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# PEMP

RMD510

## Design of Radial Turbines &

Turbochargers
Session delivered by:
Prof Q.
Prof.
Q H.
H Nagpurwala

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## @ M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

Session Objective

PEMP
RMD510

14

## procedure based on optimum specific speed

To understand the basic construction and working
of turbochargers
To discuss the design of radial compressor and
radial turbine modules of a typical turbocharger

## @ M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

PEMP
RMD510

(Based on Specific Speed)

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PEMP
RMD510

## Radial Turbine Layout and Expansion Process

Nozzle

At rotor
t iinlet
l t

Expansion process in a
At rotor outlet

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## @ M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

Design Guidelines

PEMP
RMD510

## from the first term. For an axial flow turbine,

where U2 = U1, no contribution to the specific work is obtained from this term.
A positive contribution to the specific work is obtained from the second term
when w3 > w2. In fact, accelerating the relative velocity through the rotor is a most
useful aim of the designer as this is conducive to achieving a low loss flow.
The third term indicates that the absolute velocity
y at rotor inlet should be larger
g
than at rotor outlet so as to increase the work input to the rotor.
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## @ M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

Design Guidelines
The
Th

PEMP
RMD510

nominall design
d
i defined
is
d fi d by
b

relative flow with zero incidence at rotor inlet, i.e. W2 = Cr2, and
axial absolute flow at rotor exit,, i.e. C3 = Cx3
Thus,

with Cw3 = 0 and Cw2 = U2, the specific work for the nominal design is

Spouting Velocity:
The term spouting velocity, C0 (originating from hydraulic turbine practice) is
ddefined
fi d as that
h velocity
l i which
hi h hhas an associated
i d ki
i energy equall to the
h
kinetic
isentropic enthalpy drop from turbine inlet stagnation pressure p01 to the final
exhaust pressure. When no diffuser is used
or

With complete recovery of the exhaust kinetic energy, and with Cw2 = U2,
At the best efficiency point, generally, 0.68 < U2 / C0 < 0.71.
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## @ M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

Design Guidelines
The

PEMP
RMD510

Absolute

## flow angle at rotor inlet = Nozzle outlet angle = ~ 70.

Absolute
Ab l

flow
fl angle
l at exducer
d
exit
i = 0.
0

Inlet relative velocity should be aligned to the blade direction at inlet, which
means that it should be radial. However,

Max. efficiency in radial inflow turbines is achieved when inlet flow angle is
modified by the concept of slip or deviation as applied to radial compressors.

The
Th

recommended
d d slip
li correlation
l ti is
i that
th t given
i
by
b Wiesner
Wi

Cu ,1,ac
cos 1
w
1
0.7
C
Z
u ,1,tl
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## Variation of Slip Factor with Z

PEMP
RMD510

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on rotor pperiphery
p y

Slip factor
Cu,11/u1

9
11
13
15
17
19

0.785
0 813
0.813
0.834
0.850
0.862
0.873

## @ M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

Design Data
Inlet temperature

: 1200 K

Inlet pressure

: 300 000 Pa

PEMP
RMD510

## Rotor-outlet stagnation pressure : 110 000 Pa

Hot-gas inlet mass flow

: 0.5 kg/s

Fuel/Air ratio

: 0.02

Rotational speed
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act

c1

C1

PEMP
RMD510

W1

Cr,1
r1
Cu,1
u1

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PEMP
RMD510

## Inlet Flow Parameters

G
Guess S
Stagnation-to-Stagnation
i
S
i polytropic
l
i efficiency
ffi i
= 0.92
0 92
For 13 blades w= = 0.834
T0, 2
T0,1

p0 , 2

p0,1

cp

p ,c

T0,2 = 961.36 K

Then, T 1080.68 K

c p 1194.64 J/kg K
h 0 C p T 0 285,089 J/kg

act

C1

c1

1 W1
Cr,1

## h 0 u12 u1 584.7 m/s

Cu,1 487.6 m/s
C1 518.9 m/s
Cr,1 181.1 m/s
W1 206.4 m/s
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Cu,1
u1
@ M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

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## Distribution of losses along envelope of

maximum total
total-to-static
to static efficiency
(Rohlik 1968)
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PEMP
RMD510

(Rohlik 1968)

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## Optimum Specific Speed ( contd.)

