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Electrical

Drives,

Machines,

and Power Systems
/

Theodore Wildi

Electrical Machines,

and Power
Systems

Drives,

Fifth Edition

Theodore Wildi
Professor Emeritus, Laval University

Prentice
Hall

Upper Saddle

River,

New Jersey

Columbus, Ohio

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

page 136 by Weston Instilments; pages 204, 239, 251, 312,
by ABB; page 207
by Hammond; pages 209, 232, 777, 778, 796, 797 by
339, 344, 370, 583, 584, 626, 700, 701, 782

Theodore.

Wildi,

Electrical

machines,

Theodore Wildi.— 5th
p.

and

drives,

power systems

/

ed.

cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN
1.

3.

0-1 3-093083-0 (alk.

Electric

paper)

machinery.

Electric driving.

I.

2.

Electric

power systems.

Title.

TK2182.W53 2002
621.31'

042— dc21

2001051338

Editor in Chief: Stephen Helba
Assistant Vice President and Publisher: Charles
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Electric; pages 653, 654 by Electricity Commission of New
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Energy of Canada; page 667 by Canadian Ohio Brass Co.,
Ltd.; page 674 by IREQ; page 700 by Canadian General
Electric; pages 703, 704, 714 by Dominion Cutout; pages 703,
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Gentec Inc.; page 738 by Service de la C.I.D.E.M., Ville de
Montreal; page 758 by GEC Power Engineering Limited,
England; page 759 by Manitoba Hydro; page 762 by New
Brunswick Electric Power Commission; pages 763, 764 by
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Stevedoring; pages 854, 855, 856, 857 by Schneider Electric;
page 133 by Leroy Somer and Emerson Electric; page 436 by
233,

09, 100,

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by

289 by H. Roberge; pages

by Baldor Electric Company;

Emerson

Electric.

Copyright © 2002, 2000, 1997, 1991, 1981 by Sperika Enterprises Ltd. and published by Pearson
Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States
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Prentice
Hall

10

98765432
ISBN 0-13-093083-0

Preface

This

fifth

edition

was prompted

in part

by the great

in-

is

crease of computers in industrial controls and au-

in

tomation,

which has produced computer programs

can simulate relays and relay contacts. These

that

no longer pertinent
isolation

to discuss

dc and ac machines

because wherever they are being

age. Consequently, the term drive

motor alone but the

now

on/off discrete controls have eliminated the wiring

the

and installation of hardware components

torque and speed of the machine. This

virtual relays

a keyboard.

and contacts

The devices

that

that

in

favor of

can be programmed on

perform these operations

are called

Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs),

or simply

programmable

were

initially

controllers.

These devices

stand-alone computers that controlled a

specific robot or

manufacturing operation. However,

with the advent of the Internet, they have

now been

integrated with the overall manufacturing process,

leading seamlessly to integration with
sales,

procurement, and consumer satisfaction.

The
20

is

management,

relay control of

machines covered

now supplemented by coverage
Chapter 3

in

of PLC controls

Chapter 3

of

PLCs and shows, by way of example, how they

used

.

1

covers the basic principles
are

running the activities of a large service enter-

in

prise.

1

This

new

chapter illustrates

computer-based

setting

how

these trend-

activities involving controls

and automation are being integrated with other business activities, including e-commerce.

As

I

mentioned

in the last edition, similar up-

heavals have occurred in
ply

amazing

influence on the

involves not

entire unit that directs the

way

power technology. It is simof power elec-

to witness the entrance

tronics into every facet of industrial drives. Thus,

it

having a

is

machinery

electrical

courses are being taught.

How

has this dramatic change

come about?

mainly due to the high-power solid

state

It is

switching

devices, such as insulated gate bipolar transistors

(IGBTs), which can operate

at

frequencies of up to

20 kHz. The change has also been driven by
tors

and gate turn-off thyristors (GTOs)

is

thyris-

that

handle currents of several thousand amperes
ages of up to 5 kV. Another key element

Chapter

in

direct

in-

an electronic control forms part of the pack-

stalled,

can

at volt-

the

com-

puting power of microprocessors that can process
signal data in real time with incredible speed.

The high switching frequencies of IGBTs permit
the use of pulse-width-modulation techniques in

power

converters. This, in turn, enables torque and

speed control of induction motors

down

to zero

was not feasible in rectangular-wave
converters that were employed only a few years ago.
Most industrial drives are in the fractional horsepower to the 500 hp range. That is precisely the range
now available for control by IGBTs. The result has
speed. This

been an explosion

in the retrofitting

Lower maintenance

costs,

of existing drives.

higher efficiency,

and

PREFACE

economically

attractive.

pedagogical quality. As a

made such changeovers

greater productivity have

Thus, dc drives are being

placed by induction motor drives, which require less

Every sector of
is

industrial

this

revolutionary con-

verter technology. Electric elevators, electric
tives, electric transit vehicles,

and

ing, ventilating

air

locomo-

is

— an

power

distribution of electric

Most

I

distorted wave.

are

wave
in

Power Research

(EPR1)

Institute

in

Palo

Alto, California, in collaboration with several electrical

manufacturers, has also resulted

in

the cre-

ation of high-power static switches, thyristor-eon-

and converters

trolled series capacitors,

that

electric power.

method

that enables

into

its

Once they know how

harmonic components,

harmonics quickly

in a

unravel a

to

their interest

rises.

at all.

All the important changes first introduced in

Important development work, carried out by the
Electric

they affect the behav-

students to calculate the harmonic content

seeing large rotating machines, such as synchronous

have no moving pails

how

also devised a simple

condensers and frequency changers, being replaced by
solid-state converters that

have added a new chapter

I

generated and

and the quality of

and

we

importantly,

ics are

industry that has

been relatively stable for over 50 years. Here,

im-

this

ior of capacitors, inductors, cables, transformers,

new technology.

utilize this

also affecting the transmission

make

on harmonics. Chapter 30 reveals how harmon-

servomechanisms, heat-

conditioning systems, fans,

being modified to

The change

to

portant topic easier to understand.

compressors, and innumerable industrial production
lines are

their solutions

Chapter 7 on Active, Reactive, and Apparent

Power was completely revised

and commercial activity

by

therefore being affected

The end-of-chapter problems and
were revised and double-checked.

maintenance while offering equal and often superior

dynamic performance.

more than 20

result,

percent of the pages were altered.

re-

can

fill

previous editions have been kept
tion.

in this fifth edi-

Thus, the writing of circuit equations, the

discussion of higher frequency transformers, and
the equivalent circuit

diagram of the single-phase

induction motor have

all

been retained.

the role of phase-shift transformers.

These new methods of power flow

FACTS

by the acronym

(Flexible

control,

AC

known

Systems) will permit existing transmission and
bution lines to carry more

demand

creasing

extremely
bilize a

power

for electricity.

to

On

that

It is

sta-

is

may suddenly be menaced by an

in electric

Most students

in

many

formulating them.

I

particularly easy to follow. Readers will be
re-

minder of the circuit-solving procedure.
on

all rest

motor drives

is

Chapter

panded

similar to

ers.

employed to control the flow of power in elecAs a result, everything falls neatly and
coherently into place. The teaching and learning of
electric machines, drives, and power systems are

1

1

on Special Transformers was ex-

to include higher

The reader

is

frequency transform-

guided through the reasoning

that

behind the design of such transformers, and

tric utilities.

they

thereby

made much

ex-

dis-

glad to refer to this section as a convenient

base. In other words, the converter tech-

nology used

2.

such equations, but

close an ac/de circuit-solving methodology that

account of their

remarkable that these innovations

common

to solve

perience difficulty

unexpected disturbance.

a

section covering the writing of circuit

know how

distri-

can also

A new

equations was added to Chapter

meet the ever-in-

fast response, the converters

network

Transmission

become smaller

why

as the frequency increases.

High-frequency transformers are directly related
to the

higher frequencies encountered

in

switch-

ing converters.

easier.

The following changes have been made

in

the

Chapter 16 on Synchronous Generators has been

expanded

fourth and fifth editions:

to

show why an

increase

in size in-

evitably leads to higher efficiencies and greater

Every page of the original work was examined
for clarity of expression

and reviewed as

to its

outputs per kilogram. This fundamental aspect of

machine design

will interest

many

readers.

PREFACE

A new

section

was added

Chapter

to

1

phase induction motor.

many worked-out problems,

to solve the circuit,

presents a rigorous, yet

It

which permits

a better under-

Chapter 2

1

,

Electronics,

Fundamental Elements of Power
was revised and expanded to in-

modulation

(PWM)

techniques.

how

made

they can be

to

converters and

generate almost any

motors operating

major addition

Electric Utility

to Part

It

power

sags, swells,

It

power becomes

become

visit

students

made

may
in

to establish

how the

lines.

book requires

user-friendly treatment of even

topics, this

book

broad range of readers.

will

First,

meet
it

is

the needs of a

appropriate for

students following a two-year electrical

community
versities.

in

colleges, technical institutes, and uni-

Owing

to its

very broad coverage, the text

can also be incorporated

program.

program

Many

for their electric

in

a 4-year technology

universities have adopted the

book

power service courses.

wealth of practical information that can be di-

rectly applied to that greatest laboratory

electrical industry itself.

actual use.

at close

hand the

The photographs help convey

the

1

chapters, a conscious effort

was

coherence, so that the reader can see

various concepts

fit

together. For

example, the

to those

found

lines, in turn,

And

reactive

transmission

in

bring up the question

power

is

an important

aspect in electronic converters. Therefore, knowledge

it

in
is

one sector
applied

is

strengthened and broadened

in another.

As

a result, the learning

of electrical machines, drives, and HPwer sy^ems be-

comes a challenging, thought-prov^^f^experience.
In order to convey the real-w|ftd aspects df machinery and power systems, particular. attentio|i has

been paid

to the inertia

of revolving masses, the

physical limitations of materials, ai^l .the problems

created by heat. This

appro^kfjal^^^

multidisciplinary programs of

many

fftfe

and

eo^lle^es

technical institutes.

Instructors responsible for industrial training will
find a

in

the transmission and distribution of

Transmission

when

complex

the impor-

not have had the opportunity to

machines are similar

increasingly important.

gained

its

book shows

terminology and power equations for synchronous

and some trigonometry.
to

the

an industrial plant or to see

only a background in basic circuit theory, algebra,

Owing

and Websites

articles,

by diagrams and pictures, showing

illustrated

Throughout the 3

also

as regards

a reality, these

subject matter covered in this

will also

invited to con-

is

various stages of construction or

in

of reactive power.

The

also avail-

magnificent size of these devices and machines.

methods of controlling the quality of

electricity will

is

end of most chapters

at the

electrical energy.

harmonics, and brownouts. As dereg-

ulation of electric

electronic

power

Manual

Industrial Application prob-

of books, technical

equipment used

explains the

electronically.

discusses the quality of electric

appear

The

Reference section toward the end of the book.

Some

vector control.

IV dealing with

Power Systems.

practical, inter-

tance given to photographs. All equipment and sys-

them

technologies that are being developed to control
the flow of electric

that

tems are

at

Chapter 29, Transmission and Distribution represents a

lems

A Solutions

A quick glance through

special section explains the

PWM drives and flux

basics of

appeal to hands-on users. The reader

in the

Chapter 23, Electronic Control of Alternating

A

the end of each chapter are di-

at

end of the book.

sult the list

/^Current Motors, was greatly expanded to cover

variable speeds.

exercises

mediate, and advanced. Furthermore, to encourage

the

waveshape and frequency.

the properties of induction

The

vided into three levels of learning

able for instructors.

illustrates the

It

oflGBT

its

particularly suitable

the reader to solve the problems, answers are given at

clude switching converters and pulse width

extraordinary versatility

is

for self-study.

programmed

standing of this ubiquitous single-phase machine.

being de-

is

voted to continuing education, this book, with

motor. Hand-held computers can be

effort

velop the equivalent circuit diagram of a single-

simple approach, based on the 3-phase induction

when much

Finally, at a time

8 to de-

v

of

all

the

In

summary,

I

employ

a tlicM>Bk&$ ipfefeAal,

multidisciplinary approach to give a broad under-

standing of modern electric power. Clearly,
longer the staid subject

it

was considered

it

is

to

no
be

PREFACE

vi

some years ago. There
this

is

dynamic, expanding

good reason to believe that
field will open career op-

and Bernard Oegema of Schneider Canada; Carl
Tobie of Edison Electric

Institute;

Damiano Esposito

portunities for everyone.

and Vance

make a final remark concerning the
As mentioned previously, power
technology has made a quantum jump in the past

Scott Lindsay of Daiya Control

I

would

like to

use of this book.

Belisle,

machines, drives, and power systems, there will

now

be a long period of consolidation during which existing

machines and devices

will

be replaced by newer

Systems; Louis

and Jean Lamontagne of Lumen; Benoit

Arsenault and Les Halmos of Allen Bradley.

eight years, mainly on account of the availability of
fast-acting semiconductors. In the field of electrical

E. Gulliksen of Carnival Cruise Lines;

extend a special note of thanks to Professor

I

Thomas

Young

of

Rochester

the

Technology, to Dr. Robert
University,

College, and to Jean Anderson of Lab- Volt Ltd. for

models. But the basic technology covered herein will

having extensively reviewed and commented

not change significantly in the foreseeable future.

on various aspects of this book and

Consequently, the reader will find that

this

book can

of

Peros of Seneca

Professor Martin

to

Institute

H. Alden of McMaster

T.

their valued viewpoints.

also

I

in

depth

for having offered

want

to

acknowledge

also be used as a valuable long-term reference.

the contribution of Professor Stephane Montreuil of

Acknowledgments

end-of-chapter problems and the solutions manual.

CEGEP Levis-Lauzon for having gone over all the

the

want

I

In preparing this edition

and previous editions of

my

acknowledge

book,

1

would

like to

the impor-

tant contribution of the following persons.

Consultant; David Krispinsky, Rochester Institute of

Technology; Athula Kulatunga, Southeast Missourri
State University; Rick Miller, Ferris State University;

Nehir,

Montana

State University; Martin

University;

Chandra

James

E,

Sekhai;

University;

Gerald Sevigny, Southern Maine Technical College;
Philippe Viarouge, Laval University; Stacy Wilson,

Western

Kentucky

Rochester

Institute

A& M
and

University;

Sri R. Kolla,

University;

Thomas

of Technology; Dr.

P

Texas

Ted James, Pasadena City College;

Bowling Green

State University.

Commercial, industrial and institutional contributors:

Andre Dupont, Raj Kapila, G. Linhofer,

Katherine Sahapoglu of ABB; Roger Bullock, Gerry

McCormick, James Nanney, Darryl J.
Van Son, and Roddy Yates of Baldor Electric
Company; Jacques Bedard, Guy Goupil, and Michel
Lessard of Lab-Volt Ltd.; Richard B. Dube of
General Electric Company; Abdel-Aty Edric and
Ashock Sundaram of Electric Power Research
Institute; Neil H. Woodley of Westinghouse Electric

Rene Poulin of
Inc. in

of

Lawrence

in the application

and

to

of pro-

photographer Hughes

also

also hereby acknowledged.

is

want

E. Stewart,

Editor;

the Centre de Robotique Industrielle

reviewing and describing the essential features

PLCs

and

Jr.,

to

to express

my

appreciation to Charles

Publisher; to Delia Uherec, Associate

Alexandrina B. Wolf, Senior Production

Editor, of Prentice Hall, for planning, coordinating,

and administrating

As
to

in

this text.

previous editions,

my

provide his valuable help

art,

in

son Karl continued
preparing the line

photographs, and word processing of this

latest

edition.

My

thanks also go to

ing supported

me

thor, consultant,

Goyette, Jim

Corporation; Maurice Larabie, Jean-Louis Marin,

controllers,

St.

providing industrial ex-

in

Chicoine for his work. The important contribution of

Young,

Enjeti,

know-how

perience and

grammable

M.

Roach, Bob Jones

Purdue

appreciation to Jean- Serge

and Giles Campagna of

Electric,

I

Peros, Seneca College;

my

Stevedoring for their help

Professors and reviewers: Robert T. H. Alden,
McMaster University; Ramon E. Ariza, Delgado
Community College; Fred E. Eberlin, Educational

M. H.

to express

Lamirande of Omron, Pierre Juteau of Schneider

I

tors

in

my

my

wife, Rachel, for hav-

continuing vocation as au-

and teacher.

also wish to voice

my

gratitude to the instruc-

and students, practicing engineers, and techni-

cians

who

asked questions and made suggestions by

e-mailing their messages to wildi@wildi-theo.com.

You

are cordially invited to

do the same.
Theodore Wildi

PART

I.

FUNDAMENTALS

Distinction between sources and

2.2

loads
1.

UNITS 3
l.O

Introduction 3

LI

Systems of units 3

1.2

Getting used to SI 4

1.3

Base and derived units of the SI 4

\A

Definitions of base units 5

1.

Definitions of derived units 5

1.6

Double-subscript notation for

units 7

Conversion charts and

their use 8

Per-unit system with one base

l.ll

Per-unit system with

Sign notation for voltages

2.6

Graph of an

2.7

Positive and negative currents

18

19

Sinusoidal voltage

2.9

Converting cosine functions into sine

2.

10

2.

1

two bases

10

1

19

Effective value of an ac voltage 20

Phasor representation 2

2.12

Harmonics 23

2.13

Energy

in

14

Energy

in a

2.15

Some

an inductor 25
capacitor 25

useful equations 26

1

12

ELECTROMAGNETISM
2.

MAGNETISM, AND CIRCUITS 15
2.0

Introduction

2.

Conventional and electron current
flow 15

17

alternating voltage

2.8

1

6

FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY,

1

17

2.5

2.

l.IO

Questions and Problems

17

functions 20

The per-unit system of
measurement 9

1.

2.4

Multiples and submultiples

Commonly used

1.

Sign notation

voltages

of SI units 7
1.

16

2.3

15

Magnetic
density

2.17
2.

1

8

2.19

field intensity

H and

B 27

B-H curve
B-H curve

of

f ACULTAD

vacuum 27

DE

q r ~n
of a magnetic material" 27

Determining the relative
permeability 28

*

WIN
A
_ -

-

BlBi-iO I fcw*

CONTENTS

i

2.20

Faraday's law of electromagnetic

3.9

induction 29
a conductor 30

2.21

Voltage induced

2.22

Lorentz force on a conductor 3

2.23

2.24

2.25

Kinetic energy of rotation,
inertia

in

3.10

Torque,

inertia,

and change

Direction of the force acting on a

3.11

Speed of a motor/load system 57

straight conductor 3

3.12

Power flow

Residual flux density and coercive

in a

mechanically coupled

system 58

force 32

3.13

Motor driving a load having

Hysteresis loop 33

3.14

Electric motors driving linear motion

Hysteresis loss 33
Hysteresis losses caused by

3.15

Heat and temperature 60

rotation 33

3.16

Temperature scales 61

Eddy
Eddy

3.17

currents 34

3.18

Eddy-current losses

in a revolving

core 35
2.31

Current

in

an inductor 36

Transmission of heat 62

Heat transfer by conduction 62

3.20

Calculating the losses by

convection 63

Kirchhoffs voltage law 40

2.33

Kirchhoffs voltage law and double-

3.22

Heat transfer by radiation 64

3.23

Calculating radiation losses 64

Questions and Problems 65

40

2.34

Kirchhoffs current law 41

2.35

Currents, impedances, and associated

PART

II.

voltages 41

2.36

Kirchhoffs laws and ac

2.37

KVL and

2.38

Solving ac and dc circuits with sign

2.39

circuits

4.

44

Circuits and hybrid notation

ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND
TRANSFORMERS

43

sign notation 43

45

Questions and Problems 46

DIRECT-CURRENT GENERATORS
4.0

Introduction 71

4.1

Generating an ac voltage 71

4.2

Direct-current generator 72

4.3

Difference between ac and dc
generators 73

FUNDAMENTALS OF MECHANICS
AND HEAT 50

4.4

Improving the waveshape 73

4.5

Induced voltage 75
Neutral zones 76

3.0

Introduction 50

4.6

3.1

Force 50

4.7

Value of the induced voltage 76

3.2

Torque 51

4.8

Generator under load: the energy

3.3

4.9

3.5

Mechanical work 5
Power 52
Power of a motor 52

3.6

Transformation of energy 53

3.7

Efficiency of a machine 53

4.11

commutation 78
Commutating poles 79

3.8

Kinetic energy of linear motion 54

4.12

Separately excited generator 79

3.4

58

temperature

Heat transfer by convection 63

3.21

2.32

notation

to raise the

3.19

CIRCUITS AND EQUATIONS

subscript notation

Heat required
of a body 6

currents in a stationary iron

core 35

2.30

inertia

loads 59

2.26

2.28

in

speed 57

2.27

2.29

moment of

54

conversion process 77

4.

10

Armature reaction 77
Shifting the brushes to improve

71

CONTENTS

4. 13

No-load operation and saturation

5.18

curve 79
4.14

Shunt generator 80

5.

4.15

Controlling the voltage of a shunt

5.20

1

9

generator 81
4.16

Dynamic braking and mechanical
constant

1

Armature reaction

5.21

1 1

Flux distortion due to armature
reaction

Equivalent circuit 82

1

1

Commutating poles 113
Compensating winding 114

Separately excited generator under

5.22

load 82

5.23

Basics of variable speed control

4. 18

Shunt generator under load 83

5.24

Permanent magnet motors

4.19

Compound

4.20

Differential

4.

1

7

Questions and Problems

generator 83

compound

1

1

Load

4.22

Generator specifications 84

84

6.

EFFICIENCY AND HEATING OF
ELECTRICAL MACHINES 120
120

Introduction

6.1

Mechanical losses

Field 84

6.2

Electrical losses

4.24

Armature 85

6.3

Losses as a function of load

4.25

Commutator and brushes 86

6.4

Efficiency curve

123

4.26

Details of a multipole generator 88

6.5

Temperature

125

4.27

The
The

6.6

Life expectancy of electric

6.7

Thermal

4.28

ideal

commutation process 91

practical

commutation process 92

1

20

20

1

rise

DIRECT-CURRENT MOTORS 96
Introduction 96

classification of

126

6.8

Maximum

ambient temperature and

6.9

Temperature

6.10

Relationship between the speed and

Counter-electromotive force

5.2

Acceleration of the motor 97

Mechanical power and torque 98

5.4

Speed of rotation 100

5.5

Armature speed control 101

rise

size of a

machine

1

Shunt motor under load 103

ACTIVE, REACTIVE,
POWER 134
7.0

Introduction

7.1

Instantaneous power

7.2

Active power 136

7.3

Reactive power 137

7.

102

Series motor
Series

5.10

Applications of the series motor

104

motor speed control 105
1

5.11

Compound motor

5.12

Reversing the direction of rotation

5.13

Starting a shunt

5.14

Face-plate starter 108

5.15

Stopping a motor 109

06

106
1

07

7.4

motor 108

5.16

Dynamic braking 109

5.17

Plugging 110

7.6

3

134
134

Definition of reactive load and
reactive source

7.5

!

AND APPARENT

Field speed control

5.7

5.8

27

30

Questions and Problems

5.6

5.9

1

by the resistance

method 129

(cemf) 96

5.3

23

insulators

hot-spot temperature rise
5.1

1

equipment 126

Questions and Problems 93

5.0

1

1

6.0

CONSTRUCTION OF DIRECT-CURRENT GENERATORS
4.23

1

17

generator 84

4.21

characteristics

tin

1

138

The capacitor and
power 139

reactive

Distinction between active and
reactive

power 140

CONTENTS

Combined active and
apparent power 141

7.7

reactive loads:

Relationship between

7.9

7.10

Power
Power

7.11

Further aspects of sources and
loads

7.12
7.

3

1

1

4

Q, and S

141

8.20

Varmeter 177

8.2

A remarkable

1

144

7.

1

6

17

Systems comprising several loads 146

9.

148

Solving

AC

circuits using the

method 148
Power and vector notation

power

Rules on sources and loads (sign

154

Rules on sources and loads (double
subscript notation)

Introduction

9.

Voltage induced

1

Introduction

83

Elementary transformer

9.4

Polarity of a transformer

9.5

Properties of polarity marks

9.6

Ideal transformer at no-load; voltage

1

84
1

85
1

86
186

187

ratio

9.7

Ideal transformer under load; current

9.8

Circuit

188

symbol

for an ideal

transformer 191

158

Polyphase systems 158

9.9

Single-phase generator 159

9.

Impedance

10

Power output of a single-phase

ratio

191

Shifting impedances from secondary
to

primary and vice versa 192

Questions and Problems

60

Two-phase generator 160
Power output of a 2-phase

8.5

1

9.3

8.1

1

a coil

Applied voltage and induced

8.2

generator

in

9.2

ratio

8.4

80

1

183

9.0

154

THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS 158

8.3

178

THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER 183

voltage
151

Questions and Problems 155

8.0

single-phase to 3-phase

144

notation)
7.

3-phase,

Questions and Problems

triangle

7.15

in

177

transformation

Reactive power without magnetic
fields

7.

P,

143

triangle

Power measurement
4-wire circuits

7.8

factor

19

8.

10.

195

PRACTICAL TRANSFORMERS 197

generator 16

10.0

Introduction

8.6

Three-phase generator 162

10.

Ideal transformer with an imperfect

8.7

Power output of
generator

1

a 3 -phase
10.2

8.8

Wye

Voltage relationships

connection

164

8.10

Delta connection

Power transmitted by
line

8.12

8.13

97
199

Primary and secondary leakage

10.3

167

reactance 200
a 3-phase

1

0.4

168

Equivalent circuit of a practical
transformer 202

Active, reactive and apparent

3-phase circuits

1

197

Ideal transformer with loose

coupling
165

8.

1

core

62

8.9

1

1

power

in

1

Construction of a power

0.5

169

transformer 203

Solving 3-phase circuits

170

10.6

Standard terminal markings 204

8.14

Industrial loads

171

10.7

Polarity tests

8.15

Phase sequence 174

10.8

Transformer taps 205

10.9

Losses and transformer rating 206

8.

1

6

Determining the phase sequence

8.

1

7

8.

1

8

Power measurement
Power measurement
3-wire circuits

176

in

ac circuits

in

3-phase,

1

75
1

76

204

10.10

No-load saturation curve 206

10.11

Cooling methods 207

10.

1

2

Simplifying the equivalent circuit 209

CONTENTS

Voltage regulation 211

10.14

Measuring transformer

transformers 260

impedances 212

Questions and Problems 260

10.15

Introducing the per unit method 215

1

11.

0.

6

1

Impedance of a transformer 2

Typical per-unit impedances 216

10.18

Transformers

1

THREE-PHASE INDUCTION

MOTORS
13.0

Introduction 263

13.1

Principal

13.2

Principle of operation

13.3

The

TRANSFORMERS

225

Introduction 225

1

1

1

.2

Autotransformer 226

1

.3

Conventional transformer connected

1

1

.5

1

1

.6

Number

3.5

1

1

cage motor 273

228

Acceleration of the rotor-slip 274

13.7

Motor under load 274
and slip speed 274

Voltage transformers 230

13.8

Current transformers 23

13.9

Slip

13.10

Voltage and frequency induced

Opening

the secondary of a

CT can

be

rotor

Toroidal current transformers 234

.7

11.8

Variable autotransformer 235

11.9

High-impedance transformers 236

1

1

.

1

0

1

1

.

1

1

1

2.

1

Active power flow 278

Torque versus speed curve 28

13.15

Effect of rotor re s stance 282

13.16

Wound-rotor motor 284

Introduction 243

13.17

Three-phase windings 285

Basic properties of 3-phase

13.18
1

2.4

Wye-delta connection 247

12.6

Open-delta connection 248

Three-phase transformers 249

12.8

Step-up and step-down

1

2.

1

1

0

1

12. 12

19

3.2

1

i

Sector motor 288

Linear induction motor 289
Traveling waves 291
Properties of a linear induction

motor 291
13.22

Wye-wye connection 248

12.7

3.

13.20

244

1

1

an induction

13.14

Delta-wye connection 246

2.

in

13.13

2.3

1

Estimating the currents

High-frequency transformers 238

1

12.9

13.12

Questions and Problems 24

Delta-delta connection

2.5

Characteristics of squirrel-cage

motor 277

transformer banks 243

1

13.11

Induction heating transformers 237

2.2

1

in the

275

induction motors 276

THREE-PHASE TRANSFORMERS 243
12.0

of poles-synchronous

Starting characteristics of a squirrel-

3.6

dangerous 233
1

264

265

rotating field

speed 271

1

as an autotransformer

components 263

Direction of rotation 270

13.4

transformer 225

11. 4

263

Questions and Problems 221

in parallel

Dual-voltage distribution

1

.

Polarity

219

SPECIAL
1

13.

1

10.17

11.0

12.

marking of 3-phase

10.13

12.13

Magnetic

levitation

293

Questions and Problems 295

autotransformer 25

SELECTION AND APPLICATION OF
THREE-PHASE INDUCTION

Phase-shift principle 253

MOTORS

14.

Three-phase to 2-phase

14.0

transformation 254

1

4.

1

4.2

1

Calculations involving 3-phase trans-

299

Introduction 299

Standardization and classification of
induction motors 299

Phase-shift transformer 256

formers 258

xi

Classification according to environ-

ment and cooling methods 299

CONTENTS

Classification according to electrical

14.3

16.

16.0

Introduction 335

16.

Commercial synchronous

335

14.4

Choice of motor speed 303

14.5

Two-speed motors 303

14.6

Induction motor characteristics under

16.2

Number

various load conditions 305

16.3

16.4

Main
Main

Field excitation and exciters 342

14.7

Starting an induction

1

generators 335

motor 308

of poles 335

336

features of the stator
features of the rotor

340

14.8

Plugging an induction motor 308

16.5

14.9

Braking with direct current 309

16.6

Brushless excitation 343

14.10

Abnormal conditions 310
Mechanical overload 310

16.7

Factors affecting the size of

16.8

No-load saturation curve 345

14.11
1

4.

1

2

Line voltage changes 3
Single-phasing 310

14.14

Frequency variation 311

4.

1

5

synchronous generators 344

1

14.13

1

circuit

of an ac generator 346

Induction motor operating as a

16.10

Determining the value of

generator 3

16.11

Base impedance, per-unit

1

Complete torque-speed characteristic
of an induction machine 314

14.17

Features of a wound-rotor induction

Start-up of high-inertia loads 315

14.19

Variable-speed drives 315

Frequency converter 3

s

348

s

349

350

1

6.

1

2

Short-circuit ratio

1

6.

1

3

Synchronous generator under

16.14

14.18

X
X

load 350

motor 315

4.20

Synchronous reactance-equivalent

16.9

14.16

1

SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS

and mechanical properties 301

Regulation curves 352

1

6.

1

5

Synchronization of a generator 353

1

6.

1

6

Synchronous generator on an

infinite

bus 355

1

Questions and Problems 3

16.17

1

Infinite bus-effect of varying the

exciting current 355

15.

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF THE
INDUCTION MOTOR 322
15.0
15.1

16.18

Infinite bus-effect

of varying the

mechanical torque 355

Introduction 322
The wound-rotor induction motor 322
Power relationships 325

16.19

Physical interpretation of alternator

behavior 357
1

6.20

Active power delivered by the

motor 326

1

6.2

Control of active power 359

15.4

Breakdown torque and speed 327

16.22

5.5

Equivalent circuit of two practical

1

15.2
1

1

5.3

Phasor diagram of the

nfl,
i

generator 358

iction
1

6.23

motors 327
15.6

15.7

5.8

15.9

Power

transfer

between two

sources 361

Calculation of the breakdown

16.24

Efficiency, power, and size of

torque 328

electrical

Torque-speed curve and other

Questions and Problems 364

characteristics
1

Transient reactance 359

machines 362

329

Properties of an asynchronous

17.

SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS

generator 330

17.0

Introduction 369

Tests to determine the equivalent

17.1

Construction 370

circuit

33

l

Questions and Problems 333

1

7.2

17.3

Starting a synchronous
Pull-in torque

372

369

motor 372

CONTENTS

]

1

Motor under load-general

7.4

7.5

18.19

Deducing

xiii

the circuit diagram of a

description 372

single-phase motor 411

Motor under load-simple

Questions and Problems 4

1

calculations 373

Power and torque 376

17.7

Mechanical and

17.8

Reluctance torque 378

19.1

Elementary stepper motor 417

Losses and efficiency of a

19.2

Effect of inertia

1

7.9

19.

377

electrical angles

1

synchronous motor 379
17.10
1

7.

1

1

power 380

Excitation and reactive

Power

1

9.0

418

Effect of a mechanical load 4

9.3

19.5

Start-stop stepping rate

19.6

Slew speed 421

420

V-curves 382

17.13

Stopping synchronous motors 383

19.7

Ramping 422

The synchronous motor versus
induction motor 385
Synchronous capacitor 385

19.8

Types of stepper motors 422

14

7.

17.15

the

Motor windings and associated
424
19.10 High-speed operation 427
Modifying the time constant 428
19.11
19.12 Bilevel drive 428
19.13 Instability and resonance 434
19.14 Stepper motors and linear drives 434
Questions and Problems 434
19.9

drives

Questions and Problems 388

SINGLE-PHASE
1

8.

MOTORS

391

Introduction 39

18.0

Construction of a single-phase

1

induction motor 39
18.2

Synchronous speed 393

18.3

Torque-speed characteristic 394

18.4

Principle of operation

PART

III.

394

ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC
DRIVES

Locked-rotor torque 396

1

8.5

1

8.6

Resistance split-phase motor 396

1

8.7

Capacitor-start motor 398

1

8.8

Efficiency and

1

1

Torque versus current 420

19.4

factor rating 38

Introduction 41

17.12

1

18.

STEPPER MOTORS 417

17.6

8.9

18.10
1

8.

1

1

8.

12

1

power

20.

factor of single-

BASICS OF INDUSTRIAL

CONTROL

MOTOR

439

phase induction motors 399

20.0

Introduction 439

Vibration of single-phase motors 40!

20.1

Control devices 439

Capacitor-run motor 402

20.2

Normally-open and normally-closed
contacts 443

Reversing the direction of

403

20.3

Relay

Shaded-pole motor 403

20.4

Control diagrams 445

rotation

coil exciting current

443

18.13

Universal motor 404

20.5

Starting

methods 446

18.14

Hysteresis motor 405

20.6

Manual

across-the-line starters

18.15

Synchronous reluctance motor 407

20.7

Magnetic across-the-line

18.16

Synchro drive 408

20.8

Inching and jogging 450

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF A SINGLE-PHASE

MOTOR

Reversing the direction of

20.9

rotation 451
1

8.

1

7

18.18

Magnetomotive force
Revolving

motor 410

mmfs

in

distribution

a single-phase

409

20.10
20.

1

1

20.12

447

starters

Plugging 453

Reduced-voltage starting 454

Primary resistance starting 454

448

CONTENTS

xiv

20.

1

3

20.14

Autotransformer starting 458

21.17

Power gain of

Other starting methods 460

21.18

Current interruption and forced

20.15

Cam

20.16

Computers and controls 462

a thy ristor

494

commutation 495

switches 461

21.19

Basic thyristor power circuits 496

2 .20

Controlled rectifier supplying a

1

ELECTRIC DRIVES

passive load (Circuit
7

Fundamentals of electric drives 462

1

8

Typical torque-speed curves 463

1

9

Shape of the torque-speed

20.

1

20.

20.

curve 464
20.20

Current-speed curves 466

20.21

Regenerative braking 467

21 D)

Controlled rectifier supplying an ac-

21 .22

Line-commutated inverter (Circuit

tive load (Circuit 2,

21.0

2 .23
1

472

Potential level

Voltage across some circuit

.2

21 .25

2

1

.4

2

1

.5

Battery charger with series

.7

6,

Table 2 D) 502
1

Delayed triggering-rectifier

21.29

Delayed triggering-inverter mode 507

21.30

Triggering range 508

21.31

Equivalent circuit of a

2 1 .32

Currents in a 3-phase, 6-pulse
converter 5

Single-phase bridge rectifier 480

481

Filters

2 .9

Three-phase, 3-pulse diode

21.10

Three-phase, 6-pulse rectifier 485

21.11

Effective line current, fundamental

1

Power factor 511
21.34 Commutation overlap 514
21.35 Extinction angle 514
21.33

483

489
Distortion power

line current

21.12

Three-phase, 6-pulse controllable

mode 505

476

Battery charger with series

rectifier

Table

converter 509

21.8
1

5,

Three-phase, 6-pulse rectifier feeding

1

inductor 478
21

Cycloconverter (Circuit

an active load 504

The diode 475
Main characteristics of a diode 476
resistor

Table

2 .27

THE DIODE AND DIODE CIRCUITS

.6

4,

Basic principle of operation 503

1

1

switch (Circuit

500

21 .26

2 .28

2

3,

21D) 501

elements 474

21.3

static

converter (Circuit

21.1
1

AC

2 ID)

Introduction 472

2

Table 2 ID) 497

Table 2 ID) 498

2 1 .24

FUNDAMENTAL ELEMENTS OF
POWER ELECTRONICS 472

Table

21.21

Questions and Problems 468

21.

1,

496

factor

490

Displacement power factor, total
power factor 490
21.14 Harmonic content, THD 491
21.13

DC-TO-DC SWITCHING CONVERTERS

21.36

DC-to-DC switching converter

21.38

Rapid switching 519

21.39

Impedance transformation 522

2 .40

Basic 2-quadrant dc-to-dc

21.41

Two-quadrant electronic

2 1 .42

Four-quadrant dc-to-dc

1

converter 522

THE THYRISTOR

converter 525

AND THYRISTOR CIRCUITS
21.15

Thethyristor 492

21.16

Principles of gate firing

Semiconductor switches 515

21.37

converter 526

492

21.43

Switching losses 528

5

1

CONTENTS

Dc-to-ac rectangular wave

ELECTRONIC CONTROL OF
ALTERNATING CURRENT MOTORS 575

converter 529

23.0

Introduction 575

Dc-to-ac converter with pulse-width

23.1

Types of ac drives 575

modulation 530

23.2

DC-TO-AC SWITCHING CONVERTERS
2 .44
1

2 .45
1

23.

21.46

Dc-to-ac sine wave converter 532

21.47

Generating a sine wave 533

PWM pulse train

Synchronous motor drive using
current-source dc link 577

Synchronous motor and

23.3

cycloconverter 580

534

21.48

Creating the

21.49

Dc-to-ac 3-phase converter 535

21.50

xv

Cycloconverter voltage and frequency

23.4

control

Conclusion 537

580

Squirrel-cage induction motor with

Questions and Problems 537

23.5

ELECTRONIC CONTROL OF DIRECT-

23.6

cycloconverter 582
22.

CURRENT MOTORS

Squirrel-cage motor and static voltage
controller

541

quadrant speed control 541

22.1

First

22.2

Two-quadrant control-field
reversal

544

SELF-COMMUTATED INVERTERS
23.8

Self-commutated inverters for cage

23.9

Current-source self-commutated

motors 592

Two-quadrant control-armature

22.3

reversal

545

frequency converter (rectangular

Two-quadrant control-two

22.4

wave) 593

converters 545

Four-quadrant control-two converters

22.5

23.10

Two-quadrant control with positive

22.6

23.

torque 549
22.7

Four-quadrant drive 549

22.8

Six-pulse converter with freewheeling

23.

1

1

1

2

diode 551
Half-bridge converter 556

22.10

Detraction 558

Motor drive using

a dc-to-dc

22. 12

Introduction to brushless dc

22.

Commutator replaced by reversing

Recovering power

in a

wound-rotor

23.14

Pulse-width modulation and ind

modulation 602
motors 604

Synchronous motor

22.

1

1

5

6

U^'COi"

TORQUE AND SPEED CONTROL
as a brushless dc

OF INDUCTION MOTORS

machine 568
22.

wound-

Review of pulse-width

switches 566
22. 14

motor 597

23.13

motors 565
3

control of a

rotor induction

PULSE-WIDTH MODULATION DRIVES

switching converter 560

1

wave) 594
Chopper speed

induction motor 599

22.9

1

Voltage-source self-commutated

frequency converter (rectangular

with circulating current 546

1

590

Introduction 54

22.0

22.

589

Soft-starting cage motors

23.7

BGi'l. VAO Q[ ^!3 L fTRM

Standard synchronous motor and

23.15

Dc motor and

brushless dc machine 569

23.16

Slip speed, flux orientation,

Questions and Problems 571

604

23.17

Features of variable-speed controlconstant torque

mode 607

A

aBdBwiOiECA

torque 605

Practical application of a brushless dc

motor 569

flux orientation

CONTENTS

xvi

23. 8
1

Features of variable-speed controlconstant horsepower

23.19

24.

Features of variable-speed control-

1

Induction motor and

its

24.

1

2

Equivalent circuit of a practical

Volts per hertz of a practical

Speed and torque control of induction
motors 614
Carrier frequencies 615

23.25

Dynamic

Condenser 650

24.15

Cooling towers 650

24. 6

Boiler- feed

24. 7

Energy flow diagram for a steam

24.

Thermal

1

8

stations

and the

environment 652

616

Principle of flux vector control

23.27

Variable-speed drive and electric

NUCLEAR GENERATING STATIONS

618

Principal

23.29

Operating

mode
mode

Composition of an atomic nucleus;

24.20

The source of uranium 655

isotopes 655

of the 3-phase

converter 622

Operating

24. 9
1

components 621

23.28

of the single-phase

converter 624

Conclusion 629
Questions and Problems 629

IV.

pump 65

plant 651

control of induction

23.26

PART

thermal generating

648

Turbines 650

motors 615

23.31

646

24.14

1

23.24

23.30

installations

24.13

1

traction

of a hydropower plant 644

Makeup of a
station

motor 613
23.23

Makeup

Pumped-storage

THERMAL GENERATING STATIONS

equivalent

motor 612
23.22

0

24.11

circuit 61

23.2

1

mode 610

generator

23.20

Types of hydropower stations 643

24.9

mode 610

ELECTRIC UTILITY POWER

24.21

Energy released by atomic fission 656

24.22

Chain reaction 656

24.23

Types of nuclear reactors 657

24.24
24.25

Example of a light-water reactor 658
Example of a heavy-water reactor 659

24.26

Principle of the fast breeder
reactor

SYSTEMS
24.27

660

Nuclear fusion 661
Questions and Problems 661

24.

GENERATION OF ELECTRICAL

ENERGY

635

25.

24.0

Introduction 635

24.

Demand

1

TRANSMISSION OF ELECTRICAL

ENERGY

of an electrical system 635

24.2

Location of the generating station 637

24.3

Types of generating

24.4

Controlling the power balance

24.5

between generator and load 638
Advantage of interconnected

stations

25.0
25.

