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You are on page 1of 57

RMD510

Turbochargers

Session delivered by:

Prof Q.

Prof.

Q H.

H Nagpurwala

14

Session Objective

PEMP

RMD510

14

To understand the basic construction and working

of turbochargers

To discuss the design of radial compressor and

radial turbine modules of a typical turbocharger

PEMP

RMD510

(Based on Specific Speed)

14

PEMP

RMD510

Nozzle

blades

At rotor

t iinlet

l t

Expansion process in a

radial turbine

At rotor outlet

14

Design Guidelines

PEMP

RMD510

where U2 = U1, no contribution to the specific work is obtained from this term.

A positive contribution to the specific work is obtained from the second term

when w3 > w2. In fact, accelerating the relative velocity through the rotor is a most

useful aim of the designer as this is conducive to achieving a low loss flow.

The third term indicates that the absolute velocity

y at rotor inlet should be larger

g

than at rotor outlet so as to increase the work input to the rotor.

14

Design Guidelines

The

Th

PEMP

RMD510

nominall design

d

i defined

is

d fi d by

b

relative flow with zero incidence at rotor inlet, i.e. W2 = Cr2, and

axial absolute flow at rotor exit,, i.e. C3 = Cx3

Thus,

with Cw3 = 0 and Cw2 = U2, the specific work for the nominal design is

Spouting Velocity:

The term spouting velocity, C0 (originating from hydraulic turbine practice) is

ddefined

fi d as that

h velocity

l i which

hi h hhas an associated

i d ki

i energy equall to the

h

kinetic

isentropic enthalpy drop from turbine inlet stagnation pressure p01 to the final

exhaust pressure. When no diffuser is used

or

With complete recovery of the exhaust kinetic energy, and with Cw2 = U2,

At the best efficiency point, generally, 0.68 < U2 / C0 < 0.71.

14

Design Guidelines

The

PEMP

RMD510

blades are aligned along the radii for much of their length.

Absolute

Absolute

Ab l

flow

fl angle

l at exducer

d

exit

i = 0.

0

Inlet relative velocity should be aligned to the blade direction at inlet, which

means that it should be radial. However,

as the blade tips are open, such high pressure loading can not be maintained

Max. efficiency in radial inflow turbines is achieved when inlet flow angle is

modified by the concept of slip or deviation as applied to radial compressors.

The

Th

recommended

d d slip

li correlation

l ti is

i that

th t given

i

by

b Wiesner

Wi

Cu ,1,ac

cos 1

w

1

0.7

C

Z

u ,1,tl

14

w r t radial direction

PEMP

RMD510

The slip factor for radial bladed rotor varies with the number of blades:

14

on rotor pperiphery

p y

Slip factor

Cu,11/u1

9

11

13

15

17

19

0.785

0 813

0.813

0.834

0.850

0.862

0.873

Design Data

Inlet temperature

: 1200 K

Inlet pressure

: 300 000 Pa

PEMP

RMD510

Hot-gas inlet mass flow

: 0.5 kg/s

Fuel/Air ratio

: 0.02

: 13 (radial)

: 70 to radial direction

Blade axial width at inlet

Rotational speed

14

act

c1

C1

PEMP

RMD510

W1

Cr,1

r1

Cu,1

u1

14

10

PEMP

RMD510

G

Guess S

Stagnation-to-Stagnation

i

S

i polytropic

l

i efficiency

ffi i

= 0.92

0 92

For 13 blades w= = 0.834

T0, 2

T0,1

p0 , 2

p0,1

cp

p ,c

T0,2 = 961.36 K

Then, T 1080.68 K

c p 1194.64 J/kg K

h 0 C p T 0 285,089 J/kg

act

C1

c1

1 W1

Cr,1

Cu,1 487.6 m/s

C1 518.9 m/s

Cr,1 181.1 m/s

W1 206.4 m/s

14

Cu,1

u1

@ M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

11

maximum total

total-to-static

to static efficiency

(Rohlik 1968)

14

PEMP

RMD510

(Rohlik 1968)

12

PEMP

RMD510

Curves for specific speed for radial flow turbine indicate that the max.

efficiency should reach at non-dimensional Ns of 0.6.

N s,op 0.6

2N Vin

60 h

2N d1 Nd1

u1 r1

60 2

60

2 b1

d1

g c h0 u1

34

Cr,1 d1 b1 d1

2

Ns

2 34

14

13

PEMP

RMD510

N s2 3 2u13 N s2 3 2 u1

b1

2 2

d1 d1 C r,1 4 C r,1

tan c,1 u1 C r,1

2 12

b1 N s tan c,1

d1

4

inputs we get

b1/d1 = 0.072

Bothh b1 andd d1 can be

B

b determined

d

i d by

b calculating

l l i volume

l

flow

fl rate at

rotor inlet.

