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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1: Problem and Its Background

3-13

Introduction

Background of the Study

Theoretical Framework

Conceptual Framework

Statement of the Problem

11

Significance of the Study

13

Scope and Limitations

13

Definition of Terms

14

CHAPTER 2: Review of the Related Literature

16-23

Local Literature and Studies

16

Foreign Literature

20

Foreign Studies

22

Synthesis

22

CHAPTER 3: Methodology

24-28

CHAPTER I
PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
INTRODUCTION
ROTC has been a long established part of the educational system as a training
ground for army reserve members."The most prominent argument on behalf of ROTC is
the traditional citizen soldier rationale, which emphasizes how ROTC can broaden the
militarys exposure to high levels of the civilian mind. In this line of argument, officers
trained by ROTC are more likely to balance military virtues with a commitment to the
norms of civil society and the constitutional order. This balance is good for America
because, among other things, it can enhance effective civilian control of the military. The
contemporary viability of the citizen soldier concept has occasioned much debate, but it
continues to be a useful and important aspiration in a polity in which deep respect for
constitutional principles coexists with substantial defense obligations and needs."
(Dawns, 2011)
ROTC strives to develop the leadership skills of a student not only in theory but
also as an application to the military training that the program has. Military discipline and
military courtesy are tenets of the curriculum, infusing these to produce able-bodied and
military-ready students that can be called to service in times of need. The countrys
disadvantage in terms of weapons and materials for combat is greatly emphasized
when the Philippines is under threat, therefore at least training the students to have the
capability to fight and defend is a form of heightening the military capabilities to some
extent. The discipline that ROTC students develop under the training is tantamount to
the maturity of a person, especially the clarity of mind that they display under pressure.

The ideal ordeal is that students who finished ROTC can be used as reserves for the
AFP or Armed Forces of the Philippines.
However this army training curriculum for students faced problems since its
creation, resulting to countless that aimed to finish the program.Discontent over ROTC
- its content, conduct, the competence of its training staff and the corruption that often
plagued the individual units - had been well known for years. Casual surfing of Filipino
student websites often reveals short essays or articles about the perceived
pointlessness of the program. Student groups also occasionally took up the matter in
their roster of grievances." (ARESCOM, 2016) Not only was its application deemed
ineffective but students also suffer from unjust offices who abuse their powers. The
span of ROTC's life has been plagued with protests from students and parents as well
who wish to abolish this training.
The ROTC program was made optional and voluntary, and this led to a decline in
the number of young men taking up the program in preparation for a possible military
career. It has resulted in the loss of

potential leaders for our military

who would be interested in a military career without necessarily

young

men

having to join the

Philippine Military Academy.


Changes were made and now that President Duterte promised more changes,
ROTC is pushed to be mandatory to all students. Dissent over this was present in the
form of contradictions that ROTC is not the way to make the students devoted to their
country, and that the program brought more problems than achieving the goal that it
pursues to attain.

The question remains of whether ROTC is really necessary to reach the hearts of
the students to raise their sense of patriotism to the country. To attain effective
changes, it is essential that a superior authority take the initiative and force thoughtful
action. (Ringgold, 1959) Imperfections to the curriculum and implementation of ROTC
cannot be denied, and the harnessing of these aspects should also be a part of the
changes that the program should pursue before it can be fully utilized by the students.
This research will determine whether the proposed mandatory implementation of
ROTC by President Duterte is a way to strengthen patriotism to the students or a form
of militarization through the perception of senior high students of the Polytechnic
University of the Philippines.