1

637

Conditions during an outage 641

Frequency and

electric clocks

642

components of a power

664

25.2

Types of power

25.3

Standard voltages 667

25.4

Components of a
line

24.7

lines

HV

665
transmission

667

25.5

Construction of a line 668

25.6

Galloping lines 669
Corona effect-radio interference 669
Pollution 669
Lightning strokes 670

HYDROPOWER GENERATING STATIONS

25.7

Available hydro power 642

25.9

25.8
24.8

Principal

distribution system

systems 639
24.6

664

Introduction 664

CONTENTS

25.10

Lightning arresters on buildings 671

25.11

Lightning and transmission lines 671

25.12

Basic impulse insulation level

26 A]

Low-voltage distribution 709
PROTECTION OF MEDIUM-VOLTAGE
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

(BIL) 672

25.14

Ground wires 673
Tower grounding 673

25.15

Fundamental objectives of a

25.13

26. 2
1

Coordination of the protective
devices 714

26.

transmission line 675

1

3

26.14

25.16

Equivalent circuit of a line 676

25.17

Typical impedance values 676

25.18

Simplifying the equivalent circuit 678

25.19

xvii

Fused cutouts 7

1

Reclosers 716

26.15

Sectionalizers 716

26.16

Review of

Voltage regulation and power-

MV protection

717

LOW-VOLTAGE DISTRIBUTION

transmission capability of

26.17

transmission lines 680
25.20

Resistive line

680

25.21

Inductive line 681

25.22

Compensated inductive

25.23

25.24
25.25

25.26

25.27

25.28

25.29

26.

line

683

1

8

LV

distribution system

Grounding

717

electrical installations 7

Electric shock

26.20

Grounding of 120

V

240V/120V

and

systems 720

Inductive line connecting two

systems 685

26.21

Equipment grounding 721

Review of power transmission 686
line voltage 687
Methods of increasing the power
capacity 689
Extra-high-voltage lines 689
Power exchange between power
centers 692
Practical example of power
exchange 693

26.22

Ground-fault circuit breaker 723

26.23

Choosing the

Rapid conductor heating:
2

I

t

factor

724

26.24

The

26.25

Electrical installation in

role of fuses

725

buildings 725

26.26

Principal

components of an

electrical

725

installation

Questions and Problems 727

Questions and Problems 695

THE COST OF ELECTRICITY 729
26.

DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRICAL

Introduction 729

ENERGY 698

Tariff based

upon energy 730

Tariff based

upon demand 730

26.0

Introduction 698

Demand

meter 730

SUBSTATIONS
Tariff based
26.1

Substation equipment 698

upon power

factor

732

Typical rate structures 733

Demand

698

26.2

Circuit breakers

26.3

Air-break switches 702

26.4

Disconnecting switches 702

26.5

Grounding switches 702

26.6

Surge arresters 702

1

719

26.19

Power

^giiTAD Of
ILF

controllers 733

factor correction

Measuring

\

737

electrical energy, the

watthourmeter 740
27.9

Operation of the watthourmeter 741

26.7

Current-limiting reactors 705

27.10

Meter readout 742

26.8

Grounding transformer 706

27.11

Measuring three-phase energy and

26.9

Example of a substation 707

power 743

26.10

Medium-voltage distribution 709

Questions and Problems 743

13 Reactive power source 757 compensator: principle of Conclusion 796 Harmonic filters on the ac side 757 28.5 Unified power flow controller Harmonics and resonance 813 Harmonic filters 818 30.7 28.13 752 28. 10 30. 10 circuit operation 787 Typical rectifier and inverter 28.6 Static synchronous compensator 773 total 804 30.15 Communications link 757 28. DIRECT-CURRENT TRANSMISSION 746 Why Distribution system 785 Compensators and 28.8 Correcting the power factor 807 30.12 Harmonic current in a capacitor 809 Harmonic currents in a conductor 810 Distorted voltage and flux in a 810 Harmonic currents coil 30.7 1 8 Procedure of analyzing a periodic Disturbances on distribution wave 823 systems 782 Questions and Problems 827 . 7 Example of a monopolar converter station 757 28.4 PWM converters? 29. The 754 Bipolar transmission line 754 1 principle of Questions and Problems 797 control 753 Effect of voltage fluctuations 1 The shunt compensator: operation 793 28. 8 Thyristor converter station 758 28.8 29.2 filters dc side (6-pulse converter) 756 29.3 Voltage.3 Static 29.3 distortion 30.12 Converter transformers 756 28.16 Ground electrode 757 28.6 SOLID-STATE CONTROLLERS 768 Introduction 768 factor circuits 30. current.5 784 analysis 787 relationships 748 28.17 29.0 802 Harmonics and Questions and Problems 765 TRANSMISSION POWER FLOW CONTROLLERS (THD) 801 30. 4-wire distribution system 812 (TCSC) 769 29.16 Harmonics in the supply network 819 (UPEC) 776 30. 14 1 series HARMONICS 30.0 Introduction 799 Harmonics and phasor diagrams 799 Effective value of a distorted wave 800 Crest factor and total harmonic 30.15 Transformers and the K factor 821 frequency changer 780 HARMONIC ANALYSIS DISTRIBUTION CUSTOM POWER PRODUCTS 30.6 Power on a dc line 29.2 Vernier control 771 29.CONTENTS xviii 28.19 Typical installations 760 30. 29.9 30. 755 Inductors and harmonic 28. 29.13 in a 3-phase.1 on the 28.0 Introduction 746 28.2 Basic dc transmission system 747 28.9 Generation of reactive power 808 EFFECT OF HARMONICS 30.9 Power reversal 755 Components of a dc transmission line 30.7 TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION 29. Thyristor-controlled series capacitor 1 1 30. 29. power 1 1 characteristic 28.8 28. and Power fluctuations 29.4 1 1 799 30.5 Displacement power factor and power Non-linear loads 804 Generating harmonics 805 30. 10 1 28. Features of dc transmission 746 29.14 30.4 Eliminating the harmonics 776 29. 12 75 28.

7 3 1 .4 1 a control 31.14 References 859 844 31.11 Conventional control circuits and 31.2 3 1 .15 851 Questions and Problems 856 Examples of the use of a PLC 835 The central processing unit (CPU) 838 Programming unit 838 The I/O modules 839 Structure of the input modules 839 Structure of the output modules 840 Modular construction of PLCs 84 Remote inputs and outputs 84 31.18 Getting to CONTROLLERS 831 31.12 31.0 3 1 .6 3 1 .16 Industrial application of 31.20 Capacity of industrial PLCs 83 31. PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC 31.8 3 1 .CONTENTS 31.21 Programming the PLCs 853 The transparent enterprise 855 Elements of system 832 31. Common Conductors (and Insulators) 870 Security rule 847 31. 3 1 . 5 know PLCs AX3 Properties of Round Copper Conductors 871 Advantages of PLCs over relay Answers cabinets 848 MODERNIZATION OF AN INDUSTRY PLCs 850 31.3 3 l .13 Programming the PLC 847 Programming languages 847 31.17 Planning the change 850 to Problems 873 Answers to Industrial Application Problems 877 Index 879 xix .19 Linking the PLCs 853 Introduction 83 31.9 circuits Appendixes 865 AXO Conversion Charts 865 AX1 Properties of Insulating Materials 869 AX2 PLC Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Some Electrical.10 31.

1 To Rachel .

Part One Fundamentals .

.

system of units and the one could not have been achieved without ognized by in the anchors that tie together the units used in the and time by the duration of atomic vibrations. we our daily how lives. in improvement in in in defining Most units are which terms of the speed of our standards of measure has hand with the advances in 1. other. are related to each other by the Although the basic standards of reference are recall any meet the needs of commerce. gone hand measure Standard units of length. or deal with the rod and chain. and 36. we buy and thing we familiar that sell is Some means of units. foot. In meter. and measured and compared by of these units have often take stopping to think in see and feel and every- The same countries of the world. and . or in standard of length they were given the sizes they have. employ the parsec. Astronomers them become for granted. meter. correlation exists in metric systems.0 in measuring length some people use the inch and yard. Thus the English system of units. except that the units are related to each other by everyday measure are far from being universal. Introduction 1.1 Systems Over the years systems of units of units have been devised to A may be described as one in which the units bear a direct numerical relationship to each technology. and reproducible. are both invariable ter one his outstretched hand. usually expressed as a whole number. the other. of King Edgar's nose the physical laws of nature. Thus the me- and yard are measured light. physicists some surveyors still have to use the angstrom. and time are world today. Since then our units of to end. 3 Thus the centimeter. a long specialty. For multiples of ten. while others use the millimeter and an important role Units play everything effect. But these units of length so can be compared with great accuracy because the seldom why is based upon the speed of light. mass. the inch. industry. they started. 3. the units of numbers 1 in and yard 2. and science. Such standards of reference make it possible to compare the units of measure in one country.Chapter 1 Units example. with the units of other. was defined as the length of 36 barleycorns strung end and the yard was the distance from the tip Centuries ago the foot to the end of we have come measure more now based upon This way precisely.

1 000. commonly used some of the most ships in electricity. to another in a sim- From In this regard the reader will these base units we derive other units to discover that the conversion charts listed in the express quantities such as area. In specialized areas of not the answer and even in atomic physics. still unites. It is units commerce. Consequently.3 of the International System adoption by most countries of the is the second.FUNDAMENTALS 4 kilometer are related by the numbers 1 00 000. lates to the It is because long familiarity with a an idea of magnitude and how its (particularly in the electrical it it re- growing importance of SI the and mechanical know necessary to TABLE 1A BASE UNITS Quantity Symbol Unit And physical world. unit of length is the official spelling heat. under the official title is is SI Base and derived units 1. units cannot readily from yards to let go. and its be measure will continue to plane angles in degrees. The SI was formally universal abbreviation introduced 1960. however. a coherent system that expresses with star- tling simplicity * in in- for example. Nevertheless. the pascal. 1 day and hour will is the be used. mag- Appendix are particularly netic flux. the layman. 1 00. It is It a decimal system. l world. volt. force. metric system of units. become habits. units: Thus. and by the therefore easier to convert meters into It is the practical worlds. employs many dustry and pere. one must be able to convert ple. thereby blending the theoretical and one of the advantages of the is can be used by the research technician.* Despite these advantages the SI Today the officially recognized metric system the International System of Units. spelled either meter or metre. makes we not easy to switch overnight meters and from ounces to grams. In is metre. and watt. 2. 3. The used to official introduction of Units. There number of units The SI possesses a tures shared helpful. even though the SI unit radian. from one system unambiguous way. for which the is SI. other units more convenient.2 Getting may day-to-day work. and this decimal approach scientist. did not. and so on. we use a less cumbersome name. TABLE 1B DERIVED UNITS basic relation- and is newton per square meter. Thus we General Eleventh Conference of Weights and Measures. eliminate the systems that were previously employed. unit gives us Just like well-established a part of ourselves. power. mechanics. in the at "Systeme international d to everything. despite the fact that the SI unit of time 1. instead of saying that the unit of pressure 1 . this is quite natural. but no limit to the some occur so frequently that they have been given special names. number of remarkable by no other system of fea- we can is really derive. The metric Canada am- that have special names are listed in Table l B. Some of the derived units the Quantity Unit Symbol Electric capacitance farad F Electric charge coulomb C Electric conductance Siemens S . and 4. Furthermore. It centimeters than to convert yards into feet. which Length meter m Mass Time kilogram kg second s Electric current ampere Temperature kclvin A K Luminous candela cd mole mol fields) the essentials of this Amount intensity of substance measurement system. kilogram. the practicing engineer. of the SI The foundation of the International System of Units rests upon the seven base units listed in Table A.

15 kelvins.4 Definitions of vacuum. by the Bureau of Weights and Measures. the fraction 1/273. tion t tem- .16 of the is temperature of the by The following 10~ 7 X to 2 rad Power 1. electrons. The text in explanatory and does not form part of the by light in the length of the path travelled vacuum during a time interval of 1/299 until A coexist equal point is to called the is 273. it is equal to the mass of the international prototype of groups of such particles. mole- cules. to he 299 the luminous intensity. ice. triple point an evacuated point of water and triple base units modern system of thermodynamic temperthermodynamic begins to form. The resulting temperature where ice gree Celsius (°C). ampere second. would produce be- in (K).) is equal to the kelvin place of the kelvin for expressing Celsius temperature (symbol t) defined by the equa- = T — Ta where T is the thermodynamic perature and Tn = 273. produces a highly accuQuantity Symbol Unit and stable frequency. The platinum- iridium cylinder (90 percent platinum. France. italics is sr and water vapor definition. Note: 792 458 of a second. the kilogram. ions. (continued) quency of cesium atoms.012 kilogram of carbon 12. 1 Some of the more important derived units are de- fined as follows: The coulomb (C) transported in (Hence 1 l is the quantity of electricity second by a current of coulomb = / The degree Celsius (°C) and is used in l ampere.UNITS A TABLE 1 B 5 tuned to the resonant fre- epiartz oscillator. by definition. duration of 9 192 63 1 770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition state between the two hyperfine levels of the ground of the cesium. unit of Pure water Pressure Solid angle of negligible circular cross-section. is the amount of substance of system that contains as many elementary a entities as there are atoms in 0. other particles. The ampere (A) is that constant current which.16 equal kelvins.33 atom. to 0. official length. and meter apart 1 tities When the mole is used. Force newton N placed Frequency hertz Hz tween these conductors a force equal newton per meter of Illumination lux lx iicni y n Luminous flux lumen lm Magnetic flux weber Wb Magnetic flux density tesla T 1 1 1 LI LI<_ LuIlLC Plane angle radian The kelvin ature. Duplicates of the prototype exist in all important standards laboratories in the world. the elementary en- must be specified and may be atoms. The The candela definitions of the SI base extraordinary precision associunits. exactly definition: The meter (m) of water. of a source that emits monochromatic radiation of frequency 540 X 10 12 hertz and that has a radiant intensity in that direction of 1/683 watt per steradian. The international prototype of the kilogram is a 1. 10 percent iridium) is about 4 cm high and 4 cm The second (s) is the in diameter. or specified The kilogram (kg) is the unit of mass.01 de- temperature ofO °C is therefore (cd) 1983 the speed of light was defined 792 458 m/s exactly.15 K. in a is given direction. if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of inrate Electric potential volt V Electric resistance ohm tt Energy joule J finite length. watt W pascal Pa steradian in units illustrate the ated with this water. /// is triple The mole (mol) is cooled cell is equal to 273.5 Definitions of derived units particular cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy that is preserved in International a vault at Sevres.

applied between these two charged by a is it tionary objects differ- 24 zepto z yocto y . (Hence second per ampere.FUNDAMENTALS 6 The farad (F) is the capacitance of a capacitor between the plates of which there appears a ence of potential of volt I when quantity of electricity equal to force coulomb.1 0. farad coulomb per volt) The henry (H) is the inductance of a closed circuit in which an electromotive force of volt is produced when the electric current in the circuit varies uniformly at a rate of ampere per second.000 000 000 000 000 000 001 UNITS exa 0.001 0. this conductor not being the source of any elec- The hertz (Hz) is the frequency of a periodic phenomenon of which the period is second.01 2 IN 0. (The Siemens was formerly named the mho.000 000 000 001 6 3 1() 10 2 10' 10-' fi l()" 9 10 10" 0. The radian (rad) is the unit of measure of a plane I I I pere. ) The steradian (sr) is the unit of measure of a solid meter per I ohm = tance equal to one reciprocal newton meter) 1 I vertex at the center of a circle and sub- The Siemens 1 The newton (N) its tended by an arc equal 1 mass of am- The pascal (Pa) is the unit of pressure or stress equal to one newton per square meter. (Hence I newton = to I a angle with kilogram mass and an acceleration. points. The joule (J) is the work done when the point of application of newton is displaced a distance of meter in the direction of the force. is the unit of electric conduc- vertex at the center of a sphere and en- tesla (T) 000 000 10 I 000 00 1 l() 0.000 000 001 0.) angle with that force is which gives kilogram an acceleration of second per second.000 000 000 000 001 0. the unit of magnetic flux density . ) closing an area of the spherical surface equal to that meter per second squared.s 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 I is equal to one weber per square meter. produces in this conductor a current of 1 I is The ohm (il) is the electric resistance between two points of a conductor when a constant difference of potential of volt.000 000 000 000 000 001 10 i2 15 Symbol yotta Y zetta Z E peta P tera T tr't- mana G mega M kilo k hecto h dec a da deci d centi c milli m micro nano n pico P fern to f alto a ~ lx 10" 21 10 SI 2 10 10 0 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 001 Prefix 12 uf 0. (Hence J joule = every application where a to 1 1 henry and involved. Although the newton J volt per ohm. defined in The terms of a Exponent form 24 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 1() 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 10 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 10 l I I I in length to the radius.000 001 SI ' l() 10 l in length to the radius. (Hence = 1 (I / = I volt tromotive force. also applies to sta- it Multiplier I its PREFIXES TO CREATE MULTIPLES AND SUBMULTIPLES OF TABLE 1C (S) of a square with sides equal is ampere.

) I The watt (W) particularly useful to not yet familiar with the SI.55 The W joule per (kilogram kelvin) J/kg-Kor J/kg °C Temperature kelvin K Temperature difference kelvin or degree Celsius Thermal conductivity watt per (meter-kelvin) Kor °C W/m-Kor W/m°C is organi- 1 N/nr. COMMON TABLE 1D joule per sec- the magnetic flux that. 1 IN Angle Speed of Multiples and submultiples of SI units are generated UNITS per second. 2. and IF 2. nano. ampere. link- is volt as 1 1 1 that gives rise to the production of energy at the rate of ond. when the power 1 between these points dissipated is 1 The absolute temperature T is is expressed in kelvins. Multiples 1. is This unit of volume watt is ~ the revolution per minute (r/min) to joule it (as well as a very small pressure equal to book we use Heat temperature difference of rad (I a very small force. I 2 The °C is l I a recognized SI unit and. Canada book THERMODYNAMICS Quantity 1. including COMMON UNITS 3.3°). thermodynamics. or absolute. in spelled liter or litre. and TABLE 1E 6 meter. mega. in this force needed to press a doorbell. roughly equal to the Thermal power calculations. mainly used for liquids and gases. -9 = Note 2 Torque use the degree almost exclusively /^ampere = 1000 nanosecond Symbol SI unit Area J 1 MECHANICS listed in Table 1C. 1 5. ) produces turn. equal to watt per ampere. IE. 1 in Quantity second. is designate rotational speed Tables 4 radian per second 6 Commonly used 1. {Hence I an electro- it reduced is it to zero at a weber = I volt second.7 3 zations in the United States). temperature °C.UNITS the difference of electric poten- electricity. Most countries. is usually expressed . and centi kilo. On related to the Celsius temperature t the other hand. is Symbol SI unit exactly equal to a temperature difference of I °C. units some common IN A The newton is 4. Thermodynamic. The pascal 5. Although the radian ID. 10 watts. encountered in mechanics. in practical often used instead of the kelvin. In this is units 6. list 5 the SI unit of angular measure.6 and submultiples of SI units by adding appropriate prefixes Thus prefixes such as to the units. Note Specific heat K some r/min). Canada It is litre. 10 megawatt — 1 newton meter amperes. For example. multiply the value of the unit by factors radian rad square meter nr Energy (or work) joule J Force newton N Length meter m Mass Power kilogram kg watt W Pressure pascal Pa Speed meter per second m/s 1 rad/s Nm Volume Volume cubic meter m liter L rotation . official spelling in J I we 57. the temperature of objects by the equation T= t + 273. use the spelling metre instead of seconds. They contain notes between two points of a conducting wire carry- the reader who The volt (V) tial is ing a constant current of (Hence I = volt is power the is (Hence I = watt The weber (Wb) ing a circuit of one motive force of uniform rate in J joule watt. ( 1 rad/s = 9.

between.1 Conversion chart H V Resistance field strength Note Wildi. to the smaller hence. 1. Conversion chart adapted and reproduced with permission. The numbers show the relative size ing connected by arrows.8 36 times larger 25. 2. The ar- unit. Note that in moving from one unit to another. Conversion charts and their use Unfamiliar units can be converted to units is an arithmetic process that often leaves us wondering if from yard move downward in the Appendix eliminate this problem because they show the relative size of a unit by the position it occupies on the page. In making such conversions our calculations are correct. 5. Piscataway NJ. 3 per meter Magnetic flux weber Wb Magnetic flux density tesla T 4 Magnetomotive force ampere A 5 1 . convert from millime- we move up- ward against the direction of the arrows until we start at millimeter and we apply the following rules: 1 If. I. we divide. and so on. and when moving up. reach yard. we can follow any path we that please. T . 4. the conversion result is always the same. the smallest at the bottom. The charts in the in units are we reach we want to to two arrows millimeter. in . direction of the arrow. we divide. The if to mil- we have ters to yards. . Starting we know well by using standard conversion tables. its The number is the ratio of the larger of the units that are connected and. All rights reserved. each of which if we move against the arrow. A/m = ampere turn per meter.4 times larger than the convert from one unit to any other by the following I called is is millimeter. for unity. value is always greater than row always points toward the smaller In Fig. traveling move in the from one unit to another. Suppose we wish 1. and the Formerly called mho. largest unit is at the top. this means when moving down the chart we multiply. With this arrangement 1 1 1 lines join- them bear an arrow that always points toward the smaller unit. The conversion to convert limeters. yard. 1995 by Sperika W Power 1.FUNDAMENTALS 8 COMMON TABLE 1F UNITS ELECTRICITY AND IN MAGNETISM Quantity Symbol SI unit Capacitance farad F Conductance Siemens c Electric charge c Electric current coulomb ampere F nprtrv joule j Erecjuencv hertz Hz Inductance henry Potential difference volt i i A Figure 2 watt Resistivity ohm ohm Magnetic ampere Drawn from and Conversion Charts" by Theodore Enterprises Ltd. five units of length the mile. the inch I I ampere: I A I ampere turn is now simply simple method. meter. from yards in Fig. example. we we multi- ply by the associated number. A/m IEEE Press. and intermediate units are ranked direction of the (36 and 25. n "Metric Units Om meter for units of length. 08855-1331. inch. listed in descending order of size.I. Copyright © 1991. 2. of the connected units: the yard Hz = cycle per second. But this strictly we can turn.Wb/nr. and millimeter — are Because the arrows point downward. bears a number. What was formerly called an ampere than the inch. Conversely.1. 3.4) until Conversely.

184 We must therefore multiply the numbers joule | associated with each arrow: N-m |n ewton-meter 2. Thus would have a per-unit . Ltd. Consequently. the arrows. we and first (with the arrow 4. 1000 in the calorie direction of | 1 | 4.24 mi The SI units just described enable us to specify the Example 1-3 magnitude of any quantity.184) (. suppose the average weight of 777 calories = 777 (X 4. Copyright© 1991. kilograms. from yard and moving toward millimeter we move downward 1. the direction of with.6) New any individual = 9.1760) miles Piscataway. This concept gives rise to the per-unit 3. we can often size of expressed in get a better idea of the something by comparing thing similar.6). is electric potential in it to the size of some- we can create our own unit and specify the size of similar quantities compared to this arbitrary unit.5 yards to millimeters. and Applying the conversion rule.UNITS The rectangles bearing SI units extend toward the Each rectangle bears from other units. 1. For example. and However.1 1000 Convert 2. 2000 meters = 2000 X 1 ( = 2000 X we 1 995 by Sperika Enterprises Drawn from "Metric Units and Conversion Charts" by Theodore Wildi.5 - yd 2.184) and then upward (against the arrows 1000. IEEE Press. 1. Thus mass Convert 777 calories to kilowatt-hours. All rights reserved. out in full.5 ( = 2286 X 36) X ( 25. sion.0936 1760 = 1-3.24 x 10 18 Example 1-2 eV [electronvolt | Convert 2000 meters into miles. | I kilowatt hour .055 Solution kJ fkilojoule | Starting (Fig.1). we and then against. we can compare the weight of a in terms of person weighing 160 lb this base weight. Solution Referring to the chart on moving from calorie travel downward to ENERGY (Fig. obtain . 08855-1331.2 Solution Starting move See Example from meter and moving toward mile. kW-h | | 3. 1000.2) kilowatt-hour. NJ. find method of expressing the magnitude of a quantity.03 X 10" 4 kW h York is 130 lb. Using this arbitrary weight as a base. Conversion chart adapted and reproduced with permis- The per-unit system of measurement 1-9 1. Figure 1. British thermal unit Btu | | | 1. first the arrows.1000) adults in 1000) (.6 mega joule MJ| | Example I. we power in watts.0936) (. volts. for the unit as ENERGY slightly of the chart to distinguish them left name well as the the 9 TNT kilotonne of J symbol 1.3.167 x 10 6 of the unit written . In effect.4) millimeters van second mm I I 6.

and 150 hp. respectively. 1 .7 per-unit.7 if we immediately know above average. used.7 lb.3 weight is Conventional are given. The corresponding per-unit ratings hp XL (pu) said to have PH where power a 3500 a power. but the we would any R 2 (pu) know the magnitude If we do not know the quantities we are 0. the per-unit measuring *. measurement has per-unit system of vantage of giving the size of a quantity ± the ad*2 terms of in 450 xv 3000 n n a particularly convenient unit. Consider.23.4 Per-unit circuit. The 1 the base = 3. For example. To where it is Figure 1. suring sticks and comparing similar things against If circuit. torque.FUNDAMENTALS 10 weight of 160 weighing mb/ 130 I The lb/ lb = 130 lb - Another person 1. the circuit in Figure 1. 500 ohms are particularly interested in current. ous example. 40 hp/ 15 hp 3. in Fig. a per-unit system of consists of selecting one or is 130 lb. Thus.10 Per-unit resistors. the per-unit are then 25 hp/50 we 150011 system with one base three motors have If as the impedances are as follows: more convenient mea- select the size of only a single base. Fig. = elements as the circuit as of 50 hp. weight of 1. Furthermore.3. power - 2. they would be absurd weighs state that the football player is weight 1 . In 40 hp/50 hp - 0.5. whenever per-unit values always pure numbers. 0. is of 15 hp. The _ 0.7 X 130 Note = that 221 1 .5.33(pu) 3. ratings of 0. called the per-unit in reference to our previ- a football player has a per-unit base of the system.67.5. capacitors. Let us select an arbitrary base power = = Xc (pu) a current. far 1.67. 1. would have 15 lb 1 n 3500 weight of a per-unit a 4800 0. the per-unit circuit is that . hp. for example. 1 is same impedances are We can solve this other circuit.2 3000 a 1500 ft in vector notation shown per-unit values. to His weight the selected base unit generalize.(pu) and impedance. we 1 measurement selecting convenient measuring sticks for voltage. We could equally = per-unit circuit (Fig. therefore important to value. 1. or a velocity. In this book decide to use an impedance of base. The base may be power is 40 ratings of 25 hp.30 ~ 150011 of the base of the per-unit system. the three motors have would be 25 hp/ 15 hp It is 0.4) contains the now Thus. a voltage.2(pu) -nrrv 2.88. lb. its 12 1500 and 3 pu.8 and world in this per-unit and 150 hp/ 15 hp - ^50 n 4800 n if expressed _ " = 1.33 50 hp. well have selected a base case the respective per-unit rating this 2. For example. 2(pu) .30 i dealing with cannot be calculated.8. power. Thus are his his actual method can also be applied to im- pedances. and inductors having the impedances shown. the actual values of per-unit _ ~ real circuit. 10. suppose that 50 hp/50 hp = R 2 (pu) one quantity as our system stick. composed of several we them.

]?\ vlii TA A ©IBUCUfcCA . c.11 b. system with two bases Per-unit 1. above base values.^'as'' P = PB x ^(pu) = 500 kW X = 1440kW BCOLTAD 2.5 per-unit voltage across the resistor EH — base current e. the so-called = 0.33 3.48 is V/125 A = 32 ft also get a base current and a base Consequently.2 1 1 In order to understand the significance of this re- j sult. i A 400 II resistor carries a current of 60 A. 'b per-unit = / B is £(pu) unit ft/32 ft = 60 A/ 125 A = /(pu) Thus c. is base power PB base voltage EH impedance Z B and the base if — is d. The electrotechnology the per-unit system In . The bases are the same as before. The per-unit resistance The per-unit current The per-unit voltage across the resistor The per-unit power dissipated in the resistor The actual E and P of the resistor and a base the selected base voltage may Solution be a. unit The per-unit current system is that it automatically establishes a cor- />w For example.48 = 6 = X X tf(pu) 12.48 is E — E B X E(pu) = 4 kV X 6 = 24 kV is 4( )00 /(pu) actual voltage across the resistor A 25 = power P(pu) by selecting the voltage/power per- we The n = ^b/^b = 500 000/4000 = The base impedance system. when two bases particularly useful are bases are usually a base voltage £" B P B Thus power 4 becomes used. the base current ZB = £ b /'b = In effect. RU.5 is E(pu) = 6 - 2.5 = /B kW ZB = A 125 32 ft Example 1-4 Per-unit circuit with notation. namely 4kV 0. kV and d. e. the = 400 tf(pu) pendently of each other. 12. base voltage The the base voltage / 4 is 500 kW. The per-unit resistance The two base values can be selected quite indeb.88 X X /(pu) 0. per-unit is kV and the base is 1 The 0. a. system impedance. the reader should study the two following ex- amples.88 Df.UNITS 2. the selected base power 500 kW.30 500 Figure 1. base current power is interesting feature of the voltage/power per- responding base current and base impedance. One Using the calculate: 2-base system really gives us a 4-base per-unit The actual power dissipated in the resistor i$^.

paying is particular attention to capitalization. 1. can The boiler = is = 400 kW/500 kW = now draw c. Give the symbols of seven base units.8 / 2 (pu) 2. /. The = £(pu)//?(pu) = 1. Use the base values as Example in the same /i(pu) /. e.4 = 2.(pu) = 0. d. /?(pu).75 Name System of Units. f.8 / 2 (pu) per-unit line current (pu) l { power absorbed by the resistor power absorbed by the resistor per-unit actual Figure 1.5 A the seven base units of the International 0. c.(pu) + / 2 (pu) = 0.844 power P(pu) Figure 1 . = 2.8 the per-unit circuit (Fig.6). per-unit is = /. PCpu) per-unit current P(pu) 0. X (pu) 2.4 1-5.8 1-4 Why are some derived units given special .32 X X 1. R{pu) boiler [ 0.8 - 2.75 1 -2 1-3 per-unit current X Questions and Problems is 1 / 2 (pu) IB 0.7. b. actual power in the resistor is Solution a.6 See Example /L in the resistor is = = E(pu) = 4. per-unit E(pu).(pu) = P(pu)/E(pu) - 0. 125 Name /. Draw equivalent per-unit circuit diagram. 1. The e. actual line current The per-unit line current /t (pu) ft 24 n r 400 kW The d.2 /|.(Pu) . five derived units of the SI.2kV/4kV = 1. R(pu) = 24 n= fi/32 actual line current = 12 The per-unit power of the P(pu) We b.444 = 2.844 = 355.8/1. The per-unit line voltage £.6.75 j Calculate The The The The The The a.444 = 0.4 - - 1 /.4 1-4.(pu) P 2 = P a X «pu) = 500 kW X 4.32 is .7) per-unit current f2 is 0.7 Per-unit version of Figure 1 .844 kV source delivers power to a 24 II resistor and a 400 kW electric boiler (Fig.8 = 2160 kW The per-unit resistance is The f.444 + 2.FUNDAMENTALS 12 Example 1-5 A 7.

10" 6 . . en- power.2 teslas to to kilograms to 000 meters amperes per meter to miles and frequency magnetic flux to meters milliliter 1-35 1-37 0 foot pound-force 1 symbol: rate of 1 feet to cubic nanometer State the SI unit for the following quantities write the 250 cubic mass 80 ampere hours 1-78 25 pound-force 1-79 25 pounds 1-80 3 tonnes to 1-81 1-82 Give the names of the SI units that eorresponcl to 1 00 000 0. io'-\ 1-62 10 square meters to square yards 1-63 250 1-64 1645 square millimeters Express the following SI units in symbol form: 1-7 megawatt 1-21 millitesla 1-8 terajoule 1-22 millimeter 1-9 millipascal turn sion charts: 10" 9 . 1-6 1-58 revolution 1 -60 oersted 1-59 degree 1 -6 ampere are the SI units of force.3 to to coulombs newtons to kilograms pounds lines of force to webers pounds per cubic inch kilograms per to cubic meter the following units: 1-83 1-42 Btu 1-51 bar 1-43 horsepower 1-52 pound-mass 1-44 line of flux 1-53 1 -84 1 -85 pound-force 2 inches of mercury to millibars 200 pounds per square inch to pascals 70 pounds-force per square inch to newtons per square meter 1-45 inch 1-54 kilowatt-hour 1-46 angstrom 1-55 gallon per 1-47 cycle per second 1-48 gauss 1-49 line per 1-50 °F 1 1 square inch 1-57 mho -87 1-88 pound-force per 1 square inch 1 5 revolutions per minute to radians per second minute 1-56 -86 -89 A temperature of 20 °C to kelvins A temperature of 200 °F to kelvins 1 A temperature kelvins difference of 1 20° Celsius to . pressure. Make the following conversions using the conver- 1/10. and frequency? Give the appropriate prefix for the following multipliers: 100.UNITS 1-5 What ergy. 6 1 1 1-23 1 revolution 1-10 kilohertz 1-24 megohm 1-11 gigajoule 1-25 megapascal 1-12 milliampere 1-26 millisecond -65 1 3 MCM to square millimeters 000 circular mils to square millimeters 1-66 640 acres 1-67 81 1-68 to square inches square kilometers to 000 watts to Btu per second 33 000 foot pound-force per minute to kilowatts 1-13 microweber 1-27 picofarad 1-14 centimeter 1-28 kilovolt 1-15 liter 1-29 megampere 1-16 milligram 1-30 kiloampere 1-17 microsecond 1-31 kilometer 1-69 1 -70 1-71 1-18 millikelvin 1-19 milliradian 1-20 terawatthour 1-32 1-33 1 -34 flow I -38 density 1-39 power 1-36 plane angle 1-40 temperature 1-41 microjoules 10 pound-force to kilogram-force 60 000 -72 1 -73 1 -74 50 ounces 1 -75 76 oersteds 1 -76 5 1 -77 1 lines per square inch to teslas kilogauss . 1000. 10 1/1000. 1/100.

. m2 3 the magnitude of the base volume (in m c. power. calculate the per-unit 1-95 value of each resistor. miles Calculate the per-unit values of LRA and NLA. 3000 II. value of the base impedance and the base 1-96 Three resistors have the following ratings: current. B power 3 the per-unit value of an area of 2 square A rating C.3. What is the efficiency in per-unit? A variable-speed motor having a nameplate three resistors having actual values of 100 fl. ft W W 40 W 24 75 and voltage values of the resistance. 1-93 A length of 4 m is selected as a base unit. 1 -92 A resistor has a per-unit value of 5.14 I -90 FUNDAMENTALS A resistance of 60 ft is Industrial application selected as the base resistance in a circuit. and 20 O. 30 hp cage motor has the following cur- rent ratings: ) volume of 6000 -97 B and ) FLA: full-load current LRA: locked NLA: 36 A rotor current 2 8 1 A no-load current 14 A. 50 Using resistor A as a base. the per-unit length of 1 mile C 300 II the per-unit length of 1 foot of resistors 1 d. determine the per-unit Calculate a. If the circuit contains 1 -94 A motor has an efficiency of 92. e. respectively. the speed. 1-91 A power of 25 kW rating of 15 hp. b.6%. Calculate the per-unit values of the torque. Calculate 890 r/min develops a torque of 25 newton meters at 1260 r/min. and power. calculate the the resistor. base power 12 is 470 is 250 If the resistor resistance A 10012 kW and the base voltage ohmic value of V. and a voltage of 2400 are selected as the base voltage of a V power and base power system. the per-unit value of a the magnitude of the base area (in m f.

and reenter the cell Figure 2.0 positive ^ negative ( terminal (+) -fli-ftr This chapter briefly reviews some of t ermina the funda- mentals of electricity. 2. provide the reader with a reference for subjects covered in later chapters. a review useful because is it focuses on those items that are particularly important in technology. having one terminal. negative ) to the positive terminal. The between them (measured in to an excess of electrons at the nega- compared we connect tential in due in Fig. 15 ' <-) . 2. magnetism. a wire across the terminals.2).Chapter 2 Fundamentals of Electricity. it book power establishes the notation and to designate voltages Figure 2. and Circuits Introduction 2. We assume the reader already familiar with the is dry cell including the solution of electric circuits. basics. However. used throughout this Some currents. the po- difference causes an electric current to flow is composed of a steady come out of the negative the circuit. Magnetism. and circuits. Furthermore. move along the wire.1 current flow Consider the dry cell positive ( shown + and one difference of potential volts) is tive terminal If ( — ) 1 .1 of the topics treated here will also Dry cell. This current stream of electrons that terminal. electron current flow Conventional and electron 2.2 by the positive terminal (Fig. Electron flow.

but it has impor- tant applications.) that carries a current can be classified as either a source or a load. rule that However. conventional current flow If the instantaneous polarities and instantaneous current flow are as from the load.FUNDAMENTALS 16 Before the electron theory of current flow was fully understood. suppose we have appro- instantaneous polarity the terminals ( + )( — ) determine the of the voltage across and the instantaneous direction of conventional current flow. particularly in alternating current circuits. However. but flow is it is worth recalling that the actual electron opposite to the conventional current flow. can behave only as loads. / Figure 2. 2. Other devices. battery. and loads It continu- The voltage box contains unknown devices and components variable conditions. Figure 2. consider two black boxes A and B ally changing between sources / that is in direction (Fig. resistor. book we use the conventional current current flow in electric In this flow.2 Distinction connected by a pair of that are wires carrying a variable current • A device is a source whenever current flows out of the positive terminal. can act only as sources. and its magnitude and polarity minals A]. such as resistors. either as sources or as loads. 2.4 between a source and a Distinction load. capacity.3 Some devices. the source Fig. used today and is still conductor flows is the accepted direction of power technology. generator. devices can behave Thus when a battery . 2. such as photocells. thermocouple. Under such highly are also continually changing.4. In order to establish a general rule. is how can we tell To answer sometimes important and loads in an electric to identify the sources circuit. scientists of the 17th century arbi- decided trarily that current in a from the positive terminal to the negative terminal This so-called conventional current flow (Fig. 2. some way in A2 to the external ter- . if shown box A is in and box The above is A the follows B is a box B would become load. a source delivers electrical power whereas a load absorbs it. many Conventional current flow. Every electrical device (motor. one from the other? • A device is a load whenever current flows into a positive terminal. drop along the wires assumed is that are connected to be zero. By definition. whether a source or a load? priate instruments that enable us to is Each and B h B 2 A variable voltage exists across the terminals. a source and box is whether a device very simple. The following rule then applies: etc.4).3). How can we tell the A or B the question. rule for establishing a source or load it the current should reverse while the polarity remains the same.

Sign notation to designate a voltage. and A is ( the capacitor it + is acts as a source On terminal. discharging and current flows out of the as a load and the can be designated by the respect to B. 2. 100 r/min to of rotation has reversed. Similarly. MAGNETISM. of a use the symbols negative with respect 1. For example..3 relative polari- true of capacitors. tive a positive ( + ) by sign.4 often prefer to use the sign notation. A double-subscript notation. of a rotational speed. source £.6 = 100 If E 21 terminal V. we know that the voltage between the terminals is 00 V and that terminal 2 is negative with respect to Sign notation 2. AND CIRCUITS power. Figure 2. which reads: The voltage between A and B is 100 V. electric motors usually act as loads potential difference of terminals 1 1 In arithmetic we scribe addition mechanics. ) and — ( terminal 2. but they can briefly behave generators When is thing when is like £AB = + tween 100 V. direction ) to de- etc.5 Figure 2.FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY. force. (4 ) ( + ) it when being is it acts as a load (current flows into the it The acts as a source (current terminal). B and the electromechanical conditions are if appropriate. 2. 2 £ AB in the signs is fre- we etc. £2 V etc. as follows: terminal). terminal spect to terminal A. to . terminal 2 is a arbitrarily describe a system of notation that enables us indicate the polarity of voltages. Fig.6 has a value that the gener- E2 = — \ 100 V. of a mechanical motor changes from means ) In electricity meaning the ( chosen direction. For example. and B is negative with respect to A. delivers electric flows out of the recharged. It and identifying one of the terminals by a chapters that follow. bitrary it we broaden + and — ( and subtraction.7 Double-subscript notation to designate a voltage. which reads: The voltage be- A and B is 100 V. acts As another example.5 Sign notation for voltages Although we can represent the value and the polarity of voltages by the double-subscript notation (£. Fig. Figure 2. positive met quently 1. Terminal A is positive minal B. 2.. and of an electric current.). if we know ator voltage in Fig. Similarly.) ( + sign. and current flows into the + ( ) it • positive with the £ BA = 100 V. ) . ) in marked with to G having a positive terminal terminal B. ties • on a system. is itself: it is Note B is A and The other terminal 2 shows a a negative with respect to ter- negative with re- that terminal A is not posi- only positive with respect to B. 2. ) charging up.5 source (£.7 shows which one of the terminals Double-subscript notation for voltages We now symbol . terminal. to indicate the compared + that the direction This interpretation of ( + to an ar- the speed if —400 r/min. consists of designating the voltage by a . The same a capacitor other hand.

circuit of Fig. . -4 inherently positive nor inherently negative. it can be both positive However. find that the true val- shown in Fig. V. C. 2.9.6 Graph of an alternating voltage In the chapters that follow. it seems im- 2 directing our attention to possible that ( re- negative with respect to point C. a resistor R. In effect. Figure 2. to point of a graph (Fig. terminals is the is the 10 V. we must remember Figure 2.6. has a polarity with respect to posi- Example 2-1 The 2-1 10 V.10 Graph of an alternating voltage having a peak of 1 00 V. + ( ) sign that the The terminal bearing then actually positive and the is other terminal is negative. However. Solution of Conversely. and D. . • means 10 V. but is is automatically assumed to be neg- ative with respect to the With • If ( we this notation the + = + state that £. and the other terminal is The magnitude of the voltage across tive.8 Example Circuit of 2-1. the real polarity of the reverse of that is Example ).8 consists of three sources 7 V V2 and V? . while the horizontal axis in- dicates the corresponding time.10 shows the \ produced by the generator of Fig. Solution stated. this of the terminals corresponds to that real polarity the terminal following rules apply: if the terminals £. jumper A. we encounter sources polarity periodically. the magnitude of the voltage across the terminals Figure 2. whose voltages change alternating voltages voltage at 2. is B and positive with respect why A carries both a positive and tive Using the rules just A It jumpers B and C. spectively. ( + ) and negative that A is neither Figure 2. Furthermore. The terminal bearing the ( + ) sign actually negative. 2. Determine the actual value and polarity of the voltage across each source.. voltage we only { V. The Such represented by means vertical axis indicates the each instant. 2. Voltages are positive when they when are E2 above the horizontal axis and nega- they are below. = - shown on diagram. 2. with a positive in series to — each ( + ) — having a terminal marked The sources are connected using jumper wires A. and knowing V? = -40 that V = ues and polarities are as in — That is a negative sign.FUNDAMENTALS 18 unmarked. ) indicated in the diagram. sign. 1 may be 0). point V2 = + 10 V. B.9 islOV.

the current a resistor (Fig. flows Thus. to 2 seconds. in Figure 2. terminal 2 1 and voltages and .8 Sinusoidal voltage The The positive direction means of an arrow (Fig. Example 2-2 The current ac voltage generated by commercial alternators very nearly a perfect sine wave. because it is neg- really flows in a direction opposite to that of the arrow. from A to B in the resistor. in the positive direction designated by the symbol current flows arbitrarily is Interpret the meaning where e — Em — / = instantaneous voltage [V] peak value of the sinusoidal voltage [V] frequency [Hz t = time 6 = a fixed angle [radj [s] . terminal 2 0 this positive with re- is is \ at- then gradually It end of one second. and if is it is 2. One be positive may flow from X of these two directions + ( is in Y or from considered to and the other negative ) to ( — Figure 2. the current —2 A and.13 and the corresponding graph Electric circuit The arrow ).10. 1 7 sec- and negative currents 0 We also indicate 1 make use of positive and negative signs to the direction of current flow.5 second. E2X is negative with re- The instantaneous of the generator shown by positive. but circulates it still Between increases from zero to ative. It may therefore be expressed by the equation e = Em cos {lirft + 6) (2. AND CIRCUITS from zero.12 Circuit element showing positive direction of current flow. 2. the current flows in the resistor (direction Figure 2. MAGNETISM. indicates the positive direction of current flow. 2.1) A. that is. The signs are *- time >v X | allocated with respect to a reference direction given on the circuit diagram. I. For example. 2. the current increases +2 A during from B to A 2 and 3 seconds. Figure 2.FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY. 2 A flows from X to Y. During at the one-second interval. Conversely.5. of current. after 0. interval from from +2 A to in the resistor. IT. negative.5. R 1 —2 A. 1 shown 2). from 0 positive.7 Positive is insets at 0. and TIT of Fig. the current decreases zero. Solution According zero to Because may is the interval flow from X to Y or from Y to X. of the arrow). from B to A of the arrow). from is it if by a current of +2 Y to X (direction opposite to that designated by the symbol graph a resistor in shown of this graph. 2.11 Current it from to the graph. spect to terminal because 1 E2 During the interval from 1 spect to terminal polarities onds are 1 . During the 2 seconds. therefore. varies according to the 3. Starting taining + 100 V falls to zero E2] gradually increases. to l it to l second. 2.11) Y to X.

and 100 cos 102° = -20.14 Sinusoidal voltage having a peak value of 100 expressed by e ab = Em cos (360 ft + 30°). 2.2833 cycle.2) 6) at the voltage is V —20.6) - The effective value of an ac voltage is some- times called the RMS the voltage. and b of an ac motor Knowing that 6 100 V. a measure of the heating effect of It is (root compared the ac voltage as mean square) value of to that of an equivalent dc voltage. + cos (360 ft 6. calculate the voltage 27 . + = = or <<|> t = (2.100 cos (360 X 50 X = 100 cos 30° - a by adding 90° to the angle 6.4) into a cosine function by subtracting 90° from the angle V the voltage + (360 ft sin / m sin therefore positive with respect to terminal b.8 Thus.14 represents the voltage £. the relationship and £ni is given by the expression Ecn = EJ. express the angle in e ab degrees. The latter corresponds to 0. it is often more convenient to The voltage in radians. 86.FUNDAMENTALS 20 The expression lirft and 6 are angles. Thus. s. is that an angle of 488 622° corresponds to 488 622/360 = 357 complete cycles plus 0.10 Effective value of an ac voltage Although the properties of an ac voltage are known when its frequency and peak value Em are specified. = + 6-90) (2. V and ef- 35 volts produces the same heat1 35 V. For example.144 + 30°) V moment at this terminal a Note 21 AAA- 100 cos (360 -20. as follows: e = Em cos (360 ft * = £ ni cos + In these (2.1 44 <j) also expressed in degrees.2 (2.6 Similarly. and the time-dependent angle (= 360 ft) is Example 2-3 The sine wave _ in Fig.2833 X 360° = 102°. The same remarks apply to the effective value of an ac current. 0 + 30°) +86. xh = At this is moment 0 Em is = E m cos (360 ft + 9) . Thus. expressed However.5) 2.8v 1 nificance as before. at t 2.3) 0) equations the symbols have the same sig- s is 100 cos 488 622° X 50 X 27. and E m = = 0 and at t = We can convert a cosine function of voltage or current into a sine function Em Solution The voltage at t e. it is much more common to use the effective value £e(j .6 V and terminal B + = 90°) we can convert a sine function /m is 0) (360 ft cos (360 ft + 6) (2. an ac voltage having an fective value of 1 ing effect in a resistor as does a dc voltage of Figure 2. lb across the terminals a operates at 50 Hz. Thus a current that varies sinusoidally and whose peak value is / m possesses an effective value /C given by | t .8 and negative with respect to terminal b.9 Converting cosine functions into sine functions that = 30°. For a voltage E between cfi - that varies sinusoidally.