PEMP
RMD510

Curves for specific speed for radial flow turbine indicate that the max.
efficiency should reach at non-dimensional Ns of 0.6.

N s,op 0.6

2N Vin

60 h
2N d1 Nd1
u1 r1

60 2
60
2 b1

d1
g c h0 u1

34

Cr,1 d1 b1 d1
2

Ns

2 34

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## Rotor Inlet Width to Diameter Ratio

PEMP
RMD510

N s2 3 2u13 N s2 3 2 u1
b1

2 2

d1 d1 C r,1 4 C r,1
tan c,1 u1 C r,1
2 12
b1 N s tan c,1

d1
4

inputs we get

b1/d1 = 0.072
Bothh b1 andd d1 can be
B
b determined
d
i d by
b calculating
l l i volume
l
flow
fl rate at
rotor inlet.

C1
0.8843
g c RT0 ,1

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PEMP
RMD510

## Mach number can be determined

from the following relation or
the figure
g
0.8843

1

2
Cp
M
C

2

1
1
R
Cp
g c RT 0
2
1

M 1 0.815

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## @ M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

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Calculation of Density
st,1
0 ,1

2
M1

Cp

1
2
R

C p

R

PEMP
RMD510

0.729

The stagnation density at rotor inlet can be assumed equal to that at nozzle
inlet for this preliminary design

0 .8712 kg m 3

st,1 0.
0 6353 kg
k m3
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Rotational Speed

PEMP
RMD510

## m C r,1 st,1 d1 b1 C r,1 st,1 d12 b1 d 1

0 .5
d
181.11 0 .6353 0 .072
2
1

d 1 138 .6 mm
b1 9 .98 mm
2 N d 1
u1
60 2
60 u1
N
80 560 rpm
d 1
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## @ M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

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PEMP
RMD510

Final Design
Having found the basic geometric
parameters of the rotor (and inlet nozzle
vanes), the blade profiles can be generated by

Inlet

Exit

using

i commercial
i l software,
f
like
lik
The

## final design has to be arrived at through

iteration between structural integrity
(considering aerodynamic and thermal
Finally, the mechanical design should be
carried out, taking due care of the component
manufacturing
g and assemblyy requirements.
q

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Nozzle
vane

## @ M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

Exducer

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PEMP
RMD510

Design of Turbocharger
(Based on Specific Speed)

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## @ M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

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Schematic of a Turbocharger

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## @ M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

PEMP
RMD510

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Turbocharger Components

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## @ M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

PEMP
RMD510

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Working of Turbocharger

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PEMP
RMD510

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PEMP
RMD510

Compressor

Turbine

1.0

1.04

Inlet stagnation
g
temperature,
p
,K

300 ((T0,1
0 1)

800 ((T0,4
0 4)

1*105 (P0,1)

2* 105(Pst,3)

## 1.2* 105 (Pst,7)

Air

Combustion
Co
bust o products
p oducts 100%
00%
theoretical air

Cp J/(kg K ) & ( Cp /R )

1010 (3.52)

1172 (4084)

g at periphery
p p y

30 (2)

0 (5)

Specific speed, Ns

0.628

--

dhb,1/ dsh,1

0.60

--

0.82 (p,ts,1-3
0.8
p ts 1 3)

0.82 (p,ts,4-7
0.8
p ts 4 7)

60

70

17

13

0.96 (p,tt,1-2)

0.96 (p,tt,5-6)

## Mass flow rate, kg/s

Fluid
ud

Polytropic
o y op c efficiency
e c e cy

Polytropic efficiency
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## @ M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

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Calculations Planes

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## @ M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