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY


Education has always been a priority for Filipino families as the necessary
weapon in establishing one's self in the platform of the world. It is the conceived idea
that attaining proper and formal education enables a person to be competitive and to
develop character as well as attitude. The field of education itself has evolved to suit the
learning needs of the youth today. The goal of learning is not only limited to the concept
of instilling lessons of Mathematics or Science to the minds of students but also the
development of a child's character and sense of self in order to pursue growth that can
be a foundation to being a productive and responsible citizen.
Long before education became available to all social classes in the Philippines, a
form of ROTC was already created during the Spanish occupation when students from
the University of Santo Tomas were made into a battalion to help in the war against

invading English troops. This shows how the need for people to fight was the cause for
the creation of what is now called ROTC.
"ROTC aims provide military education and training for students to mobilize them
for national defense preparedness. Its specific objectives include preparation of college
students for service in the Armed Forces of the Philippines in the event of an emergency
and their training to become reservists and into commissioned officers of the AFP"
(Wikipedia) In 1939, ROTC was made mandatory by President Manuel L. Quezon, a
move that was later rallied into abolishment over the death of Cadet Sergeant Major
Mark Welson Chua.
Revisions to make the program better were done by the Congress, resulting to
the creation of the National Service Training Program or NSTP. NSTP removed ROTC
as a prerequisite to graduate for the male students and the women were also included
to the change. They were now also required to participate in the national service. NSTP
became another option to take up in order to still continue the point of harnessing a
sense of patriotism in the students. The call for abolishing ROTC was rekindled when
students of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines was reported to have been
tortured by ROTC officers. The program was once again put into the spotlight, where
protests started again.
Today ROTC is still present, but President Duterte wishes to make it mandatory
to all students as a form of instilling patriotism to the hearts of the Filipinos at a young
age. This research aims to determine if the senior high students that can be affected by
this mandatory implementation also shares this perception or if this move is a sign of
invigorating the militarization of the Philippines.

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Institutional arguments rely not on aggregations of individual action, or on
patterned interaction games between individuals, but on institutions that structure
action (Clemens and Cook 1999: 442). Institutions are emergent, higher-order factors
above the individual level, constraining or constituting the interests and political
participation of actors without requiring repeated collective mobilization or authoritative
intervention to achieve these regularities (Jepperson 1991: 145).
As the new administration sits after election, proposed reforms occur on the
certain programs such as the reinstatement of mandatory ROTC. But certain groups,
specifically Anakbayan and National Union of Students of the Philippines (NUSP)
already express their anti-sentiments due to some abuses and incidents that are
reported before or even at the present time that it is not mandatory.
Institutional arguments are not about aggregations of individual action, but
higher-order factors above the individual level that influence political processes and
outcomes and tend to produce regular patterns or stasis.
Considering that the government as an institution with given power to provide the
welfare of its constituencies by means policies should consider the stance of any
persons or groups that will be affected by those policies. In the first place, the institution
must act in accordance with whats for the betterment of the people who elected them
without any authoritative intervention. The government should consider the rallies,
collective mobilizations and oppressions made by some youth organizations and other
groups who are fighting to stop the violence inside ROTC program. It should not just
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look for the mandate of the higher officials hence; take those oppressions as a tool to
improve their policies.
Primarily, the national governments together with the ROTC as an institution are
the main concern here. The subsequent incidents and abuses inside the ROTC
program show that the government lacks in intervention to address those issues. The
only concern of the current administration is the instilling of nationalism and patriotism
thru mandatory ROTC without ratifying or reforming the ROTC Program. In lieu with
this, Anakbayan and NUSP now push for the abolishment of the said program because
they believe that making it mandatory will worsen the situation and instilling patriotism
and nationalism can be achieved by other means than the program of ROTC.
If the government will listen to the people or use these mobilizations as a tool to
improve the ROTC Program, there will be no next mobilization that will happen or if the
government will improve and will give attention to the issues inside and address it
properly, most of the people will support the action of the government.

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

The nature of Reserve Officers Training Corps Program in the Philippines is to provide
additional arms to the military force in times of war in the form of the students with proper
military training as well as proper leadership and discipline.Alongside with this, graduating from
ROTC can heighten the quality of protection and discipline that a student can have. One of the
goals of ROTC is to promote nationalism and patriotism, yet the problems arose as some
officers abuse their powers. Problems faced by ROTC can be seen inside the program, the
incidents and violence revealed by some students show that the program needs attention and
reform and this problem is the main reason why some youth organizations are totally against the
reinstatement of mandatory ROTC and push for the abolishment of the said program.