The current lags the voltage by 30°. the subscript in Owing E given by sin 21 600 t t to the phase lag of 30°. (Courtesy of General Electric. This range of instruments has scales rang- . is Let us assume the voltage 21 and /. given by /eir is dropped / and the effective values of voltage and current are simply represented by the symbols is = E m sin 360 ft = 339 sin 360 X 60 the d.7) Most alternating current instruments are brated to rent show c. = 10x2= 14.15 Commercial voltmeters and ammeters are graduated ing up to 2500 A and 9000 V. 6. the current is value.1 sin (<J> - 30) 30) Example 2-4 A 60 Hz source having an effective voltage of 240 V delivers an effective current of 10 A to a circuit.1 are not particularly concerned with the instantaneous = 339 V voltages and currents but more with their The peak current / The waveshapes giving the instantaneous ues of e and are shown in Figure 2. Draw the waveshape for E and Em = E b.30) = 14. = /m sin (360 ft .) in effective values. and so we n 2 is magnitudes and phase angles. MAGNETISM.15). 2.1 /. 2. A ages are measured in And because the RMS volt- terms of the effective values E Figure 2. / In The peak voltage x 2 m = / 1 Phasor representation most power studies the frequency we simply is = 240 x 2 val- 1 take it is fixed. Furthermore. e. value of an alternating voltage or current When given is 339 it understood that it the is effective E^-and Furthermore. AND CIRCUITS U n 2 (2. Solution a.1 sin (21 600 f = 14.FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY. e cali- the effective value of voltage or cur- and not the peak value (Fig. for granted.

2. same Fig.67 \ 30° 14 • A \ \ (a) ms A 1 '* 9' <b) 1 t E h- 1. The current lags 30° behind the voltage.17). rotate line up. the same angle If a phasor bears an arrow.19 Phasor / leads £ by B E by degrees.18 Phasor / lags behind phasor 0. The effective voltage is 240 V and the effective current is 10 A. referring to clear that phasor £ by we could E leads phasor / equally well say that 0 degrees. and its length is The angle between two phasors to the electrical phase angle propor- 3. phasor or the other. whether /. But phasor / also lags . 2. gle to be rotated clockwise to same by 6 degrees. The basic purpose of phasor diagrams sense that it A phasor is phasor show represents. 2. (3 degrees.39 E / V 339 I ms Figure 2. is phasors are said to be out of phase they point in different directions. Thus. 2. E by an angle of 0 degrees. is it equal between the quantities. then zero. Figure 2. This line of reasoning has given rise to the phasor method of representing voltages and currents. a E if phasor make has to be rotated counterclockwise to point in the /. 1 9 we could rotate (3 to make it clockwise by an angle an- which make it direction as the other. said to lag behind phasor rules apply to phasors: direction (Fig. 1 8. Conversely. Thus.16 Graph showing the instantaneous values of voltage and current. 1 . make to be rotated it clockwise by an an- point in the same direction as Figure 2. 2. Two phasor E is / is phasors are said to be are parallel to each other them in phase when they and point in the same Two one The phase angle between direction as phasor said to lead phasor /. phasor / has to be rotated counterclockwise by an angle 6 to in the same phasor E has gle 6 to make it point direction as phasor E. is 1 8. But 4. it / lags behind make then Conversely. we sweep through to make them to E has point in the phasor / The following we have similar to a vector in the tional to the effective value of the voltage or current it Consequently. it direction. referring to Fig.FUNDAMENTALS 22 \ 16.17 current phasor The / and voltage phasor E are in phase. Figure 2. between voltages the magnitudes and phase angles and currents. E and interested in E m we peak values rather than the are really only . to is between them is point in the same The phase the angle through one of the phasors has when to be rotated to Referring phasor / now to Fig.

and E2 phasor / 2 leads lags behind /2 by 1 pha- 35°. common Phasors do not have to have a may be shown that in Fig.21a. between the positive peaks the time interval is given by In the in Fig. 2. common origin to magnitudes and phase relationships. MAGNETISM.20.2 1 = 360 ft 30 = 360 X 60 = 1. 2. 16.20 Phasors do not have to start from a show their the phasor diagram. Note that same direction true for the Fig. Calculate the time interval between the positive Figure 2. / is select any arbimaking its length then drawn so that Knowing equivalent to frequency that the is 1 0A 60 Hz.39 ms 9 b phase relationship between t £ab in Fig. E with a length lags 30° behind (Fig. 2. 2. 2.16. sor £. it we direction for phasor E. as by 90°. Knowing the frequency. AND CIRCUITS same point in the direction as phasor E. Solution To draw trary equivalent to 240 V. But this is the same as saying that phasor / lags phasor E by 0 degrees.21 Different ways of showing the phase relationships between three voltages that are mutually displaced at 120°. and the same is them. could then say that phasor 23 We E by leads phasor / P degrees. and £ca in Fig. 2.2 1 a can be rearranged as without affecting the shown . £| same from each entirely separate By phase with in is applying rule 3. In practice. Example 2-5 Draw the phasor diagram of the voltage and current in Fig. Figure 2.21b still points in the as Eab in Fig. Phasor Figure 2. we always select the smaller phase angle between the two phasors to designate the lag or lead situation. we can because they point l see in the x direction. 5. The angle 0 between two phasors is a measure peak positive val- of the time that separates their ues.2 three 240 V other phasors.22 Phasor diagram peaks of E and /. 2. 2. origin but other. circuit are freline voltages . 1 c shows still t another arrangement of the phasors that does not in any way alter their magnitude or phase relationship. same way.12 Harmonics The voltages and currents in a power The quently not pure sine waves. £bc the three phasors 2.FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY.22). Furthermore. time. we can calculate the of the voltage and current given in Figure 2.

23 This severely distorted 60 Hz current obtained on an electronic drive contains the following harmonics: funda- mental (60 Hz) = 59 A.V terminal voltage is a flat-topped - Thus. fifth harmonic (300 Hz) . as netic saturation in the cores of transformers or switching action of thyristors or IGBTs In order to understand the distorting effect of a the cur- shown in can be produced by mag- sometimes badly rents are by the in electronic drives. 2. components: (b) fundamental frequency: 20 Hz (the lowest frequency) Figure 2. 3.15.24b). quencies are respectively 60 Hz and 1 Their c. Consider a set of sine waves in which the lowest frequency is/ and multiples of / the lowest the other By all frequency waves other frequencies are integral definition.24 second harmonic: 40 Hz (2 fifth harmonic: l()0Hz(5 X 20 Hz) a. but their amplitudes are small. voltages produced by each source. For example. X 20 Hz) Hz ( 19 X 20 Hz) sinusoidal sources having different frequen- cies connected b.FUNDAMENTALS 24 usually have a satisfactory waveshape but Fig. 4. us consider two sinusoidal sources in series (Fig. 40. — A 0 4. The fundamental (60 Hz) and the third harmonic 80 Hz) voltages are assumed to pass through zero at the same time. harmonic. the terminal corresponding peak amplitudes are 100 ( 1 voltage —4 let and e 2 connected is equal to the sum of the instantaneous The resulting wave (Fig. This distortion distorted.) The to the distortion of a voltage or current can be traced harmonics it contains. times) the line frequency. seventh harmonic (420 Hz) = 10. The V and 20 V. fre- 80 Hz.3 A. the sine is wave having called the fundamental and are called harmonics. Because the sources are in series. the sum of a fundamental voltage and a har- monic voltage yields a nonsinusoidal waveform whose degree of distortion depends upon the mag- — nitude of the harmonic (or harmonics) 60 1 20 1 300 240 80 it contains. 420 360 Figure 2. (Courtesy of Electro-Mecanik. nineteenth harmonic: 380 Two in series. waves whose frequencies are 20. to- .23. and both are perfect sine waves. 2..24a). A harmonic age or current whose frequency is is any volt- an integral multi- ple of (2. and 380 Hz is said to possess the following a set of sine 1 00. A fundamental and third harmonic voltage can gether produce a flat-topped wave. Higher harmonics are also present. 2.6 A. etc.

The and they are consequently less wave. AND CIRCUITS We can produce a periodic voltage or current of any conceivable shape. consequently.3 50 third 42. Thus. In 1 100 V SQUARE WAVE waveshapes Freq. This fundamental power motor a is fundamental power the useful and an arc furnace to rotate The product of heat up. All gether a fundamental we have to do component and an of harmonic components. such as electric arcs and saturated magnetic 2. W 127. LI (2. energy is properties of an inductor are in Section 2. we can decompose a distorted periwave into its fundamental and harmonic components. The latter is usually dissipated as heat in the ac circuit and. square waves are not produced by adding sine waves. MAGNETISM. However. The procedure for decomposing a distorted wave is given in Chapter 30.13 Energy in an inductor lh I27 1. and pointy corners of the square In practice. the coil absorbs energy and current The cussed falls.3 whenever the released. Harmonics are created by nonlinear If the current varies. The given by W='c£ 2 (2. as shown in Table 2A.15 450 1/9 net power. 25 to harmonic voltage times harmonic current also produces a Relative amplitude harmonic power.14 Energy in A capacitor stores ever a voltage energy is E a capacitor energy in its electric field appears across its when- terminals. more fully dis- 1 Conversely. magnetic in its The energy show that any waveshape can be built up from a fundamental wave and an appropriate number of harmonics. but in some ac circuits they are also unavoidable. Harmonics are covered in greater detail in Chapter 30.FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY. such as arbitrary set square erate a They circuits. It should be noted that the product of a funda- mental voltage and a harmonic current yields zero seventh 18.8) energy stored L = inductance of / = in the coil [J] the coil [H| current [A] important.9) . odic loads.46 250 1/5 fundamental useful 1 work. to is add to- power we can distorted gen- wave having an amplitude of 00 V and a frequency of 50 Hz by connecting the following sine wave sources in series.46 350 1/7 ninth 14. these high-frequency harmonics produce the steep sides = is where higher harmonics have smaller and smaller amplitudes. but the example does l - field when it given by . whenever the current increases.00 6350 1/127 A energy coil stores carries a current /. produce together power. the stored energy rises and falls in step with the current. 2. Harmonic voltages and currents are usually undesirable.3/n A tal square wave wave and an is thus infinite 50 n 1/n W= composed of a fundamennumber of harmonics. For example. Harmonic and currents voltages should therefore be kept as small as possible. does no 127. All these circuits produce that causes a TABLE 2A are also and currents are periodically switched.44 150 1/3 fifth 25. [VI [Hz| that are rich in mental voltage harmonics. Amplitude in ac circuits the fundamental current and funda- the corresponding Harmonic produced whenever voltages electronic circuits.

The equations when are given without proof on the assumption that the reader already pos- Solution The energy stored in the coil sesses a is knowledge of ac circuits in general.+ (X} . IMPEDANCE OF SOME COMMON AC CIRCUITS TABLE 2B Impedance Circuit diagram XL = Equation (2-I0) 2TTJL (2-ll) 2irfC Z = \R 2 + X — o o 1| o-m—it—— Ac H Z= \ R~ 2 (2-12) + Xc r (2- 1 3) XL Z = VR. 2B) section with a list of useful equa- that are frequently required solving ac circuits.XC Y (2-14) RX. Calculate the and magnetic fields at is useful equations We terminate this tions (Table moment.15 and the instantaneous 800 V.Xcf (2-17) .FUNDAMENTALS 26 W= where W= energy stored C— E= capacitance of the capacitor [F] in the capacitor fJ] 8 The energy Example 2-6 having an inductance of 10 in series with a 100 capacitor. a* (2-15) \R 2 + X : ( RX C (2-16) Vr 2 + Xc 2 Xc \ R +_XL 2 1 2 VR + (X L . jjlF current in the circuit is 40 A voltage across the capacitor energy stored this X 1/2 10 10" 3 X X 40 2 J stored in the capacitor is voltage [V) W= A coil 1 Ml LI = in the electric mH = is connected 2 1/2 32 CE = 1/2 X 100 X 10" 6 X 800 2 J The instantaneous Some 2.

and is vacuum and flux density in a magnetic material also de- pends upon the magnetic is subjected. I Nonmagnetic materials such A/m] magnetomotive force acting on the component [A] (or ampere turn) (2.17 In ] a definite relationship between the flux and the magnetic field intensity any material.FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY.19) where B = flux density [T] § = A = flux in the There component WbJ [ cross section of the is density (B) component [m 2. curves almost identical to of vacuum. mT 2. 2-20 flux density cf> magnetic constant 27 B-H as copper. 2. 2.18) in the approximate form: //= 800 000 3 magnetic field intensity a flux density of H— U= / = magnetic field intensity f rubber. relationship between this makes Eq. We .20) B-H curve of a magnetic material proportional to the magnetic field intensity H. paper. the magnetic flux density B is directly 2. the inition. and 0 . |jl before. B. This enables us to write In the SI. is H have ijL oK /y the (2.16 and Whenever a component. MAGNETISM. the Also called the permeability of vacuum. Magnetic 2.. This relationship graphically 2 by the B-H curve B-H curve of is (H) of usually expressed Figure 2.25).22 B and H is not linear. AND CIRCUITS ELECTROMAGNETISM X by def10~ 7 or approximately 1/800 000. and (jl. The complete expression for (jl 0 is 4 tt X K) 7 henry/meter. and rather impractical to use. no matter how great the flux density may be (Fig. The value of ijl. given by B = $IA r ./-/curve of of nonmagnetic materials. and air have length of the that component [m] The resulting magnetic flux density is 1) A/m of 800 produces millitesla.22) same significance as the relative permeability of the material. is has a numerical value of 4tt body or presence of a magnetic to the It Eq. given by H=U/I (2. H field intensity B magnetic flux exists in a it field intensity is due H.25 of the material.2 The B-H curve of vacuum is a straight line. Consequently.18 expressed by the equation B = The il 0 H (2. value Its is field intensity to which it given by where B = B = flux density [T] H= magnetic |x 0 — field intensity where [A/m magnetic constant [= 4tt X 7 I0~ l* B.. The curve shows that a where fixed. A vacuum never saturates. — 1 . vacuum vacuum. is not constant but varies with the flux density in the material. 1 (2.0.

Fig. under the same magnetic field intensity H. The would be produced in vacuum. 5000 6000 A/m ( 1 %) at a .FUNDAMENTALS 28 prefer to show the relationship by saturation curve.- ~ 800 000 (2.4 sity T commonly machines: silicon iron. ial.26 B-H saturation curves of three magnetic materials. of a material is Determine the permeability of the ra- flux density of the material to the flux den- 1 silicon iron . cast iron.4 T. Given the saturation curve of a magnetic matersity that relative permeability of the flux density in B = flux density in the magnetic material [TJ H corresponding magnetic field intensity [A/ml — Example 2-7 jjl.. 2. field intensity of 1.26 means of a B-H shows typical saturation curves of three materials used in electrical and cast steel.5 T jjl.23) fl/// in cast where 2. it is The curves show that a magnetic of 2000 A/m produces a flux den- in cast steel but only 0. teslas 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 *H Figure 2. Thus.19 Determining the relative permeability tio easy to calculate the relative permeability using the approximate equation iron.

of 1000 A/m. AND CIRCUITS the magnetic materials saturate Solution Referring to the saturation carve (Fig. Consequently.FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY. silicon iron is more permeable than vacuum (or electromagnetic induction =1120 1120 times air). shows the saturation curves of a broad from vacuum to Permalloy®. 1 . 2.4/1000 this flux density. Faraday's law states: Figure 2. flux in a circuit. MAGNETISM.27 In 1831. Now known as Faraday's it revealed a range of materials law of electromagnetic induction. one most permeable magnetic materials known. 2. Note high. = 2. Michael Faraday made one of the most important discoveries in electromagnetism.27 Saturation curves of magnetic curve of vacuum where H is and nonmagnetic materials. Fig.4 see a magnetic field eventually all the B-H more and more and B-H curve curves follow the of vacuum.26). that all curves become asymptotic to the B-H ..20 Faraday's law of 800 000 B/H = 800 000 X At T requires we 29 1. that a flux density of intensity jlil. of the fundamental relationship between the voltage and Note that as the magnetic field intensity increases. while pursuing his experiments.

a voltage time interval during which the flux law many motors and motion produces a change in the coil change of flux inside the Faraday's induced a conductor respect to a flux that induced voltage [V] changes zero as soon as the flux falls to ceases to change. In effect. . 2. induced voltage opened the door to a host of practical applications and is given by E= Example 2-8 A coil of 2000 turns surrounds a flux of 5 mWb produced by a permanent magnet net is (Fig.29). 2. The mag- suddenly withdrawn causing the flux inside the coil to drop uniformly to 2 second. Consequently.21 Voltage A<I> A<J> X1/10 1000 given by N~— = number of turns 3 the flux varies in- side a coil of /V turns.28 Voltage induced by a moving magnet. E= Blv = 0. a voltage of tween induced be- is terminals. established the basis of operation of transformers. consequently.28). the voltage induced /V in is = 60 V system of the flux inside a loop varies at the rate of E= AO = 2000 X N— At to the SI 1 change takes place uniformly this 1/10 of a second (A/).6 X of a speed of 100 m/s (Fig.> moving at m large generator and are cut by a have field Calculate the voltage induced in each conductor.FUNDAMENTALS 30 function of time. its E = propor- is and according terminals. the induced voltage change of flux. it is induction with relative is induced ac- in this special easier to calculate the induced voltage with reference electromagnetic move The in the flux linking the cording to Faraday's law. rather than with reference to the coil itself. is common) (although case. 2 X 100 - 120 V . the coils coils and. V if induced be- is is The induced voltage (2. weber per second. The value 2.6 teslas. [s] of generators. to the conductors. 2-25. a voltage is induced across its terminals. when units. 5 4> 2 mWb =2mWb Solution A/ = 1/10 s According to Eq. What is mWb in 1/10 of a the voltage induced? flux E— B= = / induced voltage [VJ flux density [Tl active length of the conductor in the magnetic change AO (5 v is mWb - N= 2 mWb) 3 (2.24) in A/ where In = — At coil [Wb] fixed in space. whenever a conductor cuts a magnetic field. Because linking a loop (or turn) varies as a If the flux 1. we find Figure 2. and alternating current motors. 2. a voltage tween its of the induced voltage tional to the rate of By 1 definition. The value of the generators.25) where Solution The Blv — field [m] relative speed of the conductor fm/s| mWb Example 2-9 The stationary conductors of a 2000 an active length of 2 N S \ 0. However. See Example 2-8.

- on a conductor 2. tor is straight perpen- it is Solution Between these two ex- The maximum force acting on a if dicular to the lines of force (Fig. 2. in field sur- The same / shows is flowing between does not. the resulting field? is the shape of . Figure 2. [ the magnetic field created The magnetic shape shown Example 2-10 A conductor 3 m long carrying a current of 200 A is placed in a magnetic field whose density is 0. it con- basis of operation of motors.3 l ). S poles of a powerful permanent magnet. The mag- when greatest the conductor perpendicular to the field (Fig. 2. This call the 1 N in a subjected to a force which — (Fig.26) where Whenever F= force acting on the conductor [N] B = flux density of the field [T] a conductor carries a current. then.5 T. X 0. it is is placed force is of fundamental importance because stitutes the and of tors. For page of this book. The force is parallel to it = 0.32a. the circular have the direction shown in it a current lines Figure 2. have the the the figure because lines of force never cross each other. What.FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY. MAGNETISM. See 2-9. the force has intermediate values. rounded by a magnetic into the field. or Lorentz force. 2.30 Force on a conductor. is when Calculate the force on the conductor BII tremes.5 X 200 = 300 N 3 conduc- given by 2. of course. it we electromagnetic force.31 Force depends upon the orientation of conductor with respect to the direction of the field.22 Lorentz force When conductor a current-carrying magnetic field.30).23 Direction of the force acting F= BII on a straight conductor (2.29 Voltage induced Example in a stationary conductor. of force = active length of the conductor [m] figure / - current in the conductor A] N.30) and zero is Figure 2. AND CIRCUITS 120 3 V Figure 2. of genera- many nitude of the force electrical instruments.

which surrounds a magnetic material formed in the shape of a ring. the number of lines above the it.24 Residual flux density and coercive force Consider the coil of Figure 2.32b. If in Bm Figure 2.ct> I .33a. I (a) Y turns length - / Figure 2. stantial flux density remains. conductor must be greater than the number below. Recalling that lines of flux act like stretched elastic bands. but To answer the question. curve oa (b) a value Figure 2. Magnetic field due to magnet and conductor. produces a current whose value and direction can be changed from zero. A magnetic field intensity current source. This sis. Xi - . 2.33b. as sity. B we the magnetic H nv gradually reduced to zero. This increase traces out // . now is a curve ab situated above reduce the magnetic field inten- domains that were lined up under Hm tend to retain their origiphenomenon is called hystereConsequently. when H is reduced to zero. upon it is easy to visualize that a force acts the conductor. The flux density reaches for a magnetic field intensity the current the flux density curve. tending to push it downward. connected to the coil. we observe that the lines of force created respectively by the conductor and permanent magnet the act in the above the conductor and low in same direction opposite directions be- Consequently.FUNDAMENTALS 32 N // H cross-section . a sub- the influence of field nal orientation. at will. Resulting magnetic field pushes the conductor downward. The resulting magnetic field therefore has the shape given in Figure 2. Figure 2. It is called residual flux density or residual induction (B r ).32 a. b.33a Method of determining the B-H properties of a mag- netic material. we gradually increase /. does not follow the original moves along oa. Starting so that and B increase. In effect.33b H Residual induction and coercive force.

the area demagnetized. If B expressed is amperes per meter. Hysteresis losses are produced just as they are in an ac magnetic field. of moves — B m —B n . r energy. as the 2. A complete rever- occurs therefore every half-revolution. f. that re- in the armature field. We and can prove amount of heat released per cycle (ex- first sal toward A and N poles of the domains point then toward B. made of S (Fig. pressed if at a rate that the flux has a in J/nr ) is equal to the area (in T-A/m) of the hysteresis loop. to points a. 0.34). we we If v B obtain a closed curve called hysteresis loop (Fig. The magnetic material absorbs energy during each cycle this iron. AND CIRCUITS we wish If to eliminate this residual flux. In iron tion.35).34. 2. dissipated as heat is we used to is frictional resistance of the domains as they oppose the change material. dissipated per cycle. as can be seen in Fig. + 5 m +B n . passing succes- plete cycle through peak flux densities +Z? m and —B m the peak magnetic field intensity alternates be- sively as tween + // m and — // m as a function of H. in the armature reverse periodi- even though the magnetic field is constant. The magnetic domains armature rotates. c. e. 2. first in in the To reduce hysteresis losses. in in and teslas of the loop is H in the energy joules per kilogram. required to reduce the flux to zero field intensity is called coercive force In also B reducing the flux density from have to furnish overcome the The energy supplied A to zero. the flux and +# m .26 Hysteresis loss successively from a piece of a field produced by permanent magnets N. tend to line up with the magnetic In when iron rotates in a constant magnetic field. be. . we select magnetic materials that have a narrow hysteresis loop. and a. d. value and direc- are therefore oriented one direction. B and coercive force plot the flux density H c The residual induction have the same signifi- cance as before. corresponding respectively b.35a and 2. magnetic in orientation. The magnetic domains gradually change their previous orientation until the becomes zero flux density point at The magnetic c. then the other. such as the grain-oriented silicon steel used in the cores of alternating-current transformers. the domains describe a com- every 1/60 of a second. Thus. frequency of 60 Hz.35b. we move along curve As we do so. the describing a hysteresis loop. changes continuously both The magnetic domains in depends upon the frequency.27 Hysteresis losses caused by rotation Hysteresis losses are also produced for example.34 Hysteresis loop. dissipated as heat. the magnetic domains cally. energy that the is 0. This energy the in very sensitive thermometer would in- dicate a slight temperature rise as the ring is being Figure 2. 33 we have to reverse the current in the coil and gradually H increase in the opposite direction. 2. Consider. an armature volves in AB. . Consequently. MAGNETISM. 2. Figure 2. irrespective of the position of the armature. 2.FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY. Consequently.25 Hysteresis loop Transformers and most electric motors operate on such devices the flux alternating current.

38 the ac flux passes Figure 2. In Fig. eddy currents flow in is assumed to due to the Lenz's law. These so-called eddy currents (or Foucault currents) can be very large. . . x . If a the first. currents are progressively smaller as the area of the (b) loops surrounding the flux decreases. According to Faraday's law. due to the low resistance of the plate. the short-circuit sipated in this loop. . . conductor Figure 2. The flux c|) in Fig.36).FUNDAMENTALS 34 Figure 2. too. special care /.37 and 2. 2. causing the a smaller voltage links a smaller flux. shown the plate. It is packed of rectangular conductors touching set basically equivalent to a densely each other. Consequently. eddy currents An ac become very formers so that stray leakage fluxes do not cause Consequently.37 Concentric conductors carry ac currents due to ac flux <1>. such a way as to oppose the increasing flux. a substantial second conductor is is conduc- placed inside induced because centric it is the power disshows four such conloops carrying currents I 7 2 7 3 and / 4 The is less than penetrated by an ac flux can this regard. a metal plate that terminals. following the paths V — metal plate Figure 2.36 has to be taken is hot.38 result. an ac voltage If the E is { tor to heat up.28 Consider an ac flux that links a rectangular-shaped <E» conductor (Fig. current U short-circuited. and so. 2. through a solid metal plate. induced across conductor alternating current is /.35 Hysteresis losses due to rotation.37 in the figure.38 induces voltage Ev Large ac eddy currents are induced in a solid metal plate. 2. its will flow. In sections of the enclosing tanks to overheat. Fig. be increasing. Currents swirl back and forth inside Eddy currents 2. As a the flux <1> in trans- 2.

Furthermore. is one half before. the eddy-current losses. As lines and. losses which The power loss proportional to the square of the speed and the square of the flux density. large FR into heat. a voltage in the very low (Fig. large core because resistance eddy currents flow is These eddy currents produce are immediately converted is turns. number of 2. 2. To reduce Figure 2. The stacked laminations are tightly held in place by bolts and appropriate end-pieces. 2. The cores of ac motors and generators are fore always laminated. the core the losses ity. This constant flux induces eddy currents To understand how they in the revolving armature.39c Core built up of thin. a small silicon is find that decrease progressively. we If continue to subdivide the core.-A an ac current that pro- duces an ac flux in a solid iron core. Figure alloyed with the steel to increase thereby reducing the losses still more a fraction amount of its (Fig. we composed of stacked laminations. with the result that the eddy currents. consider a solid cylindrical iron core that revolves between the poles of a magnet (Fig. duced along Owing it its its is in- length having the polarities shown. we laminate the armature using thin circular laminations that are . In practice. are considerably reduced. 2. the eddy-current losses decrease in proportion to the square of the laminations. taking care to insulate the from each other induced in each section (Fig.39a shows a coil carrying A large of the core.39a Solid iron core carrying an ac flux.29 iron 35 a stationary in core insulation The eddy -current problem becomes particularly important when iron has to carry an ac flux. ally become red hot (even due to these at a its Figure 2. to this voltage. usually of a millimeter thick.40a). and corresponding losses.39b).39b Eddy currents are reduced by splitting the core in half. For a given iron core. MAGNETISM. This the case in all ac 2.30 Eddy-current losses in a revolving core The stationary field in direct-current motors and gen- erators produces a constant dc flux.FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY. thin coating of insulation covers each lamination to prevent electrical contact between them. /'•-•'' core could eventu- frequency of 60 Hz) can reduce the losses by splitting the core two along is currents eddy-current losses. 2.39c). AND CIRCUITS Eddy currents 2. in two The voltage of what it was length. sections the Eddy up as shown and they flow throughout the entire length We i.40b). insulated laminations. are set is motors and transformers. A eddy current in one lamination resistiv- there- Figure 2. are induced. the core cuts flux according to Faraday's law.

e. it to calculate the resulting cur- which means that the short interval At is change given by in current Ai during a . we can use a graphical solution. Figure 2.FUNDAMENTALS 36 rotation (b) (b) Figure 2.41 Armature a. time .40 Much b. for example.27) At results abling us to visualize a e same tor increases age and current are related by the equation is can use the same equation. a. at a time From Eq.31 Current in It is well known an inductor yields the that in an inductive circuit the volt- known Ai = L~~ how = instantaneous voltage induced in the circuit | V] L = inductance of the A/7 A/ = E /. Suppose the inductance / e the current in an induc- and decreases with time.41). However. Voltage induced b. a revolving armature. known and we want insulated from each other. can write This equation enables us to calculate the instanta- neous voltage = response to in applied voltage. after carries a current an interval At. 2. The laminations tightly stacked with the flat side are running parallel to the flux lines (Fig. circuit [H] /. 2-27 we the rate of change = 1 eAt L of change of current [A/s] when we know which a We want to determine the current a very short Ai rate in appears across an inductance L. Large eddy currents are induced. 2. up of thin laminations. called the volt-second method. (2.42. 2. We To often happens that e knowledge of advanced mathemat- get around this problem. but the solu- tion requires a ics. later. in built smaller eddy currents are induced. rent /. of current. variable voltage where It and has the advantage of en- Consider. Fig.

therefore. 2 \ terval + Af 3 + AA 2 + AA 3 + (A/4. (f.) . / algebraic sum of all + between and t A under t 2 the voltage -seconds across the induccurve between tance during the interval At The values of is tive ( + + Af) = initial current + A/ e2 or negative ) eas AAj. in Fig. / area A/\ under the voltage A/ + AA 2 The sum of . (^Af. mental changes — (f 2 f|). + + e 2 At 2 (A/. To general- current after an interval Tis always given by intervals af- then have to add the incre- / = /. ) and.) average voltage e during the interval A/ - X duration Af of the interval I L 2 = + | + /. 2. 2. more . the current in the inductance after the in- /at time little areas under the voltage curve net area volt the I 4 = Am x Af . in current A/ during the long period we a result current find current /.28) . - = <? 3 I curve during the interval . + A/ 2 I 2 at + time + A/ 3 . MAGNETISM. Initial an inductor and current re- is A.) .42 Variable voltage applied across sulting change in current. As U = initial A = /. values of the A/\s gives the net area under the voltage curve between /. . — A2 ) volt-seconds. L We and f 2 is many Af ize. t . and t f { Therefore. Figure 2. the .44 the net area/\ after time inter- val Tis equal to (A interested in calculating the when We f Thus. + AA fj are usually current at a time ter f. ( — + ) 2 and ( — ) ( + ) little ar- or ( — ).43). f2 (Fig. 2 .. A/\ 3 these ( and so on may be posi- . 2 . .FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY. AND CIRCUITS Volt-seconds are gained (and it -« voltage 1 is when a lost) 37 variable applied across an inductor. the and so on may be . + AIL (2.

the area a. Another way of looking inductor stores volt-seconds. connected to a source whose volt- age varies according to the curve of Fig. l the inductor. for example an inductor L. in- and so does the current. progressively creases under the curve by. positive or negative) the capacitor received during a given interval. 2. L is the charge coulombs (ampere seconds. at in charged up with volt-seconds. Current onds (coulombs). an inductor is actly equal to the positive area (A area An b. consider that the inductor accumulates volt-sec- in E is } the initial voltage and Q . in known much like However. ample. the net area equal to is the corresponding current f=(A + i At instant /4 . the situation (Fig. onds during the interval from 0 to t 2 . A where /( = current at start of interval T / = current after lime interval T\A] A — under the volt-time curve dur- net area T ing lime /. it the current is to is A is ex- + A 2 The net 4- 4) ). 2. the initial current is zero. having negli- gible resistance. instead of storing ampere-secstores volt-seconds. . stant is / the negative area 04 3 words.A y )IL zero and so the current 4. during the discharge period from t 2 in Then to /4 the inductor loses volt. example. vol age curve ceases to increase l t. the current reaches time /-> because at this its moment maximum value at the area under the any more. consequently. — [ V-s] inductance [HI Consider. the value at instant =A F t\ If Figure 2. At instant ^.FUNDAMENTALS 38 volts Figure 2. behaves very a capacitor. a capacitor having a capacitance that the voltage E across its C For it is terminals is given by also zero.45). the current increases well becomes negative. for ex+ A 2 — A$) and (/\. As it becomes direct proportion to the volt-seconds received. the voltage the net area begins to diminish.44 The T is A and A 2 net volt-seconds during interval algebraic sum areas of the equal the to .45 is /L l As time goes However. Beyond becomes negative and. After inin other where changes direction.45a.seconds and the current decreases accordingly. A 2 . An inductor. therefore.

Repeat the calculations for an current initial of 7 A. attaining a final value of 6 Interval A after three from 3 s to 5 seconds. is H = The surface equivalent to 8 E the total 16 V s. is A before again dropping to zero after a time interval of Important Note: an interval T is value to all the If the 27 s. If the inductor has an induc- tance of 3 henries. 2. a. for an inductor having an in- ductance L.FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY.45b shows the instantaneous current ob- when Solution values: 2 A. it X 20mWb = charge of 600 turns = in is that surrounds it is carrying a current of Q { /L = =4 A. 8 A. increases V s. current at the beginning of not zero. MAGNETISM. s. Interval from zero to 3 s: During this interval the area in volt-seconds increases uniformly and progressively.46 See Example 2-11.9 zero.45a an inductance of 100 H. and so on. Fig. where in /] is the initial current and knowing the cir- / in that the initial current is zero. the two seconds 8 it is Using the expression = / V s. . the voltage of Fig. AIL. which is 7 is 16 V-s/2 s: s.46. a. we simply add the initial ampere values calculated by the volt-second method. after after one second. Figure 2. Calculate the instantaneous current cuit. 1 QL is the "charge' b. When = t 5 surface starting from the beginning therefore the current Interval from 5 s to by 4 squares. the current builds up to the following respective 2. The and the current rises to a maximum initial is applied to current of 6. turns coil of 1 weber-turn 600 turns of 20 milliwebers has stored a flux netic Thus a 12V-s/3H tained equal to mag- a total 12 000mWb 12 volt-seconds. volt-seconds (positive or negative) that the in- ductor received during a given interval. 4 A. It 1 interesting to note that is volt-second. area A and so is 4 V forth. the current / it carries Example 2-11 The voltage across given by is 39 the terminal s of an inductor of 2 H varies according to the curve given in Fig. Thus. because voltage is smaller than before. 2. AND CIRCUITS In the same way. s: The area continues to increase but at a slower rate.

In our methodology it Consequently. 2. we successively encounter nodes 2-4-3-1-2. low certain going elements A. and so the net current A to Consider Fig. the current interval 7=16 is Interval voltage from 8 is s at the = V-s/2 77 to 10 s: V 16 ence. 2. 7 by the sign notation. Thus. The the current changes direction. the = 1 1 s is CIRCUITS When + 6 7 2. from end of 2. 2. our voltage law (KVL) and By following a current law (KCL). seconds continue to accumulate and With an a matter of individual prefer- will begin with the double-subscript nota- Because the terminal that 10 s to 14 in The choice tion. loop ABCD. D. this point be sources or loads. current of +7 s. E. The from the beginning net area therefore 24 V - s 8 V = s Consequently. zero during this interval. E. 2. and the conI to 4.47 Rule for writing notation. no matter it is possible to how complex. solve any circuit. AND EQUATIONS and current notations covered and = writing circuit equations. familiar with the is solution of such equations. Kirchhoff's voltage law Figure 2. each of the currents calculated previ- current elements around a circuit loop. using Kirchhoff s algebra. coil resistance). closed circuit. not necessary to specify whether there longer follows a straight line because the volt- age 0 Sections 2. Note that the current no the is age rise" or a "voltage drop/' is not constant during this interval. to add we can start with any node cw or ccw direction until we starting point. using linear and vector method will review only the writing of these equations. thus reaching 12 A. In so doing. The resulting KVL equation is therefore written essential to fol- E24 + £43 + E31 + E l2 = based upon the voltage rules that are we For example. of one or the other volt-seconds that were accumulated previ- b. the current increases by 4 A. such as the loop involving negative volt- equal to the positive area. We 1 set of labels subscripts. Interval can be expressed that voltages is a "volt- is second area does not change and neither does (remember We is s. the net volt- the current have seen either double-subscript or sign notation. from 7 Interval s to 8 We The voltage sud- s: denly changes polarity with the result that the V 8 during this interval subtract from the s ously.5.33 Kirchhoff's voltage law and double-subscript notation we assumed is may elements zero in which six circuit The s: — at t 14 is Beyond zero. and move ously. We begin our explanation of the rules regarding voltages.FUNDAMENTALS 40 means that the sum of the voltage rises is equal to sum of the voltage drops. ac ordc. and F are connected together. B. in a 3 is zero. Consequently. we in either a come back to the This ordered voltage The new current wave is simply 7 A above the curve shown in Fig. later nections (nodes) are labeled the negative area initial followed this 8 A. we have A. and D. We is used to establish the write the voltage sub- scripts in sequential fashion. at t In encounter the labeled nodes one after the other.7.4. KVL equations using double-subscript .47 A.32 Kirchhoff's voltage law Kirchhofrs voltage law sum states that the algebraic of the voltages around a closed loop Thus. C. few simple rules. following the it is order as the nodes cw around in presume the reader same meet.46. starting with node 2 and moving 3 A.

34 Kirchhoff s current law finding the solution to such double-subscript equations. the voltages will to it is essential to equate all we have done so far and We do not recommend attempts equations to zero as continue to do. Solution In writing the loop equation. magnitude and polarity of the voltage between the open terminals point at a sum of that the flow into a terminal and polarity of states that the algebraic of the currents that arrive .49 ?3 1t Rule for writing KCL equations.48 (Fig. In £. + / 3 ). let us start at terminal and move ccw The resulting we till again come back KVL equation £. and vice versa.FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY. 7 S ). This rents that leave Example 2-12 shows two sources connected in series. appear across the impedance. into the is (I 2 + node I4 + is (/. 3. KVL equation The resulting + £42 The set usually 0 ac or dc. The magnitude 2. equate voltage rises to voltage drops. impedances. is + em £23 = +10 V 3 indicating that terminal is 1 positive with respect to terminal 3 and that the voltage between the two is 10 V. we can write + /3 = I2 + I4 + /. and 3. MAGNETISM. and associated voltages Consider an impedance 2 Z carrying a current A connected between two terminals marked Figure 2. having certain of voltages can KVL = -10 V KVL equa- magnitudes and phase angles. set even represent instantaneous values.50).35 Currents. 41 /. E l2 and E^ 2 are specified as E i2 = = +30 V.12. The question of .49 and is equal to the sum of the cur- shows five currents arriving at a The sum of common the currents flowing . 2. /Z. We wish to determine the I equal to is the currents that it. See Example 2. In some cases the In = ~E ]2 ~~ E 2 $ = -E X2 + E yl = -40 + 30 £31 of voltages designated by the may be tions Transposing terms. 2. 2. Fig. If they are ac. order to prevent errors. 2. while the sum that leaves it Applying KCL. 2 to terminal 1 1 is + £ 23 + E M = 0 Figure 2. terminal (or node). having terminals (nodes) 2. we successively encounter nodes 4-2-3- 4.48 1 +40 V and £ 32 Fig. 2 having a magnitude . will A 1 and 2 voltage E. AND CIRCUITS If we select loop CEF and start with node 4 and move ccw. pressed as it useful to is EXY remember that a voltage ex- can always be expressed as — E YX Kirchhoff s current law sum means zero. will and so be expressed as phasors.

