter is the most

accurate. However, this does not tell the whole story.

What matters most is not the absolute error, but the inconsistency of any error. For example,

if each of the Venturi measurements was exactly half of the Real flow rate, it would be a

very good approximation of the flow one could simply factor in a multiplication of two

into the equation for calculating Q.

The equation then becomes:

Where Cd is a constant that could in theory improve the accuracy of the meters that use this

method to calculate Q (The Venturi Meter and the Orifice Plate)[7].

Through averaging the percentage difference for each flow value, the values of Cd were

calculated as 0.853 for the Venturi Meter and 1.07 for the Orifice Plate.

With this value for Cd factored in, the comparable values becomes those in Table 5:

Table 5 Comparison of calculated volumetric flow rates with Cd factored in.

Real Q

Venturi-calculated Q VAM-calculated Q Orifice Plate-calculated Q

-5

8.24x10

8.79x10-5

8.33x10-5

8.39x10-5

1.84x10-4

1.84x10-4

2.00x10-4

1.87x10-4

3.14x10-4

2.95x10-4

3.33x10-4

3.07x10-4

Visually, the result is even more pronounced, as shown in the chart in Figure 6

Fig. 6 Chart showing the calculated flow rate for certain rates, with Cd factored in

With the coefficient factored in, the results become far more accurate, and the Orifice Plate

emerges as the best.

While this is at first surprising (in theory the Orifice Plate should have more losses than an

equivalent Venturi meter), the fact that Cd has been factored in means that if the proportional

change is most associated (as perhaps the geometry of the Orifice allows) it will be most

accurate, regardless of gross accuracy with no adjustments.

One should note the calculated flow rates are extremely accurate at the lowest rate (5 litres/

second) but become far more proportionally volatile at higher rates (12 and 20 litres/second).

This suggests there could be more losses or greater potential for error at higher speeds

water levels could wave more and turbulence could occur. There is also greater chance of

air bubbles infiltrating unnoticed.

There is a striking difference in the head losses across the different meters, made clear by the

differences in measured height in Table 3. In summary:

1. Venturi Meter. (Head loss between points 1 and 3.) The change in head loss

between high and low Q is 0.042m.

2. Variable Area Meter. (Head loss between points 4 and 5.) The change in head loss

between high and low Q is 0.018m.

3. Orifice Plate. (Head loss between points 6 and 8.) The change in head loss between

high and low Q is 0.079m.

As we can see, the meter with the lowest change in head loss (the most consistent losses) is

the Variable Area Meter, followed by Venturi Meter and then the Orifice Plate.

This is most likely because the Variable Area Meter is dynamic (in that it changes form as

the flow rate increases), while the Venturi Meter and Orifice Plate are static and do not adapt

to higher flow rates.

References and Sources

(See superscripted citation notation.)

1. http://mech207.engr.scu.edu/SensorPresentations/Atta%20%20Venturi%20Meter%2

0Combined.pdf

2. http://amser.org/index.php?P=AMSER--ResourceFrame&resourceId=9776

3. J.F. Douglas, J.M. Gasiorek, J.A. Swaffield. 2011. Fluid Mechanics VI, Prentice

Hall.