CONCEPTUAL PARADIGM

Figure 1.Conceptual paradigm showing the possible effects of mandatory ROTC on the
respondents, senior high school students and the state.
This shows the possible outcomes if they pursue mandatory Reserve Officers
Training Corps in the Philippines. The key players (senior high school students, ROTC
officers) are the first ones to be affected if ever the mandatory implementation of ROTC
comes to life. The effects may be positive (nationalism and patriotism) or negative
(abuse of powers by the officials) Either way, the state is the key factor to be affected by
all these.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

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At the end of this study, the researchers aim to answer the following questions
with regards to the mandatory reinstatement of Reserved Officers Training Corps
Program by the Duterte Administration:
1. Is the proposed mandatory implementation of ROTC a move to promote
militarization among the youth or to simply revive their patriotism for the country?
2. How will the youth accept the program?
3. What changes are needed for ROTC to become successful in achieving its
goals?
4. How can the government sustain the proposed changes in the program?
5. What are the other benefits of the ROTC program to the youth?
6. What are the other means that the government can use to revive the youths
patriotism and nationalism?
7. What is the governments alternative plan if the mandatory implementation of
ROTC will not push through?
8. What problems can arise when ROTC will be implemented mandatorily?
Mark Welson Chua was a student of University of Santo Tomas and the first
victim of ROTCs abuse of power after he exposed alleged irregularities inside the
ROTC department of the university. Chua, received death threats after his revelation.
His ROTC commandant advised him to undergo security training at Fort Bonifacio. Until
15 March 2001, he was able to meet the agent, but he was never seen alive. His body
was found floating in Pasig River, wrapped in a carpet, hands and feet were tied and his
face wrapped in cloth and packing tape.
His death became the catalyst for the passage of Republic Act 9163 or the
"National Service Training Program Law", which removed completion of mandatory
ROTC as a precondition for graduation for male college students in the Philippines. As a
result, students were allowed to choose either ROTC or community service. But still, the
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abuse made by some officers is inevitable. Last 2014, students from Polytechnic
University of the Philippines revealed their hazing experience inside the campus
performed by some ROTC officials.
The general problem in this study is the reinstatement of ROTC, per se. Given
the situations that happened before, why is it that the present administration still wants
to pursue it? Is this toinstill patriotism and discipline the youth of this nation or is this for
militarization?
Senator Win Gatchalian had already filed Senate Bill No. 200, the Mandatory Act,
on June 30. As a staunch supporter of ROTC, Gatchalian believes that this will stimulate
the love, patriotism and nationalism for the country.
But some youth organizations like National Union of Students of the Philippines
(NUSP) and militant group Anakbayan expressed their opposition against the actions
made by the government. They believe that there are other ways or programs that youth
can instill discipline and good citizenship. Theyre pushing for the abolition of ROTC
as it never instilled nationalism, social responsibility, or discipline. Making it mandatory
again would result to an increase in the number of hazing and abuse victims.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
To the students. This research aims to raise awareness to the senior high
students who will be a part of the ROTC program if ever its mandatory implementation
becomes a reality or not. This can be used as a guide to students as a basis if they
decide to join ROTC or not.