+ 108 V and ECD = + 48 knowing V. the final outcome after solving current flows are presently the equations (voltages.52 equations. phase angles. the voltage /Zis preceded by a neg- = tion of /4 because in the direc- ceded by a negative sign because we are moving preceded by a positive sign. + /Z equal to resolved by the following rule: When moving same £ l2 1 KCL node at 2: /s = U +h /. Figure 2.52. power.. polarities.13. starting with £24 we in /2 node 2 and moving cw: ~ h^i = 0 Consider for example the circuit of which two known voltage sources E. Z in write £.) is always correct.FUNDAMENTALS 42 Let us write the circuit equations for Fig. Thus. . is X against the direction of/. It is a remarkable fact that no matter what directions are assumed. Voltage /4 Z4 is preceded by a + ( ) sign. ) the direction of the respective currents. unknown. = h Example 2-13 Write the circuit equations and calculate the currents flowing in the circuit of Fig. KCL node at 3: h+ /.5 Loop 2312. impossible to predict the or capacitive circuits it is On the other hand. 3 E24 are connected to four known impedances Z 2 Z3 and Z4 Because the actual directions of . we simply assume arbitrary directions as shown in the figure. is we Fig. pre- going around the loop we are moving actual direction of current flow in the various circuit elements. starting with + /3Z3 Voltages /3Z3 and because in Fig. E2] the direction resistive (R).. moving across an impedance against ative sign. Thus.50. etc. most ). Voltage is preceded by a negative sign because ing against current Loop 242. that £AD .Z. I2 node 3 and moving ccw: Z2 + /4 Z4 = 0 /4 Z4 are preceded by a ( + sign. currents. voltage I{Z Loop 3423.51 Writing KVL and KCL V-—- See Example a Ail 12 Figure 2. circuit equations as follows: Q ^ 48 V /2 . I2 are Z2 mov- . 2. 2. Solution We first and /3 select arbitrary directions for currents and write the 6 108 Figure 2. 2. . The current can be ac impedance can be .50 E12 = + /Z. 2. or dc. in when of current flow. /. in- (—jXc ). starting with node 2 and moving cw: =0 + /4 Z4 + E 3I -/. and the ductive In ( jX.5 and Zj. 2. in ~IZ. going around the loop we are moving now polarity The arises: Is question is across an impedance direction as the current flow voltage IZ or — IZ? /. 1 in . 2 = +/Z the the associated Conversely.

9 L 96. but equations themselves can be written by inspection. the volt- magnitudes and phase angles. is + this equation. To determine £. MAGNETISM. + 75. v e m for such circuits.0 and the 4 il and 16 43 7(16 + j Substituting the values of tion + £bc = 63) Eac and Ehi and combining the terms in . = 0 (ccw) Figure 2. we observe the po- terminal of every voltage . move cw us c. combination of is A.37 KVL and Voltages E.47 2 + 48 . -200 2.53. we /. 765 A.5°. Let us consider = £ac — £ bc = 200 L 120° - solution of phathe down almost 100 l_ 150° Using vector algebra. moving cw around the loop: . AND CIRCUITS For the loop DABCD composed of the two sources we and the 6 fi and 4 fl resistors. including 3-phase circuits. *3 Solving these simultaneous equations. The more time-consuming.14. Furthermore. E ilb = 123. three.FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY. ages and currents are expressed as phasors. let / b. For the loop DCBD Applying 1 composed of the (cw) 48 V source 2 II resistors: E DC + 47 2 + -48 + 4/ 2 + KCL at 12/ 3 = 12/.36 Kirchhoff s laws and ac circuits The same basic rules of writing double-subscript equations can be applied to ac circuits. or a inductive. elements The only difference in all Solving b. 2. sistive sistive. trary direction of current flow. the circuit. c sign notation following voltages: = 200 L E bc = 120° 100 L 150° in ac and dc circuits are frequently indi- cated with sign notation and designated by symbols such as E. Calculate a. This yields for I\ 2 is bears a nega- /2 left to right around the loop.ib + £bc = 0 Transposing terms. and so on. . suppose between points a and write the circuit equation.4/ 2 + ECD = 0 -108 + 67. two sources A. the actual direction of opposite to that we find ECd + were correct because both currents carry a positive sign. We conclude and 73 72 To solve = -3 A we 73 that the directions flows from To = +5 A establish an arbi- first we assumed assumed because Thus. B gener- 2. The value of the current b. 0 node B. that the re- £ua + £ .9 Z. = +8 A 2.53 See Example Solution a.2° Example 2-14 In the circuit ate the of Fig. 763 obtain £da + 6'i . starting from terminal However.8° we 100 find that I = L 1 150° . = 0 20. we find two examples. To write the equations we employ As we cruise around a larity (+ or — ) of the first the following rule: loop. the value of £ ab and its / in the circuit phase angle . lb we write the following equation. having sor equations 120° dc circuits are replaced by reor capacitive elements. 0 in this equa- get tive sign. we get h + h = /.

the IZ . We then write the following equations. Ec ~ E A + E H = + 37 = +22 V Thus. To solve to flow this problem. In other words. illustrates the procedure be followed. v e m etc.54. ity In circuits using sign notation.) . we meet. This observed polar- is (+ or — precedes the respective voltages as we write them down in the KVL equation. of the voltage source minal If only the ( + terminal ) marked.38 Solving ac and dc circuits with sign notation taken to be negative. Solution a. Moving cw around - E- 40) Figure 2. the currents are assumed in the arbitrary directions shown.. the loop - 7. 2. wc treat the IZ volt- ) ages in same way the subscript notation. and the polarity indeed positive with respect to minal T2.5 V. the IZ voltage across an impedance sign Example 2-15 In Fig. T2 T1 in the figure.15. b. then proceed + to the tercw around the ) ( loop in Fig. The following example illustrates the application of this rule. 2.55 is powered by an ac source The values of the respective im- pedances are indicated -EA + Ec -E B = (cw) 0 Ec Calculate a.(30) BDAB. the magnitude of of terminal Tl is to is 22 V. E. to we against the direction of current flow. we + I2 (- j obtain 37) = 0 (cw) . it is known wish age Z preceded by a positive is whenever we move across the impedance in the direction of current flow. Transposing terms. E = 1600 /L 60°.54. we assign an arbitrary polarity minal voltage Ec We . Solution First.FUNDAMENTALS 44 (£.55 See Example 2.54 Rule Note for writing KVL that the sign sponds equations using sign notations. The polarity happens Ec 5 we assumed have been the correct one. the unmarked is ter- 2. at ter- the outset Figure 2. 1 determine the value and polarity of the volt- to Ec EA and £ B E A = + 37 V and E R . starting with voltage EA . The current flowing in each element The voltage Ex across the 72 ohm capacitive reactance. Conversely. preceding each voltage correof the terminal that was to the polarity encountered in going cw around first the loop. This yields the following equation: Example 2-16 The circuit of Fig. 2.. We given the polarity marks of that as in circuits using double- voltage move is preceded by a negative sign whenever The following example across the open terminals.

N = x = 240° Z_ = 210° can even express the sign notation in and terminals N terms of in follow- and 1 . and Ec = 26/1 240° (sign 1 L L - 90° double-subscript notation. /2 j - 72) = 21 / 3 0 (ccw) N node A. 14. we the second loop 45 ABCA. we obtain Ex = = /3 (-j72) 14. Solution the 'Voltmeter" and capacitor together form a closed loop for which we can To meet write ing a circuit equation.56 shows a 3-phase system in which E — 26 L 0°. zl 26 120° -30° zl 45 -66° -26/1 0° zl zl E. v This completes our review on the writing of dc and ac circuit equations. MAGNETISM.E. I2 = 30. E N = — £. 2. = £23 + Ec . which . write the followthe should reader verify: the loop write -/.56 L 40° See Example 2. we have + h = o Upon solving these equations.9/1 24° We can think of E x as being a voltmeter connected across the capacitor. - 37) (- /3 KCL at applying + /..FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY.16.(-j72) + E x = £ l2 + Eb . we KVL equation £ N! + Example 2-17 Fig. We wish to determine the values of £ 23 and £ 31 (double-subscript . AND CIRCUITS moving ccw around Then. 0 can be expressed as E. obtain /2 (-j Finally. Eb = 26 zl 20°. .Ec ~ E = iX 45 and hybrid notation 2. E ]2 * 20° -26/1 240° . can write the following example.E c = 0 Thus 0 0 0 Transposing terms.Eb = 26 72) 45 and so £23 = Eb Ex = 1073 zl Ec = 26 £ 31 . notation)..9 zl 24° (- j E 12 = Ea . as for Thus.Eh = E M + £a . 44. For example. As a result.9 zl 215° = /3 b.3 Figure 2.26 0° ing the loop created by E Therefore E. cw around requirement. we obtain the fol- lowing results: = /. this KVL we which equations.39 Circuits In tation We employ both sign noand double-subscript notation as shown in the some circuits it useful to is Ll I notation). in traveling we any other loop.

57) c. and the coil falls to 1. the effective current in the resistor b. want an at 0. Terminals 2-3 and 4-5 c. £34 = -100 V = -40 V £56 = +60 V £. carries a cur- 2-11 A sinusoidal zero at t = 0. connected the SI unit of is Magnetic flux Magnetic flux density Magnetic field intensity a.6 T. 3.29 rent of 800 A flowing from B a.2 T.2 the average voltage induced. Figure 2. produced by a permanent magnet.58 Calculate the force on the Does same a. if the three sources are in series. The magnet See Problem T mm. Calculate 2-12 A sinusoidal voltage of 120 V is applied to a resistor of 10 O.26. 2. 4. d. 2-7 Problem ( + )( — ) of the ter- 2-8 2-3 if 2-9 the show the voltage and the actual polarity of the generator minals 2-4 at instants A conductor 2 m 1 . of cast iron tive permeability 2-1. long and moves 60 km/h through a magnetic 2-10 is moved. ter- flux density of 0. a.46 FUNDAMENTALS Questions and Problems 2-6 What 2-1 Three dc sources G h G 2 and generate voltages as follows: . to A. Calculate the peak value of current. See Problems to gap having a length of 8 c. Calculate a. b.6 voltage having a peak value of 200 voltage. A coil having 200 turns links a flux of 3 mWb. Calculate the determine the voltage following terminals are connected together. at a b. T.6 T. 2.57 2-3. Magnetomotive force b. what is the ms? 75 ms? 150 ms? current has an effective value of 50 A. speed of If the voltage is = 5 voltage at field t having a the flux linking mWb in 0. Referring to Figure 2. the peak voltage across the resistor . Draw the force on the moving N pole.2 Show the actual polarity minals 2-2 In in G3 (Fig. calculate the rela- and 0. 2-1 produce a flux density of 0. Calculate the force on the conductor. We in and polarity across the open terminals b. 0. Calculate the induced 2-5 air mmf required. Conductor AB in Figure 2.58. s.7 each case. Terminals 1-4 and 3-6 Terminals 1-3 and 4-6 Referring to Figure 2. N pole act in the direction as the direction of rotation? the waveshape of a sinusoidal V and a frequency of 5 Hz. and 2-2.2 Figure 2.

4 is zero. 2- 1 6 The voltage applied to an ac the current is / = 20 magnet is E — 60 sin . 2. Appl icatio n In Fig. peak negative power in the circuit./f. positive peaks of voltage and current.62 write the equations for parts Referring to Fig. 2-20 The alternating voltage e 2 in Fig. = 1 In d it stria I 2-2 1 and/ = 50° value of e 2 /. and KCL circuit equations (c). and / 3 li and / 3 E and /. a Calculate the peak positive power and the 2. the d.60°). 2-14 The current lags in a 60 Hz ( — ) .) 6 A Figure 2. calculate the and at / = 262. 2. Draw the phasor diagram for E and /. tor. 253 Hz. put voltage pulses Calculate the peak voltage of the result- this voltage is applied across a 10 fl resis- ing waveshape. and (d). Calculate the In rent flows 47 e2 = 20 cos (360 . (Go the loops. if from ( single-phase motor Calculate the time interval between the 2-15 Figure 2. MAGNETISM. 2. If A. us- ing effective values. b.21. <\>.60 write the KVL circuit equa- tions for parts (a). 2-23 leads of the third if cw around the harmonic source are In Fig. A 2 to . If . all sin given by the expression cj> 1 and an- (c|> gles being expressed in degrees. and determine the true direction of current flow. calculate in Fig. at t = 0. 1 80 Hz. (b). 2. draw the wave- shape of the distorted sine wave. and (d).24a is given by the expression angle between the following phasors and. (b). / as In Fig. is B 2 which box The resistance of the conductors joining the two boxes in Figure 2.4.37 s.) electronic generator produces the out- shown reversed. 2. c. indicate which phasor is ( ) ) { 36 degrees behind the voltage. (c). is + with respect to A 2 can B be — with respect to B 2 ? Referring to Fig. (b).59 See Problem 2-15. 2. 2.6 1 write the for parts (a). (c). and curthe is each case. 1 a. Draw the function of c. a. determine the phase b.24. source? har- monic of 20 V. Figure 2.59.8 1 fre- 2- 1 9 quency of the fundamental.63. a.9) in If 6 lagging. (Go cw around the loops.FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY. the power dissipated by the resistor peak power dissipated by the resistor A distorted voltage contains an th 1 2.60 See Problem 2-24 An KVL and KCL circuit (a). b.7 2-22 waveshape of E and 2. terminal A. AND CIRCUITS 2-13 c.

64. in Fig.24. 2.22. the peak power. 2 -100 V Figure 2.62 See Problem 2.1 FUNDAMENTALS 48 a.61 See Problem 2. KVL and KCL circuit (Go cw around (a) to (g).23.63 See Problem 2. ^4_A A 1' + 100 (b) (a) v (c) 0 4 - Figure 2.1 T (c) Figure 2. CSJ 6 1 0 2. in 2-26 In Fig. the fundamental frequency of the 2-25 current Repeat the calculations of Problem 2-24 for the b.64 See Problem 'l 2 5 LI R 11 /1 | (b) (a) 6" I — T 4 LI 1 7Q I— '. the energy dissipated per cycle.) would produce the same average power g.25. seconds . waveshape shown A A 3 A / ^ 2 4 6 8 s Figure 2. 2. d. equations for the ac circuits shown joules f. the value of the dc voltage that in the — the effective value of the voltage in the figure o 1 0 the average voltage 8 4 V + 100 resistor 7A y*4A 2 in parts the loops.65 write the power per cycle the average e. in watts c.

MAGNETISM.30° E A = 20 = 30 1-3 0° Eba =100L0 c [45_° 7 £ 3 = 100(0° 12 J 40 U 'l A 60 12 ) i 30 * (^O 3' 1 24 12 ^ 40 12 ^ "1 (d) Figure 2. (e) (g) 30 hr 12 .26.FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY.65 See Problem 2. AND CIRCUITS E l2 = 100 20 0° >50U 12 tf (a) (b) (c) £-13 £ ab = 49 £ B = 50 150_° 101.

which the reader to consult ommend from time a quick to time. this introductory chapter covers certain fundamentals of mechanics and heat. but they constitute a may wish Consequently. and is given by the ap- proximate equation the electrical/me- F = 9. such as the force by exploding dynamite. we the gravita- downward. ical strength Force 3. There are other kinds of forces. The top- ics are not immediately essential to an understanding of the chapters which follow. The magnitude of the force of gravity depends upon the mass of a body.0 Introduction In order to get a thorough grasp of electrical technology. as the need arises. is And the stringing of a transmission line is determined as much by the ice-loading and mechancarry. 1) ough understanding of power technology.1 pressed in terms of the newton (N). The most conductors. first reading.8w essential to a thor- (3. whenever we exerted by a stretched spring or the forces created of the conductors as by the currents they chanical/thermal approach gravity. determined not only by the magnitude of the torque. followed by a closer study of each section. but also by the inertia of the revolving And parts.8 = force of gravity acting on the body [N] mass of the body [kg] an approximate constant that applies when objects are relatively close to the surface of the earth (within 30 km). but withstand. where F= m = 9. For this reason. All these forces are ex- windings can safely And we could mention many more cases where comprehensive approach familiar force For example. which is the SI unit of force. the overload capacity of an alternator determined not only by the size of also by the temperature that its its the — — is we know exert a muscular effort to is overcome tional force that continually pulls the force of lift it a stone. is it mechanics and large motors is essential to power know something about For example. . the starting of heat. we rec- valuable reference source.Chapter 3 Fundamentals of Mechanics and Heat 3.

= 622.3 39.3 Mechanical it rotate. 63. of 10 m (Fig. tending to make is sufficient to prevent rotation. a force of 622. calculate Solution Note that the force of gravity of exactly equal to the a is Again using the conversion charts.806 65 0.FUNDAMENTALS OF MECHANICS AND HEAT Example 3-1 51 F Calculate the approximate value of the force of on a mass of gravity that acts 1 2 kg.448 N. is lifted to a height Calculate the work done.9 pound-force = 39. 1 - lb 9. 3.5 622.8 = 12 Figure 3. 139.3(^4. re- Example 3-3 A in pounds-force.2 m.453 hand.8 is X 9. N would given by between the axis of rotation and the point of application required. radius T/r action is from a mass of 140 al- lb.3 140 lbf l given by Example 3-4 A mass of 50 kg 3. 1 When using the make to the equal to 0. Solution The force of gravity m = = 17. a braking force 50/0.205) the force of gravity F= m = 9. If the ra- work W= on a body. a distance 3. 3. equal to the product of the force times the perpen- F = 300 N almost However. Using though the numbers are nearly the same. motor develops a starting torque of 150 pulley on the shaft has a diameter of Solution the braking force needed to prevent the Using the conversion charts in Appendix massif 140 Eq. The work Fd (3. a between the pound a distinction pound-force A pound (lbf). produced when a force exerts a twisting dicular distance motor from m. consequently.2.5 is = Torque Torque If a turning.453 592 37) newtons exactly. Mechanical work pose a string /• is (Fig. The torque exerted is F moves of the force.1 Torque T= 17. is torque |N m| force [N] radius [mj move. . 592 37 kg.5 1 dius were 2 m. 3. a braking force of 75 is dius 0. For example.8 X AXO. a force of is N m. free to it will begin to rotate axis.8 = 140 (.9 is N lbf.6 newtons 1 Fr. 1 Torque If we pull on the cl is done whenever a force in the direction the pulley will tend to rotate. pound-force is On exactly.448) = 1 = 63.2) where mass a unit of is T = Fr we have English system of units.3) where W= F= cl = work ( J] force [N] distance the force moves [m] a ra- string with a force on the pulley by the tangential force be is of the force.5 kg. or about 4. sup- wrapped around a pulley having ). If the pulley around Example 3-2 (3.6 N F= 9. its Calculate the approximate value of the force of gravity that acts on a mass of 140 newtons and sult in Express the lb.2). and (lb) T= F= r = the other X equal to (9.9 lbf 1 mass of 140 entirely different The N F = lb.

3.5 lifted: mechanical power [WJ torque [N-m] speed of rotation [r/min] a constant to take care of units (exact value = 30/tt) We can measure the power output of a motor by means of a prony brake. The power is given by where P = T— n = 9.4) in horsepower. and the belt pressure is adjusted .Wit Solution The force of gravity acting on the 50 kg F= m = 9. The tension equal to the force of grav- that is being motor in Example 3-5 electric of a to of a dray horse. in kilowatts and in Solution ity in the acting on the cable mass is The mechanical power output of a motor depends upon its rotational speed and the torque it develops.8 X 500 = 4900 N is is W= Fd = 3. It consists of a stationary flat belt that presses against a pulley mounted on the motor shaft.4 hp where P = power [W] W = work done = t The unit of power is the watt (W). [s] We often equal to is power output of motors horsepower (hp) It [J] time taken to do the work kilowatt (kW). The ends of the belt are connected to two spring scales.8 The work done X 9. Calculate the horsepower.3).3 Power P .4 m= 9. An Power 1000 W.25 kW equation: Expressed P= Wit (3.55 = (Fig.8 50 mass is F= = 490 N The work done X 490 10 W= = 4900 J The power Power Power is 9. 3. It is given by the = Fd = 4900 X 30 = 147 000 J is Wit 147 000/12 = 12 250 W= 12. P= 12 250/746 = 16. The One horsepower units.2 W= Work Fd Figure 3.8 P = the rate of doing work. corresponds is use the sometimes expressed to the is motor equal average power output height of 30 m a mass of lifts in power developed by 12 s 500 kg through a the motor.1 FUNDAMENTALS 52 500 kg Figure 3. which 746 W.

5 hp. ergy transformation. or about 0. in coal. that Unfortunately. belt motor is Energy can produced by Electrical energy (energy 4. Thus. Furthermore. 3. the turbine. pull Thermal energy (heat released by ley is therefore a radius ters. the electrical energy supplied to a motor is partly dissipated as heat in the windings. zero. If the pulley has T = (P — P 2 )r newton me- (/>. cleus of an atom is the nu- modified) Although energy can be neither created nor destroyed. is some of its mechanical energy m. turns at 0. the furnace. Consequently. The torque T= = The power The mechanical losses are also transformed into put of a motor Fr (25 - 5) X 0.6) .55 = 356 W The motor develops 356 W. we can erator. the spring scales equal pulls and so the resulting torque (as P 2 The re- does in Fig. justing the by the the entirely converted is it not running. the mechanical energy can be transformed into electrical energy by means of a In the generator. the 25 spring scales indicate (Fig. it can be converted from one form to an- other by means of appropriate devices or machines. Figure 3.7 Efficiency of a machine is The efficiency of a machine P = ai mechanical power out- heat. or calcu- the power. on the circumference of the pul- in mov- ing car) is However. Knowing a stove.1 = 2 Nm is less than the electrical input. by by the sun) Chemical energy (energy contained 3. For example. in dyna- mite. by lightning) Atomic energy (energy released when 5. in steam can then be transformed into mechanical energy by using a turbine. using Eq. exceeds pull — P 2 newtons. exist in Mechanical energy (potential energy stored 1. the chemical energy contained in coal can be transformed into thermal energy by burning The thermal energy contained the coal in a furnace. Finally. respectively Calculate the power output if the motor 1700 r/min and the radius of the pulley is always transformed. These losses appear in the form of heat. due to bear- ing friction and air turbulence created by the cooling Solution fan. is given by the equation P t\ = p X 100 (3.FUNDAMENTALS OF MECHANICS AND HEAT V (Fig. 3.4). late f>. As the motor turns. . 3. rubbing against the pulley. when the motor turns clockwise sultant force acting one of the following forms: a coiled spring or the kinetic energy of a 2. above example. 3. a gen- x the speed of rotation.55 = 1700 X 2/9.4). because all ma- chines have losses. 3.4). is less than the input do the en- is also lost. causing the temperature of the machine to rise.4 and the generator are the machines Prony brake.1 N and 5 N.5.6 Transformation of energy we can increase or decrease the power output by adpower developed by the motor into heat When register The mechanical tension of the belt. or in an electric storage battery) ) the net torque r. the useful is 779. friction. by tightening screw 53 3. whenever energy the output Example 3-6 During a prony brake test on an electric motor.

If it carries 40 passengers having a total mass of 2400 kg.25 MJ) has been dissipated as heat. diesel motors) we must remember it lies how low that a having an efficiency of 20 percent loses.8 m/s kinetic energy Ek = = P 0 = 150kW 163 m s mechanical The 150/0. is ki- given by the equation . 40 percent. Example 3-8 these Electric motors transform electrical energy into mechanical energy much more when the bus Solution pending on the size of the motor. the brakes are applied and the re- sulting frictional heat is entirely produced at the ex- pense of the kinetic energy. while A a form of mechanical energy efficiency [percent] — Pi is given by the equation 13 to rest when all the kinetic energy (3.8 Kinetic 3. 2 bus. efficiently.92 kg X 1000 3600 The 150 kW rating always power output of the motor. kW Considering the high efficiency of the motor. de- Example 3-7 (3. The bus will finally come losses are 150 27.FUNDAMENTALS 54 where Kinetic energy — Tl P0 = The energy power input \/2mv power of the machine fW] output efficiency is is machine to the particularly [ W] low when thermal from 25 the efficiency of steam turbines ranges that of internal gines (automobile engines. P = PJi] = braked the loaded bus m = _ electric is Their ef- ficiency ranges between 75 and 98 percent. 3. of inertia revolving body also possesses kinetic energy. the losses are quite moderate. What happens to this energy in the form receives. which moving automobile posis energy due to motion. Total 150 kW percent when mass of it motor has an efficiency of 92 operates at full-load. The input power is The 6000 is is Solution { to a stop? Calculate the losses in the machine. but they be enough to heat a large home in the would still winter. The speed + 2400 = 8400 = 100 km/h v 100 refers to the The mechanical output power = 163 kW To stop the is is \/2mv 3 2 1/2 245 928 J X 8400 X 3. 2 where converted into mechanical energy. calculate the total kinetic energy of the loaded vehicle. magnitude depends upon the speed of rotation and upon (he mass and shape of the body. Thus.25 MJ 27. of heat. energy of moment middle of Its rotation.9 Kinetic A energy of linear motion A falling stone or a swiftly sess kinetic energy. The netic energy of rotation on page 56. To realize efficiencies are. 80 percent of the energy Ek = kinetic energy [JJ m = mass of the body [kg] v = speed of the body fm/s] to be- A bus having a mass of 6000 kg moves at a speed of machine 100 km/h.7) combustion en- tween 15 and 30 percent.

6 Solid disc of mass m and radius r. (3.8 Straight bar of mass m pivoted on its center. J (3. = mr (3.12) 12 Figure 3.10) Figure 3.9 Rectangular bar of mass J m revolving around = -(Rf + /V axis 0.5 Mass m revolving at a distance J r around axis 0. (3.7 Annular ring of mass J m having a rectangular cross-section.13) 55 .FUNDAMENTALS OF MECHANICS AND HEAT TABLE 3A MOMENT OF INERTIA J AROUND AN AXIS OF ROTATION 0 Figure 3.11) ) Figure 3.9) Figure 3. = -(Rf + R 2 I (3.

Example 3-10 A flywheel having the shape given in Fig.9. The at Solution moment a.9 to 3.10./ (sometimes simply called depends upon the mass and shape of the body. consequently.3 2 )/2 = (3. inertia we find the moment of = m (Rr + R 2 2 )/2 = 80 (0. mm 1400 kg V 1800 r/m Figure 3. is J2 J (3. 3.8) 175 X 1800 2 MJ that this relatively small flywheel possesses much kinetic energy as the loaded bus Example tioned in men- 3-8. The ring and hub respectively have a mass of 80 kg and 20 kg. are then The individual Js of these simple shapes added to give the kinetic energy = Note as 5.11 Flywheel in Example 3.10 Flywheel in Example 3. 12) 0. 1 3 given in Table 3 A. total Inertia plays a very important part in rotating machines.6 kg m is 2 k. . Calculate the moment of inertia of the flywheel.48 X 5. of inertia kinetic energy For the when ring. the flywheel revolves J I800r/min ] Solution a. Ek = = where E k = kinetic energy [J] J = moment of inertia [kg-rrrl = rotational speed [r/minj X 1()~ 3 = constant to take care of units 2 Lexact value = tt /1800] // 5. 10). Referring to Table 3 A. If body has a complex shape. the number of simple can always be bro- it ken up into two or more of the simpler shapes given in the table. J of the body. 3.48 The moment of inertia.48 X 3. Figure 3.5 The 2 total = mL 2 /\2 = 20 X (0. 225 3.10) 1400 X 0. it is worth our while to solve a few problems.48 X 10"'V/7- (3. inertia ) may be value Its calculated for a shapes by using Eqs. 80 kg Example 3-9 A 1 1400 kg solid m flywheel has a diameter of steel and a thickness of 225 mm (Fie.1 FUNDAMENTALS 56 5.6) 2 /12 = moment = 175ks-m 2 J = J (3.1 1 is composed of a ring supported by a rectangular hub. 1 is l0"-V/r X (3.6 kg m 2 of inertia of the flywheel X + J2 = 10.4 2 + 0.8) The b.1 1) 10 kg m 2 For the hub. Calculate Its b.

and decreasing system it the current electric rest is initially at and that /. 3.55 power technology.12 applied? Shaft is stationary TM 71- Solution The change in A/? speed - The moment of (600 - inertia J As is = 60) = 540 a result of the twists and r/min becomes shaft deformed. of units Load mm 30/ttJ the torque acts in the direction of rotation. yielding speed motor current so 30 s is TM reached.55 is — moment = constant applied creasing or Suppose the T [sj . TM developed by the can be varied by in- the torque acts clockwise. In such how simple equation relates these factors: of a motor/load 57 if of rotation. volving body. 7M = Because the torques are equal and opposite. the speed rises. and that a change the speed of a to is to subject The given period of time. We wish Motor 600 r/min by applying a For how long must the torque be speed its to Figure 3.14 the load to turn clockwise at a it begins to rotate clockwise. the torque ex- Tu that always acts On the other hand. Suppose we want is 10. (3. and so is it has ] no tendency to rotate. inertia. a system there are three erted by the load. interval of time during torque J 9.6 kg- opposing torques. is let us reduce the again exactly equal to net torque acting on the system and the speed Ar /z. x clockwise. To do so. 2). is now zero will neither increase or decrease 3. the net torque acting on the shaft 2 zero.55 x 20 A/7 10. 3. ' M Example 3-11 The to fly wheel increase torque of 20 of Fig. at 60 r/min.55 7Af/. the slightly /z. 3.11 turns Nm. but other- wise nothing happens. depends upon the Speed 1 In electric way only one is 3-1 speed in There and change it re- to a torque for of change of speed rate inertia. Conversely. and so Substituting these values in Eq. A = A/7 9.6 TL The . . and the speed. as well as on the torque. the speed acts against the direc- it The term An may falls. tion which the of inertia fkg-m [exact value If motor [Nm] torque = Ar speed [r/min] in to consider: they interreact.10 Torque.14) T= The load a shaft (Fig./ A/7 (3. . that any more (Fig. therefore represent either an increase or a decrease in speed. 1 change main factors the torque developed by the motor. = often happens that Consider a load coupled to a motor by means of TMJ where A/? it system an electric motor drives a mechanical load.14) as the desired 540 = 9. Y to take care = in a We now explain exerts a constant torque counterclockwise direction. /z. The speed increases progressively with time but as soon 9. we increase the motor current so TM exceeds T The net torque on the shaft acts speed 2 that . 13).FUNDAMENTALS OF MECHANICS AND HEAT 3.

3. If TM — TL when motor torque 7M and load torque and opposite. in a mechanically coupled system The speed of repeat: whenever The TL . We can therefore state the following general rule: When the torque developed by a motor acts in same direction as the speed. as We conclusion ccw TM = TL Returning again to Fig. then in a state of dynamic equilibrium. and yet the shaft may be turning clockwise. In the effect. 13. the speed decreases and will continue to decrease as long as T imbalance between the enough.FUNDAMENTALS 58 Load Load Figure 3. for example. will eventually exceeds TM and TM . and this aspect tia more is covered in detail in Section 3. The speed of a mechanical load remains constant when the torque TM developed by the motor is equal and opposite to the torque T L exerted by the load. this we accept. Consequently. the the are not exactly equal { T. Power flow 3. because when TM = 7^ rather difficult to is the opposite to a motor remains constant motor torque is exactly equal and load motor/load system is torque. 3. the speed will change. If long lasts become zero and control the motor torque so that the reverse speed reaches a value n 2 . the motor delivpower to the load. the ers In Fig. The reader should ponder moments over this statement. . on the shaft now acts counterclock- net torque wise. In this state of dynamic equilibrium. With the load now running clockwise suppose we reduce TM so that it is at a speed TL less than . this is not so. the system will continue to run indefinitely at this Although new speed brief periods in electric trains and electric hoists. For all other conditions. are inclined to believe that the system should simply stop. tion a few When a motor drives a mechanical load. power from the shaft. 3.13 Motor driving a load for a certain having inertia period of time before the actual steady-state condi- was reached. the motor receives power from the load.12 our reasoning (and reality) shows. torques Figs. we torque TM acts in the torque T acts opposite to speed n see that motor same direction (clockwise) as speed n lt This means that the motor delivers mechanical power to the shaft. 3. load { x the load receives mechanical . the speed we then reverse. TM and T { are identical in and 3. it occurs for The behavior of the motor under these conditions will be examined in later chapters. 3. 14). counterclockwise. Consequently. On the other hand. the speed is usually constant. The rate of change depends upon the inerof the rotating parts. 13.13 Shaft turns Figure 3. But .13. or not The actual steady-state whether TM was greater or speed less than depends 7L this is an unusual condition. At first. In conclusion.14. at all. (Fig.14.14 cw 7M Shaft turns 71- Whenever This brings us to a very important conclusion. upon 3.12. the power from the load because 7M motor receives acts opposite to n 2 .

55 9.55 reached. the load torque (5400 into the load.14 Electric motors driving linear motion loads is Rotating loads such as fans.55 (7\.8/2 The power developed by the P = nT 120 P = is is N m). in 5 c. tension of a. . 160X9170- - 153.55 kW (equivalent to 206 hp) as the desired speed of the motor Solution The torque exerted on the 9. play under these conditions. 160 r/min c. An = = 40 2 J = change in speed [r/minj TM = motor torque [N-m] 7L = load torque [N m] At = time interval during which TM and TL are acting [s] J = moment of inertia of all A/7 _ 40 - 9.8 4500 5400) 5 The mechanical power of the driven reel motor 160 r/min at accelerating is by a directly coupled variable-speed dc motor turn- The paper ing at 120 r/min.5400 = 3770 rM = 9170 revolving parts [kg-irrj The motor must Example 3-12 A large reel torque of 9170 of paper installed machine has a diameter of moment of and a 1 inertia of at the end of a paper kgm 2 . trains.6 the reel speed of 120 r/min. calculate the torque that power of the this interval. The increase or decrease in speed (An) motor torque is TM torque Tis now replaced by the net torque (TM — 7L = A/7 .55 4500 Thus.14. and machine X 5400 9. except that is still Nm) in the order for the speed to increase.5) 9.5 kW (equivalent to 121 hp) is = 5400 N m reel motor 3. a. Conversely. torque speed is raised so that it increase. the the b. m. We in have given by the Eq. from 120 r/min to seconds. TM . and opposite to the torque The inertia of the revolving parts does not However.15) At where 160 - = 4500 = 5 s 120 m kg r/min .85 ( equal to the load torque (5400 has (3. will come if we have already when less than that of speed drops. because the tension unchanged.T )AtIJ 9.55 90.55 kW 160 r/min) therefore reduced to tools are well suited for direct mechanical coupling to electric motors. a length of 5.TL )At 9. wire- .FUNDAMENTALS OF MECHANICS AND HEAT the torque TM developed by the motor is exactly equal T imposed by the load. The power nT _ ~ 160 X 5400 9.55 turns at a constant b. Calculate the If kept under a constant 9.55 (rM x stays con- paper remains must be greater than the load torque It . loads that a straight line. 67.6 m. is (about 91 hp) move in On the other hand. 3. It is therefore develop a constant Nm during the acceleration period. motor after it As soon 7 = Fr = 6000 X 1 reel . motor must develop during Calculate the - power of the motor when the speed has to be raised the nT P = 6000 N. seen. the as the speed increases from 120 r/min to 160 stant motor the As r/min. Let the required motor torque be exceeds the load torque. x 59 - A/7 ): J (3. the motor only has to develop a torque reached the desired speed of 160 r/min. pumps. such as hoists.

the temperature cannot low a lower zero. the needed is at 1 to pull an electric train The motor on board the loco- 200 r/min.13 9.15 Heat and temperature (3. a fact verify by touching it or by observing the (3. Calculate the torque de- at F Solution The power sup- given by power kN This nT= 9.15 tions cease Converting rotary motion into linear motion. the increase tem- in perature depends upon the mass of the body and the material of which 100 kJ of heat to is it made. At This limit to a fall be- called absolute is temperature of 0 kelvin absolute zero all and the only motion Figure 3. atomic vibra- that subsists is . its therefore obvious that heat and temperature are kg 1 It is two quite different things. we can receives ther- the joule. must be equipped with a etc. that of the orbiting electrons.55 (3.55Fv a body receives this type of atoms of the body vibrate more First. if by 24°C. force [N] linear speed [m/s| a constant [exact value = 30/tt] think of the important part they play. a linear speed plied in raising the load is v. or simply a wheel moving over a track. For example. 15).1 5 °C. 1 1 heat applied to a body. the temperature 1 rises to temperature by 263°C. 3. Straight-line motion involves a linear speed v and a force while rotary motion involves a rota- speed n and a torque tional tities F. These rotating machine.16) 25 000 j = 4974 N-m = input to the jack 5 X (90 000/3600) kN m is given by = nT P: 3.FUNDAMENTALS 60 drawing machines.55fY 1200 T = X P a = Fv On of 25 a speed of 90 km/h.55 = we seldom converters are so utterly simple that = n The motion converter may be a rope-pulley arrangement. Heat is ' energy? Consequently. the intensely. is mal energy. If we remove heat from a body. Second. causes a vertical ram to exert a powerful force at A force at a speed n while exerting a torque while moving Example 3. nT= 9. its temperature drops..16) reading of a thermometer. corresponds — 273. veloped by the motor.55 Assuming verter.5) 1 9. where motion converter before they can be connected to a rotational speed [r/min] T= torque [N-m] F= v = 9. What happens when = po it therefore a form of energy and is its temperature increases. Whenever there are no losses in the motion con- we have the SI unit p. or It limit. The same amount of heat supplied of copper raises we add kg of water. For a given amount of heat. related when T. motive turns the other hand. How are these quan- a motion converter is used? Consider a jack driven by a motor that rotates T (Fig. However. a rack and pinion mechanism.

the Celsius.FUNDAMENTALS OF MECHANICS AND HEAT 1806 T iron melts T 450 K i 1083 aluminum melts 933 660 1220 lead melts 600 327 621 water boils water freezes 373 273 100 212 32 0 -273. 6 1 tionships between shows some interesting rela- Kelvin. receives. is heat capacity of water 3. is to 70°C. 3. 17) where Q = quantity of heat added to (or m = c = removed from) mass of the body = body [JJ specific heat capacity of the material At a |kg] making up the body [J/(kg-°C)l Figure 3. The kelvin and the degree Celsius are the SI units of temperature. 3.17).16 The Temperature scales given specific heat capacity of several materials Table in AX2 in the is Appendix.16 Temperature scales.17 change Electric in temperature [°C] water heater. and one liter .17 Heat required to raise the temperature of a body The temperature heat it terial. For example.15 ® ® 1981 -459. assuming the The specific 41 80 J/kg °C. rise its weighs 1 kg. of a body depends upon the mass.67 Fahrenheit scale Celsius scale Kelvin scale 2791 810°F 450 °C 1. 3. Fig. and the nature of the ma- The relationship between these quantities is given by the equation Q = mcAt (3. iron melts at 1 806 K or 1 533°C or 279 °F 1 Example 3-14 Calculate the heat required to raise the temperature of 200 L of water from 10°C tank perfectly insulated (Fig. and Fahrenheit temperature scales. 356 copper melts — T 1533 61 Figure 3.

atom is to the next.n FUNDAMENTALS 62 Solution quired convection convection The mass of water is 200 kg. to the other at d = thickness of the body [m] Consequently. temperature rises due to the increased vibration its ] P = power (heat) transmitted [W] X = thermal conductivity of the body (t of - where 3. 3. 3. and so on of electrical equipment. we Figure 3.18 Transmission of heat Many problems in electric power technology lated to the adequate cooling of devices are re- and ma- knowledge of the mechanism by which heat is transferred from one body to another. enabling us to determine. This A = — atomic vibration ] t 2) — end of the bar. also include some simple but useful Referring to Fig. The SI unit of thermal conductivity per meter degree Celsius conductivity of several in Tables AX 1 and AX2 [W/(m common in the °C)J. in turn. copper is a better thermal conductor than steel is.19. conduction. we can equation equations.2 MJ is equal to 13. heat is all trans- by a process called conduction. ferred along the bar we have In effect. we find that 50. temperature rise.18) [W/(m-°C)J bring a hot flame near one end of an iron bar. and ra- diation. Thus. an observation one time or another. requires a briefly review the elementary physics of heat trans- We mission.19 Heat transfer by conduction If calculate the ther- mal power transmitted through a body by using the Figure 3. with reason- P = able accuracy. is the watt The thermal materials Appendix. This. and plastics and other nonmetallic materials are especially poor conductors of heat. chines.18 Heat transmission by convection. its we - — atoms (Fig. the end opposite the flame also warms up. The rate of heat transfer depends upon the thermal conductivity of the material.9 kW-h. and so the heat re- is Q ~ mcAt = 200 X 4180 X = 502 MJ (70 - 10) Referring to the conversion table for Energy (see Appendix). the heat loss. 18). ] . In the sections that follow. is given 2 body [m difference of temperature between surface area of the opposite faces [°C] transmitted from one made (3. 3.19 Heat transmission by conduction.

20) where oil in body heats up. carried away by convection to the exter- mica The tank. The Natural convection also takes place body is immersed contact with the currents in a liquid. - \A(t P t l 2) (3. and moves upward again to replace the warmer oil now moving away. x .36 is the thermal conductivity The thermal power con- °C. Heat transfer by forced convection is used P = 1280 Va {t 2 most electric motors to obtain efficient cooling.21 X Convection currents 0.21 mm Calculating the losses by convection Figure 3.36 chills.19) where warms up and. W/m 0. it is which. becoming a chimney. its area is 200 calculate the heat flow- in watts.02 (120 70) 120 in oil.) a hot in Fig.21. 120' oil becomes heavier.18) 0. such as (3. creating convection which follow the path shown /. (Fig. W 0. If mm.20). 3. when oil.02 m 2 it comes in contact with the cooler tank.36 d Figure 3. As the bar. Sol ui ion AX1. 3. - t 2 y (3. The Example 3-15. in turn. nal tank. 3. the heat carried away is of given approximately by fresh in air. heat loss by natural convection in air is given by the approximate equation P = 3. smoke moves upward. 70°C 3 3.20 Mica sheet. The heat dissipated by the body is. X = 0.FUNDAMENTALS OF MECHANICS AND HEAT Example 3-15 63 tank The temperature difference between two sides of a mica sheet of 50°C is cm" and thickness ing 3 is through the sheet.18 the air in contact with the hot steel bar 3/Uf. loses convection to the surrounding x its heat by natural air. such as that produced by a blower. in turn. rises like current of air removing its is P — A — f. therefore. also warms the hot air placed by cooler air A continual lighter.20 Heat transfer by convection In Fig. therefore set up around heat by a process called nat- heat loss by natural convection [W| surface of the body [m] surface temperature of the body [°C] ambient temperature of the surrounding air l°CJ ural convection.003 The warm 0. = t2 = in re- up. P — heat loss by forced convection [W] — volume of cooling air |m Vs] V. According to Table of mica ducted is. sinks to the bottom. The convection process can be accelerated by employing a fan to create a rapid circulation In the case of forced convection. therefore.

