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Types of Steel

1) Carbon Steels:
Carbon steels contain trace amounts of alloying
elements and account for 90% of total steel
production. Carbon steels can be further categorized
into three groups depending on their carbon content:

Steels contain more than 0.6%

Low Carbon Steels/Mild Steels contain up to 0.3%

Medium Carbon Steels contain 0.3 0.6% carbon
High Carbon

include pipelines, auto parts,

power generators and electric

2) Alloy Steels:
Alloy steels contain alloying elements (e.g.
manganese, silicon, nickel, titanium, copper,
chromium and aluminum) in varying proportions in
order to manipulate the steel's properties, such as its
hardenability, corrosion resistance, strength,
formability, weldability or ductility. Applications for
alloys steel

3) Stainless Steels:
Stainless steels generally contain between 10-20%
chromium as the main alloying element and are
valued for high corrosion resistance. With over 11%
chromium, steel is about 200 times more resistant to
corrosion than mild steel. These steels can be divided
into three groups based on their crystalline structure:

Austenitic: Austenitic steels are non-magnetic and non

heat-treatable, and generally contain 18% chromium,
8% nickel and less than 0.8% carbon. Austenitic
steels form the largest portion of the global stainless
steel market and are often used in food processing
equipment, kitchen utensils and piping.
Ferritic: Ferritic steels contain trace amounts of nickel, 12-17% chromium, less than
0.1% carbon, along with other alloying elements, such as molybdenum, aluminum or
titanium. These magnetic steels cannot be hardened with heat treatment, but can be
strengthened by cold working.
Martensitic: Martensitic steels contain 11-17% chromium, less than 0.4% nickel and up
to 1.2% carbon. These magnetic and heat-treatable steels are used in knives, cutting
tools, as well as dental and surgical equipment.
4) Tool Steels:
Tool steels contain tungsten, molybdenum, cobalt and
vanadium in varying quantities to increase heat
resistance and durability, making them ideal for cutting
and drilling equipment.
Steel products can also be divided by their shapes and
related applications:
Long/Tubular Products include bars and rods, rails,
wires, angles, pipes, and shapes and sections. These
products are commonly used in the automotive and
construction sectors.
Flat Products include plates, sheets, coils and strips.
These materials are mainly used in automotive parts,
appliances, packaging, shipbuilding, and construction.
Other Products include valves, fittings, and flanges and
are mainly used as piping materials.


Types of Welding
1) Stick - Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)
Shielded Metal Arc Welding, commonly called Stick, is a welding process that
uses an electrode (welding rod) to carry the electric current and provide the
majority of the weld metal. The electrode consists of a core wire coated in flux.
An electric arc is created across the gap when the energized circuit and the
electrode tip touches the work piece and is withdrawn, yet still within close
contact, generating temperatures of approximately 6500F. This heat melts both
the base metal and the electrode creating the weld. During this process, the
molten metal is protected from oxides and nitrides in the atmosphere by a
gaseous shield created by the vaporizing of the flux coating. The electrode
produces a slag covering on the finished weld.
Typical Uses: Steel Erection, Heavy equipment repair, Construction, Pipeline

2) TIG - Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW)

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding, commonly called TIG or Heliarc, is a welding process
that uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode to heat the base metal and to

create a molten weld puddle. An autogenous (no filler metal) weld can be created
by melting two pieces of metal together. An external filler rod can be added into
the molten puddle to create the weld bead and increase mechanical properties.
Like the GMAW process, the molten weld puddle needs to be shielded by an
external gas supply. The most commonly used shielding gas is argon, but
argon/helium mixtures can be used on heavy aluminum. GTAW can be used to
weld most alloys.
Typical Uses: Aerospace welding, piping systems, motorcycles or bikes

3) MIG - Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)

Gas Metal Arc Welding, commonly called MIG welding, is a process that uses a
continuously fed, solid wire electrode through a welding "gun." The operator pulls
a trigger on the welding gun, which feeds the consumable electrode through. An
electric arc forms between the electrode and the base material, which heats the
base material, causing it to melt, and join. The molten weld metal is protected
from oxides and nitrides in the atmosphere by an externally supplied shielding
gas. The most commonly used gas is carbon dioxide or a mixture of argon and
carbon dioxide. The GMAW process can be used to weld a wide range of alloys
including carbon steel, stainless steel, magnesium, nickel, copper, silicon bronze
and aluminum.
Typical Uses: Small to large manufacturing, Auto Body, Fabrication

4) Flux-Cored Arc Welding - (FCAW)

Flux-cored Arc Welding is a welding process similar to GMAW, in that it uses a
continuously fed electrode, but uses a tubular wire filled with flux instead of a
solid wire. There are two types of flux-cored wire, self-shielded and dual shield.
Self-shielded is used without the aid of an external gas shield and uses the flux
to shield the molten weld puddle. Dual shield uses the flux and an external
shielding gas to protect the molten weld puddle. Typical shielding gases are
carbon dioxide and argon/carbon dioxide mixes. Self-shielded wires are optimal
for outdoor use, even in windy situations. Both wires produce a slag covering on
the finished weld.
Typical Uses: Thick materials, Steel Erection, Heavy Equipment construction or


Types of Welding

Butt Joint
A butt weld, or a square-groove, is the
most common and easiest to use.
Consisting of two flat pieces that are
parallel to one another, it also is an
economical option. It is the universally
used method of joining a pipe to itself,
as well as flanges, valves, fittings, or
other equipment. However, it is limited
by any thickness exceeding 3/16.
Corner Joint
A corner weld is a type of joint that is
between two metal parts and is located
at right angles to one another in the form
of a L. As the name indicates, it is used
to connect two pieces together, forming
a corner. This weld is most often used in
the sheet metal industry and is
performed on the outside edge of the
Edge Joint
Edge welding joints, a groove type of
weld, are placed side by side and
welded on the same edge. They are the
most commonly replaced type of joints
due to build up accumulating on the
edges. They are often applied to parts of
sheet metal that have edges flanging up
or formed at a place where a weld must

be made to join two adjacent pieces

Lap Joint
This is formed when two pieces are
placed atop each other while also over
lapping each other for a certain distance
along the edge. Considered a fillet type
of a welding joint, the weld can be made
on one or both sides, depending upon
the welding symbol or drawing
requirements. It is most often used to
join two pieces together with differing
levels of thickness.
Tee Joint
Tee joints, considered a fillet type of
weld, form when two members intersect
at 90 resulting in the edges coming
together in the middle of a component or
plate. It may also be formed when a
tube or pipe is placed on a baseplate.






AR163P AR4