PEMP
RMD510

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Wiesners Correlation

PEMP
RMD510

## This correlation, defining slip factor, , can be used to calculate

the number of blades, Z, in the radial turbine as well as in the
di l compressor.

cos
Cu,1,ac
1
w
1
0
.
7
C
u
u,
1
,tl
tl
Z

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PEMP
RMD510

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PEMP
RMD510

u2

CCu,2,tl
u,2,tl
Cu,2

Cr,2 W2
c2=60
60
2=30
30

ush,1
Cx,sh,1
x sh 1
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h1
w,sh,1 Wsh,1

## @ M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

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Enthalpy Rise
R

C p

p,c,ts

PEMP
RMD510

T0 ,3 p 0 ,3

T0 ,1 p 0 ,1
p 0 ,3 p st,3 when p,c,ts is used
T0 ,3
2 0 .3484 1.2732
T0 ,1
T 0 ,1 3 0 .2732 300 81.95 K
C pc 1010 J/kgK
Therefore,
and
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h 0 ,1 3 82722 J/kg

g c h0 ,13 3 4 4879 .9
@ M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

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PEMP
RMD510

## Guess inlet axial velocity

First iteration: 110 m/s
Second iteration: 127.3 m/s (all second iteration values are in parenthesis)
Cx
110

0 .375 0 .434
293 .41
g c RT 0 ,1

C p R 1

2
0
M

st
Cp

1
2

1.0520 1.0703
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## @ M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

From slide 15

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Rotational Speed

PEMP
RMD510

p0 ,1
105

1.1616 kg/m3
0 ,1
R T0 ,1 286.96 300
st,1 1.1042 kg/m3 ( 1.0853 )
m V
st,1 1

V1 0.9056 m 3 /s V1 0.9516

V 0.9214 m /s,

V1 0.9599

60 N s g c h0
N
2 V

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30

PEMP
RMD510

u2

CCu,2,tl
u,2,tl
Cu,2

cos 2
Cu,ac
w 1
0.872
0 .7
Cu,tl
Z

Cr,2 W2
c2=60
2=30

## For cos 2 cos 30 , Z 17

1
1

Cu,2 tan 2
1

0.676
u2
tan c 2 w
0 .5

g c h0
82772
u2

0.676

d 2 60 u2 /N 219.2 mm
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0 .5

350.0 m/s
/

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PEMP
RMD510

Th procedure
The
d
to
t select
l t minimum
i i
Wsh,1 is
i as follows
f ll

## 2 Calculate u sh,1 N / 60d sh,1

2.

2
2
3. Calculate Aa d sh,
1 / 4 1 0.6

## 4 Calculate m RT0 ,1 /Aa p0 ,1

4.

2
m RT0 /g
/ c
M
M

1
5. from the relation

AP0
Cp
R
1
1
2
calculate M1
Cp
R

Cp

1
R

## This pprocedure is given

g
in tabular form in Slide 33,, in which the second iteration
values are given in brackets. The optimum value of dsh,1 is found to be 120 mm.
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PEMP
RMD510

## Calculation of Optimum Shroud Parameter

dsh,1 (mm)

100

125

120

ush,1(m/s)
= 1610.97 dsh,1
(= 1575.22 dsh,1)

161.10
(157.22)

201.37
(199.64)

193.32
(191.65)

## Aa (m2 ) 0.5027dsh2 ,1 103

5 026
5.026

7 854
7.854

7 2389
7.2389

0.5838

0.3736

0.4053

0.61

0.34

0.37

0.836

0.944

0.934

204 93
204.93

116 06
116.06

127 31
127.31

260.7
(258.5)

232.4
(230.9)

231.5
(230.1)

m RT0 ,1 /A p0 ,1

M1
st, 1 / 0 ,1
C x,1 ( m/s )

0 .86088
Aa st,1 / 0 ,1

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## @ M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