21) = 46 kW IW] surface area of the body \m'\ absolute temperature of the body [K] absolute temperature of the surround- a constant. Eq. as convection body the is same when in as that of body then radiates a body as the temperature of a surroundings. Solar the sun's rays A in the sun's rays. The are amount of energy given off depends upon the tem- perature of the body. as the physi- that that all bodies ra- very cold. The its much energy is hotter than is tinually lose heat in therefore. 3. Scientists convection. 3. 60°C surface temperature rises to 20°C in the an ambient of (Fig. A the and living things on the surface of the cal objects enclosed motor has an external surface totally warmth produced by through the empty space between the sun and the earth.FUNDAMENTALS 64 = i\ temperature of the incoming (cool) air 3. its On as it receives the other hand. properties Example 3-16 area of 1. There tinual ial 362 i f ) \ W H bodies. P = = diate when only converted to heat is have discovered even those heat. by radiation. Surprisingly.) (approximate) ) ing objects IK] Consequently. losses are carried 4 (7. = T2 = the outlet temper- the circulating air.20 also applies a much lighter gas.T2 4 where °C. exchange of radiant energy between mater- and the net radiation zero. environment.22 Heat transfer by radiation [°C| f — 2 We temperature of the outgoing (warm) have air|°C] same when hydrogen.22 Convection and radiation losses a in totally enclosed motor. a con- each were a miniature sun.2 nr. The en- Solution ature and meet a solid body. com- . 3. estimate the losses in the motor. if Equilibrium sets \ is.2 ergy absorbed depends upon the temperature of ) - 20) L25 W = 362 the surrounding objects. such earth. lx = 1280 (t 2 - k = X 240/60 heat radiated (31 - 22) (3. the losses are P = 1280 V . all bodies absorb radiant en- 3 X (60 1.23 Calculating radiation losses Figure 3. The heat that a body loses by radiation is given by the equation P = kA Example 3-17 kW fan rated at 3. Calculate the heat loss by natural as energy light.75 through a 750 kW motor the inlet temperature is 3 1 is blows 240 rrrVmin of to carry 22°C and away air away by P = A = T. ture of the f. even if it it will is if con- located vacuum. the heat. This radiant heat energy possesses the Table 3B which depends upon the na- body surface gives the values of k for surfaces monly encountered in electrical equipment. When operates it at full-load. On L25 - 3A{t t2 } the other hand. If Solution The passes readily it ergy from the objects that surround them.22). basked all is used as the cooling medium.

Calculate the power watts in horsepower. k The power = 5 X 10 by radiation lost s W/(m 2 -K 4 is. lift it? is is to another. Calculate watts and in horse- in power. the Example 3-16 electrical In tightening a bolt.21) ) 4 - 293 20 kW. Calculate the torque The motor is N power he exerts. from 200 r/min c. X 3-8 (3. A crane lifts 200 ft in and in 15 a mass of 600 lb to a height of s.3 m. a Example 3-18 in energy electrical 600 N-m enamel.293 K 7. therefore. Calculate the 3-9 ) W (approximate) = 296 kW from the 20 The power output of the motor [kW] and The efficiency of the motor The amount of heat released Btu/h] b.2 copper oxidized W/(m 2 -K Constant k 65 3-6 ambient temperature of 20°C. will the direction of rotation eventually be needed to lift a sack of flour weighing 75 kg to a height of 4 m? car- torque of 60 N-m. c. Solution An 3-7 = = 60°C or (273. force 200 r/min a. line 4 = 5 - 7\ 10" 8 X (7.FUN DA MENTA LS OF MFC HA NfCS A NI) HFA I 3-3 RADIATION CONSTANTS TABLE 3B Give the SI unit symbol Type of surface polished silver bright oxidized copper 3 aluminum paint 3 Nichrome 2 tungsten 2 oxidi/ed iron 4 insulating materials paint or nonmetallic perfect emitter 5 enamel 5 5. Calculate the heat mechanical power mechanical energy 3-5 metallic and the corresponding SI for the following quantities: 4 s 0. 3- 1 0 Questions and Problems 3-11 3- 1 A cement is from zero b. Calculate rotates at its moment of inertia of kinetic energy when 60 r/min.2 motor draws and has losses equal Calculate a. A large flywheel has a it (hp] J lb-fr. b.669 (blackbody) ) X l()" X 10 s X 10~ s X 10 s X 10" s X 10 8 X 10'"* X 10" s X 10 s X 10'"* 1 force work pressure area mass temperature thermal energy thermal power 3-4 200 force of An tion.20) . 4 1. 500 P = kA electric energy needed to bring the speed It is interesting to note that the almost as much motor dissipates heat by radiation (296 W) as it does by convection (362 W). 15 4. by radia- lost at the ing a length of 0. 15 + 60) = 333 K T2 = surrounding temperature = 20°C or (273. coated with a non- knowing surrounding objects are that all mechanic exerts a end of a wrench hav- automobile engine develops a torque of at an at a speed of power output 4000 r/min. from 3000 r/min Name ried Practical level What What block has a mass of 40 kg. (333 1 to ). What value of motor torque the speed constant? is cw needed or to ccw? keep . If this situation persists for some time. surface temperature From Table 3B. the force of gravity acting on it? 3-2 is needed How much to energy to the three to 400 r/min to 400 r/min ways whereby heat from one body A motor develops a cw 50 N-m. 4 The rotor of an induction motor has a moment of inertia of 5 kg-nr. and the load develops a ccw torque of a.

4). direction will the shaft eventually rotate'? 3-13 Referring to Fig. 3. Calculate a. 12 of cw speed of 1000 a cw torque of exerts a ccw torque a load at 3. the tank will it is take 1 80°F. Nm. The torque developed by b. lbf =28 lbf 160 r/min the diameter of the pulley calculate the 12 inches. n2 The torque developed by the motor [N-m] The force opposing the motion of the bus [N] to 100°C.FUNDAMENTALS 66 3-12 A motor drives r/min.13. to Industrial appl cat ion . Will the speed increase or decrease? b.9 1 The motor develops the load a. 1600 r/min speed will increase to The torque exerted by mains the same. =50 TM = 40 N power delivered by if the b. what 3-14 is the if Referring to Fig. assuming that perfectly insulated. i Calculate the torque [N-m] developed by the 3-24 How many Btus are required to raise the temperature of a 50 gallon (U.14.) 750 r/min in 5 the grinder re- s. Assuming that the gear losses are if TM = 40 N m and r/min. Tf the hoisting rate in duced to a large grinder de- r/min. and ered by the motor.12. and 15 Nm. The winch has a radius of 20 cm. Referring to Fig. Calculate the torque [N-m] and speed Intermediate level [r/min] of the motor. in a.S. 1750 r/min 3-18 Electric hoist. calculate the r/min] and torque [ft- lbf] is re- new speed of the motor. 3. The motor power [W] d. 3. If this situation persists for some 1 negligible.23 |kJ| to the flywheel at A 3-23 dc motor coupled velops 120 hp at a constant speed of 700 The moment of 2 parts is 2500 lb-ft ing a. The power in the input the flywheel [W] at at motor [N-m] 1800 r/min Figure 3. calculate the = 50 Calculate the heat [MJJ required to raise the temperature of 100 kg of copper from 20°C deliv- 3-2 1 Repeat Problem 3-20 for 1 00 kg of alu- minum. the following scale readings were noted: P2 = 5 n = 1 If P. raising a mass m of 800 kg at a uniform rate of 5 m/s. 3.7 1 A motor drives a flywheel having a moment of inertia of 5 kg-nr. 3. 3. if the tank electric heater? is How heated by long a 2 kW . m. 3-15 The electric motor in a trolley bus develops a power output of 80 hp at 200 r/min as the bus moves up a hill at a speed of 30 miles per hour. power 3-20 motor? TM = 40 N m r/min. The motor in Fig. calculate the following: what time. motor. The energy c. 3. The speed increases ij from 1600 r/min to 1800 r/min in 8 Motor: s. | inertia of the revolv- 1 Problem 3-22 m/s.23 drives a hoist. is power output of the motor in kilowatts and in horsepower. Problem 3-22.6 1 During a prony brake test on a motor (see and speed Fig. calculate the 3-22 power received by the motor.) reservoir of water from 55°F to Calculate the motor torque IN-m] needed so that the {Note. b.

it the temperature of the transformer? If so. Will this affect metallic black. and totally closed. is is 30 °C. Approximately heat is given the point of is off. that heat is radiated by convec- and radiation from all sides except the bottom. The panel run hotter or cooler? an area of 100 3-27 67 high. A blower inside the panel keeps the inside temperature at a uniform level throughout.FUNDAMENTALS OF MECHANICS AND HEA T 3-25 A large indoor transformer using an is painted a non- It is proposed to refurbish aluminum paint. components inside a sheet metal panel dissipate a total of 2 kW. will 3-26 An it electrically heated perature is m X cement floor covers 30 m. The surface tem- 25 °C and the ambient tempera- ture is 23 °C. estimate the temperature inside the panel if the ambient temperature The panel enamel. 8 ft deep. painted with a nonmetallic . cement considered to be an insulator. and 2 Assuming tion ft is 4 ft wide. in The cable and other electrical how much kilowatts? Note: from view of heat radiation.

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Part Two Electrical Machines and Transformers .

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The slip rings are connected to an external load by means of two no-load. 71 y. chapter may seem. the reason fundamental properties of erator after we We show when operates meant by the neutral fine what how the induced voltage termines it at is its is point. an understanding of dc generators The need problem of pole-tip saturation are covered the produced by electronic rectifiers. it is (ac) generator. S poles of a permanent magnet. Mechanical torque. These rectifiers the followed by a study of the behavior of the current flow.Chapter 4 Direct-Current Generators This Introduction 4. The applied to a dc motor. consequently. 1 begin with the basic principles the importance of brush position the study of a direct- Fig. when are discussed. Consequently. edge of the alternating-current to their iearn about a dc generator can be di- of a 2-pole generator it current (dc) generator has to begin with a knowl- generators and motors are identical. In this Generating an ac voltage Irrelevant as built same way. as they used to be. required. is mainly without current any using moving important because tion to the and it is 4. operate as a commutating poles and The chapter ends with a description of the industry actually operate as generators for in for We then discuss the major types parts. rotation and de- as a We show generated and what de- stationary brushes x and magnitude. brief periods. many dc Commercial dc generators and motors are rectly their voltage-regulation characteristics. The coil is connected to two slip rings mounted on the shaft. and the importance of armature reaction Direct-current can convert the current of an ac system into direct motors is generator under load. 4. shows an elementary ac generator composed of a coil that revolves at 60 r/min between the N.0 We begin our study of rotating machinery with the direct-current generator. anything next. The that the voltage generated in any dc gen- inherently alternating and only becomes dc is has been rectified by the commutator. generators are not as common because direct current. . of dc generators represents a logical introduc- behavior of dc motors. Nevertheless. Indeed. Owing similar construction. direction of is due to an external driving force. physical construction of direct-current machines. such motor (not shown). any dc generator can we actual including multipole designs.1 motor and vice versa.

terminals The voltage is time 1. 60 r/min The waveshape depends upon We shape of the N.25 / / and D.1 Schematic diagram \ / \ \ / \ \ / \ s 1 As the coil rotates. Because the coil one turn per second. Voltage induced is D.2). the conse- Another polarity changes 4. with each a slip ring segment insulated from t-'. A commu- + 20 tator in that is its simplest form composed of is cut in half. responds to an interval of one second. 4.3).4). This voltage appears / - 1 cycle generated because the conductors of the coil cut across the flux produced by the N. the angle of 360° 4. therefore. Figure 4. Consequently.1 could be switched from every time the coil makes half a turn. sta- y.3 Voltage induced as a function of time.5). 4. v 1 +20 cycle - N \ F Al> c an elementary ac generator of 1 revolution per second. is rectified The alter- by the com- mutator. 4. 4.A I) the other as well as \ 180 - 360 degrees 450 angle connected from to coil-end the shaft. we can also represent the induced voltage as a func- tion of time (Fig. a voltage A is induced (Eq. across the load. The commutator revolves with age between the segments tionary brushes x and One segment A and the other to coil-end is the coil and the volt- picked up by two The voltage between brushes nating voltage in the coil Figure 4. S poles.2 Direct-current generator If the brushes in Fig. as shown. The voltage can one therefore be represented as a function of the angle of about to change. . therefore each angle of rotation corresponds to makes a specific interval of time. The induced voltage (20 V. We can obtain this result by using a commutator (Fig. to coil in our example revolves uniform at speed. 2-25) between its between the brushes and. which acts as a mechanical reversing switch. designed The assume the were the poles generate the sinusoidal wave shown.2 cor- in Fig. say) when the coil is zontal position. \ V y_ \ \ \ / \ / \ f \ / \ turning at \ / \ 1 \ / / \ Figure 4.1 ELECTRICA L MA CHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 72 rotation (Fig. 4. S poles. at these instants feature of the voltage is that its is zero. V Brush x would always be positive and brush y negative.2 in the ac generator as a function of the angle of rotation. coil is momentarily quently the voltage is No maximum therefore momentarily flux is in the hori- cut when in the vertical position. slip ring to the other every time the polarity was we would obtain a voltage of con- stant polarity across the load. x and y pulsates but never changes polarity (Fig.

or 4. (a). a commutator).5 voltages having a coils are lodged in the slots of a laminated iron cylinder. in Fig. 0 0 90 180 270 360 degrees Modern dc generators produce The angle 9 ripple of less than 5 percent.4 is direction.4 equipped with a mechanical each magnet The ma- the coil.6): ac slip rings (Fig 4. we can improve the pulsating dc voltage by using four coils and four segments. between ac and dc generators The elementary ac and dc generators in Figs. the current in the external load always the same 4. we can obtain a dc voltage that is very smooth.8. 4.DIRECT-CURRENT GENERATORS Due 60 r/min to the constant polarity 73 between the brushes.4 are essentially and an ac voltage chines only differ same way. called a direct-current generator. By increasing the number of coils and segments. it is much closer to a steady dc voltage. 4. Hows in The machine represented in Fig. 4.3 Difference dynamo. 4.6a). falls to zero. (b).7. Figure 4. in In the coils are connected to the external circuit (Fig.4 Improving the Returning +20 to the waveshape dc generator. The elementary dc generator produces a pulsating dc the cylinder constitute the voltage.1 and 4. 4. generators carry while dc generators require a Figure 4. Depending upon how they are connected (to slip . a coil rotates is induced in the way We commutator Elementary dc generator machines which carry both is simply an ac generator rectifier called a commu- (Fig. The coils The percent ripple is the ratio of the RMS value of the ac component of voltage to the dc component. 4. and (c) have identical windings. tator (Fig. tator. expressed (b) (a) in percent. 4. as shown shape but it is given never The resulting waveThe voltage still pulsates in Fig.6c). built the between the poles of case.6b) a sometimes build small slip rings and a commu- Such machines can function si- multaneously as ac and dc generators. an ac or dc voltage is obtained.6 The three armatures rings or and armature of the machine. ( C ) Figure 4.

But we must remember coil sides (a h a 2 . See Fig. and the slot the top. b. 4. from the center of the N and S poles.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 74 rotation rotation A Figure 4. 4. Note also the actual position and schematic position of the brushes with respect to the poles.9. in Fig. and so there are two coil sides per slot.9. 4 coils. The armature has 4 slots. 4. the position of the coils when moved the armature has through 45°. each slot contains the conductors of two coils.7 where the tips. Thus. For reasons of symmetry. A are now sweeping past pole tip and a 2 of coil Fig.7 Schematic diagram of a dc generator having 4 and 4 commutator bars. Consequently.8 The voltage between the brushes than in Fig. That is at its is maximum also the voltage across the brushes at this particular instant. 4..7 coil side The reader should compare in this simple these connec- tions with those in Fig. that 4. The 1.7 ol 0 I I 90 180 I I |_ I 360 270 degrees *0 Figure 4. each other and not side by seems to indicate. The sides of coil C are experiencing the flux because they are in the A. and 4 commutator bars. 4. b2 ally located at 180° to side as Figure 4.9 to verify that they are the same. while coil side a 2 coil the is in connections to the com- mutator segments are easy to follow armature.. under the poles. and so on. coils B and D are cutting flux coming and neither is coil C. is in important to understand the physical meaning to explain the behavior that the of each coil are actu- etc. the voltage e. because we in will be using similar drawings of dc machines. 4.9 coils The actual physical construction of the generator shown in Fig. Each coil has two coil sides. one of Fig. coil side is at the is at a. the coils are wound so more uniform is us between the poles. other It is . Figure 4. 4.A same slots as coil induced in coil A is .) The actual construction of this armature is shown in Fig. 4. The four coils are placed in four slots. near the cated: pole tells coil sides of the individual coils are lo- the top of slot bottom of bottom of a slot 3.7. say). Consequently.5. On the other hand. coil A is shown in Fig. For example. the voltage induced in these coils possible value (20 V.10 shows 1 pole same tip 4.7. The four coils the figure are identical to the coil At the instant shown. v A schematic diagram such as Fig. 4. 1 not cutting any flux The reason is that the coil sides of these two coils are midway between the poles. The sides a.

4. the conductors in slots 4 and 10 are directly under the center of the poles.9 has through 45°. because any such would produce 2 I R The voltage between the brushes c c (or e a + c\\) at the instant minimum to the shown. coil depends based upon the equation Blv in the air (2. Figure 4. and 12 commutator moving downward. 4. zero. in instantaneous position. is circulating current ed 0 most fortunate. realistic ar- mature having 12 coils and 12 slots instead of only 4. The armature winding we have just discussed called a lap winding.11b Schematic diagram Induced voltage induced Figures 4. This means at all times. for example.DIRECT-CURRENT GENERATORS rotation 15 rotation Figure 4.11. The polarities of e a however. shown voltage losses. 1 show lb a more in When the armature rotates. therefore. two On the other hand.25) gap varies from the value of the induced voltage per upon its of the armature and the voltages the 12 coils. 12 slots. is bars. A C while coil coils. The voltage induced coils lodged in slots 1 and 7 is. 4. Consequently. no current will flow in the closed loop formed by the that e. is rotation and ec are. greatest. that coil Note.8. Consider. in the therefore. opposite as shown. it in the occupies the position shown The conductors in slots in and 7 are ex- 1 actly between the poles.10 when Position of the coils rotated the armature of Fig.5 Figure 4. where the flux density is zero. where the The voltage induced in flux density the two is coils . 1 and la 4.d eh ec This four coils.11a Physical construction of a dc generator having 12 exactly the same as the voltage e c induced in coil C. is equal to e b It in Fig. the It is + corresponds most common is type of winding used in direct-current generators and motors. the voltages induced armature when Fig. The same reasoning leads us and? are equal and opposite Ll + + + = conclude that e h to in polarity. This fact is E= Because the density point to point. the voltage E induced each conductor depends upon the flux density which it cuts. moving upward. 4.

the equivalent to reducing the 0.12). 1 1 b. Large currents will flow in the short-circuited coils and brushes. When the generator operates at no-load. respectively. sitioned on the to brush If That we were the case in Figs.12 Moving the brushes off the neutral point reduces the output voltage and produces sparking. . the that are brush connected However. They 18. no current brush. short-circuits Figure 4.7 Value of the induced voltage The voltage induced winding is in a dc generator having a lap given by the equation E0 = E0 = Z= n = (J> = Z/?*/60 (4J) voltage between the brushes [V] total number of conductors on the armature speed of rotation [r/min] tlux per pole |Wb] This important equation shows that for a given generator the voltage only holds true is zones Neutral zones are those places on the surface of the armature where the tlux density is zero. equation brushes are shifted off neutral. we can see that between the brushes the voltage 18 + to brush 7) = 70 and brush x V. a neutral zone. due duced in as that slots induced in the coils lodged and in slots 5 0V same the is rotation in- 1 coil A / 1 shows the instantaneous voltage ineach of the 2 coils of the armature. if the brushes are Example 4-1 The armature of a slots.6 Neutral in We in contact will result.11b straddles two that brush x in Fig. has 90 4 turns and the tlux per pole is Calculate the value of the induced voltage. Thus. the neutral zones are located exactly between the poles. 1 lb 1 are 0. to shift the 4. No voltage is in- is directly proportional to the flux per pole and to the speed of rotation. brushes so they are where V. the voltage come which y. magnetic symmetry. 4. and sparking with coils that are momentarily age between the brushes and the at same time sparking occurs. 7.04 The on the neutral posieffect number of conductors Z _ 6-pole. since the induced voltage momentarily zero. in this position. Note 4. commutator segments Consequently. tion. is.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 76 lodged in Finally. 4. the voltage to the coils lodged in slots 3 and 9 Figure duced these which the voltage in momentarily zero. coil has 600 r/min generator. The brushes are neutral position when they are pocommutator so as to short-circuit duced coil B. by shifting the brushes the output voltage causes sparking. decreases. Each Wb. Note that the in 4. is + (7 is 18 + 20 + positive with respect y. in a coil that cuts always brush yoke by 30° (Fig. A. shifting the brushes off the neutral position reduces the volt- When through the neutral zone. If the 4. there is poor commutation. brushes short-circuit the coils is maximum. is irre- spective of armature position. coil in this coil is flow through the will The same remarks apply momentarily short-circuits said to be in the to coil A. Furthermore. those coils in which the induced voltage tarily zero. because the number of coils between the brushes always the same. This voltage remains essentially con- stant as the armature rotates. therefore. 18 + 20 + 18) = 63 continually short-circuit coils that generate 7 V. the brushes said to be try to set the between the brushes would be- Thus. is (0 + 7 + 1 1 is a momen- and 4. and 20 V. Taking polarities into account.

To keep the generator going. which in turn depends upon the current carried by the armature. = 720 generator also the the armature conductors. provided the brushes are on neutral. they the conductors produce a torque which the gen- that acts opposite to the direction in erator is we must being driven. toward the reader. contrary armature flux is to the field flux. The electromagnetic torque due to Fmust be balanced by the applied me- due arma- both motors and generators. find that the individual forces all we examine F on the di- we act clockwise.04/60 that flow into the page. lie in a magnetic field. away from the reader. magnetic chanical torque. that current is all 77 at 4. in a that the only dc generator However. the armature currents under the no-load is there- N pole flow out of the page. Because the conductors 288 V. Consequently.14. Thus. However.8 Generator under load: the energy conversion process When a direct-current generator is under load. will produce a This field acts angles to the field produced by the N. In effect.9 Armature reaction Until now.13 The energy conversion process. 13. If consider the armature alone. 4. the current flowing ture coils also creates a powerful that distorts we we and field weakening takes place reaction. En = Z//4V60 = 720 X 600 X = 288 V The voltage between the brushes fore always flows we would those conductors that are momentarily under a pole. Conversely. Referring to Fig. according to Lorentz's 4. we have assumed motive force (mmf) acting to the field. how is power is converted into electrical power. flows through 2 conductors/turn The speed we in the same discover direction in The same is N mo- true for conductors that are mentarily under a S pole. This distortion in magnetois at right field as shown it in Fig. If could look inside the machine. exert a torque on the shaft to overcome this opposing electromagnetic torque.23).DIRECT-CURRENT GENERATORS The current delivered by Solution Each turn corresponds to two conductors on the armature. the not constant but varies with the load. a 2-pole generator that is while delivering current / driven counterclockwise to a load (Fig. the impact of the armature mmf. . torque due to F 4. The resulting mechanical which rotation If rection of current flow and the direction of flux. 1 3).13). the ar- mature conductors under the S pole carry currents 0. magnetomotive force mmf is called armature To understand Figure 4. some fundamental flux and current relationships take place that are directly related to the mechanical-electrical energy conversion process. return to the generator under load (Fig. and The coils arc required to fill the number of armature conductors total Z = 90 90 coils X 4 turns/coil X 90 slots. they are subjected to a force. S poles. Consider for example. 4. the currents unis n = 600 der the r/min N pole flow the opposite direction to in those under a S pole. delivered to the generator load.22 and 2. law (sections 2. The effect produced by the armature load that in the and weakens the flux coming from the poles. The intensity of the armature flux depends upon its mmf. 4. That is the energy conversion process takes place.

This causes a cor- at in the does not duce the sparking. Fig.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 78 armature flux rotation neutra zone . 14 that the Figure 4. In effect. the decrease much ro- neutral no-load. the brushes are shifted against in the direction of ro- the direction of rotation. the increase in flux decrease in flux under pole tips 2. 3 is less than the under pole tips 1. was when induced voltage given as 10 percent. tion forth it For large machines.14 Magnetic field produced by the current flowing armature conductors. neutral zone Figure 4. As a result.10 Shifting the brushes produces a magnetic field armature. the load fluctuates. the commuta- there is less sparking. 4. As will The occur. a voltage will be induced in the coils that are short-circuited produced by the distorts the field and if meaning moved. For motors. 4. tate the armature combination of the armature poles. the armature falls and so the neutral zone shifts mmf back and between the no-load and full-load positions. This pro- means are used to . the It is armature flux remains fixed and hence upon by the generator. The second problem created by mmf N. We as the brushes are improves. flux distortion produces it improve commutation to produced by the illustrated in Fig.15 Armature reaction S poles. Consequently. to the shift in the neutral is the is generator was running by Eq. S poles less than may be 1 as . we could zone when the gener- move the brushes to re- For generators. no longer zero and. As soon However.15. We can in the immediately foresee a problem which the armature flux will produce. may sparking by the brushes. would therefore have to move the brushes back and forth to cedure not practical and other is obtain sparkless commutation. in flux under load. severe intensity of the sparking the armature flux the load current delivered that is it distorts the flux mmf and field whose shape is mmf in the direction The all The neutral still another effect: the higher flux density in pole tips 2. rises responding reduction 4. the total flux pro- duced by the N. This occurs in important to note that the orientation of the with the armature. 3 causes saturation to set in. the brushes are shifted to the new zone by moving them tation. con- sequently. depend upon a result. zones have shifted in space. zone flux in the neutral is shows 4. Due ator of rotation of the dc generators. 4.

the flux is 4. O (-) Figure 4. therefore.16 Commutating poles produce an the mmf. 16 shows how the commutating poles of a 2-pole machine are connected. remains the same. the load current varies. in Fig. 4. of the mmf c that opposes armature. the direc- To counter the of armature effect reaction in medium.17 Separately excited 2-pole generator. Clearly. Thus. This flux in the neutral zone. the designed so As exactly bucking each other ing the armature mmf flowing through the windings in- opposite to the mmf of the commutating poles acts mmf of the armature and.DIRECT. 4. Figure 4. we always place a set of commutating poles* between the main These narrow poles carry wind- poles (Fig. The N. their properties. rise at all in this between the main poles we no longer have mmfc magnetomotive force the to two magnetomotive forces space is poles develop a magnetomotive force tion of the current dicates that the and fall times. magnets Thus. In practice. When generator supplied by an independent source is the dc field current in such a (such as a storage battery or another generator. Now that we have learned some basic facts about we can study the various types and dc generators. called an exciter). unfortunately. the neutralization narrow brush zone where com- mutation takes place. ings that are connected with the armature.11 Fig. 17. 7 the dc source con1 nected to terminals a and b causes an exciting current / x to flow. as O (+) in Fig. in series The number of turns on the windings that the equal and opposite mmfa of the armature. 16). the to For small dc machines. Commutating poles are sometimes called mierpoles. neutralizes effect. The distorted flux distribution under the main poles. in the .CURRENT GENERA TORS resolve the problem. If the armature is or a diesel engine. we can use a shown pair of electromagnets. together. ever.and large-power dc machines. 4. a voltage £0 brush terminals x and driven by a motor appears between y. S field poles are created by the current flowing field windings. 4. called field poles. is its restricted to the However.12 Separately excited generator nullifyin the always zero and so to shift the brushes. mmf of the the commutating poles is greater than the armature mmf. how- brushes are set ensure reasonably in an intermediate position good commutation at all loads. the generator is said to be sepa- rately excited.28). instead of using permanent to create the magnetic field. which aids made 19 slightly creates a small the commuta- tion process (see Section 4. By way. Commutating poles 4.

the rated (or nominal) voltage varying the exciting current.1 ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 80 How does the saturation curve relate to the induced £n ? If we drive the generator at constant speed. When the flux the exciting current relatively small. Because the permeability of air 3 A almost entirely is constant. 8a. A shunt-excited generator shunt-field winding is is connected a machine whose in parallel with the armature terminals. For a given exciting current. is 1 is mmf of the obtain the satu- ration curve of Fig. with the result that the mmf developed by the field coils is available to drive the flux through the air gap. Furthermore. rated voltage of a dc generator above the knee of the curve. However. usually a is In Fig. 4. 4. is small and the iron in the machine is saturated. by re- versing the current. Field flux vs exciting current. a result that follows from Eq. 19). as we continue current. identical to the saturation curve of Fig. too. the Figure 4. Figure 4. so that the generator can be self-excited (Fig.18a Flux per pole versus exciting current. A to raise the exciting and the armature begins large increase in the quired to produce a small increase mmf is now in flux. 1 8b. Induced voltage vs speed. Saturation of the iron begins to be important when we reach the so-called "knee" ab of the saturation curve. A . This curve whether or not the venerator obtained turning. whose shape 4. Very little mmf is needed un- is to establish the flux through the iron. 4.18b Saturation curve of a dc generator. the polarity of the induced voltage remains the same.14 Shunt generator saturation curve. will the polarity of the induced voltage. ity we 1 reverse the direction of rotation.13 No-load operation voltage and saturation curve E0 is directly proportional to the flux When a separately excited dc generator runs at no- load (armature circuit open). The as a function of 7 X the relationship between the two. obtain a curve little flux we Consequently. 1 which increases the If we f|> plot as a function of I X1 per pole. example. By vary the in- duced voltage as we please. we Let us gradually so that the . 8a. 4. 4. 4. for 20 V. the induced voltage increases in direct pro- rated flux portion to the speed. this connection is that it The principal advantage of eliminates the need for an external source of excitation. called the it is we can is 1 1 8b. The machine to is re- shown now said be saturated. Ea by plotting If we of the induced voltage also reverses. as shown by the linear portion 0a of the 4. the iron in the field to saturate. the flux will reverse and so. as by portion be of the curve. a change the excit- in ing current causes a corresponding change in the in- We now examine duced voltage. How is generator self-excitation achieved? is When started up. However. result is shown in Fig. The raise the exciting current / x field increases. the polar- reverse both the exciting current and if the direc- tion of rotation. a small voltage is a shunt induced in i . no-load saturation curve of the generator. flux increases in direct proportion to the exciting current. is .

rheostat is a resistor with an adjustable To understand how suppose that p is in tact Ea is 1 the output voltage varies. For example. / = pass set at extremity corresponding to { through the coordinate point I A. See next section. which increases /x . the points A sliding contact.2 sat- This dotted line passes 1). . the saturation curve of the generator and the total resistance nate term for parallel) with the armature winding. 4. a critical value will be reached where the slope of the resistance line is If to raise A*. a. and the point where it intersects the curve yields the induced voltage. If toward extremity m. rent We simply vary the exciting cur- by means of a rheostat connected in series with the shunt field (Fig. 4. reaches value determined by the field resistance and the degree of saturation. £tv On consequently. and so Self-excited shunt generator. A\ is E0 in- the resistance line cuts the satu- ration curve at a voltage we continue if Ea of 120 V. This line intersects the saturation curve where the voltage is 150 V (Fig. through the origin. { The line is m. the flux Figure 4.20 Controlling the generator voltage with a field rheostat. the induced voltage hand.21).20).19 b. causing the flux per pole to increase. then R must E = 50 V. diminishes. V when 20 movable contact the we move the conresistance R between the center of the rheostat. if (b) we move the other R the contact toward extremity n. p and R E0 if we of the shunt field circuit between { We draw b. the total resistance of the field circuit increases. { p and b diminishes. the setting of the rheostat. due to the remanent flux in the poles. produces a small exciting current This voltage the shunt field. Ea still will fall.15 Controlling the voltage of a shunt generator to It is easy to control the induced voltage of a shunt- excited generator. By changing 4. which increases E0 the flux even more. the exciting current diminishes. That is the maximum voltage the shunt generator can produce. and so This progressive buildup continues until a maximum E0 forth. The increased flux increases which increases more. causing decrease progressively. creased to 120 12. 4. to be connected in A We shunt shunt (alter- know points the armature. The resulting small mmf acts / x in in the same direction as the remanent flux. ing to the slope of a straight line correspond- R and superimpose on the it { uration curve (Fig. which causes the excit- ing current to increase. £0 can determine the no-load value of For example. l increases. 50 12 if the shunt field has a resistance of and the rheostat R = 50 12. Schematic diagram field is of one designed a shunt generator.. This increases the flux and.DIRECT-CURRENT GENERATORS 81 field rheostat y Figure 4.

will types of direct-current generators and their behavior under load. we can represent one of the brushes. terminal voltage E0 resistance whose field the E {2 zero. is constant machine operates is However. The graph of terminal voltage Figure 4. and so is The When load. 4. voltage il.17 Separately excited generator under load Figure 4. . driven equal to that of the saturation curve region.22).16 Equivalent circuit across the armature (Fig. It is measured on the com- mutator surface between those segments that der the ally ( + ) that is and ( — ) The brushes. load current is called the load y un- usu- very small. The is in series latter is the with interpoles. the resulting load We R Kr Terminal voltage E l2 is now less than the induced voltage £ As we increase the load. and F.23). as 4. which The exists machine the armature resistance R^ total between the armature terminals when is stationary. Terminals l . resistance lie is .ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 82 Figure 4. revolving conductors. shown as a function of cun e of the generator.23 Separately excited generator under load. constant speed and if in the armature we connect a load 4. all armature winding contains a of which possess a certain re- () sistance. 2 are the external armature terminals of the machine.24. If To simplify machine has resistance of these windings The equivalent circuit posed of a resistance R„ (Fig.2 the critical resistance corresponds to 200 at a battery (Fig. therefore fixed. the included of a generator in series power and the generator R 0 as if it were the in R ir is thus com- with a voltage voltage induced Ea in the in Fig. In Fig. the induced voltage suddenly drops to zero and will remain so for any R v greater than this critical value.22 Equivalent circuit of a dc generator. Using study the more common we this circuit. voltage diminishes progressively. 4. F 2 are the field now winding terminals. often less than one-hundredth of an ohm. 4. 4. When unsaturated in its this resistance is attained.21 The no-load voltage depends upon the resistance the shunt-field of Let us consider a separately excited generator that circuit.. is excited by The induced voltage £0 is at no- equal to the induced because the voltage drop is is exciting current the resultant flux. 4. circuit. the terminal current / produces a voltage drop across resistance set have seen that the of identical coils. Its value depends mainly upon the voltage of the generator.23).

Consequently. is is through the series field der load rises above The terminal voltage of a self-excited shunt generator The shunt zero. The . in a schematic is Figure 4. the terminal volt- as the terminal voltage drops.19 in coils. As the generator off more sharply with increasing load than that of a separately excited generator. by these Shunt generator under load there- diagram carry exciting current / x which produces the field of the shunt 4. If practically constant from no-load it respectively. These current varia- b.DIRECT-CURRENT GENERATORS V tions 100 produce corresponding changes in 83 the genera- tor terminal voltage. The current mmf no-load value. to full-load. age tends to drop. in a. but load current which falls is flux.25a) is similar to a shunt generator. the current Load characteristic of a separately excited generator. 4. A compound generator (Fig. field The reason current in a separately excited constant. Consequently.24 of the series coils total resistance fore. the terminal voltage remains regulation creasing with increasing load.25 delivered by the generator fluctuates continually. because pole-tip satu- slightly tends to decrease the field flux. about 15 percent of the full-load is 4.18 is.25b showing the shunt and Figure 4. just as in a standard self-excited shunt generator. ration the induced voltage Ev also decreases with increasing load. loaded. big enough to carry the armature cur0 10 5 rent. generator under load. coils. These series field coils are composed of a few turns of heavy wire. small. A The 4. Compound generators eliminate this problem. Compound its raises the value of original Ea . this has a serious effect on lighting circuits. whereas citing current falls in a self-excited load to full-load is drop coils acts in the is said to 15% and 10%. causing the lights to flicker. For a self-excited generator. field coils connected except that in series has additional it with the armature. Thus. voltage the terminal E l2 falls off more rapidly than can be attributed to armature resistance alone. properly designed. the generator runs at no-load. the distribu- tion system of a ship supplies power to both dc ma- chinery and incandescent lamps. Schematic diagram. the field flux un- generator the ex- The compound generator was developed the terminal same /c mmf The that the whereas for a separately excited generator usually less than 10 percent. Compound response to the varying loads. For example. the voltage. generator prevent voltage of a dc generator from de- we can usually tolerate a reasonable drop in terminal voltage as the load increases. the series coils series field connections. although flows developed the series coils are voltage from no- to now direction as the machine remains The voltage however. Figure When In practice. be field.

26. compounding placed is too strong. the current in the latter is reduced by half. and the brushes. ratings. shunt field is 20 A. tor 15 percent is compound generator the mmf of the As a re- terminal voltage falls drastically with in- We can make such a generator by simply reversing the series field of a standard com- pound generator.load = ( of 50°C.26 is (no-load — full00-70)770 = 42. 4. is adjusted to a value close to We may draw any amount of the generator. Such chines are called over-compound generators. 4. We now look at the Load current mechanical construction of these machines. In the some cases we have to compensate not only for armature voltage drop. without exceeding a temperature rise during the welding process. compound flat-compound generator remains constant. 4.20 Differential when percent kW at a volt- age of 250 V. voltage. creasing load. the feeder line The generator manufacturer then adds one or two extra turns on winding so the series that the terminal ma- voltage increases as the load current rises. For exam- generator sult. as long as kW and the current is it does not ex- 400 A. the Typical load characteristics of dc generators.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 84 rise in the induced voltage compensates for the ar- Load characteristics 4. the armature. and the current in the It possesses a series winding. applied. are the following information compound nameplate of a 100 Power 100 Voltage 250 20 generators kW V A 50° C Exciting current Temperature rise These specifications tell dc arc welders. speed. com- . because they tended to limit the short-circuit current and to stabi- punched on is the kW generator: Speed 1200r/min Type Compound B Class us that the machine can power of 100 deliver. This reduces The load characteristics of some shunt and compound generators are given in Fig. a low resistance can be with the series in parallel the current in the series field as reducing the If the field. a lize the arc On no-load value. The voltage of an over-compound generator increases by 1 value of the diverter resistance is if the equal to that of the series field. but also for the IR drop in between the generator and the load.9%. the series field acts opposite to the shunt field.21 mature IR drop. the full-load voltage of a shunt genera- These In a differential full-load and has the same effect number of turns. and other details about the machine. can therefore supply a load current of It 100 000/250 = 400 A. load )/full. In practice. The voltage regulation of the differential compound generator in Fig. mutator. For example. continuously. 4. while that of a differential-compound generator ple. compound 40 CONSTRUCTION OF 20 DIRECT-CURRENT GENERATORS We have 0- 50 100 described the basic features and properties % of direct-current generators. or nominal characteristics.22 Generator specifications The nameplate of a generator indicates the power. The less than designation refers to the class of insulation machine. 1 the terminal voltage its % 100 rating of overcom pound power from compound ceed 1 separate excitation class B used in the 80 shunt 60 differential 00 250 V. the is other hand. direct- Figure 4. whereas that of a values guaranteed by the manufacturer.26 ing our attention to the field. Differential were formerly used in below its the is 30 percent lower.

the armature. tor size a 4-pole shunt generator. 4. the bigger the phys- poles frame will have.28). The coils armature are insulated from the pole pieces to prevent short- circuits.23 Field The field chine.28 Cutaway view does not overheat when It has 3 field. developed by the coils produces a magnetic flux that passes through the pole pieces. we have considered only However. it The conduc- that the winding carries the full-load cur- . It produces the magnetic flux is composed of side in the ma- basically a stationary electromagnet a set of salient poles bolted to the in- of a circular frame (Figs. diminish the size of the However. coils. the coils are top of the shunt-field coils. field are composed of magnetic materials having excellent permeability.29 Adjacent poles of multipole generators have opposite magnetic polarities. 4. of a multipole machine are con- nected together so that adjacent poles have oppo- commutator site magnetic polarities (Fig. It and the air gap.5 to kW mm as the gen- 5 to 100 kW. flux is In made of whereas the pole pieces are composed of steel. is the short space pieces. we can becomes too must be enough so Figure 4.27 mmf The Cross section of a 2-pole generator. it the more a multipole design. it By using is. generator has a series wound on of air too short otherwise the armature reaction ef- If the brushes per brush set. 6. motor may have in practice a 2. carry the dc exciting coils. Field mounted on the poles. Consequently. or as many The number of poles depends upon flux dc generas 24 Figure 4. gap cannot be great. the frame. and also The improve field coils their performance. current. the large rent of the generator. some generators the created by permanent magnets. ical size of the machine. 4.27 and 4. The shunt composed of coils are field several hundred turns of wire carrying a relatively small current.DIRECT-CURRENT GENERATORS 85 4.29). we can reduce the dimensions and cost of large mafield chines. by reducing its shunt field made fect length. The frame is usually stacked iron laminations. Figure 4. ator or poles. most of the mmf produced by the field is used to drive the flux across the air gap. In solid cast our discussions so far 2-pole generators. The air gap between the armature and the pole ranges from about 1 erator rating increases from 1 Because the armature and .

The lamination of a small armature tion view of the is shown slot in Fig. and a set of The armature coils (Fig. The a result. round wire is Figure 4. 4.24 Armature The armature the rotating part of a dc generator.26. . 4. keyed is revolves between the field poles. producing unacceptable sparking.32. is It consists of a commutator. A of a large armature cross sec- is shown in Fig.30 Armature of a dc generator showing the commutator. The armature conductors carry the load current They are insulated from the iron core by several layers of paper or mica and delivered by the generator. Figure 4. to form a to a shaft The and iron core is iron laminations that are stacked solid cylindrical core. USA) is taken in building the commutator because any eccentricity will cause the brushes bounce.31 Armature lamination with tapered but for currents exceeding 20 A. are lined up to provide the space needed slots to insert the armature conductors. If the ar- mature current is below 10 A. composed of slotted. are firmly held in place by fiber slot sticks.25 Commutator and brushes The commutator is composed of an assembly of ta- pered copper segments insulated from each other by mica sheets. The laminations are individually coated with an insulating film so that they do not As come in electrical contact with each other.30). an iron core. iron teeth fiber slot stick better use of the available slot space. slots. 4.31. to The sparks burn the brushes and overheat and carbonize the commutator.33). (Courtesy of General Electric Company. eddy-current losses are reduced. stacked laminations.32 Cross-section of a slot containing 4 conductors. 4.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 86 4. Great care Figure 4. The armature conductors are con- nected to the commutator in a manner we will ex- plain in Section 4. and mounted on the shaft of the ma- chine (Fig. rectangular con- ductors are preferred because they make slots. 4. and shaft. used.

depending upon sets as composed the current has to be earned. for example. The brushes are made of carbon because it has good electrical conductivity and its softness does not score the commutator. In Fig. Brushes and connections of a 6-pole generator. brushes mounted side-by-side make up the brush The brush sets are spaced at two set. Brushes having the same polarity are connected together and the leads are brought out to one positive and one negative terminal (Fig. friction tator A of is too great. Figure 4.34b). a small amount of copper is sometimes mixed with the carbon. Brush set composed of two brushes. the imperfect contact may produce sparking.33 Commutator If the produces excessive heating of the each other (Fig. To improve the conductivity. on the other hand. Figure 4.35 Carbon brush and ultraflexible copper lead. 4.DIRECT-CURRENT GENERATORS yoke that permits the entire brush tated through an angle position. The brush pressure is set by means of adjustable springs.34 a. Brushes of a 2-pole generator. The brush of one or that many brush sets. (Courtesy of General Electric Company. equal intervals around the commutator. In going 87 assembly to be and then locked ro- in the neutral around the commutator. They on the commutator and ensure good electrical contact between the revolving armature and the sta- tionary external load. the and brushes. are more brushes. mounted on a. 4.34a). the suc- cessive brush sets have positive and negative polarities. if commuit is too a dc machine. in turn. rocker arm. Multipole machines possess as they have poles. 4. They are supported by a movable brush + (a) 9 6 (b) Figure 4. b. c.35c. b. Brush holder and spring to exert pressure. 2-pole generator has two brushes fixed dia- metrically opposite to slide pressure weak. USA) .

and the permissible current density mately 10 A/cm 2 65 A/in is In order to get a better 2 ). atypical brush cm X cm of 4. Fig. 4. The armature has a lap winding. was 1 2- the schematic diagram is of such a machine having 72 slots on the armature.38a order to appreciate the progress that has been made.4 in) exerts a pressure 1 carry a current of about 30 A.36 Sectional view of a 100 kW. 72 segments on the commutator. 250 V. Coils A and C are mo- . and 72 coils. Fig. Thus. 1750 r/min 4-pole dc generator.2 in 1 X lb) and can the construction of a modern 0. Figure 4. Fig. and the reader should note erator that understanding of multipole us examine the construction of a pole machine. 4. USA) to the 4.26 Details of a multipole generator approxigenerators.5 N having a cross section of 3 1. (Courtesy of General Electric Company.88 ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS The pressure is usually about 15 kPa 2 lb/in").37 shows a gen- let how similar it is 2-pole machine (Fig. 4.36 shows 4-pole dc generator. 1 1 schematic diagram of a b). In 4. built in 1889.

