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Education research and development 9sometimes called research-based

development) appears to be the most promising strategy we now have for

improving education.
Educational research and development (R & D) is a process used to develop and
validate educational product. Product includes not only material objects, such as
textbooks instructional films, and so forth, but it also intended to refer to
established procedures and processes, such as a method of teaching or a method
for organizing instruction.
Fourth Edition, Educational Research an Introduction, Walter R. Borg, Meredith D.
Gall. Longman Inc., 1560 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10036 Associated companies,
branches, and representatives throughout the world.
Educational research and development (R & D) is a process used to develop and
validate educational products. The steps or this process are usually referred to as
the R & D cycle, which consists of studying research findings pertinent to the
product to be developed, developing the product based on these findings, field
testing it in the setting where it will be used eventually, and revising it to correct the
deficiencies found in the field-test stage. In more rigorous programs of R & D, this
cycle is repeated until the field-test data indicate that the product meets its
behaviorally defined objectives.

In contrast, the goal of educational research is not to develop products, but rather
to discover new knowledge (through basic research) or to specific questions about
practical problems (through applied research), Of course, many applied research
projects involve development of educational products. For example, in a project
concerned with comparing the effectiveness of two methods for teaching reading,
the researcher may develop materials that incorporate each method because
suitable materials are not available. Typically, however, these materials are
developed and refined only to the point where they can be used to test the
investigator's hypotheses. For this reason it is very rare for applied educational
research to yield products that are readv for operational use in the schools.

Although they have many important contributions to make to education, basic and
applied research are generally poor methodologies for developing new products that
can be used in the schools. In applied research particularly, the researcher often
finds himself comparing poorly designed, unproven, or incomplete products to
determine which is less inadequate, This methodology g enerally produce negative or

inconclusive results, and at best brings about improvement in education at a slow rate. Even

when they are obtained, positive findings are usually significant only in a statistical sense and
have no practical significance for the regular classroom. Another deficiency of many basic and
applied research studies is that situations they study are too removed from the typical classroom
to have much direct effect upon educational practice. It is true, of course, that basic applied
research produce the findings that are eventually used to improve educational practice. However,
the gap between these findings and educational practice is often so great that many scholars have
devoted a lifetime to worthwhile basic and applied research problem without improving the
schools one whit.

Educators and researchers have been seeking a way to bridge the gap between research an
practice for many years. This is precisely the contribution of educational R & D

Penelitian adalah kegiatan yang dilakukan menurut kaidah dan metode ilmiah
secara sistematis untuk memperoleh informasi, data, dan keterangan yang
berkaitan dengan pemahaman dan pembuktian kebenaran atau ketidakbenaran
suatu asumsi dan atau hipotesis di bidang ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi serta
menarik kesimpulan ilmiah bagi keperluan kemajuan ilmu pengetahuan dan
teknologi.Pengembangan adalah kegiatan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi yang
bertujuan memanfaatkan kaidah dan teori ilmu pengetahuan yang telah terbukti
kebenarannya untuk meningkatkan fungsi, manfaat, dan aplikasi ilmu pengetahuan
dan teknologi yang telah ada, atau menghasilkan teknologi baru.

Dari definisi tersebut diketahui bahwa suatu kegiatan penelitian dan pengembangan
terkait erat dengan pemanfaatan ilmu pengetahuan. Namun, definisi tersebut tidak
menjelaskan penelitian dan pengembangan sebagai suatu subsektor industri dalam
ekonomi kreatif.

3BAB 1: Perkembangan Penelitian dan Pengembangan di Indonesia

Definisi tersebut hanya menjelaskan suatu kegiatan sistematis pemanfaatan ilmu

pengetahuan tanpa memperjelas status profit

atau nirlabanya. Oleh karena itu, harus dibuat suatu definisi dan ruang lingkup
tersendiri untuk membedakan subsektor penelitian dan pengembangan di dalam
ekonomi kreatif dengan kegiatan penelitian dan pengembangan secara umum. Pada
buku Pengembangan Industri Kreatif yang disusun pada 2008 oleh Departemen
Perdagangan, dinyatakan bahwa subsektor penelitian dan pengembangan dalam
industri kreatif merupakan:

Kegiatan kreatif yang terkait dengan usaha inovatif yang menawarkan penemuan
ilmu dan teknologi dan penerapan ilmu dan pengetahuan tersebut untuk perbaikan
produk dan kreasi produk baru, proses baru, material baru, alat baru, metode baru,
dan teknologi baru yang dapat memenuhi kebutuhan pasar

Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching fifth edition. Margaret D. Roblyer.

Aaron H. Doering. Pearson Education Inc. 2010. 501 Boylston Street.
Evaluating Internet Information
At a time when everything