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Impeller-Diffuser Interface

PEMP
RMD510

## The minimum value of Wsh,1 is found to be 230.1 m/s.

Hence, the de Haller velocity ratio, W2 / Wsh,1= 0.83.
This should not lead to diffusion induced separation.
Impeller-Outlet and diffuser-inlet width, b2:

## C2 u 2 sin c,2 274.1 m/s

T0 ,2 381.95 K
C2

g c RT0 ,2 0.8281

M 2 0.740
st,2
0.771
0 ,2
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## Inducer Hub-Tip Ratio

PEMP
RMD510

Find
Fi d the
th rotor-outlet
t
tl t stagnation
t
ti pressure using
i the
th rotor
t efficiency
ffi i
C
p
R

p,c,tt,1 2

p0 ,2 T0 ,2

p0 ,1 T0 ,1
5
2
Therefore,, p0 ,2 2.262 10 N/m
0 ,2 2.0635 kg/m 3
3
.
st,

1
5909
kg/m
g
st 2

## b2 m d 2 st,2C r,2 6.69 mm

Inducer hub diameter can be determined from hub-tip ratio
d hb,
hb 1
0.60 d hb,1 0.60 120 72 mm
d sh,1
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## @ M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

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PEMP
RMD510

C2 d 2 2 st,2
Re,2
st,2
for mean Tst,2 320 K

2.020 10 5 Ns/m 2
Re,2 2.44 106
b2 r2 0.061
From the Stability limits in Jansens curves
b 2 / r2
0.125
0 08
0.08
0.061
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(r3 / r2)mx
4.0
29
2.9
2.0 (by interpolation)

d3 =11.6
6 x 219
219.22 = 350 mm

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PEMP
RMD510

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37

PEMP
RMD510

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## Turbine Design Calculations

Turbine Rotor Diameter:

h0 ,e
The turbine has
slightly increased
mass flow,
flow because
must supply windage
and
d bearing
b i power in
i
compressor power.

PEMP
RMD510

2
u
1
02
.

5 Cu,5

82772 J/kg

g c u5
1.04

cos 5
Cu,5
1
Z e0 .7
Cu,u 5 ,tltl
Cu,5 ,tl u5 and 5 0 ; Z e 13

C u,5 ,ac
0 .834
u5
1.02 82772 .4
u
*
1.04 0 .834
u 5 312 .0 m/s
/ d 5 198 .1 mm
2
5

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PEMP
RMD510

## Turbine Pressure Ratio:

m e h 0 ,e 1.02 m c h 0 ,c
T 0 ,e

1010
1
.
02

1
.
0

81 .953 69 .27 K
1.04
1172

p 0 ,in T0 ,in

p 0 ,,ex T0 ,,ex

p 0 ,ex

C p

R

800

730 .73
p st,ex

p,e,ts

C p

R

p,e,ts

1.570

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## Turbine Design Calculations

PEMP
RMD510

N l Outlet
Nozzle
O l Velocity:
Vl i
The following parameters have been calculated:
Blade speed = 312.0 m/s ; Work coefficient, = 0.834 ; Nozzle angle = 70

Cu,1 u1
tan 70

Cr,1 Cr,1

Cr,1 0.834

0.3035
u1
tan 70
Cr,1 94.70 m/s
Cr,5
cos 70
C5 276.89 m/s
C5
C5
276.89

0.5779
g c RT0
286.96*800

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## Turbine Design Calculations

PEMP
RMD510

C p R 1

0
M
1.137
1

st 2 C p R 1
1.884 10 5
0 .8207 kg/m 3 st,5 0 .7215 kg/m 3
0 ,5
286 .96 800
2

## The mass flow rate is 1.04 kg/s

Hence, the volume flow rate is 1.441 m3/s,
and the enthalpy drop is 81180 J/kg.