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To the ROTC officers. This study can be used for them as a reading tool that can
heighten their knowledge concerning the problems of the program. As a part of the body
of the ROTC program, the officers have a huge role to the betterment and improvement
of the training.
To the future researchers. This research can be used as reference to the studies
of the same sphere of subjects to upcoming researchers.
To the society. This study can be utilized as a guide for the people whether or not
they find the proposed mandatory implementation of ROTC agreeable and a useful tool
for instilling patriotism to the students or a form of militarization.
SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS
This study focused on the perception of the Senior High School students in the
reinstatement of mandatory Reserve Officers Training Corps in the Philippines under
President Rodrigo Duterte Administration. The respondents of the study were composed
of 400 senior high school students (50 each from Science and Technology, Engineering,
Mathematics Strand1, Arts and Design Trace2, Accountancy, Business and Management
Strand- Business Administration 3, Humanities and Social Sciences Strand 4, and General
Academic Strand5 and 20 each under Technical-Vocational Tracks).
The researchers considered working on this study to find out how these high
school students view ROTC, if it intends to promote patriotism or if it only for
militarization. And to analyze the reasons why it should be reinstated after the series of
corruption scandals and youth protests against the course.

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DEFINITION OF TERMS

ROTC - Reserved Officers Training Corps


Militarization to adapt for military use
Patriotism love for or devotion to ones country
Nationalism a sense of national consciousness exalting one nation above all
others and placing primary emphasis on promotion of its culture and interests as

opposed to those of other nations or supranational.


Fascism a way of organizing a society in which a government ruled by dictator
controls the lives of the people and in which people are not allowed to disagree

with the government.


Military Courtesy pertains to the wholesome relationships between juniors and
seniors, between young and old, with all persons. It includes an essential
element of a full and proper appreciation of the rights of others. It also includes
special acts and ceremonial procedures, which are prescribed in official

regulations.
Military Discipline is a state of order and obedience existing within a command.
It involves the ready subordination of the will of the individual for the good of the
group. It is an extension and specialized application of the discipline that
demands habitual but reasoned obedience that preserves initiative and functions
unfalteringly even in the absence of the commander.

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CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Presented in this chapter are foreign and local literatures and studies gathered
from books and online resources used by the researchers in the pursuit of this paper in
order to have a more accurate study. This helped the researchers have a better
understanding and a wider perspective on this study
LOCAL LITERATURE AND STUDIES
The establishment of the Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC) primarily
focuses on its main goals: to instill the senses of nationalism and patriotism among the
youth, to prepare them for a noteworthy leadership and citizenship and utmost, to
develop leaders and militia of high-quality in the future ready to defend and stand up for
the betterment of the state and its people. The future of morale and safety of a nation
lies on the shoulders of our armed forces. It is vital even at a young age, being ablebodied for such trainings to actively engage in our progress and emancipating safety of
the nation and the publics development as well.

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As a sub-field of Strategic Studies and Political Science, the study of civil-military


relations, focuses on the (Lovell, 1974) threat posed by the military institution (the
existence of a large professional army) to the popular rule by a civilian government, and
to the individual citizens political and civil rights. 1
The military programs model was in parallel with that of the United States of
America which started in 1862 where it was instigated as an elective for college
students.2 (Changco & Santiago, 2013)
The pioneer unit of the ROTC was the University of the Philippines ROTC Unit or
the UP Vanguards which was established in 1922 3. Followed by the founding of the
ROTC units in National University, Ateneo de Manila, Liceo de Manila, and Colegio de
San Juan de Letran, until number of schools nationwide adopted the military program
after the endorsement of the Commonwealth Act No. 1.
As cited in Article VI, Section 35 of the Commonwealth Act No. 1 or the National
Defense Act of 1935, the concept of ROTC came into its being with only schools and
institutions designated by the President to maintain and establish a Reserve Officers
Training Units, mandatory for every physically fit student to pursue a course of military
instruction designed to qualify him for a commission as a Third Lieutenant of reserve
with a power to choose where would he want to render service.
1 John P. Lovell, Civil Military Relations: Traditional and Modern Concepts Reappraised, Civil-Military
Relations: Changing Concepts in the Seventies (New York; London: The Free Press and Collier MacMillan
Publishers, 1974). p. 11.