C1

0.8843

g c RT0 ,1

14

14

PEMP

RMD510

from the following relation or

the figure

g

0.8843

1

2

Cp

M

C

2

1

1

R

Cp

g c RT 0

2

1

M 1 0.815

14

15

Calculation of Density

st,1

0 ,1

2

M1

Cp

1

2

R

C p

R

PEMP

RMD510

0.729

The stagnation density at rotor inlet can be assumed equal to that at nozzle

inlet for this preliminary design

0 .8712 kg m 3

st,1 0.

0 6353 kg

k m3

14

16

Rotational Speed

PEMP

RMD510

0 .5

d

181.11 0 .6353 0 .072

2

1

d 1 138 .6 mm

b1 9 .98 mm

2 N d 1

u1

60 2

60 u1

N

80 560 rpm

d 1

14

17

PEMP

RMD510

Final Design

Having found the basic geometric

parameters of the rotor (and inlet nozzle

vanes), the blade profiles can be generated by

Inlet

Exit

using

i commercial

i l software,

f

like

lik

BLADEGEN

The

iteration between structural integrity

(considering aerodynamic and thermal

loading) and aerodynamic performance.

Finally, the mechanical design should be

carried out, taking due care of the component

manufacturing

g and assemblyy requirements.

q

14

Nozzle

vane

Exducer

18

PEMP

RMD510

Design of Turbocharger

(Based on Specific Speed)

14

19

Schematic of a Turbocharger

14

PEMP

RMD510

20

Turbocharger Components

14

PEMP

RMD510

21

Working of Turbocharger

14

PEMP

RMD510

22

PEMP

RMD510

Compressor

Turbine

1.0

1.04

Inlet stagnation

g

temperature,

p

,K

300 ((T0,1

0 1)

800 ((T0,4

0 4)

1*105 (P0,1)

2* 105(Pst,3)

Air

Combustion

Co

bust o products

p oducts 100%

00%

theoretical air

Cp J/(kg K ) & ( Cp /R )

1010 (3.52)

1172 (4084)

Blade angle

g at periphery

p p y

30 (2)

0 (5)

Specific speed, Ns

0.628

--

dhb,1/ dsh,1

0.60

--

0.82 (p,ts,1-3

0.8

p ts 1 3)

0.82 (p,ts,4-7

0.8

p ts 4 7)

60

70

blades Z

17

13

0.96 (p,tt,1-2)

0.96 (p,tt,5-6)

Fluid

ud

Polytropic

o y op c efficiency

e c e cy

Polytropic efficiency

14

23

Calculations Planes

14

PEMP

RMD510

24

Wiesners Correlation

PEMP

RMD510

the number of blades, Z, in the radial turbine as well as in the

radial

di l compressor.

cos

Cu,1,ac

1

w

1

0

.

7

C

u

u,

1

,tl

tl

Z

14

25

PEMP

RMD510

14

26

PEMP

RMD510

u2

CCu,2,tl

u,2,tl

Cu,2

Cr,2 W2

c2=60

60

2=30

30

ush,1

Cx,sh,1

x sh 1

14

h1

w,sh,1 Wsh,1

27

Enthalpy Rise

R

C p

p,c,ts

PEMP

RMD510

T0 ,3 p 0 ,3

T0 ,1 p 0 ,1

p 0 ,3 p st,3 when p,c,ts is used

T0 ,3

2 0 .3484 1.2732

T0 ,1

T 0 ,1 3 0 .2732 300 81.95 K

C pc 1010 J/kgK

Therefore,

and

14

h 0 ,1 3 82722 J/kg

g c h0 ,13 3 4 4879 .9

@ M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

28

PEMP

RMD510

First iteration: 110 m/s

Second iteration: 127.3 m/s (all second iteration values are in parenthesis)

