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From Gurnett & Bhattacharjee's Introduction to Plasma Physics. Chapter six is about MHD.

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3

Xuxa Borealis

October 21, 2016

Assuming pressure balance,

B2

20

1 0 1

x

B = B0 erf { (

) 2 y}

2 t

B

1

=

2 B

t

0

where

2

erf (y) =

(1)

ev dv

So when I first started working this I went about it the wrong way: attempting to evaluate the erf first

and then taking the derivative. There was the splitest of seconds where I might actually complete a plasma

physics problem without help, but I was wrong.

The trick: Leibniz integral rule.

Z b(t)

Z b(t)

d

f

(

f (x, t)dx) =

dx + f (b(t), t) b0 (t) f (a(t), t) a0 (t)

dt a(t)

a(t) t

(2)

So by taking the derivative of the integral, things become so much easier. Solve the RHS and the LHS of

equ. 1 separately, and see if they are equal.

LHS =

B

t

1 0 1/2

B

= [B0 erf [ (

) y]]

t

t

2 t

Z 12 ( 0t )1/2 y

2

2B0

=

[

ev dv]

t 0

(3)

We are going to use the Leibniz rule on the time derivative of the integral:

t

Z

=

0 1/2

)

y)2

e( 2 ( t

t

1 0 1/2

y

2( t )

ev dv

1 0 1/2 2 ( 21 ( 0t )1/2 y)

(0)

dv + exp[( (

) y) ](

) exp[0](

)

2 t

t

t

Where the first and third terms go to zero because the the functions are not dependent on t, so the derivative

goes to zero.

1 0 1/2 2 ( 21 ( 0t )1/2 y)

= exp[( (

) y) ](

)

2 t

t

= exp[

1 0 2 ( 21 ( 0t )1/2 y)

(

)y ](

)

4

t

t

1

(4)

I am going to step through the derivative with respect to t because I needed to do it myself:

( 21 ( 0t )1/2 y)

y (0 )1/2 ((t)1/2 )

=

t

2

t

y (0 )1/2 ((t)1/2 )

1 y (0 )1/2

=(

)

((t)3/2 )

2

t

2

2

( 12 ( 0t )1/2 y)

y (0 )1/2

=

((t)3/2 )

t

4

( 12 ( 0t )1/2 y)

1 0 1/2

) y)

=(

(

t

4 t2

So now that I have computed that, equation 4 becomes:

= exp[

1 0 2 1 0 1/2

) y)

(

)y ](

(

4

t

4 t2

1 0 2 1 0 1/2

) y)

(

)y ](

(

4

t

4 t2

But REMEMBER plug back into equation 3 (I have made this mistake twice while working through this

problem, including while typing it up)

exp[

B

1 0 2 1 0 1/2

2B0

= exp[

(

)y ](

(

) y)

t

4

t

4 t2

RHS =

(5)

1

2

0 B

Before starting this side of the question, it is important to point out that 2 =

2

y 2 ,

1

1 2

1 0 1/2

2 B =

[B0 erf [ (

) y]]

2

0

0 y

2 t

=

1 2B0

( [

0 y y

1 0 1/2

y

2( t )

ev dv])

(6)

Z 21 ( 0t )1/2 y

2

[

ev dv]

y 0

Back to our friend Leibniz!!

Z

2

1 0 1/2

e( 2 ( t ) y)

1 0 1/2 2 ( 21 ( 0t )1/2 y)

(0)

=

dv + exp[( (

) y) ](

) exp[0](

)

y

2 t

y

y

Just like the LHS, the first and third terms go to zero, leaving:

1 0 1/2 2 ( 21 ( 0t )1/2 y)

= exp[( (

) y) ](

)

2 t

y

= exp[

1 0 2 ( 21 ( 0t )1/2 y)

(

)y ](

)

4

t

y

What is good about a derivative with respect to y, is that it is easier to take than the one with respect to t:

= exp[

1 0 2 1 0 1/2

(

)y ]( (

) )

4

t

2 t

1 0 2 1 0 1/2

(exp[

(

)y ]( (

) ))

y

4

t

2 t

1 0 1/2

1 0 2

=( (

) ) (exp[

(

)y ])

2 t

y

4

t

1 0 1/2

1 0 2 1 0

=( (

) )exp[

(

)y ](

(

)y)

2 t

4

t

2

t

1 0 2

1 0 3/2

(

) y)exp[

(

)y ]

(7)

=(

4

t

4

t

Now that we have done that, we have to plug equation 7 back into equation 6 to finish salving for the RHS

of the equation.

1 2B0 1 0 3/2

1 0 2

(

=

(

) y)exp[

(

)y ]

0 4

t

4

t

Simplify:

=

1 B0 0 3/2

1 0 2

((

) y)exp[

(

)y ]

0 2

t

4

t

1 0 2

B0 0

(

)y ]

= ( ( 2 )1/2 y)exp[

4

t

2 t

2B0

1 0 2 1 0 1/2

B0 0

1 0 2

exp[

(

)y ](

( 2 ) y) = ( ( 2 )1/2 y)exp[

(

)y ]

4

t

4 t

4

t

2 t

Do a little rearranging and such:

2B0 1 0 1/2

B0 0

(

(

) y) = ( ( 2 )1/2 y)

4 t2

2 t

B0 0

B0 0

( ( 2 )1/2 y) = ( ( 2 )1/2 y)

2 t

2 t

Totally equal!!

Now the remainder of the problem, I did not do, but it is plotting and it is helpful to have the following

equations:

1

1 Bx

J =

B =

z

(8)

0

0 y

and

P (y) =

1

(B 2 B 2 )

20 0

(9)

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