2Data taken from Reviving Mandatory ROTC, The Lasallian, September 9, 2015. Retrieved August 8, 2016
3 UP ROTC,The Vanguards, www.uprotc.org , Retrieved August 7, 2016
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During the Second World War, the army reserves produced by the ROTC
program were first put into action. The ROTC cadets from the 33 colleges and
universities who have active units took part and were first seen in action during the
Second World War. Cadets from different Metro Manila units took part in the defense of
Bataan, while in the Visayas, 45 percent of the 75th Infantry Regiment of the US Armed
Forces in the Far East (USAFFE) were ROTC cadets of Silliman University.4
In 1967, President Ferdinand Marcos issued Executive Order No. 59, making
ROTC a mandatory course in all colleges and universities with an enrollment of at least
250 male students. A noteworthy development during this period was a program called
Rainbow Rangers-Sunday soldiers. It provided an alternative to what was basically a
ceremony-centered ROTC training program. It exposed the cadets to small unit tactics,
unconventional warfare and home defense techniques.
The mandatory ROTC program was scrummed in the college levels curriculum
in year 2002, after the reported death of a ROTC cadet Mark Wilson Chua 5, student of
University of Santo Tomas, allegedly killed by his co-cadets and upper-class men after
exposing corruption in the UST ROTC corps.
Following the passage of Republic Act 9163, an Act Establishing the National
Service Training Program (NSTP), unlike the ROTC, on the other hand, lets college
students to choose and complete at least one of its three components to be able to

4Data taken from Reviving Mandatory ROTC, The Lasallian, September 9, 2015. Retrieved August 8, 2016
5 Data taken from Military men suspected in UST students slay Inquirer News, March 28, 2001
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graduate for a period of only two (2) academic semesters 6: the ROTC program, which
provides military training; Literacy Training Service (LTS), which provides training on
teaching basic reading and math; and Civic Welfare Training Service (CWTS), which
involves students in activities contributing to community welfare, such as caring for the
environment, public safety, health, sports, and entrepreneurship, as defined in Section 3
of RA 9163.
What is needed to support the Armed Forces is a citizen army of well-trained
reserves that can make life difficult for any invader. Just as the threat of war with Japan
served as an impetus for the build-up of our Armed Forces before World War II, let us
use the threats that come from bullies in the neighborhood to prepare our youth for the
defense of the homeland. It is time to restore the mandatory two-year basic ROTC
military training program that existed in the past. Whatever mistakes or abuses were
committed then should not be allowed to happen again. 7Said Brig. Gen. Rolando
Jungco, Commander, Armed Forces of the Philippines Civil Relations Service (CRS).
Several bills were filed at the House of Representatives but none of them
reached second reading. Movements coming from the uniformed sector have been
blabbing about the reinstatement of the ROTC, until President Rodrigo Dutertes 1 st
State of the Nation Address came where he mentioned his stand that ROTC must be
put back in to practice and should be held mandatory for all college students.
6Section 6. Duration and Equivalent Course Unit, [REPUBLIC ACT NO. 9163] AN ACT ESTABLISHING THE
NATIONAL SERVICE TRAINING PROGRAM (NSTP) FOR THE TERTIARY LEVEL STUDENTS, AMENDING
FOR THE PURPOSE REPUBLIC ACT NO. 7077 PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 1706, AND FOR OTHER
PURPOSE

7In an interview with Ramon Farolan of the Philippine Daily Inquirer. July 8, 2013
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It was then Valenzuela City Congressman now Senator Win Gatchalian filed and
sponsored House Bill No. 2338, which seeks to make Reserve Officers' Training Corps
(ROTC) mandatory to every male student in the tertiary education. He said that the bill
aims to optimize the students for service through appropriate physical and mental
training. He also exposed that he was also a product of ROTC in college. We need to
help them develop their national spirit, and promote self-confidence and camaraderie.
Our youth should also be physically strong and alert without having to spend
membership in a gym, 8Gatchalian said.
The ROTC program, according to the Organization of Generals and Flag
Officers, prepares male students for national defense and trains them with leadership
skills and the basics of military service in order to produce capable Armed Forces
reservists.9
FOREIGN LITERATURE
Establishment of the Reserve Officers Training Corps or Student Military Training
Service in different countries has three foremost objectives namely: to allow students
to grasp basic military skills and theory, and enhance their understanding of defense
and consciousness of national security.
On an article by John Chan in World Socialist Web Site on the 10 th day of May
2007- Chinese government is imposing nationwide military training for students of the
country to achieve not only the three main goals of the latter but also to strengthen the
8 Retrieved from www.wingatchalian.com
9 Generals' group wants mandatory ROTC revived, GMA News Online, July 24, 2013
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submission of students to organization and discipline, as well as to instill the values