4. http://www.efunda.com/designstandards/sensors/flowmeters/flowmeter_va.cfm

5. http://www.pc-education.mcmaster.ca/Instrumentation/flow.htm

6. http://www.tpub.com/content/neets/14175/css/14175_57.htm

7. http://www.cs.cdu.edu.au/homepages/jmitroy/eng243/VenturiMeter.pdf

Sunday 30 October 2011

ECM2113 Thermofluid Engineering

- Boiler Instrumentation.pptUploaded byAshwani Dogra
- Boiler Instrumentation Standards.pptUploaded byMallinatha PN
- Fluid Mechanics LabUploaded bybeenilicious
- ValveTypesSelection - ControlsWikiUploaded bySandesh Kirolkar
- Control and InstrumentationUploaded byManpreet Kaur Bedi
- APT SpecificationUploaded byPrashant Saini
- OLGA ExercisesUploaded byginozky
- 2327_V3_Rev_B.pdfUploaded byEdgar Muñoz
- Wind Effects in a Harbor EnvironmentUploaded bylivlaser
- k Calibration of Venturi and Orifice MetersUploaded byKitty V
- (EDITED-FINAL)Sludge - Storage CalculationUploaded byIftikhar Kamran
- (EDITED-FINAL)Sludge - storage calculation.xlsUploaded byGomathi Shankar
- ManifoldsUploaded byAreti Malkogianni
- Manual Vortex FoxboroUploaded byJosé Yadir Sánchez Ramos
- Users Guide FMG Series electromagnetic flowmeterUploaded bydhan210
- Ficha Medidor ALTAIR V4Uploaded byRicardo Vargas
- PracticalUploaded byMuhammadZAmjad
- report.docxUploaded byaleeyazahardi
- Exp 1 Lab ReportUploaded byainnor
- FM and H lab ManualUploaded byprashmce
- wu.89042710491-82-1518368966.pdfUploaded bylreyesar
- ME Sessional ThermofluidUploaded bynadimduet1
- Seagate Crystal Reports ActiveX.pdfUploaded bySaid
- 380_d0317Uploaded byEngels Rodriguez
- Flowmeter Selection Guide.pdfUploaded byMelina Sbh
- termUploaded bykamendrix kamendrix
- Flow CalculationUploaded byAndrey Pachón Franco
- Sap 15 Flow Sensor TrainerUploaded byAli Hadi
- CONTREC GAS & STEAM FLOW COMPUTER MODEL 415Uploaded byJesus Segundo Crespo Herrera
- QL40-SFM Data SheetUploaded byLeonardo Sierra Lombardero

- Thermal Fluid ManualUploaded byAysun Güven
- lab3.docUploaded byAysun Güven
- Venturi Lab.pdfUploaded byAmirhosein605334
- Sample ReportUploaded byAysun Güven
- Lab 2-Venturi MeterUploaded byNorsilah CLah
- Asee-midwest 0008 6430aaUploaded byAysun Güven
- FF-theory.pdfUploaded byAbdulrazzaqAL-Maliky
- Venturimeter LAB ReportUploaded byJames Roy
- 04 FLOW METERS.docUploaded byAysun Güven
- Formal Report 1Uploaded byAysun Güven
- presentation.pptxUploaded byAysun Güven
- NotesUploaded byAysun Güven
- Ashrae Handbook-hvac Systems and EquipmentUploaded byAzad Raza
- 574358_634225477945037500Uploaded byAysun Güven

- Weidner_secularization.pdfUploaded byesteaniomesale
- Materiais2019 AbstractUploaded byPaulo Lixandrao
- Levelling NotesUploaded byomerumeromer
- The Quarter Wave TransformerUploaded byalekssmitt
- DEERE 670-770Uploaded bySilvio Roman
- Water Wastewater Engineer Regulatory Construction Manager in Jacksonville FL Resume Jennifer JorgeUploaded byJenniferJorge
- Shan NnnnnUploaded byPrashant Singh
- Virtual Validation - Methods Tools and UsecasesUploaded byMohammed Moufti
- Electric Week XII Materials | MIMO | Dr. Karim G. SeddikUploaded byE-WEB
- Aptica plus_eng_2003.pdfUploaded byAce Canaria
- Gasket TornillosUploaded byFernando Sanabria
- Book_abstracts Simposio BarcelonaUploaded byHugo Tinti
- Virgo Horoscope 2011Uploaded byreenajagwani
- assignment 7- aisha abdelmula tyler bauerUploaded byapi-317097341
- Taller Pro II - Procesos de SeparaciónUploaded byjohannymartinez3652
- Foreign Links Campus Course Code and Titles - CopyUploaded byOluwaseun Awotunde
- Numerical Modelling of Vertical Axis w TurbineUploaded bydist2235
- Gigboard - User Guide - v2.0.pdfUploaded byAyşe Batur
- Activity PlanningUploaded byCyrus Bondo
- Fundamental Critical Care Support Jkl - GoUploaded byfidodido2000
- Brochure ConstructionVehiclesUploaded bycasarrubiasv
- Hr Sample ReportUploaded bydattarajsabnis
- CAE ESSAY.docxUploaded byMihaela Neagu
- Preparing Students for STEM Beyond High SchoolUploaded byLGossens
- ARTS 100 Syllabus - Fall 2014Uploaded byKevin Turnbull
- Metamorphosis and ExistentialismUploaded byMaha Abou Hashish
- DL&W Scranton Yard and ShopsUploaded bystaustell92
- Thesis Report Online ShoppingUploaded byBharati Raj
- Interview Questionnaire for Resort ManagementsUploaded bytiggmanje
- JournalNX-Black Spot IdentificationUploaded byJournalNX - a Multidisciplinary Peer Reviewed Journal