Coil is B stalled in 1889 250 A at a voltage of 1 1 0 It deliv- Other prop- V. A are between the poles. the coil sides of coil center of pole 2 B c.38 generates 240 V between adjacent brushes and delivers a current of 2400 A modern generator having the same power and speed weighs 7 times less and occupies only 1/3 the floor Calculate space. Similarly. B and the center of pole of coil is cutting A is such that coming from adjacent N. / terminal 6 positive and 6 negative. The voltage in coil C is also zero because its coil sides are sweeping across the neutral zone. These ) connections are not shown on the diagram. segments 3 and B The voltage I.38b gives a detailed view of the armature coils lying coils we do between the N. 4. The is voltages generated by the five to brush sets are simi- ) — ( terminal. ) ( — connected to form the larly I and 5-6. ered a current of erties of this Thompson generator was 1 300 r/min 2390 kg weight mm 330 mm 292 Armature diameter Stator internal diameter Number of commutator Only A has its coil sides in slots B are in slots is connected the three 4 and 10. 76 bars #4 Armature conductor size # Shunt field conductor size 14 Example 4-2 The generator in Fig. current per brush set is are in the neutral zones be- 2 and poles ) terminal of the generator. pioneering machine include the following: Speed Total first in- to light the streets of Montreal. diagram. and those of coil A not 4. 2. 2-3. S poles. 2400/6 = 400 A . induced the coil sides of to shown.37 y. Consequently. the coil sides cut the flux S poles. in coil On the other hand. a. that are placed Fig. mentarily in the neutral zone. lie under the 3. A current of 2400 A flows out of the + ( and back into the ( There are 12 brush The — ) sets. I and 7. 4. coil is poles. A to the load. 4-5.DIRECT-CURRENT GENERATORS 89 The voltage generated between brushes x and y sum of the equal to the connected coils commutator segments to brush sets are similarly generated by five ( form the + + -2. Solution a. 3. the voltage between adjacent commutator segments 3 and 4 is maximum. Note that the positive circuit coils and negative brushes each short- having zero induced voltage. ) ( coils. Consequently. C are shown so as not to complicate the In the position This direct-current the interpoles connected to commutator segments 72 and while coil in show between brushes x and A. are directly under the in coil B is maximum N and S at this mo- ment. B. while coil coming from the flux The coil width (known as coil pitch) the coil sides tween poles l. while Furthermore. The current delivered per brush set The current flowing in each coil The average voltage induced per coil the center of the poles. For similar reasons of clarity. b. The voltages between the other 3-4. the coil-sides of coil the neutral zone no voltage Figure 4. brush sets are connected together The terminal. A. Thus.

38b Closeup view of the armature coils between adjacent brushes. .90 ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS Figure 4.

left. are neglected and current reversal brush contact resistance. This that the | flow toward and the the right coils commutator segments right to left.39a to 4.39b the commutator has moved a Fig.27 coil 240/6 a generator | { The commutation 72 I currents flowing the If 80 A. 1 . is Inductive effects caused by the . and so is I to the commutator is proportional to the conThe area in contact with segment 2 is from segment 2 40 ©| |© 71 while 75 per- contact resistance.39a. Consequently. the individual coils coming both from the brush. © . the conductivity 40 40 V. 1 called commutation. the current is how commutation 4.25 X 80 V | 3 | 4040 7 (e) 80 between the only one-fourth of the total contact area.39e. ® (a) on the armature carry one-half the load current carried by one brush. 71 is 40 is process When 72 | 40 ideal 40 40 40 to the left of the brush. in the the coils in brush and N 40 40 4. brush will soon be on the left-hand side. 72 | 1 | only one-fourth of namely 0. current in these coils must reverse. 3 I 80 0 40 A. the left of the In 40 40 during the millisecond interval that rection in this brief interval ment I means move from one end of the brush To understand | (b) © 71 on the right-hand side of the The process whereby refer to Figs. 1 40 40 contact with segment 2.39 Commutation of the current in coil 1. and 25 percent of the brush surface contact with segment the current 3 | middle of seg- on the give the 80 in tact area. If In Fig.2 | to the changes takes place. / 20 40 40 Note 1 = 40 V windings next to a positive brush are 4. brush produces a voltage drop of about is | j The contact resistance between the segment and cent 72 4. a coil takes to © 2 1/ T moving from are 40 40 in Fig. the current = from the set gathers current and 9 = 20 A. Owing the total current. By Figure 4. © 40 sets. - 400/2 each in 200 coil is A 71 There are six coils between adjacent brush The average voltage per Eavge The 4. Each positive brush coils to the right / c.DIRECT-CURRENT GENERA TORS b.39a the brush and the 40 short distance. the coils 3 | 6020 the armature in that the currents in the coils the load current is 2 I © V | under load. 1 . now is A from brush unite is The to U re- | (c) 80 di- we right A and output. the shown carry all 40 versal takes place other.

commutation The problem with commutation in- is to the contact resistance effect. and so the currents divide ac- A 1 at this instant. 4. the coil induc- into play.40c the brush 1 is The density segment cally placed as regards rent in coil and 2 1 A and that the current density the brush touches commutator Suppose. has not fallen to zero. therefore. ment currents have assumed plausible in should be compared with those is not reverse as quickly as new the self-inductance of the sulting current flows in the brush. Note completed of a second and during this short period 72 form over the brush touches segment into the brush are 5 A. the conductiv- same and so past the brush. 2. the middle of seg- is in in the coils are neither in- As a result.28 given by (4.39e the current reversal In this ideal self-induction = seg- tance forces a progressive reversal of the current as the only inductance of the coil [H| Hows did before! it is has an inductance of. val- order to determine the re- 4. plete slide e and the current in coil 2 is 1 is com- about to be reversed. 4. it is important (amperes per square centimeter) remains the same at the brush face. This is zero Segment 2 left.39 over the brush. 1/720 e contact with segments in that the current in coil ther to the ment - 1/72 20 A. is LM&t 1.39 ms! s The voltage induced by A//A/ In Fig.2) Figs. tance does not come that that it takes place very short time. Consequently. and But the curis still.75 + 40 - [ X V the presence of this induced voltage (attribut- is that flow in coil 1 coil is considered. moved 4. the brush is we now If the current X 80 . 1 A to dropped from 40 and the brush area is in coil X 1/10 a little in L = the currents are equal. 60 A and no longer uniis low where and high where it 1 In Fig. 4. 4. 4. is momentarily symmetri- segments 1 and 2. the in- value of 20 A.40a to 4.39 has 72 bars and that the armature turns at 600 r/min. to note that the current density tact = 100 We the brush contact resis- 4. by coming to the 1 A.39d the commutator has cordingly: 60 in = e 1 in coil which 1 the same. Thus. the or 1. .40a the brush In Fig. further. the 1 Applying Kirchhoff" s current law. the current can- The reason is the armature coils have inductance and it it should. say. 100 fxH. to its ideal is 40)] duced voltage e prevents the current from dropping process in a - ( 3 10 able to L).40b the current in coil 1 is changing due However. strongly opposes a rapid change in current. the currents flowing from segments then respectively 75 20 A. the cur- in rent in this coil has commutator bars sweep time available to reverse the current apply Kirchhoff s current law. but is the opposite direction to now understand how what it segments In Fig. that the current in coil can = duced voltage percent of the brush. in Fig. say. The currents in Fig.40e illustrate the in coil commutation process. Suppose the coil current 35 A. we contact with the brush. is now still far- contact with 75 in A from from segment 2 and 20 If coil I again 20 A. the heat produced by the con- resistance is every point across spread uniformally across the brush surface. when We ues for these currents 1. In Fig. consequently. induced voltage [V] change of current [A/s] rate of LA//A/ = It we The practical X 6 10 X 5.75 from segment cover that the current flowing and 2 now are the ities means dis- must be 20 A. that opposes the change in current. and the currents creasing or decreasing. in 1/10 One revolution that the is. instead of face. Thus.39c the commutator has In Fig. Unfortunately. moved 4.60 0. for example. From Kirchhoff s current law. we find 1.39.ELECTRICA L MA CHINES A ND TRA NS FORMERS 92 same token. such ideal commutanot possible in practical machines. 4. and tion is now investigate the reason why. Thus.

| the brush 3 I 4 40 4C (e) 80 tance opposes the reversal always is commutation induced is 1 . overheating raises the brush 75 5 71 therefore. creases the losses. As a 40 40 40 40 40 while that sity © 71 72 | segment 2 2 3 | f still 35 40 2 / | 3 I I has left- moved beyond it in coil 1 the has has a value of 20 A. The current den- will tend to overheat. the composition of carefully chosen. a voltage inductance of the 40 40 aiding commutation the coil side undergoing sweeps through coil 40 greater Therefore. this means that the number of coils must be increased. the it in- commutator and brushes become hotter and the efficiency of the coil induc- generator is slightly reduced. But for a given output voltage. A large brush drop helps commutation. the brush . The of current. 72 1 Assuming not reversed. The vl /l | segment result. the current in in 93 tip to the this incandescent point and serious sparking will result. from segment to the brush is is The 1 resulting high current den- sity causes the brush to overheat 720 coils are being <t>) at the tip.40 Commutation is armature the which opposes the voltage due In addition to these 71 than this tlux.40d segment In Fig. It affects the brush V to as much This drop occurs between the surface of and the commutator surface. 7 40 © V | A despite the fact that the contact area getting very small. in the to the self- measures. . a small tlux 60 20 40 slightly in commutating poles 4 | tht\ 40 mmf of the As a result. in practice.5 V. of the current in coil is voltage drop. Thus. Because commutated every second.DIRECT-CURRENT GENERATORS 30 A. which can vary from 0. (a) 80 40 1 on the left-hand side of the brush hand side of the brush 4040 40 only is times greater than on the right-hand side. And more coils implies more effort coils. midpoint of the brush and the current the current flowing 71 70 is 1 0 A. every is made to reduce the self-inductance of the One of the most effective ways is to reduce the number of turns per coil. | is. As © | 72 1 | x 2 . 40 40 40 30 40 © 71 | 72 1^1/2 | 3 I 1 commutator 7010 (c) 80 bars. but unfortunately 1 mmf. direct-current generators have a large number of mutator bars — not so much the output voltage but to coils and com- to reduce the ripple in overcome problem of the commutation. created in the neutral coil. 4. now 60 A.2 as Figure 4. In 80 designing dc motors and generators. 20 40 40 40 40 Another important factor © 71 72 | J 1 | 2 7 is made 3 | that the (d) 80 zone.

the exciting current How 4-5 do we adjust 4. Explain the difference between shunt. ity of £ xv when 4. Calculate at 4-3 Describe the construction of a commutator. A Brush x in Fig. The terminal voltage of a shunt generator increases. the exciting current needed to generate 4-4 How 120 is the induced voltage of a separately excited dc generator affected a. by 120°. in the posi- shown.38? 1400 r/min produces an induced voltage of the is in coil the 12 coils.' c. 4-20 a. the speed increases? b. 1 age induced A when decreases with increasing load.38 revolves at r/min and the flux per pole is 20 960 mWb. what segment 35 with respect is to the polarity of segment 34? .2 1 4-2 Why are the brushes of a de ways placed at machine al- 100 is <}. 1 mmf when rated voltage at 8b shows the no-load saturation curve of a separately excited dc generator the neutral points? when it revolves 1500 r/min. is 4. The polarity of the field is reversed? level The voltage between brushes x and y is 240 V in the generator shown in Fig. In Fig. 4-8 1 D in coils 4-14 Explain why the output voltage of an compound generator increases as the 4-7 at Referring to Fig. 4. 4. a. calculate the current flowing a current of 12 A. lb. The exciting current is increased by 10 percent? d. 10. c. 4. The heat dissipated in the armature [W] The braking torque exerted by the armature A separately excited dc generator pro- 4-18 [Nm| 4-10 duces a no-load voltage of 115 V. At the same instant. armature in each coil.38 determine the polarity of tween commutator segments 3 and 4- 1 1 Each pole of a 1 00 kW. 127 V. 4-9 330 r/min. 2 12 and machine delivers a total load current of 1800 A. The armature resistance machine delivers is brush sets are needed for the gen- erator in Fig. calculate the volt- the armature positive with respect to brush y 1 b. determine the polar- the armature turns counter- clockwise. At full-load Fig. The speed is increased by 20 percent? b. Show Does the polarity of each of the polarity reverse when a coil turns through 180°? 4-16 The generator of Fig. The terminal voltage |V] b. compound. The direction of rotation is reversed'. At no-load b. over- 4. B. in coil generator? 4-6 V If the b.3 if 1 is reduced? tion the voltage of a shunt is 4.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 94 Questions and Problems resistance the Practical level Sketch the main components of a dc gener- 4-1 ator. 4.38. and same at the Referring to Fig. 4. 1 0. the induced voltage momentarily 18 V. Calculate the voltages induced C A. Explain. £ 34 be- know- turning clockwise.9 1 Referring to Fig. as to electrical properties 1 instant. Intermediate level separate excited dc generator turning at 4-17 How many a. segments 3 and 4 must be greater than 40 V? What happens if a. calculate the machine operates a. If the total shunt-field ing that the armature b.5 1 load and differential compound generators as to construction b. 250 V flat-compound generator has a shunt field of 2000 turns and a series field of 7 turns. Why can we say that the voltage between 4. 4. 4. Calculate Advanced a. Calculate the no-load armature voltage if each armature coil has 6 turns. has rotated by 90°. 4.

33 ms. Appl tea t ion excited dc generator has an overall turn per coil. 750V lap 4-25 800 r/min dc generator The brush width is such as to cover 3 commutator segments. The shunt field resistance following: a. machine losses in the armature The generator in Problem 4-24 weighs 2600 lb. has 81 slots. knowing that the brushes c. Calculate the total brush loss in the machine. The induced voltage at a calculate the is 60 ohms and 2 The I R loss in are 15 mm wide and commutator 4-22 A 200 W.6 V. 1 20 is V. neglecting friction loss.4 (Chapter 5) in Fig. lap It will be winding having flux per field pole is wound / n du stria I 4-24 to give a 6-pole 30 mWb. 1 a. r/min separately kilogram. Show that the duration of the commutation is 1 b. If the 1 95 is found to be 0.) 4-27 A 4-pole 2 8 A. .DIRECT-CURRENT GENERATORS 4-2] The armature shown 5. 450 mm. 0. equal to 1. has 75 commutator bars. ciency of 94%. and the commutator has 243 segments. dc generator delivers a current of The average brush voltage drop on each of the four brush sets Calculate b. that the diameter of the 1 4-23 dc generator has a winding on the armature. A 240 kW. process V 750 Calculate The average flux density per pole The time needed to reverse the current in each armature coil. Calculate the output in watts per 4-26 In Problem 4-24 calculate The full-load current of the generator The current carried by the armature coils the torque re- quired to drive the generator (The shunt field is at 1750 r/min. A 4-pole 250 kW. c. 500 speed of 1200 r/min b.023 pu. powered by a separate source. the rated current the armature a. The rated armature current The The I total losses in the 2 R effi- is is 5 A.

As soon form the alternating current der to use dc motors. They drive devices such as into made motors for variable speed applications. energy electrical hoists. and the magnetic field Direct -current motors are seldom used in ordinary because as a generator. However. and These devices may have a characteristic (such as a 1 it there are millions of dc motors mechanical energy. cars. causing the armature 96 to rotate.1 Chapter 5 Direct-Current Motors Today. possible to use alternating current pumps. 5. These forces add up to produce a speed characteristics of dc motors can be varied over a in Counter-electromotive 5. a dc machine can op- Shunt motors 2. 1 ). punch-presses. and this require- rise to three basic types Direct-current motors are built the of motors: erate either as a trate. . E The armature has is s by a re- created by a set in The as the switch is closed. mersed that the torque- in the magnetic field created by the perma- nent magnets.1 The torque- speed characteristic of the motor must be adapted to the type of the load cial still thousands more are being produced every year. 5.0 Introduction this general statement can be challenged because the availability of sophisticated electronic Now thai erators. vari- ment has given it service and force (cemf) has to drive. it is in steel mills. . Series motors 3. Nevertheless. is industrial applications same way generators are. for speapplications such as in sistance R. tems furnish alternating current. we have we can a good understanding of dc gen- motors transform Direct-current drives has begin our study of de motors. powerful torque. consider a dc generator initially at rest. a large current the armature because its resistance individual armature conductors are is very imme- diately subjected to a force because they are im- into direct current in or- The reason as of permanent magnets. and sometimes advantageous low. to trans- is To connected to a dc source (Fig. illus- which the armature. flows mines. wide range while retaining high efficiency. fans. Compound motors motor or means of a switch all electric utility sys- electric trains. calendars. consequently. definite torque-speed pump or fan) or a highly able one (such as a hoist or automobile).

If the armature is V con- nected to a source of 150 V. motor runs when a no-load.2 is / is limited only by the armature resistance R.2 Acceleration of the The net voltage acting in the armature circuit in Fig. and so the starting current is Figure 5. 5. polarity . voltage (£s to act ical In effect. As the speed increases.DIRECT-CURRENT MOTORS motor 5. ) = / (£ s . a. maximum volts. as gins to turn.EJ/R (5. £ s . trip. duced that a voltage Ea is in- the armature conductors as soon as they magnetic field (Fig. polarity of the obtained induced voltage are when the machine operates The induced voltage the E0 is as a generator. ) armature that the 1 £0 in— £u current / drops progressively as the speed increases. this 1 Z//4V60 the case of a generator. the large forces acting on the armature con- motor continues number of turns on be 20 to 30 times would cause tor. forces would cease on the armature conductors. the number of armature conductors. It follows from Eq.2 + £n ) they are consequent rapid acceleration of the armature. the counter-emf creases. therefore proportional to speed of rotation n of the motor and to the flux per pole. As voltage = EJR / dc motor across the 97 as soon as the torque current is /. is equal to It £ (1 is force (cemf) because always acts against the source voltage acts against the voltage in the sense that the net voltage acting in the series circuit equal to (£ s — £ () ) volts and not (£ s of Fig. The starting current . The value and the same as those no matter what causes the rotation. a cut a in soon as the armature be- second phenomenon takes place: the We know generator effect. For lap windings However. pends upon the may current starting greater than the nominal full-load current of the inite. Example 5-7 The armature of a permanent-magnet dc generator has a resistance of when 1 H is and generates a voltage of 50 500 r/min. as previously given by Eq. tf> £0 in or the circuit-breakers to the type the (4. (£ s —£ The resulting armature current 5. At no-load this speed pro- duces a counter-emf £ slightly would case of a motor. 5. As the speed decreases the net voltage (Es and so does the current fall it speed. the induced voltage called counter-electromotive £s the armature and Z if ductors produce a powerful starting torque and a 1 a constant that de- of winding. is to accelerate until () voltage £ s . 4. the counter-emf must be at £ slightly less than s? to flow. and so () volts.1 Starting a line.2 Counter-electromotive force (cemf) the speed in a dc motor. In practice.2). calculate the following: Figure 5. and the mechan- drag imposed by the fan and the bearings would immediately cause the motor to slow down. sufficient to so as to enable a small current produce the required torque. 5. the net zero and so. if £0 were reaches a def- less than the source equal to — E0 would become ) the current The driving /.1) When the motor is at rest. In the its Z is the fuses to absent. mo- blow Although the armature current decreases. too. The On the other hand. Thus. This is always true. with the result that the value of (£ s diminishes. the induced £0 = 0. — £0 The speed ) increases will cease to developed by the armature equal to the load torque.

drop s 150 - 100 E in the = EJ s is equal to the sum of E0 E = Ea + s = (E S = 50/1 When the A (Fig. but the very important term / (5.EJ/R = (150 - 146)/1 (5. At 1460 r/min. 5. At 1460 The power and torque of r/min.3) EJ P* 50 IR follows that .2."1 ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 98 b. The V motor at is 50 V will be at 100 V at E s P* However. sta- According to Eq. the cemf will be 146 V. 5. the armature current is The 2 I R term IR)I 2 I R only electrical = = (Es 4 . wound armature starting cur- £ = limited only by the armature resistance: is (t . the electrical power P. Because the generator voltage r/min. almost equal to the source voltage. so rent E0 = 0 V 1 the armature (Fig. c. 5. 5.EJR = / 150 V/l n= A 150 the 1 cemf induced in a lap- given by is Z/i$/60 (4. motor are two of a dc most important properties.3a). its We now derive two sim- ple equations that enable us to calculate them. 4. is much P = EJ (5. Under these conditions. the cemf of the 1000 r/min and 146 c.5) . supx b. moment of start-up.2) armature: = 50 V The corresponding armature current I: 1000 is E . At the tionary. The mechanical power of the motor therefore exactly equal to the product of the A is cemf multiplied by the armature current and the corresponding motor torque smaller than before (Fig. Solution a. The is .1) Referring to Fig.Eu = equal to the supply voltage is multiplied by the armature current 1460 r/min. The armature current at 1000 r/min. net voltage in the armature circuit at r/min 500 plied to the armature power that is EJ is the converted into mechanical power.4) represents heat dissipated in the ar- mature.3b) = (E0 + = EJ + motor speed reaches 1460 r/min.3 r/min.3c). The counter-emf when the motor runs at 1000 Mechanical power and torque 5.EJ/R - plus the IR is It I (5.

Combining Eqs.1. 250 V.4 and 5.55 3.CURRENT MOTORS where where P — E0 - mechanical power developed by the T motor [W] Z induced voltage in = total torque (N-mJ number of conductors on the armature [Wb|* - effective flux per pole <& = / = armature current A| 6. 250 V. and 5.6 shows that motor expression either we can raise the torque of a by raising the armature current or by raising the flux created by the poles. /?779. to take care of units the armature (cemf) IV] / [ current supplied to the armature [A] [exact value 2. 99 Turning our attention to torque that the mechanical power P is T.56 mm thick.4 225 kW. details are given on a 225 k\V (~ 300 1200 r/min dc motor (see Figs.5): 243 armature coils turns per coil and so 1 type of winding T = Z*//6.5) Example 5-2 The following the speed of rotation. It is composed of 400 stacked laminations 0.60 EJZn. 5. The armature core has a diameter and an axial length of 235 mm.28 The torque developed by a lap-wound motor therefore given armature slots 81 commutator segments 243 is field poles by the expression T = Z$//6.28 lap (5. 1200 r/min. Roberge) Bare armature and commutator of a dc motor rated of 559 has 81 mm .DIRECT. P = n 7/9.5.5. = 2tt 1 we know given by the Eq. 4. we obtain .6) 6 diameter of armature 559 axial length of armature 235 The effective flux is niven by <I> mm mm . Figure 5. (H.EJ = Z/i3>//6() hp).28 = constant. The armature slots and the commutator has 243 bars.55 where n is (3. 5.

= (6. The number of conductors per c.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 00 1 Figure 5. Commutator connections ready of the 81 coils coil of ready to be placed ends to the being wound. may be expressed by we have already seen that E0 the equation En = Z/7*/60 (4. The rated armature current slot 9.55 X 225 000/1200 = 1791 N-m flux per pole The flux per pole is Solution a. the equal to 6 X of rotation to armature resistance to the supply voltage This means that the counter-emf the armature. c.28 TiZI nearly equal to the applied voltage (250 V).5 Armature a. X mWb E s £0 is is E s . the other hand. = 6. The b. gether there are 243 X 2 = 486 so alto- conductors on Conductors per slot Coil sides per slot The motor torque 1790)/(486 is = = 486/81 6 = IR drop due always small compared On 900) a dc motor drives a load between no-load and full-load. in the slots. very nearly . One c. 5.55 Pin = 9. coil-forming machine gives the coils the desired shape.4 in the process b. Connecting the d.28 The = 25.4 = 900 A Speed When b. commutator bars. for brazing.F/E0 = E0 d> is is 225 000/250 5. Roberge) T= Calculate a. Each coil is made up of 2 conductors.1) . of Fig.7 We can assume that the induced voltage rated armature current / . (H.

often re- by electronic means. The electric power that the dc motor now netic its the delivers to G is derived at the expense of the connected mechanical load. For example. mills. It just a to the can actually force the mo- tor to develop the torque and speed required by the load. in the direction and the motor develops shown in Fig. s shows This important equation is conductors speed of the that the directly proportional to the armature supply and inversely proportional voltage We will now study more than is simple way of applying a variable dc voltage // pole. 5. What happens to the dc power received by genG? When G receives electric power. known Ward-Leonard system. This method of speed control. a positive torque. to maximum The generator output voltage f can therefore be varied from zero s mum. Thus. the E By armature voltage s . by reducing motor is £ s. That RKTR is 60£ v (approx) A 'SiaJU3$6^A modern In installations the generator placed by a high-power electronic converter that changes the ac power of the electrical utility to dc. Consequently. ac power is fed erator that the driven by an ac motor connected to a ki- energy of the rapidly decelerating armature and The asynchronous generator is explained in Chapter 14.6. suppose we reduce Es by reducing the gen<1> G As soon as E s becomes less than £u current / reverses. suppose slightly higher than the Current will then flow 5. Note erator excitation . Replacing E0 by £ we s 3-phase obtain . constant with Now. we can tion or field fall in vary E s of the motor s. suddenly forced to slow down. mines.6). The Ward-Leonard system = speed of rotation [r/min] E = armature voltage fVJ Z = total number of armature armature of a dc motor. where motor is to the flux per how this equation is applied. 1 ) power to generator G. but the generator can be varied from zero and even reversed. high-rise elevators. by connecting the is G (Fig. The armature of the motor absorbs power because Armature speed control 5. In effect. as Zn*/60.DIRECT-CURRENT MOTORS 101 (variable) ! motor armature motor field (fixed) O ( j O 3-phase motor Figure 5. As a result. 5.5 According to Eq.7. it operates as a motor. driving its own ac motor as an asynchronous generator!* As a result. the dc motor suddenly becomes a generator and generator G suddenly becomes a motor. the motor speed can be varied from zero to maximum generator is / flows into the positive terminal. with £ kept M to a separately excited variable- voltage dc generator excitation / x field <I> is raising or lowering motor speed will rise and motor armature to either positive or negative maxi- polarity. In practice. ( . E is s E cemf i} adjusted to be of the motor. the proportion. the line.6 Ward-Leonard speed control system. The field excita- kept constant. is found in steel and paper 'A mills. the motor torque speed depends only upon the reverses and (2) the armature of the motor delivers if the flux per pole (permanent magnet fixed excitation). . in either direction.

in the which subtracts yielding a smaller lot below its nominal recommended for small motors beof power and heat is wasted in the rheoonly and the overall efficiency is is low. is driven Ward-Leonard The total resis- tance of the motor and generator armature circuit The motor turns when E0 is 500 V. cause a stat.7 is field flux E s <t>. The armature current / is = (E EJ/R = = . r/min. 5. In effect.7).55P/R b.55/Vw motor V.760 The motor speed to control to place a rheostat in se- is 380)/0. 5. Let us now constant so that the constant. even for a fixed setting increases as the armature current increases. = the speed of a dc Calculate a.8 140 000)/228 1 from the fixed source voltage The motor torque and speed when / = X chanical load will rapidly drop under the influence ries s a. 5.01 A to the connected me- of the rheostat.01 it flows in re- motor torque also reverses.3000 A s The current is (350 - Power returned by 38())/0. consequently. motor to the generator a dc speed control to Eq. the motor speed is still 228 r/min. 10 mi}. and constitutes another of Example 5-3 A 2000 kW. the Figure 5.6 Field According negative and so verse. kW 140 Braking torque developed by the motor: advantages. the /R drop across the rheo- - stat The power motor the speed regulation is s its electromechanical braking torque. at a is nominal speed of 300 The motor torque and speed when The speed of of this (400 = n with the armature (Fig. is P = EJ = 380 X 2000 . using a shown T = 9. This method en- E = 350 V and £0 = 380 V -= 47. Solution 2000 the ables us to reduce the speed s The armature current kN-m supply voltage across the armature. Because - (9.EJ/R = motor and Rheostat Speed Control Another way speed.7 we can also vary the speed of motor by varying the keep the armature voltage numerator in Eq. = (E . its 1 kW is X 300 = 228 (380 V/500 V) The motor torque r/min is T = 9. Furthermore. the motor speed now changes in inverse proportion to . This produces a substantial drop motor armature speed with increasing in mechanical load. poor. Consequently.6.55 rheostat produces a voltage drop E = 400 V and E0 = 380 V b.55 = 31. variable-speed in Fig. 500 by a 2500 kW control system generator. 5. line that The tact that power can be recovered this way makes the Ward-Leonard system very efficient.7 Armature speed control using a rheostat. The current It is E s .8 X 760 000)/228 kN-m E a — 380 V. the and the 10 mi} resistance: 5.1 ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 02 back into the P = EJ = 380 X 3000 = normally feeds the ac motor. (9.

Torque-speed and torque-current characteristic of induction. u. if the interrupted acci- due that This flux to the re- is so small dangerously high to rotate at a speed to induce the required cemf. 5. "—7 The speed of / stant <L 2 1 ^ speed a shunt from no-load motor stays only drops by 10 to 15 percent when it is p. Terms states. will equal the residual the remanent induction . we suddenly to the increase the resistance of the rheostat. the only flux manent magnetism that the motor has remaining in the poles. £0 and s () s. in series To understand at constant speed. If a suddenly applied is me- to the shaft.DIRECT-CURRENT MOTORS the flux drop. Broader speed ranges tend produce to instability and poor commutation. This causes the cemf to diminish. the armature current •rated load (b) re- sulting in a higher current and a corresponding rises and the speed drops. To sum up. sup- initially than the armature supply voltage IR drop in the armature. and only then. method of speed control enables high-speed/base-speed ratios as high as 3 to 1. The current . To control the flux (and hence. For example. both the exciting current /x and the flux <J> reduces the cemf jump a to to will diminish. . the troducing a resistance E motor develops a the field.* is is may flux drop to dangerously low values.8a is The counter-emf running slightly ZTn is £ due s.8 also used. cr>: if we increase the flux the speed will This method of speed control frequently used is when the called base speed. £ will accelerate until It same E0 with Clearly.. the if . In small motors.u. to run we connect above a rheostat its R rated speed. with control. p. in the inag- remanent induction there are air gaps . (a) 5-7 Shunt motor under load Consider a dc motor running chanical load at no-load. will the speed / remain constant (see Section t 3. rheostat. Under abnormal conditions. * Tvs motor I is When the torque developed by the exactly equal to the torque imposed by the mechanical load. motor has the speed). less method of speed this motor in Fig. the is IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and a shunt motor including the a. the small no-load current does not produce enough torque to carry the load and the motor begins to slow down. Safety devices are introduced to prevent such runaway conditions.. netie eireuit.1 1). 5. 103 its weaker a can therefore nominal value by with the in series this We faster. a shunt motor. to develop the motor must turn raise the motor speed above shunt-wound motors. as the mechanical load increases. pose that the changes dramatically because upon and vice versa. flux." of full-load n armature current field relatively con- to full-load. greater torque than before. . If Despite the weaker value depends its between the very small difference { the field (Fig. in- For field. will be less than the residual induction. This immediately causing the armature current much is again almost equal to E / higher value. / The term residual magnetism Figure 5. If Electronics there are no air gaps . . then. —/ Tvsn 2 — "-7 / — / / / / higher torque. However. the certain exciting current of a shunt motor dentally. Schematic diagram b.8a).

to is even less. torque and current are given in per-unit values. . = El = 120 Power absorbed by X = 6120 51 W per pole field the armature is is constant P n = El = 120 X 50 = 6000 W armature is IR 2 = 50 2 X 0. 51 the ar- calculate the following: ii. A 51 ad- justing the field rheostat.7 motor (equivalent to 5750/746 = / b. is the flux per pole Power dissipated at all connected to the .5750 = 7. is fed by a source (Fig. The torque is directly proportional to the arteristics mature current. E0 = - 120 5 = V 115 Although the construction ties c. 5.8b. upon the load.8 Series is A series motor motor identical in construction to a is shunt motor except for the V Voltage drop due to armature resistance nected = 50X0.1 pu as the torque increases to 0. The total power supplied to the motor is similar. c. carry the full IR hp) is - I is The actual mechanical output is slightly less than 5750 because some of the mechanical power is dissipated in bearing friction losses. due By the very low armature resistance."1 1 ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 04 applied. 5 The voltage across W O= A 1 = 50 A I the armature E= and in armature iron losses. be kept absolutely constant as the load changes. Example 5-4 A shunt motor rotating 120 V 1500 r/min at and the shunt-field resistance mature resistance a.1 = The cemf generated by 5 V field.9 See Example 120 V/120 P = 6000 .4. hence. The line current is 0.250 . the speed can. the flux F P. large. 5. 120 5.9a). The armature current 5. there- in series fore. Typical torque-speed and torque-current charac- of a shunt motor are shown in Fig. the speed changes only from from 0 pu pu 1. the P = But depends upon the armature current and. 1 in a series motor When the current is large and vice versa. The speed.10a). In big machines. W the field current (Fig. 5. in windage losses. composed of a few turns of wire having a cross section sufficiently large the armature is with the armature and must. Despite these is differences. If The = Figure 5. 5. the drop in part. Furthermore. is II. b.250 W same basic principles and equations apply to both machines. 1 120 is to carry is the current. the flux in the loads because the shunt line. of course. The field con- is This series field is armature current (Fig.9b) is /x A Mechanical power developed by the armature The current in the armature The counter-emf The mechanical power developed by Solution: a. In a shunt motor. the proper- of a series motor are completely different from is those of a shunt motor.9 to 2 pu.

11 than normal. armature and destroy the machine. 1780 r/min dc series motor has full-load rated current of teristics are 54 A. the per pole flux identical same as that of a shunt starts up. motor drops ample. Typical torque-speed and torque-current characteristics are ferent shown in Fig. shunt motor with a weak shunt the load current of a series For ex- field. This can be seen by compar- that the Typical speed-torque Example 5-5 A 15 hp. small. However.8 and the other hand. They correspond to the full-load ratings as follows: . They are quite dif- from the shunt motor characteristics given in Fig. We first establish the base power. motor of power and speed. The field reduces be lowered by con- in series total with the arma- IR drop across the armature the voltage.8b. ft tends to run away. its speed a. Thus. Its a operating charac- given by the per-unit curves of Fig. 5. armature current the / higher is Figure 5. smaller than before. Calculate 5. if the than full-load. the speed can be low resistance increased by placing a with the series field. the flux diminishes by half and its so the speed doubles.10 a.9 When Series motor speed control a series motor carries a load.11. is then in flux Solution a. Series motor connection diagram. b. torque of a series motor ft is is follows that the starting of ing the On T versus / curves of Figs. 5. the armature current 3 p. 1 1 . and an increase in The field in parallel current which produces a drop speed. For reason we never permit a series motor to oper- speed this may 1 armature current and the flux per causes the speed to rise in the for a and current-torque characteristic a series motor. Obviously. when motor series the is speed /. Schematic diagram of a series motor. When a series motor operates at full-load. and base current of the motor. 5.DIRECT-CURRENT MOTORS 105 series field (b) Figure 5. and so the speed must re- supply fall. 240 V. The efficiency under may the load torque is these conditions have to be adjusted slightly. 5. if half normal value. base speed. considerably greater than of a shunt motor. may rise to dangerously high values. The current and speed when 24 N m b. and the resulting could tear the windings out of the centrifugal forces and the sistor and field. 1 Conversely. the pole are 5. if the load is to ate at no-load. the speed motor operates necting an external resistor at less ture The weaker field same way as it would smaller than normal. with the result that the flux per pole also greater than normal.u.

Consequently. a torque of 0.55 = 7776 = 2492 X () W 24/9. 5. The particularly well adapted for traction purposes. N-m torque of 24 corresponds to a per- two runs = T(pu) = 24/60 2 1 at Referring to Fig. a torque of 0.12 Connection diagram of a dc compound motor. the speed nB = 1. the The shunt field is always stronger than the series field. . is. . X /(pu) - /B 0. at mmf of the series field remains flux per falls with increasing load and the to full-load is generally between 10 percent and 30 percent. They which must run series motor is at are also used to drive devices high speed at light loads.4 pu re- is The total current b. is at- by current machine: is As X 1780 /x it curve. pole) When the shunt field does not tend increases but the r/min mmf quires a current of 0. 5. because high torque is accom- panied by low speed and vice versa.55 11 780 190/1 mmf of the Fig. = 6263/7776 = 0. In a cumulative "is A load and heavy loads more slowly.805 or 80.4 1 winding 0. the armature current negligible. the series motor automatically slows down as the train goes up a grade yet turns at top speed on flat ground.6 To calculate the and X 54 = away like a shunt no-load.55 Tv = = X 9.4 1 .2492 fields add. Acceleration rapid because the torque is high at is low speeds. Thus. tained at a speed of From the X /j(pu) T vs / 1 . b. Furthermore. speed drop from no-load = the series of the series field mmf of the shunt field mmf (and the resulting The motor speed is the motor / in and so the motor behaves the load increases.10 Applications of the series motor Series motors are used on equipment requiring a high starting torque. Schematic diagram of the motor.6 pu. = 60 N-m // motor carries both a shunt field.4 x P0 = /2779. diagrams of a compound motor. the load / and the connection and schematic no-load.11 The base torque therefore. Series motors Figure 5. is fully excited Pr P = EI = 240 X T| 32. The power of a series motor tends to be constant.4 pu pu. a.4 is therefore greater under load than at no-load.4 shows low and the is However.55 = 6263 W = PJP. such as in electric trains. A we have efficiency. unit torque of = a series field compound motor.5% 5. to run to know P 32. the constant.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 106 PH = // = hp 15 X 746 = 15 11 190 W are also used in electric cranes and hoists: light loads are lifted quickly = 1780r/min H = 54A /B Compound motor 5. A compound dc P vh 9.

we is connected so increasing load.8 Torque 1.12 Reversing the direction 0. Figure 5. In such a motor.4 0.8 compound compound a> 0) a of shunt.2 of rotation 0 0 0. (Courtesy of General Electric) strip is delivered . shown in Fig.6 motors in a steel mill. each rated 3 kW. each driven by a 2500 kW dc motor.0 1.2 creases. 1 3 shows the typical torque-speed curves compound and basis.14 Hot strip finishing mill to the runout table composed (left of 6 stands.2 1. and this it The speed may opposes compound obtain a differential motor. 5. shows series motors on a per-unit a typical application of dc 0. Fig.4 5. 1.4 that 107 mmf decreases with rises as the lead to instability. terpoles are considered to The change dc motors. the total 1.2 0.DIRECT-CURRENT MOTORS If 1. The wide steel foreground) driven by 161 dc motors. 0. ( connections form is The in- part of the armature. 5.6 (per-unit) the direction of rotation of a dc motor.6 the series field the shunt field. load in- The differ- -r-+ential 1. 15.13 Typical To reverse speed versus torque characteristics of various and l ) in we the armature connections or series field connections. 14 w has very few applications. 5.6 0. a x> compound motor differential 0.4 1. must reverse either (2) both the shunt Figure 5.0 j a Fig.

"1
1

ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS

OS

(-)

(+)

(->

(+)

<+>

(0

(b)

(a)

|

I

Figure 5.15

compound

a.

Original connections of a

b.

Reversing the armature connections to reverse the direction of rotation.

c.

Reversing the

field

motor.

connections to reverse the direction of

5.13 Starting a shunt motor
[f

we apply

full

rotation.

5.14 Face-plate starter

voltage to a stationary shunt motor,

Fig. 5. 16

shows

the schematic diagram of a manual

the starting current in the armature will be very high

face-plate starter for a shunt motor. Bare copper

and we run the

contacts are connected to current-limiting resistors

risk of

/?,,

Burning out the armature;

a.

Damaging

b.

the

commutator and brushes, due

to

*

and

R4 Conducting arm
.

when

it

of insulated handle

is

1

sweeps

across

pulled to the right by means

2. In the position

shown,

the

M

heavy sparking;
c.

R2

the contacts

Overloading the feeder;

d.

Snapping off the shaft due

e.

Damaging

the driven

to

mechanical shock;

equipment because of the

sudden mechanical hammerblow.

arm touches dead copper contact
and the motor
circuit is open. As we draw the handle to the right
the conducting arm first touches fixed contact N.
The sii; y voltage Es immediately causes full
field current / x to flow, but the

armature current

/ is

limited by the four resistors in the starter box. The
All dc motors must, therefore, be provided with

a

means

to limit the starting current to

values, usually between
rent.

One

solution

is

to

1

.5

reasonable

and twice full-load cur-

connect a rheostat

in series

motor begins

to turn and, as the

cemf E0

the armature current gradually falls.

speed ceases

builds up,

When

any more, the arm

the motor

is

pulled to

the

next contact, thereby removing resistor

R from

the

to rise

}

with the armature. The resistance

is

duced as the motor accelerates and
eliminated entirely,
full

when

the

gradually reis

eventually

machine has attained

Today, electronic methods are often used to

control.

and

to

provide speed

circuit.

The

current immediately jumps to

higher value and the motor quickly accelerates to
next higher speed.

we move

speed.

limit the starting current

armature

arm

When

the speed again levels off

to the next contact,

and so

finally touches the last contact.

netically held in this position

net 4,

which

is in

a

the

forth, until the

The arm

is

mag-

by a small electromag-

series with the shunt field.

DIRECT-CURRENT MOTORS

109

Figure 5.16
Manual face-plate starter for a shunt motor.
If the

supply voltage

the field excitation

is

suddenly interrupted, or

electromagnet releases the arm, allowing
to

it

to return

dead position, under the pull of spring

its

3.