of patriotism, collectivism and revolutionary heroism. On this article he discussed
why should a government call for a compulsory national military training for students in
high school and tertiary level and how will it effect on their educational record.
Scholarship is one of the reasons why a student of the American government
underwent with this course. On the article written by David L. Leal, Students in Uniform:
ROTC, the Citizen-Soldiers, and the Civil-Military Gap, it tell in details how and when
the ROTC rooted in the country, what are the parallel benefit if a student will participate
in the said course and the equal responsibility as a student taking part of the program.
In the United States of America there was a time that this course was banned
mainly because of lack of academic standards and some instructor and students
believed that this is just a dummy for the military during the Vietnam War last 1960.
University that banned this program includes the most notable institutions in the United
States like Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Brown, Dartmouth, Stanford and Columbia, also
known as the elite schools in the higher education. In the article The Pendulum Swing:
The Fall and Return of ROTC to Elite Campuses, and Why It Matters by Donald
Downs, the author/writer give the good standing why the ROTC is needed to be
reinstated in the elite universities and how this program can be beneficial with the
school and to the students.
Who will be best fitted to enter the ROTC in the America? Young fitted men or
women? This was the question answered in the book of Michael S. Neiberg entitled:
Making Citizen-Soldiers: ROTC and the Ideology of American Military Service. On this

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book, it focuses the discussion on the history of ROTC in America; its creation and
evolution, who founded the program and where the concept came from. It also gives a
short review on the pathways that the course had gone through the years.
During the time of the Pres. Roosevelt, those young boys aged 16 to 19 are put
in training with the compulsory in nature. There are several records showing the rise
and fall of the number of young boys who entered the said course. The best place to
have this training was in a public school. This was been justified in the article of Lewis
Paul Todd, Does the Probability of Compulsory Military Training Pose a Problem for the
Public Schools?
FOREIGN STUDIES
Luke Pereira, The History and Impact of Army ROTC at Suny College at Brookport
2003, the study gives a brief discussion on the history of the ROTC and how it evolved
in the United States. It also tackles the benefit of students in engaging in the military
course. It also shows how wide the influence of the training in the country. This study
could also give a glance on how this mandatory training or course affects the academic
status of the participants during the entire participation.
Tayfun Sonmez, Bidding for Army Career Specialties: Improving the ROTC
Branching Mechanism, this study gave a reasonable solution on how to increase the
number of participants of the training corps. It tackles on modifying the merit and
incentives system so that it will encourage numbers of students and they will not doubt
to participate in the program of the institution. This study gave an emphasis on the
priority based system which is most effective in the said program.
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Developing Leaders through High School Junior ROTC: Integrating Theory and
Practice of Robert C. Funk is a study that deals on how to develop a leadership in the
high school level. This study aims to maximize the participation of the high school
student in the leadership training dubbed as JROTC. The author viewed that it will
enhance the knowledge of the student in leadership skills, their understanding of their
part as a citizen of the country and their personal growth.
SYNTHESIS
The reason for ROTCs establishment has always been about raising the sense
of patriotism and nationalism in the youth with the proper training in order for them to
become leaders and citizens with discipline that can be added to the militia for the
protection of the country. The history of ROTC in the country showed how the program
was created out of goals that serve the betterment of the students as citizens and the
heightened quality protection that they can provide. Even though problems arose
throughout its implementation before and in the present, the fact remains that the goals
of ROTC are purely nationalistic in nature. However, the goals of other countries with
ROTC are more on the students to grasp the military skills and theory as well as raising
the awareness with defense and national security. In comparison, they are more
militaristic in nature and focus less on the benefits that ROTC can bring to the growth of
a students sense of self and leadership. Although American studies pursued the ways
on how to increase the students who will take up ROTC and suggested changes to the
way the program works in order for more students to participate and increase their
leadership skills. The literature and studies presented showed a comparison of the
reasons why ROTC is implemented in schools in different countries, whether they are
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more militaristic in nature or patriotic and engages to the self-growth of the students.
Also, the literature gathered can be used as guidance on how to improve ROTC in the
Philippines for a better and more comprehensive application that can lessen the abuse
that sprout from improper implementation of the program.