Cx

110

0 .375 0 .434

293 .41

g c RT 0 ,1

C p R 1

2

0

M

st

Cp

1

2

1.0520 1.0703

14

From slide 15

29

Rotational Speed

PEMP

RMD510

p0 ,1

105

1.1616 kg/m3

0 ,1

R T0 ,1 286.96 300

st,1 1.1042 kg/m3 ( 1.0853 )

m V

st,1 1

V1 0.9056 m 3 /s V1 0.9516

V 0.9214 m /s,

V1 0.9599

60 N s g c h0

N

2 V

34

14

30

PEMP

RMD510

u2

CCu,2,tl

u,2,tl

Cu,2

cos 2

Cu,ac

w 1

0.872

0 .7

Cu,tl

Z

Cr,2 W2

c2=60

2=30

1

1

Cu,2 tan 2

1

0.676

u2

tan c 2 w

0 .5

g c h0

82772

u2

0.676

d 2 60 u2 /N 219.2 mm

14

0 .5

350.0 m/s

/

31

PEMP

RMD510

Th procedure

The

d

to

t select

l t minimum

i i

Wsh,1 is

i as follows

f ll

2.

2

2

3. Calculate Aa d sh,

1 / 4 1 0.6

4.

2

m RT0 /g

/ c

M

M

1

5. from the relation

AP0

Cp

R

1

1

2

calculate M1

Cp

R

Cp

1

R

g

in tabular form in Slide 33,, in which the second iteration

values are given in brackets. The optimum value of dsh,1 is found to be 120 mm.

14

32

PEMP

RMD510

dsh,1 (mm)

100

125

120

ush,1(m/s)

= 1610.97 dsh,1

(= 1575.22 dsh,1)

161.10

(157.22)

201.37

(199.64)

193.32

(191.65)

5 026

5.026

7 854

7.854

7 2389

7.2389

0.5838

0.3736

0.4053

0.61

0.34

0.37

0.836

0.944

0.934

204 93

204.93

116 06

116.06

127 31

127.31

260.7

(258.5)

232.4

(230.9)

231.5

(230.1)

m RT0 ,1 /A p0 ,1

M1

st, 1 / 0 ,1

C x,1 ( m/s )

0 .86088

Aa st,1 / 0 ,1

14

33

Impeller-Diffuser Interface

PEMP

RMD510

Hence, the de Haller velocity ratio, W2 / Wsh,1= 0.83.

This should not lead to diffusion induced separation.

Impeller-Outlet and diffuser-inlet width, b2:

T0 ,2 381.95 K

C2

g c RT0 ,2 0.8281

M 2 0.740

st,2

0.771

0 ,2

14

34

PEMP

RMD510

Find

Fi d the

th rotor-outlet

t

tl t stagnation

t

ti pressure using

i the

th rotor

t efficiency

ffi i

C

p

R

p,c,tt,1 2

p0 ,2 T0 ,2

p0 ,1 T0 ,1

5

2

Therefore,, p0 ,2 2.262 10 N/m

0 ,2 2.0635 kg/m 3

3

.

st,

1

5909

kg/m

g

st 2

Inducer hub diameter can be determined from hub-tip ratio

d hb,

hb 1

0.60 d hb,1 0.60 120 72 mm

d sh,1

14

35

PEMP

RMD510

C2 d 2 2 st,2

Re,2

st,2

for mean Tst,2 320 K

2.020 10 5 Ns/m 2

Re,2 2.44 106

b2 r2 0.061

From the Stability limits in Jansens curves

b 2 / r2

0.125

0 08

0.08

0.061

14

(r3 / r2)mx

4.0

29

2.9

2.0 (by interpolation)

d3 =11.6

6 x 219

219.22 = 350 mm

36

PEMP

RMD510

14

37

PEMP

RMD510

14

38

Turbine Rotor Diameter:

h0 ,e

The turbine has

slightly increased

mass flow,

flow because

of fuel addition, and

must supply windage

and

d bearing

b i power in

i

addition to

compressor power.

PEMP

RMD510

2

u

1

02

.

5 Cu,5

82772 J/kg

g c u5

1.04

cos 5

Cu,5

1

Z e0 .7

Cu,u 5 ,tltl

Cu,5 ,tl u5 and 5 0 ; Z e 13

C u,5 ,ac

0 .834

u5

1.02 82772 .4

u

*

1.04 0 .834

u 5 312 .0 m/s

/ d 5 198 .1 mm

2

5

14

39

PEMP

RMD510

m e h 0 ,e 1.02 m c h 0 ,c

T 0 ,e

1010

1

.

02

1

.