This

prevents the motor from restarting un-

safety feature

expectedly

if

should accidentally be cut, the

when

the supply voltage

is

reestablished.

When

the

tion of the

cemf Ea

motor

are as

shown

armature IR drop,
If

is

running normally, the direc-

armature current

£

()

is

we suddenly open

motor continues

I
x

and the polarity of the
Neglecting the

in Fig. 5.17a.

equal to

E

s.

the switch (Fig. 5.17b), the

to turn, but

its

speed will gradually

drop due to friction and windage losses.

5.15

Stopping a motor

One

inclined to believe that stopping a dc

other hand, because the shunt field

induced voltage
is

almost

a simple,

always

trivial,

not

a heavy inertia load,

the

true.

system to

come

is

same

it

a generator
a large dc motor

may

to a halt. For

many

coupled

is

take an hour or

more

Ea

whose armature

is

motor

under these circumstances,

is

motor

is

by simple mechanical

armature

is

suddenly connected to

reasons such
the external resistor (Fig. 5. 7c). Voltage

way we stop a

car.

this current

motor

original current

same

A more elegant method consists of

electrically.

flows

in the

brake the

circulating a reverse current in the armature, so as to

brake the

mediately produce an armature current

a braking

friction, in the

Two methods

are

/,. It

(

nected to a source
nected to the

throw switch.

£

s,

whose

field is directly

and whose armature

is

either the line or to

an external resistor

R (Fig.

very smooth stop.

concon-

5. 17).

im-

However,

/2

.

is

The

reverse torque brings the machine to a rapid, but

l

same source by means of a doubleThe switch connects the armature to

.

developed whose magnitude depends upon

Dynamic braking

Consider a shunt motor

E0 will

opposite direction to the

dynamic braking and (2) plugging.

5.16

/2

follows that a reverse torque

em-

ployed to create such an electromechanical brake:

now

Let us close the switch on the second set of contacts so that the

we must apply
One way to

at the

is

for

often unacceptable and,

torque to ensure a rapid stop.

the

on open-circuit.

1

a lengthy deceleration time

On

excited,

continues to exist, falling

rate as the speed. In essence, the

operation. Unfortunately, this

When

is

to

motor

is still

Figure 5.17a
Armature connected

to a

dc source

Es

.

1

1

ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS

0

Figure 5.17b
Armature on open

circuit

generating a voltage

E0

\x

Time

.

Figure 5.18
Speed versus time curves

for

various braking methods.

reversing the armature current by reversing the

ter-

minals of the source (Fig. 5.19a).

Under normal motor conditions, armature
rent

is

/,

/,

Dynamic braking.

where

In practice, resistor

R

R0

cur-

given by

is

=

(E s

- £0 )//? 0

the armature resistance. If

we

suddenly

reverse the terminals of the source, the net voltage
is

chosen so that the

initial

acting on the armature circuit becomes (E 0 + E s
The so-called counter-emf E0 of the armature is no
).

braking current
rent.

The

initial

is

about twice the rated motor cur-

braking torque

is

then twice the nor-

longer counter to anything but actually adds to the

mal torque of the motor.

As

E0

in

E

supply voltage
the

motor slows down, the gradual decrease

produces a corresponding decrease

in

/2

becoming zero when

finally

the arma-

The speed drops quickly

This net voltage would produce

greater than the full-load armature current. This

current
tor,

ture ceases to turn.

.

.

Consequently, the braking torque becomes smaller

and smaller,

s

an enormous reverse current, perhaps 50 times

would

initiate

an arc around the commuta-

destroying segments, brushes, and supports,

at first

and then more slowly, as the armature comes

even before the

line circuit breakers

to a

halt.

The speed decreases exponentially, somewhat

like

the

voltage across a discharging capacitor.

Consequently, the speed decreases by half
intervals of time

Ta To

dynamic braking,

.

in

equal

illustrate the usefulness

Fig. 5. 18

of

compares the speed-

time curves for a motor equipped with dynamic
braking and one that simply coasts to a stop.

5.17 Plugging

We
a

can stop the motor even more rapidly by using

method called plugging.

It

consists of suddenly

Figure 5.19a
Armature connected

to

dc source

Es

.

could open.

DIRECT-CURRENT MOTORS

value.

However,

much

is

it

draw the

easier to

speed-time curves by defining a new time con-

T0 which

stant

the time for the speed to de-

is

crease to 50 percent of

its

original value. There

is

a direct mathematical relationship between the

conventional time constant

T0

constant

T and

the half-time

given by

It is

.

Ta = 0.6937

We

Figure 5.19b
is

Plugging.

can prove that

this

given by

Jnr

Tn =

(5.9)

°

To prevent such a catastrophe, we must
by introducing a

reverse current

resistor

R

in series

As

in

dynamic

with the reversing circuit (Fig. 5. 9b).
1

braking, the resistor

U

braking current

With

oped even
effect, at

when

Ta =

the armature has

E0 =

= moment

J

devel-

=

is

braking

motor

P =

cuit,

otherwise

interruption

it

the armature cir-

will begin to run in reverse. Circuit

mounted on

the

motor

The curves of Fig. 5.18 enable us

dynamic braking

plugging and

for the

to

completely after an interval
if

dynamic braking

the

its

is

2T0 On
.

it

same

initial

is still

25 per-

original value at this time. Nevertheless,

more popular

in

motor

to the braking resistor

a constant (exact value

=

a constant

This equation

is

braking effect
pated
is

in the

exact value

=

log c 2]

due

that the

energy

dissi-

resistor. In general, the

motor

entirely

braking

to the

subjected to an extra braking torque due to

windage and

friction,

and so the braking time

be less than that given by Eq.

hp),

250

V,

1

280 r/min dc motor

mechanical time constant

drives a large flywheel and the total

We

can therefore speak of a mechanical

much

same way we speak of

time constant

T

the electrical

time constant of a capacitor that dis-

in

the

charges into a resistor.

essence,

motor

T

is

it

is

speed

is

its

initial

connected

to a

210

V

is

kW.

moment
177 kg

of

m2

.

It

in-

The

dc source, and

1280 r/min just before the armature

switched across a braking resistor of 0.2

its
is

il.

Calculate

The mechanical time constant T0 of

the braking

system

takes for the speed

36.8 percent of

of the flywheel and armature

motor

a.

the time

to fall to

will

5.9.

has windage, friction, and iron losses of 8

ertia

of the

|

Dynamic braking and

braking.

[W]

=

most applications.

We mentioned that the speed decreases exponentially
with time when a dc motor is stopped by dynamic

In

the

based upon the assumption

is

Example 5-6
A 225 kW (- 300
5.18

starts [r/min]

power delivered by

2

0.693

comparative simplicity of dynamic braking ren-

ders

shaft

compare

the other hand,

used, the speed

motor

(30/77) /log c 2]

shaft.

braking current. Note that plugging stops the motor

cent of

=

131.5

usually controlled by an automatic

is

null-speed device

of inertia of the rotating

initial

l

we must immediately open

stops,

fall to
|sj

speed of the motor when

initial

i

as the

previous value

lkg-nr]
/?

which

its

parts, referred to the

to a stop. In

= EJR,

As soon

value.

its initial

come

0, but I2

is

time for the motor speed to
one-half

to limit the initial

reverse torque

circuit, a

zero speed,

about one-half

designed

131.5 7,

where

about twice full-load current.

to

plugging

this

is

limit the

(5.8)

mechanical time constant

b.

The time

for the

motor speed

to

drop

to

20 r/min

ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS

c.

The time

for the speed to drop to

only braking force
friction,

due

that

is

20 r/min

to the

if

The stopping time increases

the

windage,

20 r/min

and iron losses

Solution
a.

We

;

note that the armature voltage

the speed

When

the armature

210V. The

the resistor

P,

210

V

is

(276/10)

=

28 min

This braking time

switched to the brak-

initial

dynamic braking

very

is still

power delivered

to

X 60 =

1656

2

/R

2

= 210

/0.2

= 220 500

The time constant Ta

s

Ta =

7//,

177
131.5

-

10

28 times longer than when

used.

to a

is

dynamically

complete stop.

In practice,

however, we can assume that the machine stops

W

is
2

is
is

a motor which

Theoretically,

braked never comes

ter

an interval equal to 5
If the

/(131.5 Py)

(5.9)

motor

af-

seconds.

plugged, the stopping time has a

is

2

X 1280
X 220 500

Tn

definite value given by
ts

= 2T0

(5.10)

where

s

ts

b.

=

and

is

= E

approximately

is

1280 r/min.

is

ing resistor, the induced voltage

close to

is

proportion to the

in

time constant. Consequently, the time to reach

The motor speed drops by 50 percent every
The speed versus time curve follows the se-

10

s.

stopping time using plugging

Tn — time

constant as given

in

[

sj

Eq. 5.9

[sj

quence given below:

speed (r/min)

time

Example 5-7
The motor in Example 5-6

(s)

1280

0

640
320

10

ing resistor

30

Calculate

80

40

a.

40
20

50

b.

an interval of 60

60
to

20 r/min

The initial braking
The stopping time

after

The

We

ro -

=

.///,

/>,

/(131.5 P,

X
= 276 s =
(177

The

initial

/,

The

,

initial

power

is

s

braking current

- EiR =

initial

is

420/0.4

braking power

=

1050

= 8000

According

to Eq. 5.9,

Tn

A

is

X

{

220.5

kW

has the same value as

before:
is

T0 =

10

s

)

2

1280 )/(131.5
4.6

current and braking

P = EJ = 210 X 1050 =

have

1280

The new time constant
2

so that the

fl,

as before.

E = E + E = 210+ 210 - 420 V

s.

of the braking time.

=

same

net voltage acting across the resistor

(

x

the

Solution

The initial windage, friction, and iron losses are
8 kW. These losses do not vary with speed in
exactly the same way as do the losses in a braking resistor. However, the behavior is comparable, which enables us to make a rough estimate

n

is

20

160

The speed of the motor drops
c.

plugged, and the brak-

increased to 0.4

is

braking current

.

.

is

min

X

8000)

The time

to

come
ts

to a

complete stop

= 2T0 = 20

s

is

DIRECT-CURRENT MOTORS

Armature reaction

5.19

now we have assumed

Until

ing in a dc

motor

current flowing

is

that

due

the flux

that the only

However,

to the field.

N

mmf actthe

armature conductors also cre-

in the

magnetomotive force

ates a

113

that distorts

and weakens

coining from the poles. This distortion and
zone

field

weakening takes place

in

motors as well as

We recall that the magnetic action
mmf is called armature reaction.

generators.

armature

in

of the

Figure 5.20
Flux distribution

a motor running

in

at no-load.

due

5.20 Flux distortion

to armature reaction
When

motor runs

a

at no-load, the

small current

flowing in the armature does not appreciably affect
the flux

when

coming from

<2>,

the

the poles (Fig. 5.20). But

armature carries

its

normal current,

it

duces a strong magnetomotive force which,

would create a

acted alone,

superimposing

and

<1>|

increases

under the

we

2,

(Fig. 5.2

if

it

By

1).

obtain the resulting

Figure 5.21
Flux created by the full-load armature current.

our example the flux density

(Fig. 5.22). In

flux

<J>

02

flux

pro-

half of the pole and

left

de-

it

ceases under the right half. This unequal distribution

produces two important effects. First the neutral
zone shifts toward the
rotation).

The

left

result

is

(against the direction of

poor commutation with

sparking at the brushes. Second,
flux

density

in

pole

tip

A,

due

to the

saturation

higher

sets

Consequently, the increase of flux under the
hand side of the pole
the right-hand side.

is

Flux 4> 3

than flux

slightly less

less than the

<F, at

chines the decrease in flux
percent and

therefore

no-load. For large

may

left-

decrease under

at full- load is

be as

much

zone

in.

Figure 5.22
Resulting flux distribution

a motor running at

full-

main the

as 10

case of a dc generator, these narrow poles de-

velop a magnetomotive force equal and opposite

causes the speed to increase with load.

it

in

load.

the

mmf of the armature

to

so that the respective mag-

Such a condition tends to be unstable; to eliminate
the

problem,

we sometimes add

netomotive forces
a series field of

rise

and

fall

one
current varies. In practice, the

or

two turns to increase the flux under load. Such
tating poles

motors are said to have a stabilized-shunt winding.

Commutating poles

5.21

set

of

improve commutation, we always place a

commutating poles between the main poles of

medium- and large-power dc motors

made

(Fig. 5.23).

As

slightly greater than that of the

armature. Consequently, a small flux subsists

in the

region of the commutating poles. The flux

is

signed to induce

To counter the effect of armature reaction and
thereby

is

together as the load

mmf of the commu-

in the coil

tion a voltage that

is

equal and opposite to the self-

induction voltage mentioned in Section 4.28.
result,

commutation

de-

undergoing commuta-

is

As

a

greatly improved and takes

place roughly as described in Section 4.27.

DIRECT-CURRENT MOTORS

Figure 5.24
Six-pole

dc motor having a compensating winding distributed

in

slots in the

main poles. The machine also has 6

commutating poles.
(Courtesy of General Electric

Company)

base speed. In so doing, the rated values of armature
current,

armature voltage, and field flux must not be

may be
we assume an

exceeded, although lesser values
In
rately

making our

E. v

is

negligible (Fig. 5.25).

the

armature current

exciting current /f
in

per-unit values.

£a happens
/a is

that

it

1

.

The advantage of the

Thus, the per-unit torque

used.
ideal sepa-

unit flux

<I>
f

to

,

The armature

/a ,

the flux

and the speed n are

Thus,

be 240

if

all

<t>

is

T

is

given by the per-

times the per-unit armature current

T=$> r I

ll

/.,

(5.11)

voltf,

the

expressed

the rated armature voltage

By

the

voltage

Ea

same reasoning,
is

1

shunt field flux O, has a per-unit

the per-unit armature

equal to the per-unit speed n times the

per-unit flux O,

=

V and the rated armature current

600 A, they are both given a per-unit value of

Similarly, the rated

per-unit approach

renders the torque-speed curve universal.

excited shunt motor in which the armature re-

sistance

age

analysis,

value of

The

(5.12)

logical starting point of the torque-speed

curve (Fig. 5.26),

is

the condition

where the motor

1

1

6

ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS

(T=

develops rated torque

'a

The

rated speed

)

speed (n

at rated

I

).

order to reduce the speed below base speed,

In

we

l

often called base speed.

is

gradually reduce the armature voltage to zero,

and

while keeping the rated values of
at their per-unit

value of

l

.

3> r constant

Applying Eq.

(5.

7=1

corresponding per-unit torque

X

1

1

the

),

=

1

1.

Furthermore, according to Eq. (5.12), the per-unit

Figure 5.25

£a = n X
£a /a

voltage

Per-unit circuit diagram

the state of

operation,

,

= n. Figures 5.27 and 5.28 show

]

and

known

<£>,

during this phase of motor

mode.

as the constant torque

Next, to raise the speed above base speed,
alize that the armature voltage

anymore because
The only solution

T

already at

it is

is

to

keep

means

=

base speed, the per-unit flux

OH

1

0

'

2.0

1.0

^

speed

n

is

Eq. (5.12),

1.

1

this

Thus, above

\/n.

equal to the recipro-

of the per-unit speed. During this operating

cal

mode, the armature current can be kept
of

level

T=
Figure 5.26

=

and so

1,

rated level of

its

flux. Referring to

{

re-

E,d at its rated level of

and reduce the
that n<$

we

cannot be increased

ct»

1.

=

/

r a

Recalling Eq. (5.11),

(\/n)

X

it

at its rated

follows that

-\ln. Consequently, above base

1

speed, the per-unit torque decreases as the reciprocal of the per-unit speed.

motor

1

is

clear that since the per-

and armature voltage are both

unit armature current

equal to

It is

during this phase, the power input to the

equal to

1

.

Having assumed an

chine, the per-unit mechanical

equal to
is

why

1,

which corresponds

the region

ideal

power output

is

maalso

to rated power. That

above base speed

is

named

the

constant horsepower mode.

We

conclude that the ideal dc shunt motor can

operate anywhere within the limits of the torque-

speed curve depicted

in Fig. 5.26.

In practice, the actual torque-speed

fer considerably

from

that

shown

curve

may

in Fig. 5.26.

dif-

The

curve indicates an upper speed limit of 2 but some

machines can be pushed

to limits

of 3 and even 4, by

reducing the flux accordingly. However,

speed

is

raised

lems develop and centrifugal forces

<H

'

0

1.0 1.25
>-

speed

n

L2.0

dangerous.

When

the ventilation

when

the

above base speed, commutation probthe motor runs

becomes poorer and

tends to rise above

its

may become

below base speed,
the temperature

rated value. Consequently, the

armature current must be reduced, which reduces the

Figure 5.28

torque. Eventually,

when

the speed

is

zero,

all

forced

DIRECT-CURRENT MOTORS

ventilation ceases

and even the

field current

must be

117

magnet motors

5-24 Permanent

reduced to prevent overheating of the shunt field
coils.

As a

result, the

permissible stalled torque

only have a per-unit value of 0.25.
tical

torque-speed curve

The
ishes

The resulting pracspeed dimin-

can be largely overcome by using an external

of air, no matter

what

It

delivers a constant stream

the speed of the

Under these conditions,

approaches that

shown

We

have seen

and a

that shunt-field

field current to

motors require coils

produce the

flux.

consumed, the heat produced, and

in Fig. 5.29.

drastic fall-off in torque as the

blower to cool the motor.

to be.

shown

is

may

motor happens

the torque-speed curve

large space taken

up by the

vantages of a dc motor.

By

The energy

the relatively

field poles are disad-

using permanent mag-

nets instead of field coils, these disadvantages are

overcome. The

result

is

a smaller

motor having a

higher efficiency with the added benefit of never
risking run-away due to field failure.

in Fig. 5.26.

A further advantage
is

that the effective air

The reason
that

that the

is

many

increased

times.

magnets have a permeability

nearly equal to that of

is

mature
sible

is

of using permanent magnets

gap

air.

As

a result, the ar-

mmf cannot create the intense field that is pos-

when

soft-iron

pole

pieces

are

employed.

Consequently, the field created by the magnets does
not

become distorted,

armature reaction

is

as

shown

in Fig. 5.22.

Thus, the

reduced and commutation

is

im-

proved, as well as the overload capacity of the motor.
0

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

A further advantage is that the long air gap reduces the

2.0

speed

inductance of the armature and hence

n

much more

quickly to changes

in

it

responds

armature current.

Permanent magnet motors are particularly advan-

Figure 5.29

Torque-speed curve of a typical dc motor.

tageous

in capacities

below about

5 hp.

The magnets

Figure 5.30

Permanent magnet motor rated
slots 20;

1

.5 hp,

commutator bars: 40; turns per

0.34 a.

(Courtesy of Baldor Electric

Company)

90

V,

2900

coil: 5;

r/min, 14.5 A.

conductor

Armature diameter: 73 mm; armature length: 115 mm;
17 AWG, lap winding. Armature resistance at 20°C:

size: No.

ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS

are ceramic or rare-earth/cobalt alloys.

shows

PM

motor.

and

tia

fast

Its

the series winding, per pole.

5.30

Fig.

2900 r/min
elongated armature ensures low iner-

the construction of a

response

hp,

.5

when used

The only drawback of
tively high cost

1

has a

V,

motors

motor

of the magnets and the inability to

a.

b.

obtain higher speeds by field weakening.

5-12

Questions and Problems
Name

1

make

Explain what

is

a
5- 3
1

meant by the generator

What determines

ef-

ity

in

If the

line, calcu-

following:
full-load

when

V

the armature

is

connected

200

1

to a

source. Calculate the armature voltat

1500

The following details are known about a
250 hp, 230 V, 435 r/min dc shunt motor:

A

nominal full-load current: 862

the magnitude and polar-

of the counter-emf

V

r/min. At 100 r/min.

fect in a motor.

5-3

23 A.

separately excited dc motor turns at

115

three types of dc motors and

is

field

and the

age required so that the motor runs

sketch of the connections.
5-2

A

The shunt

15 (1,

1

connected to a 230

mmf per pole at
mmf at no-load

The
The

r/min

Practical Level
5-

is

late the

the rela-

is

of

total resistance

nominal armature current

servo applications.

in

PM

90

H

insulation class:

a dc motor?

weight: 3400 kg

The counter-emf of a motor

5-4

is

always

mm

external diameter of the frame: 915

slightly less than the applied armature volt-

length of frame: 1260

mm

age. Explain.

and efficiency

a. Calculate the total losses

Name two methods

5-5

that are

used to vary

the speed of a dc motor.

5-6

why

Explain

ing current

a starting resistor

motor up

needed

to bring a

percent of the total losses

Show one way to reverse the direction
rotation of a compound motor.

5-8

A 230 V

5-9

20 per-

Calculate the value of the armature resistance

knowing

as well as the counter-emf.

speed?

to

field excit-

the shunt field causes

if

cent of the total losses.
c.

is

approximate shunt

b. Calculate the

the armature current of a shunt

motor decreases as the motor accelerates.

Why

5-7

at

full-load.

of

that

at full-load are

50
due

to armature resistance.
d.

If

we wish

to attain a

what should be

shunt motor has a nominal arma-

the

speed of

1

100 r/min,

approximate exciting

current?
ture current of

tance

0.15

11,

If the

armature

c.

The mechanical power developed by
[kW] and

the armature

if

the

motor

across the 230
b.

V

the

mo-

inal

is

initial starting

shown

The value of

20 hp, 240

V,

400

nom400 A, calculate

in Fig. 5. 17. If the
is

the braking resistor

to limit the

125 percent of

maximum

its

R

if

we

braking current

to

nominal value

line,

to limit the initial current to

1

b.

The braking power [kW] when the motor has
decelerated to 200 r/min, 50 r/min, 0 r/min.

a.

The motor

15 A.

5-15

in

Problem

5-

1

4

is

now

stopped

by using the plugging circuit of Fig. 5.19.

The compound motor of Fig. 5.12 has 1200
turns on the shunt

1

armature current

want

directly connected

Intermediate level
1

wish to stop a

the following:
a.

Calculate the value of the starting resistor

needed

5-1

We

ing circuit

[WJ

[hp]

a. In Problem 5-9 calculate the

current

5-14

r/min motor by using the dynamic brak-

The counter-emf [V|
The power supplied to
tor,

resis-

calculate the following:

b.

a.

5-10

is

60 A.

winding and 25 turns on

Calculate the
the

maximum

new braking

resistor

braking current

is

R

so that

500 A.

DIRECT-CURRENT MOTORS

Calculate the braking power [kW]

b.

motor has decelerated

to

when

the

5-20

200 r/min, 50 r/min,

ing:

0 r/min.

Compare

c.

the braking

power developed

at

200

r/min to the instantaneous power dissipated
in resistor R.

Advanced
5-16

5-2

1

tor has a

225 kW,

a

diameter of 559

length of 235

mm.

1

The
The

c.

at a

The value of

c.

The

the armature

the counter-cmf at

full

flux per pole, in milliwebers

A standard

20 hp, 240

V.

1

load

[mWb]

500 r/min

self-

it

200 r/min

Calculate the following:

ing.

total kinetic

ings and

commutator

is

the

decided to cool the machine by

the air by

tor

equal to the J calcu-

in-

blower and channeling

means of an

The highest
30°C and
exits the mo-

air duct.

the temperature of the air that

J of the wind-

from

1500 r/min without overheat-

expected ambient temperature

energy of the revolving parts
if

Ft is

to

stalling an external

turns at 1200 r/min

speed of 600 r/min,

requirement has arisen whereby the mo-

tor should run at speeds ranging

kinetic energy of the armature alone

when

The number of conductors on

b.

A

200 r/min mo-

mm and an axial

The approximate moment of inertia, knowing
3
that iron has a density of 7900 kg/m

b.

a.

cooled dc motor has an efficiency of 88%.

level

The armature of

a.

Referring to Fig. 5.30, calculate the follow-

is

should not exceed 35°C. Calculate the

capacity of the blower required,

in

cubic

lated in (a)

feet per minute. (Hint: see Section 3.21.)

5-17

If

we reduce

the normal exciting current of

a practical shunt

motor by 50 percent,

speed increases, but

it

5-22

the

A

250

hp,

nominal

never doubles.

500 V dc shunt motor draws

field current of 5

A

a

under rated

The field resistance is 90 12. Calculate
ohmic value and power of the series re-

load.

Explain why, bearing

in

mind

the saturation

the

of the iron under normal excitation.
5- 8
1

The speed of

a series

motor drops with

ing temperature, while that of a shunt

ris-

mo-

tor increases. Explain.

Industrial

5-19

5-23

magnetism per 100°C increase

The motor runs

at

3%
in

of

its

tempera-

a no-load speed of

2500 r/min when connected

to a 150

A5

500

hp dc motor draws a

In each case, calculate the

V

field as a

What

source in an ambient temperature of 22°C.

room where

that the field current drops

the shunt field and resistor

V

source.

field current

of

A when the field is connected to a
150 V source. On the other hand, a 500 hp
motor draws a field current of 4.3 A when
the field is connected to a 300 V dc source.

magnet motor equipped with

Estimate the speed

A when

0.68

cobalt-samarium magnets loses

ture.

needed so

are connected to the

A pplication

A permanent

sistor

to 4.5

if

the

motor

is

placed

the ambient temperature

is

in

a

40°C.

power required

for the

percentage of the rated power of the motor.

conclusions can you draw from these results?

Chapter 6
Efficiency and Heating
of Electrical Machines

6.0 Introduction

Whenever

a

one form
loss.

The

6.1

machine transforms energy from

to another, there

is

loss takes place in the

causing

(

duction

in efficiency.

1

)

an increase

in

Mechanical losses are due

machine

bearing friction,

to

brush friction, and windage. The friction losses

always a certain

depend upon

itself,

temperature and (2) a

Mechanical losses

the speed of the

machine and upon

the design of the bearings, brushes, commutator,

re-

and

Windage

depend on

the

speed and design of the cooling fan and on the

tur-

slip

rings.

losses

From the standpoint of losses, electrical machines may be divided into two groups: those that

bulence produced by the revolving

have revolving parts (motors, generators,

sence of prior information,

those that do
Electrical

(transformers,

not

etc.)

reactors,

and mechanical losses are produced

and

tests

of these mechanical losses.

In this

chapter

chines, but the

we analyze

same

internal fan

the losses in dc

losses are also found in

mamost

in

us a clue as to

We

how

is

they

important because

may be

it

determine the value

mounted on

the

motor

shaft.

It

cool air from the surroundings, blows

the windings, and expels

machines operating on alternating current. The
study of power losses

parts. In the ab-

usually conduct

Rotating machines are usually cooled by an

machines.

in stationary

itself to

etc.).

in ro-

tating machines, while only electrical losses are

produced

on the machine

we

it

draws
it

over

again through suitable

vents. In hostile environments, special cooling

methods are sometimes used,

gives

reduced.

as

illustrated in

Fig. 6.1.

also cover the important topics of tempera-

ture rise

and the service

life

of electrical equipment.

We show

that both are related to the class

of insula-

tion used

and

have been

that these insulation classes

6.2 Electrical losses

standardized.

Electrical losses are

120

composed of the following:

EFFICIENCY AND HEATING OF ELECTRICAL MACHINES

1.

Conductor

/

R

losses (sometimes called

copper

R =

losses)
2.

Brush losses

3.

Iron losses

1.

Conductor Losses The

in

resistance, in turn,

depends upon

the length, cross section, resistivity,

and tempera-

A =

rent

ture

it

carries.

of the conductor.

The following equations

determine the resistance

able us to
ture

resistance and the square of the cur-

The

at

at)

(6.2)

which

losses in a conductor de-

R =
L =

its

(6.1)

P A

= pod +

p

pend upon

121

en-

p

resistance of conductor [il]

cross section of conductor

length of conductor [m]

=

resistivity

[

m2

]

of conductor

at

temperature

conductor

at

0°C

/

any tempera-

and for any material:

=
a =

resistivity of

Po

m]

temperature coefficient of resistance

0°C
t

[il

=

at

l/°C]

[

temperature of conductor [°C]

The values of p and a for different materials are
listed in Appendix AX2. In dc motors and generacopper losses occur

tors,

shunt

field, the

armature, the series

in the

field, the

commutating

poles,

and

compensating winding. These I~R losses show

the

up as
rise

conductor temperatures

heat, causing the

to

above ambient temperature.

Instead of using the

2

I

R

we sometimes

equation,

number

prefer to express the losses in terms of the

of watts per kilogram of conductor material. The
losses are then given by the equation

P c = l00Oy 2 p/£

(6.3)

where

Pc —
J =

Figure 6.1
Totally
tor for

enclosed, water-cooled, 450 kW, 3600 r/min mo-

use

machine

is

in

Warm

a hostile environment.

air inside

Westinghouse nameplate. After releasing

its

water-cooled pipes, the cool

air

reenters the

chine by

pipes located diagonally

as cooling-water inlet

on the heat exchanger serve

and

outlet respectively.

(Courtesy of Westinghouse)

(W/kg|

]

p
£

=

density of the conductor [kg/m

1000

=

constant, to take care of units

conductor [nll-m)
1
]

heat to a

maway of two rectangular pipes leading into the
end bells. The cooling air therefore moves in a closed
circuit, and the surrounding contaminated atmosphere
never reaches the motor windings. The circular capped
set of

[A/mm

loss

2

resistivity of the

the

above the

current density

power

=

blown upward and through a water-cooled

heat exchanger, situated immediately

specific conductor

According

mass

is

density. For

tween

1

to this equation, the

loss per unit

proportional to the square of the current

.5

copper conductors, we use densities be-

A/mm 2

losses vary

and 6

A/mm 2

from 5 W/kg

to

.

The corresponding

90 W/kg

(Fig. 6.2).

The

higher densities require an efficient cooling system
to prevent

an excessive temperature

rise.

ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS

122

9.6

W/kg

cm

1

carbon
brush

2

200
80° C
copper conductor

commutator

Figure 6.2
Copper losses may be expressed

in

watts per

Figure 6.3
Brush contact voltage drop occurs between the brush
face and commutator.

kilo-

gram.

2.

Brush Losses The

2

I

R

losses in the brushes are

negligible because the current density

A/mm", which

0.1
per.

is

only about

used

and eddy currents, as previously explained

in

Sections 2.27 and 2.30. Iron losses depend upon the

cop-

magnetic flux density, the speed of rotation, the

However, the contact voltage drop between the

quality of the steel, and the size of the armature.

is

far less than that

brushes and commutator

may produce

in

significant

pending on the type of brush, the applied pressure,

They typically range from 0.5 W/kg to 20 W/kg.
The higher values occur in the armature teeth,
where the flux density may be as high as .7 T. The

and the brush current (Fig.

losses in the armature core are usually

losses.

3.

The drop

varies from 0.8

V

to

1.3 V,

de-

6.3).

Iron Losses Iron losses are produced

in the ar-

mature of a dc machine. They are due to hysteresis

1

The

losses can be

much

lower.

minimized by annealing the

steel

(Fig. 6.4).

Figure 6.4

kW electric oven is used to anneal punched steel laminations. This industrial process, carried out in a conatmosphere of 800°C, significantly reduces the iron losses. The laminations are seen as they leave the oven.
(Courtesy of General Electric)

This 150
trolled

EFFICIENCY AND HEATING OF ELECTRICAL MACHINES

Some

iron losses are also

They

faces.

are

due

produced

in

the pole

to flux pulsations created as suc-

and

cessive armature teeth

sweep across

slots

the

Strange as
chanical drag

it

may seem,

on the armature, producing the same

mechanical

effect as

impose a me-

iron losses

power

the line to continue to rotate. This no-load

overcomes

the friction, windage, and iron losses,

and provides for the copper losses
2

pole face.

123

The I R losses in
commutating field
load current

in the

shunt

field.

the armature, series field,

seldom more than 5 percent of

is

and

are negligible because the nothe

nominal full-load current.

friction.

As we load

machine the current increases

the

PR

in

Example 6-1

the armature circuit. Consequently, the

Adc machine turning at 875 r/min carries an armawinding whose total weight is 40 kg. The cur-

the armature circuit (consisting of the armature and

ture

A/mm 2

rent density is 5
ture

is

80°C. The

amount

to

1

1

and the operating tempera-

total iron losses in the

armature

00 W.

all

the other windings in series with

the other hand, the no-load losses

losses in

will rise.

it)

On

mentioned above

remain essentially constant as the load increases,
unless the speed of the machine changes appreciably.

It

follows that the total losses increase with

Calculate
load.
a.

b.

The copper losses

Because they are converted

into heat, the tem-

perature of the machine rises progressively as the

The mechanical drag [N

inJ

due

to the iron losses

load increases.

However, the temperature must not exceed

Solution
a.

Referring to Table
sistivity

p

of copper

=

p0

=

15.88

=

21.3

(

at

in the

80°C

Appendix, the

re-

maximum
used

is

the

+

1

AX2
at)

machine. Consequently, there

in the

power

that the

+ 0.00427 X

80)

The specific power

loaded beyond
is

loss

8890 kg/m

deliver.

is

a limit to

This temper-

inal or rated

nllm

The density of copper

machine can

power enables us to establish the nompower of the machine. A machine

ature-limited
(1

the

allowable temperature of the insulation

heat.

3

The

its

nominal rating

inevitably shortens the service

will usually over-

more

insulation deteriorates

life

rapidly,

which

of the machine.

is

If

a

machine runs

intermittently,

it

can carry heavy

2

P L = 100O/ p/£
= 1000 X 5 2 X

(6.1)

21.3/8890

overloads without overheating, provided that the operating time
rating of

= 60 W/kg

1

is

copper loss

is
is

P = 60x 40 = 2400

W

The braking torque due

to iron losses

is

it

can be
for

P = «779.55

= 875

T=

12

A

(

3.5)

779.55

N-m

or approximately 8.85 ft-lbf

Losses as a function of load

physically impossible for a generator

kW to deliver an output of

100 kW, even

6.4 Efficiency curve
The efficiency of
ful

output

power

it

must absorb some power from

machine

is

the ratio of the use-

to the input

=

P
-

-

X

power

P- (Section
x

plus the losses p.

ti

However,

a

power PG

Furthermore, input power

dc motor running at no-load develops no useful

power.

kW for

one millisecond.

3.7).

6.3

2

from

calculated

1100

1

for higher loads the capacity

limited by other factors, usually electrical. For in-

stance,

rated at 10
b.

Thus, a motor having a nominal

However,

short periods.
Total

short.

kW can readily carry a load of

0

100

We
=

is

equal to useful

can therefore write

P
°

X

100

(6.4)

ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS

124

The

where

=

T|

ful

output power [W]

P =

input

power [W]

zero

is

losses

the

25 percent of

rating, the

nominal

its

copper losses

we have

V,

in the
2

=

50 r/min, 230

loaded

is

to

armature curof

1/4)

its full-

the following:

to calculate the

efficiency of a dc machine.

Example 6-2
A dc compound motor having

motor

approximately 25 percent (or

is

square of the current,

1

no-load because no use-

load value. Because the copper losses vary as the

|W1

The following example shows how

1

at

developed by the motor.

25 percent load When
rent

x

=

is

efficiency [%]

P0 —

p

efficiency

power

armature circuit

W

X 595 = 37

(1/4)

no-load losses
a rating of 10

kW,

50 A, has the following losses

W

= 830

at

total losses
full

load:

=

bearing friction loss

brush friction loss

windage

loss

mechanical losses

(1)

total

(2)

iron losses

(3)

copper

loss in the shunt field

copper losses at
in the

b.

in the series field

c.

in

the

total

(4)

commutating winding

copper

W
50 W
200 W
290 W
420 W
120 W

=
=
=

500

load

at full

load

at 25, 50, 75, 100,

595

Pa =

at

no-load

of the machine.

Draw

a graph

showing

10

kW X

power supplied
P,

830

In the

(1/4)

to the

=

867

W

= 2500

at

motor

W

25 percent

same way, we

At 50 percent load
2

(6.2)

100

= 74%

find the losses at 50, 75,

100, and 150 percent of the

(1/2)

W

is

= (PJPJ X 100
= (2500/3367) X

efficiency as a function of mechanical load (neglect

3.35 hp)

is

= 2500 + 867 - 3367

and the efficiency

W

and 150 percent of the nom-

+

is

T!

Calculate the losses and efficiency

inal rating

W
25 W
70 W

37

Useful power developed by the motor

loss in the

armature circuit

and

40

full load:

armature

a.

=
=
=
=
=
=

nominal load:

the losses are

X 595 + 830 = 979

W

the losses due to brush contact drop).

At 75 percent load
Solution

2

No-load The copper losses

(3/4)
in the

At 100 percent load

sum of the mechanical

losses (1), the iron losses (2),

595

W

the losses are

+ 830 =

1425

W

and the shunt-field

At 150 percent load

losses (3):

2

(1.5)

no-load losses

1165

armature circuit

are negligible at no-load. Consequently, the no-

load losses are equal to the

the losses are

X 595 + 830 =

= 290 + 420 +

120

- 830

the losses are

X 595 + 830 = 2169

W

W
The

efficiency calculations for the various loads

6A and

These losses remain essentially constant as the load

are listed in Table

varies.

graphically in Fig. 6.5.

the results are

shown

EFFICIENCY AND HEATING OF ELECTRICAL MACHINES

125

Figure 6.5
Losses and efficiency as a function of mechanical power.

See Example
It is

LOSSES AND EFFICIENCY OF A DC

TABLE 6A

when
Total

Output

Load

losses

power P

m

[Wl

[W]

75

1

100

1

l

r
/r]

830

0

74

979

5

000

5

980

83.6

165

7

500

8 665

86.5

10
15

000

1

000

1

selecting a motor to

425

87.5

17 170

roughly equal to the load

We

3 367

425

The efficiency curve

mature

rises sharply as the load in-

fall.

This

is

typical of the

efficiency curves of all electric motors, both ac
dc. Electric

motor designers usually

and

try to attain the

above calculation of efficiency we could

have included the losses due to brush voltage drop.

Assuming a constant drop,
brush loss at full-load

brushes

=

say,

amounts

losses,

V per brush, the
to 0.8 V X 50 A X 2

of 0.8

80 W. At 50 percent load, the brush loss

would be 40 W. These losses,

do

loads the

Consequently,

a particular job,

we

W

(

1

6.5

it

has to drive.

maximum

our example

(830

+

at that

load where the ar-

copper losses are equal to the no-load
this

corresponds to a

= 660 W,

830)

1

an output of

1

total

8

1

may wish

to

check these

Temperature

The temperature

rise

1

The

5.8 hp) and an efficiency of 87.68 percent.
results.

rise

of a machine or device

difference between the temperature of

its

is

the

warmest

accessible part and the ambient temperature.

It

may

be measured by simply using two thermometers.

peak efficiency at full-load.
In the

circuit

losses. In

loss of

87.4

over a broad range of power,

and then slowly begins to

at light

poor.

can prove that the efficiency of any dc ma-

chine reaches a

reader

creases, flattens off

is

Efficiency

P-

[Wj

0

2 169

150

power

t)

motor

should always choose one having a power rating

500

830
867

50

Input

2

0

important to remember that

efficiency of any

MOTOR

25

6.2.

when added

modify the efficiency curve only

to the other

slightly.

However, due

to the practical difficulty of placing a

to the really warmest spot inside
method is seldom used. We usuupon more sophisticated methods, de-

thermometer close
the machine, this
ally

rely

scribed in the following sections.

Temperature

rise

has a direct bearing on the

power rating of a machine or device.

It

also has a di-

The Low 1 200°C for the same length of time. Consequently. life. the shorter made on many its insulating materials have cause them to break. and 220°C (formerly and the transformation takes place more time that set standards* have grouped insulators into five classes.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 126 rect bearing on its temperature rise useful service is life. In crystallizing.7 of only four two years 6. (2) humidity. 155°C.6 Factors that may These classes temperature levels shorten the service life of an of: 105°C. the state of the insu- changes gradually.6). (3) vi- bration. the service life of electrical apparatus diminishes normal Under normal expectancy of eight to ten years provided life hand. however. most organic insulators have their temperature failures. 130°C. ical vibration will expectancy of equipment 6. humidity high temperature chemicals fungus (UU so dust noxious gases rodents Figure 6. (5) oxidation. Underwriters Laboratories. (4) acidity. maximum slowly begins to crys* rapidly as the temperature rises. correspond to the (6) time (Fig. the life become Eventually. temperatures are just as harmful as high temperatures are. This that On the other synthetic polymers can withstand temper- atures as high as Tests shown some does not exceed 00 °C. and of only one year The at factors that contribute at life a tempera- 6. Canadian Standards Association. Thermal classification Committees and organizations to the deteriora- and retain — 60°C. vibration .6 Life electric a Apart from accidental electrical and mechanical is its insulation: higher the temperature. which motor has a that if a expectancy of eight years to freeze and crack. of insulators tion of insulators are (1) heat. because the insulation tends that tors their flexibility at temperatures as life means ture of 105°C. organic insulators and a very important quantity. Such as IEEE. Special synthetic organic insula- approximately by half every time the temperature increases by 10°C. 180°C. expectancy of electrical apparatus limited by the temperature of hard conditions of operation. will it have a service years at a temperature of 115°C. brittle. of 125°C. Because of these lation tallize it upon their ability to withstand heat. depending factors. low as at 135°C! most have been developed. the slightest shock or mechan- insulator.