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter focuses on the research methodology used by the researchers in
the success of this study, highlighting the methods, techniques and procedures of data
gathering, the strategy of inquiry, the population and sampling design, as well as the
research instruments and the statistical tools and mechanisms for the accuracy in data
analysis.
RESEARCH METHOD AND DESIGN
The Descriptive method of research was used in the study. It is a fact finding
study with adequate and accurate interpretation of the findings. 10 (Aquino, 1974)

10Aquino, Gaudencio V. Essentials of Research and Thesis Writing. Alemars-Pheonix Publishing House,
1974

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Descriptive research describes what is. 11 (Manuel &Medel, 1976) It is concerned with
conditions of relationships that exist; practices that prevail; beliefs, processes that are
going on; effects that are being felt, or trends that are developing. 12 (Best, 1970) It
describes with emphasis what actually exist such as current conditions, practices,
situations, or any phenomena.
Since the study was concerned with the perception of Senior High Schools
students that would be most likely to be affected by the proposed reinstatement of the
mandatory ROTC program in the academe, the descriptive method of research being
the most appropriate method as it is defined to be a purposive way of gathering,
analyzing, classifying and tabulating data about a prevailing condition and then making
accurate interpretation about the data gathered was the method used by the
researchers.
POLITICAL RESEARCH PERSPECTIVE
For the fact that this study will be dealing with perspective, the researchers in order to
know what is to know is an anti-foundationalist position because interpretation will be
based on socially constructed realities and perceptions with shared positions with both
interpretivism and positivism using realist perspective as the main contention because
the state as the key actor is pursuing for national security.
MIXED-METHODOLOGY RESEARCH PARADIGM
11Manuel, Bienvenido B. and Medel, Paz C. A Practical Guide in Methodology of Research and Thesis
Writing. GIC Enterprises and Company, Inc., 1976

12Best, John W. Research in Education.Second Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1970
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The researchers based the study in a framework of a mixed method of qualitative


and quantitative research as qualitative research is defined to be the framework
analysis best suitable for the accuracy of the data since this study will be dealing with
perceptions of key informants and the use of quantitative research to be able to gather
the perceptions of the target population, the Senior High School students of PUP Manila
Campus. The mixed-methodology is preferred by the researchers to be able to provide
bigger pictures.
Qualitative data are in depth descriptions of circumstances, people, interactions,
observed behaviours, events, attitudes, thoughts and beliefs and direct quotes from
people who have experienced or are experiencing the phenomenon. (Patton, 2002)
It is a means for exploring and understanding the meaning individuals or groups
ascribe to a social or human problem. In qualitative research the qualitative data is
collected by the researcher and analyzed using one of the qualitative data analysis
methods.
RESEARCH DESIGN
Given that under a descriptive method of research, there are three research
techniques: (1) the case study, (2) the survey and (3) the content-analysis through key
informants interview, the researches chose to use the survey method or otherwise
known as the normative survey, a fact-finding study to be able to come up with
adequate and accurate interpretation and the key-informants interview from those who
had a firsthand knowledge on the issue and could give a wider angle through their
responses. Knowing the advantages of using a survey technique and key informants
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interview technique in a descriptive research, the researchers decided to use both as it