0

81 .953 69 .27 K

1.04

1172

p 0 ,in T0 ,in

p 0 ,,ex T0 ,,ex

p 0 ,ex

C p

R

800

730 .73

p st,ex

p,e,ts

C p

R

p,e,ts

1.570

14

40

PEMP

RMD510

N l Outlet

Nozzle

O l Velocity:

Vl i

The following parameters have been calculated:

Blade speed = 312.0 m/s ; Work coefficient, = 0.834 ; Nozzle angle = 70

Cu,1 u1

tan 70

Cr,1 Cr,1

Cr,1 0.834

0.3035

u1

tan 70

Cr,1 94.70 m/s

Cr,5

cos 70

C5 276.89 m/s

C5

C5

276.89

0.5779

g c RT0

286.96*800

14

41

PEMP

RMD510

C p R 1

0

M

1.137

1

st 2 C p R 1

1.884 10 5

0 .8207 kg/m 3 st,5 0 .7215 kg/m 3

0 ,5

286 .96 800

2

Hence, the volume flow rate is 1.441 m3/s,

and the enthalpy drop is 81180 J/kg.

Vin

2 N

Specific speed, N s

60 g c h 0 3 4

14

2 30500

1441

0.797

0 797

3 4

60

81180

42

14

PEMP

RMD510

43

PEMP

RMD510

The optimum specific speed for radial-inflow turbine is about 0.65. The

specific speed of this turbine is high. We might expect that there might be a

problem arriving at an exducer in which the outlet diameter reduce.

Turbine inlet blade width to diameter ratio is calculated using the relation

b1 N s2 tan c1 3 2 N s2 tan c1 1 2

4

4

d1

b5 N s2 tan c 5 1 2

d5

4

0.797

tan 70 0.834

0.1269

4

1 7.9

14

44

maximum total

total-to-static

to static efficiency

(Rohlik 1968)

14

PEMP

RMD510

(Rohlik 1968)

45

PEMP

RMD510

temperature

temperature.

guess the static temperature.

T0 ,6 730.73 K

Tst,6 725 K

guess

1.2 105

st,6

0.577 kg/m 3

286.96 725

st,5 st,6 1.257

14

46

PEMP

RMD510

Results

of 0.3, are tabulated below:

---

0.8

0.9

1.0

---

0.935

0.881

0.836

---

1.15

1.208

1.314

Degrees

75.44

72.77

70.05

w,hb,6 tan

t 1 dsh,6 d5 Cx,6 C5

Degrees

49 12

49.12

44 06

44.06

39 51

39.51

Whb,,6 W5

14

47

Diameter Ratio

PEMP

RMD510

The diameter ratio and the relative flow acceleration are both

marginal at 0.8 velocity ratio. Both are satisfactory at a velocity ratio

of 0.9.

We select

d sh,6

0.881

d5

The exducer angles should be set to somewhat higher values to

allow for flow deviation.

shroud and 5 at the hub.

14

48

PEMP

RMD510

d sh,6 0.881*198.1

174.5 mm

2

34

d hb , 6

N s1

2

1 1

d sh , 6

0.8343 4 0.797

0.712

0.3035

2 1.0.506944 0.702

d hb,6 0.702 174.5 122.49 mm

b5

0.1269

d5

b5 0.1269 198.1 25.138 mm

14

49

PEMP

RMD510

At Shroud

At Hub

uhb,1

Cx,hb,1

Whb,1

Cx,sh,1 = 127.3

127 3 m/s

Wsh,1= 230.1

Whb,1 = 171.53

w,sh,1 = 56.4

14

w,hb,1

w,hb,1 = 42.1

@ M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

50

Outlet Velocity Triangle

PEMP

RMD510

=350 m/s

=271

271.3

3 m/s

=236.6 m/s

C2=274.1 m/s

=137.1 m/s

158.08 m/s

137.1

78.7

14

51

PEMP

RMD510

act

C5=276.89 m/s

c1=70

w5=28.68

Cr,5=94.7

W5=107.95 m/s

260.19

U5 =312.0 m/s

14

52

PEMP

RMD510

Creating a Blade:

14

53

PEMP

RMD510

Input Parameters:

Blade

Fluid Domain

14

Dsh = 14 mm

Dhb = 8.5 mm

D2 = 25 mm

D3 = 30 mm

2 = 30

Z = 10

54

Blade

Fluid Domain

14

PEMP

RMD510

Input Parameters:

Dsh = 21 mm

Dhb = 5.25 mm

D5 = 30 mm

c5 = 70

Z=9

55

PEMP

RMD510

Compressor

Turbine

14

56

Session Summary

PEMP

RMD510

specific

ifi speedd is

i discussed.

di

d

turbocharger are presented.

presented

design of compressor and radial turbine modules of a typical

turbocharger

14

57

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