Vin
2 N
Specific speed, N s
60 g c h 0 3 4

14

2 30500
1441

0.797
0 797
3 4
60
81180

42

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PEMP
RMD510

43

## Exit Width to Diameter Ratio

PEMP
RMD510

specific speed of this turbine is high. We might expect that there might be a
problem arriving at an exducer in which the outlet diameter reduce.
Turbine inlet blade width to diameter ratio is calculated using the relation

b1 N s2 tan c1 3 2 N s2 tan c1 1 2

4
4
d1
b5 N s2 tan c 5 1 2

d5
4

0.797

tan 70 0.834
0.1269
4

1 7.9
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## Distribution of losses along envelope of

maximum total
total-to-static
to static efficiency
(Rohlik 1968)
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PEMP
RMD510

(Rohlik 1968)

45

PEMP
RMD510

temperature
temperature.

## The Mach number here is low, and it will be sufficiently accurate to

guess the static temperature.

T0 ,6 730.73 K
Tst,6 725 K

guess

1.2 105
st,6
0.577 kg/m 3
286.96 725
st,5 st,6 1.257
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PEMP
RMD510

Results

## The results of the calculations, made for an exducer hub-shroud ratio

of 0.3, are tabulated below:
---

0.8

0.9

1.0

---

0.935

0.881

0.836

---

1.15

1.208

1.314

## w,sh,6 tan1 d sh,6 d5 Cx,6 Cr,5

Degrees

75.44

72.77

70.05

w,hb,6 tan
t 1 dsh,6 d5 Cx,6 C5

Degrees

49 12
49.12

44 06
44.06

39 51
39.51

Whb,,6 W5

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## @ M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

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Diameter Ratio

PEMP
RMD510

The diameter ratio and the relative flow acceleration are both
marginal at 0.8 velocity ratio. Both are satisfactory at a velocity ratio
of 0.9.

We select

d sh,6
0.881
d5

## The flow angles give a guide to the exducer blade angles.

The exducer angles should be set to somewhat higher values to
allow for flow deviation.

## An approximate estimate of this deviation would be 33 at the

shroud and 5 at the hub.

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## Turbine Hub and Tip Dimensions

PEMP
RMD510

d sh,6 0.881*198.1
174.5 mm
2

34

d hb , 6
N s1
2

1 1

d sh , 6
0.8343 4 0.797
0.712

0.3035
2 1.0.506944 0.702
d hb,6 0.702 174.5 122.49 mm
b5
0.1269
d5
b5 0.1269 198.1 25.138 mm
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PEMP
RMD510

At Shroud

At Hub
uhb,1
Cx,hb,1

Whb,1

Cx,sh,1 = 127.3
127 3 m/s

## Cx,hb,1 = 127.3 m/s

Wsh,1= 230.1

Whb,1 = 171.53

w,sh,1 = 56.4
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w,hb,1

w,hb,1 = 42.1
@ M S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

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## Data for Modeling the Compressor

Outlet Velocity Triangle

PEMP
RMD510

=350 m/s
=271
271.3
3 m/s
=236.6 m/s

C2=274.1 m/s

=137.1 m/s
158.08 m/s

137.1

78.7
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PEMP
RMD510

act

C5=276.89 m/s

c1=70

w5=28.68

Cr,5=94.7

W5=107.95 m/s

260.19
U5 =312.0 m/s

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PEMP
RMD510

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## Geometric Model - Compressor

PEMP
RMD510

Input Parameters:

Fluid Domain

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Dsh = 14 mm
Dhb = 8.5 mm
D2 = 25 mm
D3 = 30 mm
2 = 30
Z = 10

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## Geometric Model - Compressor

Fluid Domain

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PEMP
RMD510

Input Parameters:
Dsh = 21 mm
Dhb = 5.25 mm
D5 = 30 mm
c5 = 70
Z=9

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PEMP
RMD510

Compressor

Turbine

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Session Summary

PEMP
RMD510

specific
ifi speedd is
i discussed.
di
d

## Salient constructional features and working principle of a

turbocharger are presented.
presented

## The design of radial machines is explained through step by step

design of compressor and radial turbine modules of a typical
turbocharger

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