reveals data which made it possible to easier formulation of generalizations having a
high degree of relativity due to proper sampling procedures and selection of samples as
it is easier to obtain data and responses from a survey and an interview.
RESEARCH INSTRUMENT AND DATA GATHERING PROCEDURE
The survey technique or approach used by the researchers was a selfconstructed survey for data gathering on the quantitative level using mixtures of closed
questions that can be answerable by yes or no and the use of Likert Scale where only a
sample or portion of the population is involved, as defined by Trecee and Trecee, Jr.
This is concerned with looking into the similarity of the elements the researchers wanted
to find out. Since the study is about the perception, being it as a descriptive design, it is
the most appropriate method in gathering data.
The researchers decided to execute a questionnaire method for data collection
simply because it is easy to construct and as students, the researchers could not
provide for ways that would cost them much, also data gathered are easy to tabulate
and it is not that time consuming for them to be able to finish the study within the given
time frame. Using a guided response type of questionnaire, also called as the closed
form or restricted type, specifically a recognition type of guided response type of
questionnaire survey where respondent of the survey is guided in making his replies.
The instrument used by the researchers in order to obtain and gather data and
information needed by the study in a qualitative level is a key informant interview to 3

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notable persons that are expert on the issue and will also answer the questions on the
questionnaires but with their own perspectives and opinions.
RESPONDENTS POPULATION AND SAMPLING
The study Reinstating Mandatory ROTC: A Means of Instilling Patriotism and
Nationalism or Pacing Towards Militarization? would like to determine the perception of
students specifically that of the Senior High School Students of the Polytechnic
University of the Philippines in the issue of reinstating the mandatory ROTC program for
college students as mentioned by President Rodrigo Duterte in his 1 st State of the
Nation Address, where the population seemed to be the one to be affected if the bill will
take into effect.
The respondents are a total of 400 randomly selected Senior High School
students belonging to eight (8) strands or tracks offered in the Polytechnic University of
the Philippines13, main campus as the cluster samples. Each cluster has 50
respondents selected as samples for data gathering. Sampling size for each cluster are
as follows:
Academic Tracks:
Cluster A Accountancy, Business and Management (ABM)
Cluster B
Humanities and Social Sciences (HUMSS)
Cluster C
Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)
Cluster D
General Academic (GA)

50
50
50
50

Technical-Vocational Livelihood Tracks:


Cluster E
Cluster F

Information and Communications Technology (TVL-ICT)


Home Economics- Cookery

50
25*

13 Data taken from PUP Website: Senior High Schools Class Lists and Schedules. www.pup.edu.ph .
Retrieved August 9, 2016

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Home Economics- Bartending


Cluster G Tourism- Local Tour Guiding Services
Tourism- Travel Services
Tourism- Tourism Promotion Services

25*14
17*
17*
16*15

The sampling size of the population was determined by pure random sampling
and was decided to have the total number of 400 respondents based on clusters which
are represented by the strands present in Senior High School classes at the Polytechnic
University of the Philippines, Main Campus to be able to obtain an equal representation
among students perceptions.
On the premise of the qualitative data gathering, to be able to weigh the
perceptions and the result of this study, the researchers will interview three (3) experts
on this field: (1) a retired Major in the Philippines Army, (Ret.) Major Mario Jose Chico,
PA. (2) an officer of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines, Cadet

Bonifacio

Nuraa Jr. and (3) former Polytechnic University of the Philippines Cadet Adrian Dy.

14 Provided that there are 2 strands under the Home Economics track, the sample size of 50 is divided into
2.

15 Under the Tourism track, there are 3 strands offered, the sample size of 50 is divided into 3, provided
that it is not a whole number, sample size was determined by the researchers according to number of
students in a class.

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