Other materials or combinations of may they can be shown to have Materials or combinations of materials which by experience or accepted tests can be shown to have shown to have shown to have be included life at in this class if by experience or accepted tests 180°C. Other materials or combinations of materials they can be implies that electrical sive. This would probably that the insulation system last for is 2 to 5 years if oper- not in contact with corro- humid. Other materials or combinations of materials comparable 200°C It machines and in a dielectric liquid or accepted tests they can be 80°C machines are examples and definitions or accepted tests they can be I55°C 2. This standardized temperature was estab- a cornerstone in lished for the following reasons: design and manufacture of electrical apparatus. Note that life life at in this class if expectancy of 20 000 h a class A this classification insulation system assumes by experience or accepted tests temperatures above 240°C. coated or may 130°C enables electrical manufacturers to foresee their usually is It CLASSES OF INSULATION SYSTEMS thermal 1 . Other materials or combinations of materials shown to have comparable may life at with suitable bonding etc. 97. quartz. thermal classification (Table 6B) F.. 1978. in this class if by experience 130°C. to 40 000 h at the stated temperature. asbestos. materials N likely to encounter. mica. asbestos. glass fiber. with suitable bonding etc. performance guarantees. with suitable bonding substances such as appropriate silicone resins. oil.. and R). the worst ambient temperature conditions that Standards organizations have also established a equipment insulated with 105°C. For a complete explanation of insulation classes.EFFICIENCY AND HEATING OF ELECTRICAL MACHINES represented by the letters A. and similar inorganic materials. porcelain. be included in this class if by experience 155°C. enables them to standardize the size of their substances. or dusty atmospheres. and 101. is H. insulation systems. the required thermal life at 200°C. etc. glass fiber. Materials or combinations of materials such as mica. and temperature indices. by experience or accepted Other materials or combinations of materials tests shown they can be shown to may be included have comparable thermal life at to have comparable substances. This 40°C. see the 127 companion IEEE Standards Publications Nos. B. which Illustrative B F when immersed H be included life at 220°C R 240°C S above 240°C C in this class if such as and paper when suitably impregnated or silk. glass. the 1 6. 99. glass fiber. Materials or combinations of materials which by experience or accepted tests can be the required thermal life at 22()°C. 1 IEEE Std 1-1969 and 17-1974 and . See also IEEE Std Underwriters Laboratories publication on insulation systems UL 1446. shown to continuously at may be included have the required thermal The above insulation classes indicate a normal ated to give Materials or combinations of materials such as mica. Materials or combinations of materials which by experience or accepted tests can be the required thermal life at 240°C. asbestos. Materials or combinations of materials such as cotton. I05°C.. Materials consisting entirely of mica.8 Maximum ambient temperature and hot-spot temperature rise maximum ambient TABLE 6B Class l()5°C A temperature. 96. Materials or combinations of materials such as silicone elastomer. 98.

but there are places warmer motor. relay. and of the spot temperature so recorded Class is enables the this manufacturer (3) it permissible temperature rise for each insula- tion class. located at strategic points inside the ma- chine. he intends to put on the varies from point to where the temperature market.7 shows the hot-spot temperature limits F. suppose a manufacturer has designed temperature of the particular class of insulation used. If the hot- Class say is.7 Typical limits of Shows Shows Shows the the noted.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 128 The temperature of a machine point. according to the insulation class: maximum permissible temperature of the insulation to obtain a reasonable maximum permissible temperature using the resistance method the limiting ambient temperature service life 147°C. Special temperature several hours). kW insulation. B. built a 10 test the They are the temperature limits previously mentioned maximum insulation. the hottest temperature (1) 90°C. for class A. Thus. B allowable temperature rise some dc and ac industrial machines.7. The temperature difference between curve and curve 3 gives the maxSection 6. This hottest-spot tem- perature must not exceed the maximum To show how allowable and Figure 6. it up until This limiting temperature delivers detectors. and H insulation (curve 1). After the temperatures have stabilized (which rise to establish the physical size may take is called the hot-spot temperature. and so forth. a constant ambient 1 imum = the temperature rise affects the size of a machine. the is (130 - 40) kW motor using class B motor he places it in temperature of 40°C and loads in 10 The maximum ambient temperature of 40°C is also shown (curve 3). the . H 180°C Class F 155°C 165°C r / Class / © © 105°C // // B 130°C A / J / / j 145°C / hot-spot 120°C temperature rise by // J/ J 100°C embedded average temperature by the thermocouple rise resistance method © 40°C 40°C limiting ambient temperature Figure 6. for class is than anywhere else. (2) To of mechanical power. record the temperature of the windings.

does the motor meet the The hot-spot temperature = U = ^(234 + the hot- mpe rat Lire stand ard s ? According av- at full- R. However. - (147° = 40°) On B the hottest-spot tempera- if is ( 100° The manufacturer immediately 6()°C. — more economical design a The manufacturer could reduce standards.EFFICIENCY AND HEATING OF ELECTRICAL MACHINES manufacturer would not be permitted to The reason product. ing the with a now reduced conductor size reduce the size of the to By en- thus redesign- motor. To simplify This.80°C 40°) = is rise assumed of ( 30° 1 90°C. temperature rise limits and has the smallest possible temperatures for the various insulation classes are physical size. in slots. under these conditions 90°C than is B (for class allowed to sell his temperature to standards-setting may is If the tempera- insulation). close to this very is reduces the weight and cost of the windings. purposes.7. operates If U = (125° (6. But the manufacturer also realizes that the him ables turn. . 2. ceives that he can still per- make rise limits. Obviously. of the motor and thereby market a more competitive insulation. the perature rise for class 15°C. accepted standards permit a second method of determining temperature rise. tests in a is usually loaded to rated ca- its much lower (and more comfortable) am- pacity in bient temperatures. 6.004 27 hot resistance of the winding cold resistance of the winding temperature of the winding [°ci when cold . we can use the following equation (dethe winding resistance at a perature. an average has been es- anywhere between 10°C and 40°C.1 and 6. by tablished testing controlled ambient temperature The motor Toward this end. The average temperature of by the resistance method. and only is justified for larger machines.2) to determine Example 6-3 case average winding tempera- correspond to a hot-spot temperature lie equal to or less 120°C For example. In practice.) 125°C. Temperature rise by the resistance method 6. rather than the hot-spot temper- The maximum allowable average winding ature. insulated class load in an found consists of measuring rived from Eqs.234 where Solution 1 /. reduces the amount of iron. It is based upon the average winding temperature. Fig. as well as lowest cost.5) The motor F 234 = = 93°C permissible hot-spot tem- insulation average temperature of the winding when rise is 32°) to Fig. This can be done by embedding a small temperature detector. the ambient temperature ture rise is recorded as before. he can reduce the conducthe hot-spot temperature rise 90°C. It a winding is A 75 kW known winding temagain when the machine is hot. an temperature of 130°C. Consequently. such as a thermocouple or thermistor. ambient temperature of 32°C. only 100°C. spot temperature is te its erage temperature: motor. insulation. this direct method of measuring hot-spot temperature is costly. and measuring it F. it bodies for that. is assumed in the to correspond to a hot-spot - rise of ( 120° - 40°) . if the winding is made of copper. measured by resistance. ture is 40°) maximum 1()7°C exceeds the 90°C missible rise of his sell that the temperature rise is 129 matters. it is shown in not convenient to carry out per- formance of 4()°C. the temperature rise = and for class the other hand. For example. For instance. 6. the manufacturer ultimately ends up machine The hot-spot temperature measure because that operates within the permissible it rise is rather difficult to has to be taken at the very inside of a winding. 6. The hottest-spot temperature ture of curve B of class is (155° - 40°) easily meets the temperature R2 = R = ] t\ — hot f°C] a constant equal to 1/a = 1/0.7.9 per- remain within the permissible temperature tor size until the size product. the manufacturer product.

motor its dards depend not only on the class of insulation. naval. be consulted before conducting a heat-run machine or device test been idle for several is days found to in an il. If the allowable temperature rise power shown in Fig. is machine depends uniquely torque.). we must practice. on (Fig. As it to Figure 6. can be put on the market. Eq. 6. the pertinent standards must always erates at full-load and.) The average temperature its rise at full-load is c. re- insulation. This is = = we given power output. still made of aluminum but the number 234 to 228. 2000 r/min motor. double the number of conductors on the armature or double the flux from the Consequently. Note that tests are carried out using the resistance method. mass: 300 kg.10). either increase the size of the armature.1 ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 30 Knowing winding temperature by the the hot we can immediately sistance method. Consequently. speed of rotation. etc. 6. A word of final may caution: temperature rise stan- also on the type of apparatus (motor.234 + 19) . relay. Thus.10 Relationship between the speed that has ambient temperature of 19°C. Basically. etc. transformer. a low-speed machine field at = 111°C = poles. but running at half the speed. Either its rating will have be reduced. the ambient temperature must again If the lie winding happens wire.234 + (234 (30/22) (234 /. . or the cooling system improved. 6. In Solution a. a 100 111° it always and dc machines. calculate the following: c.8. Consequently. The motor then opwhen temperatures have staresistance is found to be 30 il. 250 V. totally enclosed. but specific Example 6-4 may have to be increased. 6. calculate the temperature rise If this within the permissible limit (80°C for class lation). corresponding temperature rise by subtracting the ambient temperature. before is bigger than a high-speed machine (Fig. insulation. at full- To generate dards we either have the to same voltage at half the speed. load The full-load temperature rise by the resistance method Whether the motor meets the temperature stan- its upon the power and Consider the 100 kW. A dc motor be rewound using class F a very last resort. to be be used. the product is B falls insu- acceptable from a standards when performance point of view.). We conclude that for a (R 2 /R i ) true for both ac . The maximum allowable temperature resistance for class B insulation is rise (120° - kW. The maximum Although bilized.9). the field basic physical size depends corresponding ambient temperature built with class B is 24°C. etc. 2000 r/min generator The average temperature of es- rating of a machine. is size 6. the size of a upon b. Suppose we have to build another generator having the same power and the winding. or increase the size of the poles. The average temperature of the shunt full-load t2 increase both.8 100 kW. a and size of a machine have a tablishes the nominal b. volt- age. .24° = 87°C. and the of application of field the apparatus (commercial. the type of construction (drip-proof.). industrial. shunt-field resistance of 22 a. the motor does not meet the standards. Alternatively.3 can must be changed between 10°C and 40°C. 2000 r/min motor by 40°) 80°C.

per- the mo- in kilowatts.9 1 1 it [hp]. Explain. 6-4 machine running too hot and. 208°C (by ambient temperature of is the F. out- nomi- its hp. b. draws be reduced? 6-3 Is the The 1 6-2 8()°C. Consequently. Thermocouples power must be reduced. a. that the losses are 12 late the input power and calcu- the line current. 230 100 kW. Calculate the temperature rise of the motor. If the generator has an efficiency of power 81 percent. 1 . mass: 500 kg. Knowing 6-10 A 1 V 5 1 kW. calculate the mechanical needed 6- Figure 6. Low-speed motors are therefore much more costly than high-speed for b. 6-14 6-1 resistance) in a how much? motors of equal power. the deterioration of organic insulators. a.4 il. calculate the machine rating of a so. Explain. if Calculate the efficiency of the motor in nal hot-spot we cover up put is hoist has an overall efficiency of chine? 6-5 the temperature rise? efficiency of a motor trench 20 increases as the load increases. its by always low of 6-16 it delivers an output of motor driving m a skip hoist with- of minerals from a 1. When it runs at rated load in 11 at an am- bient temperature of 3 °C. 6-12 same physical size as a 10 kW motor 200 r/min because they develop the same A machine having class B insulation attains has about the a temperature of running at torrid torque. dc generator delivers 20 1 A to a load. Calculate the hot winding temperature. to drive V dc motor having an efficiency of 92 percent. Practical level 6-15 What causes the losses in a dc motor. What maximum hot-spot temperature can withstand? resistance it is found to be 17. If a inter- 1200 the motor maximum tem- perature these detectors should indicate in an 6-6 If a motor operates may we load it in above a cold environment. Calculate the full-load current of a 250 hp. the hot winding 1 6-8 A motor is built with class H insulation. its rated ambient temperature of 40°C? 3()°C? 14°C? power? 6-17 Why? 6-7 Name some A 60 hp ac motor with class F insulation has a cold winding resistance of 12 of the factors that contribute to 23°C. low-speed drives. it is often cheaper to use a small 6- 1 3 high-speed motor with a gear box than to use a large low-speed motor directly coupled to its load.5 metric tons deep every 30 seconds. is Example 6-2 when Questions and Problems Name 1 What when it operates at 10 percent nal power rating.EFFICIENCY AND HEATING OF ELECTRICAL MACHINES // 1 te nn eel la te A 6-9 1 3 level V dc motor connected to a 240 line pro- duces a mechanical output of 160 hp. An cent. 1000 r/min motor. iron losses Explain and how can they why the temperature of a What determines If the power electric tor in ma- the vents in a motor. are used to measure the winding temperature of insulated class runs at full-load. what If the 94 power output of horsepower and kW ac motor.

The specific copper losses is the conductor No. AWG conductor in scraping off the insulation. cal- conductor operates If the life pounds. 6-27 On the reasonably is is tion 1 is What is its rewound using F ft cable dc circuit to carry 48 A. calculate the resistance un- the bare copper wire has a diameter of 0. A 420 V a max- No. what life field calculate the weight of the wire per pole. 2/0 single copper conductor reel ature of 25°C. range between 50 percent example. vice a temper- at that the 6-26 An aluminum An ohms 35 long level late the specific losses 6-22 in Using Eq.5). ated in a particularly hot location has a ser- if ohms of 56 per conductor. A being used on a 240 b. if 2-conductor at the 243 V when rying a current of 60 A. plate rating of the 6-18 An motor has a normal electric when eight years is 30°C. Calculate the approximate motor? 6-19 A has a resistance of installed in a location new probable the is Industrial application the ambient temperature where the ambient temperature what name- the motor? Explain. lation? An found operating temperature of 70°C. a. Fig. for be as high as 70°C. it AWG that The shunt inches. if the is motor runs ature (by resistance) of the service life re- 6-29 A dc a maximum operating temperature busbar 4 inches wide. calcu- fW/kg]. Advanced of No. and 30 feet long carries a current of 2500 A. rent density of 2 1 1 conductors. 6 gauge cop- the voltage at the service panel expected class Code allows in a cable situ- 20 000 ture in it is car- minimum conductor size would you recommend? kW ac 1 that the following: a.04 120°C. 4 [W/kgl a. 1 6-25 of the life Knowing The current density [A/mm b. by resistance does not exceed 120°C.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 132 Could the manufacturer increase c.2. in the The approximate voltage 6-28 In Problem 6-27. 210m 0 round copper wire carries a current of 12 A. in watts. temperature of the conductor 6-2 The Table erties culate the following: 6-20 0. b. The temperature other hand. what insu- load end is if V. in circular mils of a motor efficiency and 150 percent of power can of 105°C? 6. If it is 6-24 life of is service A No. roughly proportional to (see. 4 A/mm at Express the current density is its in the rise its is losses. 1/4 inch thick. 6-23 the prop- lists of commercially available copper an area where the operating temperature of 105°C. kilograms. and Electrical current of 65 a current of 6. is of a 4-pole dc motor has a Determine the The National imum Based on these facts. if a 20 kW motor has a fullload temperature rise of 80°C. at it is AWG wire size. it By 25°C. if the What is . In an electrical installation. Calculate the voltage drop for 3 h at a temper- temperature of the busbar 200°C? the power loss per meter? is 1()5°C. provided the winding tempera- of 70°C. the voltage drop in the cable must not exceed 10 motor having class B insula- Assume would normally have a service life of h. type nominal rating its electromagnet (insulated class A) span 27 meters long. By how many hours duced RW 75. in AX3 Appendix proposed to use a No. calculate deliver at a temperature rise of two years. Assuming a The power maximum loss. weight of the conductor 60°C. constant may total resistance a cur- 2 conductor temperature it is der these conditions of a 2-conductor cable ] per ampere.

EFFICIENCY AND HEATING OF ELECTRICAL MACHINES 6-30 Equation 6. 1 33 1.2 V namely. Calculate the peripheral speed in feet per minute and 6-32 in miles per hour. deduce minum 6-3 1 in Appendix a. c.5 hp . coefficient of friction: 0. The power loss due of 3000 r/min The total brush loss motor rating to friction.in g. including X 5/8 in area commutator) of brush: 0. The following information is given on the brushes used in the motor of Problem 6-3 newtons) number of brushes: 2 1 5 3/4 in long.5 hp.2 t2 = R 2 IR (234 X + t x ) . the contact voltage drop 1 d. given the speed as a percent of the 1 . 2-pole. e. 5/16 in thick. current per brush: The resistance of the brush body in ohms The voltage drop in the brush body The total voltage drop in one brush. The commutator of a .3 gives the resistance/temperature relationship of brush pressure: copper conductors.0016 Il.234 Calculate the following: Using the information given AX2. resistivity The frictional brushes A (The 5/16 in when energy expended by the two the commutator makes one revo- lution (in joules) brush dimensions: 5/8 in wide. a similar equation for alu- b. 3000 r/min dc motor has a diameter of 63 mm. contact with the The total electrical power loss (in watts) due to the two brushes The frictional force of one brush rubbing against the commutator surface (in lbf and in 1 f.5 lbf brush contact drop: 1 . is in h. conductors.

and apparent power plays a major role in electric power Instantaneous power nology.5 a. a negative value indicates that in power is flowing out of the device. reactive. reactive. power factor. therefore apply to steady-state alternating current circuits its flows through Instantaneous power understand by working with power. to a device simply the product of the instantaneous voltage tech- power is in Example A sinusoidal voltage having a peak value of 162 and a frequency of 60 Hz is V applied to the terminals of an ac motor. and the power triangle. Conversely. the transmission of electrical energy across and the behavior of ac machines are often easier that to encouraged to The terms The reader pay particular attention active. instantaneous power to this chapter. Calculate the value of the instantaneous voltage and current circuit. We then go on to define the meaning of active and reactive power and how to identify sources and loads.1 The instantaneous power supplied concept of active. . vector notation active and reactive it. We then show how ac circuits can be solved using these power concepts. power flows into the de- vice. is which the positive value always expressed is means may be that in The A positive or negative. Reactive. irrespective of the type of circuit used. Express the voltage and current electrical angle used to determine the an ac 7-1 at an angle of 120°. nor can clusion. to describe transient-state be- we apply them to dc circuits. Our study begins with an analysis of the instantaneous power in an ac circuit. 134 in terms of the <J>. They cannot be used is terminals times the instantaneous current watts. This is followed by a definition of apparent power. rather than dealing with voltages and currents. In effect. A and b.0 Introduction The 7. In conhavior.Chapter 7 Active. and apparent power voltages and currents are sinusoidal. and Apparent Power 7. lags 50° behind the voltage. The resulting current has a peak value of 7.

Plot the Because the power curve of the instantaneous power deliv- positive.ACTIVE.5 = 7.75 0 3.1 Instantaneous voltage. In order to plot the power.3 = + 989 7.5 230 -124. = /m (J) e / c. a. ered to the motor. d.5 3.05 Voltage 7.05 1 35 W at 120°.17 -218 50 124. d. Calculate the value of the instantaneous p = power ei = AND APPARENT POWER X 140. REACTIVE.) 0 0 .75 0 -3.866 7. Solution Let us assume that the voltage starts at zero We increases positively with time. write e = Em sin § = 1 62 sin TABLE 7A (f> = / b. At 50°.1 is power AND 68. = sin (<(> - G) = 162 sin 120° = 140.5 Figure 7. is flows it at this instant into the motor. consequently.94 A The instantaneous power at 120° p USED TO PLOT in an ac circuit.1 The current lags behind the voltage by an angle 0 VALUES OF (See Example 7-1 . FIG.5 sin 70° 0.8 6. current and i.1 0 75 156.5 sin <t|j - volts amperes 50°) P watts 0 -5.5 sin (c|> 162 sin - degrees 50°) = X 162 - 50°) = 0.5 sin (120° 7. c.5 7.17 497 0 115 146.3 = 7.17 -218 205 -68. 7.25 497 180 0 5. part of the data used.8 1000 155 68. and can therefore we for angles ranging Table 7A curve of instantaneous repeat procedures (b) and (c) above lists from (J) = 0 to <J) = 360°. (]j Power Current 7. 25 0 V X Angle can write we have 120° = = we e.

120 Hz. is composed V. 100 W to of a series of posi- 1000W. This occurs during the intervals power. E and we we will give watts (Fig. 200 V.3) into the line. 7.2d).3 Example of a high-precision wattmeter rated 50 V. d. twice the fre- that quite normal: the voltage and current are designated phasors This means that the frequency of is is always twice the ac circuit of Fig. also note that the positive peaks occur at in- tervals of 1/1 the in is power* 7. Again. the instantaneous values of voltage did power * con- the sinusoidal curves of The peak values are and V2/ amperes because.2c). 180° -230°. 360° -410°. frequency of ac power flow in Section 7. 7. attains a positive + 000 W and a negative peak of . The b. and Although a power flow from a device considered to be impossible.1. it Figure 7.2 1 ative power means that power is 1 are peak W. sistor a load to a device considered to be a source this from the load (motor) to the source.2b). quency of s. tive active power power pulses. current. 5 A. it happens often in We is given The simple to be 20 power cycle may seem The the sections that follow. 1 A.2a consists of a connected ac circuits. because conforms to the IEEE designation. 7. The neg- 8 actually flowing 0-50°. In this book we use the term active power. which the voltage and current is to an ac generator. we E respectively stated previ- By multiplying and current as obtain the instantaneous in watts. 7. as (Fig.1. (Courtesy of Weston Instruments) 0- . and instantaneous The power plotted in Fig. c. Phasors E and / are in phase. we have drawn circuit. reason phenomenon frequency. and as we would expect E and / The line E and a reading To / are effective values. 7. nect a wattmeter (Fig. Many persons refer to active power as real power or true power considering it to be more descriptive.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 136 The of power voltage. A wattmeter indicates El watts.2 a. 7. are in phase (Fig. If P = El re- effective in a resistive circuit. The scale ranges from 0-50 sistive circuit. An ac voltage E produces an ac current / in this re- Figure 7. ^2E volts ously.2 Active tively. / it get a better picture of what goes on in such a produce the and respec- /.

and so That watts. power does not flow down one conductor Power flows over both conconsequently. Reactive power placed current circuit. general. The reactive power in Fig. c. Clearly. A are out of phase.5). 7. to distinguish it from the unidirectional active power mentioned before. Power that surges drawn the waveforms for in such a E and / power circuit. This power p consists of a series of identical positive and negative pulses. are available to measure the reactive multiplying their instantaneous values.4b). to distinguish this power from active power. it 137 series of positive maximum (i2E) of the basic AND APPARENT POWER is is one called active pulsates between zero and max- never changes direction. The two conductors leading to the resistor in Fig. are frequently used multiples of back and forth in this manner is power (symbol Q). However. ductors and. and the unit megawatt is is it may / Reactive power consists of a series of positive and lags 90° behind E. have. the varmeter reads zero. 2EJ power. curve of instantaneous — multiples are the kilovar (kvar) and lags 90° (Fig. the this in- The symbol for active power is P The kilowatt (kW) and The circuit of Fig. the dotted area under each the energy. is = EI power indicated by the value its precisely the P = is 2E//2 wattmeter. (MW) Figure 7. unlike cur- 7. 7. 7. the energy is one deliv- ered in a continuous series of pulses of very short duration. to the reactor to the The duration of each wave corresponds The one quarter of a cycle of the line frequency. cerned. x As is a result. the watt.4 a.2c. connecting two devices.ACTIVE. we and.2a carry the active rent flow. In as we can replace the conductors by shown in Fig. 7.2a) except that the resistor by a reactor X E . This pow properties of what although er: imum. varmeter registers the product of the effective is times the effective line current is the phase angle only obtained between when E and / / times E and /).2c). in joules. called vanneters. 7.4c). every positive pulse being followed by a . A line voltage sin 8 if E (where B reading power in a circuit (Fig. line. Returning pulse is to Fig. Special instruments. is clearly midway between The average power IP and zero.4. 7. REACTIVE. instantaneous the reactor The positive waves correspond power delivered by the generator to and the negative waves represent instan- power delivered from generator. transported in direction or the other. by again we obtain (Fig. as far as power is con- and return by the other. To see what really goes on to Phasor frequency of the power wave behind the voltage taneous b.3 An ac voltage E produces an ac ductive an active source and the resistor the watt (W). they are exactly in phase (or exactly 180° out of phase). the line represents any transmission number of conductors The generator an active load. The direction of it power flow is shown by an arrow P (Fig. called reactive circuit (Fig. that always it flows from the generator to the resistor. megavar (Mvar).4 is also given by the product EL However. current / now re- therefore again is twice the line frequency.4a have / in negative power pulses. The power wave consists of a from zero pulses that vary to a = 2EI = 2P value of The fact that X (V2/) power is always positive reveals watts. 7. another unit is used the van Its identical to the resistive is 7. irrespective of the line is a single (C) 7. 7.

the energy in the magnetic field is is E de- 120 V creasing and flowing back to the source.5 Varmeter with a zero-center scale. Current in the circuit: Reactive power involves real power that oscillates back and forth between two devices over a transmission line. Nevertheless. a. is it whether the power originates at /. In effect. 4 Q 30 A| negative pulse. Figure 7.6 kvar positive. or negative reactive power flow up It to Draw the phasor diagram for the circuit indicates positive 100 Mvars. Calculate the value of the current in the reactor b. that is being returned to the source. Example A 7-2 reactor having an inductive reactance of 4 connected of a 120 to the terminals V 0 is ac generator (Fig. a reactor is considered to be a re- active load that absorbs reactive power. We now tive have an explanation for the brief nega- power pulses in Fig. Thus.= impossible to say one end of the line assume that b. when the power / building up the power negative.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 138 By definition*.1. Calculate the power associated with the reactor c. some devices behave like reactive sources and others like reactive loads. . . Calculate the power associated with the ac generator d. This definition is in agreement with IEEE and 1EC conventions. some devices generate absorb it. the magnetic field is inside the coil. they repre- 30 A (c) sent magnetic energy. or the other. A moment is when later L l 4J 30 A up and released by the reactor.6 kvar words.4 Definition of a reactive load 7.2. 7. and reactive source Solution a. 7. previously stored up in the motor windings. The energy flows back and forth between the generator and the inductor without ever being used up. What tive is A the reason for these positive and nega- . Consequently. Figure 7.6 See Example 7.3600 var = 3.6a). energy surges? The energy flows back and forth because magnetic energy + rr^> 120V alternately being stored is 3. In other it is useful to reactive power while others E = XL 120 4 Power associated with Q= EI = 120 V = 30 A f1 the reactor: X 30 .

now Suppose that we add a capacitor having a reac- tance of 4 11 to the circuit of Fig. 1 to the reactive load have arrived very important conclusion: at a a source of reactive power. Let us take another step and remove the reactor 7. This yields the circuit of Fig. The phasor diagram is shown in Fig. Current // lags 90° behind voltage E. We This phasor diagram applies (the reactor) and the reactive source (the ac genera- tor) as Q = (Fig.6 kvar a -4/ 30 A (a) 'c 30 A (b) 120 V varmeter 30 A (c) LTi capacitor 120 V (b) Q = FJ C Figure 7.6c. as the ca- we would leads the voltage by 90° (Fig. 7. the capacitor E carries a cur- by 90° still this power go? The answer power delivers reactive is to the (Fig.6. a.6 kvar the capacitor power or kilovars.ACTIVE.6 kvar of reactance times the voltage across ries power. the current changed. its it. power coming from? capacitor.6 kvar. leading the voltage 7. Where that the capacitor very generator to generator the circuit. AX 1 Where can only V = 20 is it in the reactor has continues to absorb 3. rent of capacitor is now alone. The reactive power deliv- absorbed by the reactor. a reactive power source whenever it is a capacitor is It acts as part of a sine-wave-based. connected to It still 30 A. well as the line connecting them. consequently.7 See Example 7. Reactive is ex- Q now flows from the capacitor to the reactor. drawn by A and. steady-state circuit. Capacitor connected to an ac source.8b). does The vector sum of I L and / c is zero and so the ac is no longer supplying any power at all to The the terminals of the ac generator. terminals.8a. which acts as this reactive come from the c It 3. 7. 7.6b). the generator power: delivers 3. d. yielding the circuit of Fig. power This reactive is AND APPARENT POWER equal to the current is Because the reactor absorbs 3. b. pacitor is /c expect. delivering 3. it = The current 120 V/4 il = 30 /L .5 The capacitor and reactive power from the circuit in Fig. 7.7a. 7. it The flows therefore in the direction reactive shown power Q The = EIC 120 reactive pressed car- it namely V X A= 30 power delivered by in vars = 3600 var 3. acts as a source of reactive power.7b).6 kvar. Consequently. Reactive power flows from the capacitor to the l c generator. Phasor c.6 kvar of reactive power.7a. leads Eby 90°. . not 30 However. REACTIVE. ered by the capacitor c. the ac generator must be supplying Consequently. a source of reactive is 39 source of reactive power.3. 7. 7.8 30 A Figure 7.

The power associated with L. elements (Fig. mechanical power. This leads us to the study of loads that absorb both active and reactive power. like without ever doing any useful work. C circuit generates a net reactive power of 400 . in electric a burden on the transmission line that whereas active power eventually 3. hence. will give a negative reading of showing XC = 1 ergy (see Section 2. Active Both place - is and a receiver of reactive circuits. -+* 16.3. L.12 2 X 784 + 520 = 304 W R = (14 X 4) 1 The 3 II reactor absorbs reactive Q L = 1% = l4 2 X 3 = 588 var power: 2) = utility system. . instead of storing magnetic energy again. it 304 W. light.5. this takes a time to accept. shopping center. C respective elements is a basic difference remember is between active and most important re- thing one cannot be converted and reactive powers function independently of each other and. hence summary. trans- Q formers. absorb 20 A re- power because one component of the current they draw lags 90° behind the voltage.). can a passive device like a capacitor possibly produce any power? The answer energy is that reactive power really represents a pendulum.9). The active power absorbed by active power = 1 circuit W) power (1304 power (812 var).588 = 8 12" var This reactive power must be absorbed by the generator. active power. reactive 14 A }= A that oscillates 4 -3. the ac generator a varmeter into the circuit (Fig. which. In cerned the generator acts as a load./ power only represents power back and forth. little How. ballasts./ produces a tangible result (heat.12 that the into the other. and induction motors. the generator. or city may be con- sidered to be a huge active/reactive load connected an electric Solution to The two tain resistors absorb active P = 2 1 2 power given by + (16.14). as far as reactive power is con- it However. it that reactive from the capacitor power is to the generator. tive 7.6 Distinction to connected to a group of R.5 il capacitor generates reactive power: 2 1 The R.1 ELECTRICA L MA CHINES A ND TRA NS FORMERS 40 which it is connected! For most people. a capacitor stores electrostatic en- we connect 7. but. in these devices. consequently. All ac inductive devices such as magnets. etc.9 duces the ac magnetic field See Example a source of ac- they can be treated as separate quantities carries them. The reactive power plays a very important role because it proactive Figure 7. Calculate the active and reactive is 7. The capacitor acts as a temporary energy-storing device repeatedly accepting energy for brief periods and releasing as a reactor does. El = -3600 The generator X = 400 3. Such load centers con- thousands of induction motors and other elec- tromagnetic devices that draw both reactive power (to sustain their (to magnetic fields) and active power do the useful work). but course. swings back and forth that. A building. amounts to the 2 indeed flowing now behaving it 20 In conclusion. and perhaps the is the resistors must be supplied by the generator. 2Q 1=3 a source of between active and reactive power There carry the currents shown. of same thing. var. If 3. we may ask.5 1 prefer to call a receiver of reactive power. a ca- pacitive reactance always generates reactive power.8c). The Qc = 7. Example 7-3 An ac generator G var is we sometimes like reactive load.

lb by 8.2) Furthermore. and phasor and / L| E (Fig. Consider. Active and reactive power flow from source to load. Q may be considered to be and reactive made up of a the circuit actor are of Fig. in quad- The numerical can be found directly from the in- strument readings / l Figure 7. I = from which S/E (7. with values of / can be decomposed into two compo/C] . 7. the resultant line current / lags . if we connect an ammeter into the will indicate a current of / line. we amperes. respectively. Furthermore. it sult. But viously incorrect because the an active component (watts) is nent (vars). 7. The symbol for apparent power given by re- power sup- are inclined to believe that the expressed neither in is 5*. The resistor draws a current / gle 6. 7. 7. resis- and an inductive reactance. 1 Oa in which a resistor and p . the apparent power 5 transmitted over the line b. / and rature. Consequently. Let us assume that (b) E • the voltmeter indicates • the • the wattmeter indicates • the varmeter indicates ammeter Knowing indicates / that volts amperes +P watts +Q vars P and Q are positive. If we connect a wattmeter active and reactive Q both and 141 P = £V p Q= watts and vans. a load.1 lb). the readings will both be positive. Multiples are the kilo- in vars. we know that the load absorbs both active and reactive power. Circuit consisting of a source feeding an active and reactive load. the line current an angle Current nents I p / lags behind E.1) (7. 7. 1 1 a com- source] posed of a source. as shown by 10c. for exam- power components P same direction.7 Combined and reactive loads: apparent power The active flow in the the arrows in Fig.AND APPARENT POWER ACTIVE.8 Relationship between P Q. behind. E while (Fig. voltampere (kVA) and megavoltampere (MVA).3) . is 1 /t] lags 90° Ob) shows that behind Furthermore. and appropriate meters. As a plied to the load is equal to EI watts. indicating £/q re- connected to a source G. c. the resistor active load while the reactor Consequently. REACTIVE. Phasor diagram of the voltage and currents. P is given by S El. watts nor but in voltamperes. respectively in phase. 3 and S Consider the single-phase circuit of Fig. into the circuit. the magnitude of E / is and a varmeter by an an- 7. I p is in is phase with The phasor diagram an a reactive load.10 a. while the reactor draws a current / q According to our definitions. P Loads that absorb both active power power tance ple. For this reason the product EI Apparent power is ob- this is composed of and a reactive compopower called is apparent power. 7. q = PIE = QIE (7.

Consequently. line current which = P = Q= S We Solution apparent power [VA] Referring to Fig. a.4) 6 = arctan = 28. a mo- we have we have 0 An / q The line current / The apparent power supplied by the source The phase angle between the line voltage and b. c.2) . it is Example 7-5 A wattmeter and varmeter are connected into a obvious that r- 2 = / p single-phase line that feeds an ac motor.11 Instruments used to measure £.1 ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANS EORMERS 42 Figure 7. 2 + / q spectively indicate 1 W and 960 800 20 V 1 They re- var. Referring to the phasor diagram (Fig. p q = arctan / // q p = arctan QiP 1 1 . / 2 = Vl5 2 + 8 2 = 17A kW of ac- power and 30 kvar of reactive power. b.1 lb).5) / tive 7. 7. Calculate -> P E s E That 2 Q + The in-phase and quadrature components a. P. and Q in a circuit. power [Wl reactive power [var] active tor. can also calculate the value of the angle 0 be- cause the tangent of 6 Thus. The phasor diagram can be deduced from the instrument readings.1° QIP = arctan 960/1800 (7. is obviously equal to / // p / a. / . E and c. in 0 2 (7. Calculate power supplied to the motor.1) (7. /. is.4) d. The apparent power is the apparent S = EI= 120 X 17 = 2040 VA Solution S = VP^Vq 2 ~ V40 r + 30 2 = 50 kVA d. 2 2 S = P + / The phase angle 6 between E and / is (7. b. where the load is now = PIE = 1 = QIE = 960/120 800/120 = - 15 8 A A From the phasor = V7 2 + Example 7-4 alternating-current motor absorbs 40 diagram we have (7.

2% percentage. is parent The active power of the load c.8 kvar Consequently. we can calculate the angle. or as = PIS = 1800/2040 - 0. Thus.882 therefore. To recapitulate. cos 0 = 0. we automatically know the cosine of the angle between E and / and. power it factor = cos 6 = P/S (7.8 kVA The reactive power b.1° . because is it does not consume any active power. the Solution [VA] power factor expressed as a simple number. On it equal to the ac- is the other hand. in Example 7-5 and the phase angle between the line voltage power delivered or absorbed by circuit or device [W] active apparent Power factor a if Calculate the power factor of the motor and = the current lags behind the Example 7-7 PIS where S if voltage. respectively. power. If a power = = EI= 140 X 20 = 2800 VA = 2. hence.882 or 88. The power factor var. its or active. the given by the equation power P = phase angle between the If we know the power factor. 0 = 28.ACTIVE. up.4a give readings of 140 V and AND APPARENT POWER factor of a resistor cause the apparent power tive power. the power factor of a circuit or device simply a way of stating what fraction of power is real. The power Example 7-6 A voltmeter and ammeter connected tive circuit into the induc- of Fig. is zero. the an ideal coil having no resistance 20 A. Calculate To sum The apparent power of the load The reactive power of the load a.6) power factor is said to be the current leads the voltage.9 it is is also equal to is 2800 VA. Conversely. power If a wattmeter were connected into the circuit. b. ap- a measure of the phase angle 6 between the voltage Solution a. 100 percent be- is draws 143 power factor of zero. In a single-phase circuit the The apparent power S and current. It is power P to the ap- said to be lagging factor = leading (7. the apparent power = power it is power of the circuit or device line current. 2800 voltage and current is the ratio of the active power S.7) var. The power factor of an alternating-current device or parent = 90° out of phase with the Power factor circuit is factor of a single-phase circuit or device would read zero. REACTIVE. factor 0 but because the current voltage. referring is Q = factor also is to Fig. PIS = El p IEI is = v = = cos B El = 2800 would give a reading of 2800 factor X 20 140 var power = 2. 7. 7. Because the active power apparent power S. where The active power c. vanneter were connected into the circuit.11. it P can (lagging) never exceed the follows that the power factor can never be greater than unity (or 100 percent). 7.

390 power absorbed by reactive (7. the following rules apply: . and Q graphically by means of a power triangle. 7. we can show the relationship between S. the motor VSI^ the that power from amount of nonpro- Power Active power is considered P absorbed by to Active power device is P a circuit or device be positive and that is drawn hori- Reactive power vice is delivered by a circuit or considered to be negative and drawn horizontally 3. The apparent power drawn by = 5m EI = 120 X 5 the motor is . 10 except that the capacitor As power flows from is a is re- a result. brings to mind a right-angle triangle. 65 percent. is Q upwards is to the left when is drawn circuit is Example 7-8 and Q shown in The power is rules. are not. we can think of them nient vectors.65 . from the capacitor zontally to the right 2.600 VA ^(390 W) The power absorbed by active the motor is P m = S m cosQ = 600 X b.7) Figure 7. motor draws even more reactive Q Reactive power drawn (7. Further aspects of sources and loads 1 Let us consider Fig.12 Power triangle is 4. P. reactive power flows G while active to the source the source active and reactive G to the resistor. useful by a downwards accordance with these active source. 7.1 triangle 2 2 2 The S = P + Q relationship expressed by Eq.13a in which a resistor and capacitor are connected to a source. 7. Q— ElLy The source power P but receives reactive give a negative reading delivers active will watts. but a varme- G is simultaneously an active source and a reactive load. The circuit similar to Fig. 7. The 0.390 2 = 456 var Note a motor. but they The concept of the power as convetriangle is solving ac circuits that comprise sev- and reactive power components. P. Thus. convention. Thus. See Example 7-8.10 2 1 that is delivered considered to be negative and vertically components the line than active power. This burdens the line with a relatively large is The power Fig. 7. look like phasors.4) = V600 2 .ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 144 Example 7-8 A single-phase 20 V. The The power absorbed by the motor power supplied by the line active reactive Solution a. 60 Hz 1 motor draws a current of 5 A from a The power factor of the motor is line. . A wattmeter connected into the circuit give a positive reading ter will absorbed by a circuit or de- considered to be positive and vertically S. b. 7. triangle for However. Calculate a. power components The therefore flow in opposite directions over the transmission line.4. According to 1 in eral active ductive power. W or device Qm = of G P = EI p power Q.

REACTIVE. (c) b. such as the capacitor = EIXC = = same transmission in the it may What in one depends upon the type of b. because nothing has taken place to change its magnetic field. All connected may seem. and reactive powers flow in opposite di- the capacitor is 1/(2 77/C) = 1/(217 = 53 (2. The motor continues to draw the same power because it is still fully loaded. If the device absorbs active power. active Consequently. 7-9 paper capacitor terminals in Example is placed across the motor 7-8. Qm = Consequently.ACTIVE. the receptacle will receive 7 p simple receptacle outlet 7 g Y liver tive — or accept power nected to Q — In other words.26 is 120/53 power generated by Speaking of sources and loads.13 a. 456 var is . tacle in a home. d.26 271 var recep- the electrical transmission and distribution systems. but behave as an active or reactive load. an re- source (as we would as it expect). is at all either active times ready to de- power P or reac- accordance with the devices con- in it. also deserves our such outlets are ultimately alternators that power Qc active also 20 V attention. Phasor diagram c. The active of the circuit. P m = 390 The motor also draws the W same reactive power as before. but P not the is / have two powers flowing opposite directions over the remember that active power a reactive power Q and that again same as The reactive each flows independently of the other. factors huge to the can act not only as an active or Odd determine whether way or the other? It all it will behave A £/ - q - 120 X the capacitor 2. the device delivers active power. the receptacle will provide G (a) E (source) if it. electrical outlet 1 2. AND APPARENT POWER 145 device (or devices) connected to the receptacle. Calculate a. a deceptively simple electrical outlet. The reactive power generated by the capacitor The active power absorbed by the motor The reactive power absorbed from the line The new line current Solution a. c. Figure 7. The current It in may seem unusual to we must line. a it. b. The impedance of Source feeding an active and reactive (capacitive) Xc = load. The same remarks apply to any 3-phase 480 V service entrance to a factory or the terminals of a (b) kV high-power 345 Example A 50 jjiF transmission line.11) x 60 x 50 x 1()" 6 ) il rections.

d. 271 the line = 390 W = The apparent power drawn from . but the same power drawn from the capacitor furnishes 271 var to the line.4) reactive powers.14 Power triangle of a motor and capacitor connected an ac line. because load observe the effect of the capacitor on the ap- 7. (Fig. By comparing this power triangle with that in Fig. Ql = Q m .12 to simply draw a block diagram of the individual row flows from 0. In the same way.Q c = 456 = The active 185 var power drawn from P\. the line current drops from 5 current to line current is = SJE = = 3. for example. 15a). The line net reactive is. 7. . The repower Qc generated by the capacitor is drawn vertically downward. 7. 7. the line.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 146 The motor draws 456 var from c. we can add the reactive power Q.V390 + .14. The new power way to calculate the apparent by the source. The reapparent power S is then found by In the to obtain the total reactive S The concept of active and reactive power enables us some C distinct (and Systems comprising simplify the solution of is directed therefore toward the source.3% power supplied by ab- absorbs reactive power. is The powers the line. the 5 kvar The power triangle is shown in Fig.6 A /j is recall that = \ P2 -\ when adding Q 1 (7. See Example 7-9. = /ys L = = <|> L = 390/432 We concerned) of active and reactive power flow arcos 0. we assign a positive value to those that are absorbed by the system and a negative value to those that are generated (such as by a capacitor). cir- Consider. we do not have is is active ally V source (Fig.432 VA 2 The new 1 the line /W390 W) is Figure 7. therefore. placing the capacitor in parallel with the motor.5° sulting total cuits. 25. is a very unusual sorbed by the system as well as the current supplied Thus. indicating the direction (as far as the source not been changed in the least. consequently. cos 380 to a loads. it ar- the other represents a capacitor. 2 85 432/120 nected in 7.15b). several loads to A the source to the load.903 = delivers reactive arrow active and reactive active powers power P. a group of loads con- On to the system. worry about the way the loads are interconnected. We rather complex inductive.12. We wish A to 3.903 or 90. power it The 16 kvar in independent) nature of the powers enables us to add all the a circuit to obtain the total active same way. because load hand. we can visuparent power Using the power approach.6 A by This represents a big improvement because the line smaller and the operation of the motor has factor of the line 4). Thus.

tion (up. 2kW 147 5 kvar kW 8 Apparent power of the system: 5. 380 V receptacle. All loads are assumed to be directly connected to the same distribution system. the line current = I 7. While so doing. REACTIVE. 1 5: (2 + 8 + 14) right) of point. The power triangle for the system 7. 380 V> 14kW D A 8 kvar 9 kvar (a) 0 + (5 + 7 Q 2 = (-9 Q Net reactive power 4. 7. down. starting with the 5 kvar load. 5 kvarf = G. The it represents vertical it is this vec- directed to power absorbed component of 5 kvar is the system: directed P = left. but it tem of the netic PIS = = 500/380 = 24/24.5 64. or even the elec- 8 kvar tromagnetic relays of customers connected to the Figure 7. we draw the magnitude and we assign a positive value to active powers that are absorbed and a negative value to those that are generated (such as by an Note that usually powers we cannot add power total apparent their power factors are Let us I.15c. power generated by it the system. fields may be it be- The mag- associated with distribution transformers. = +24 kW tive downward: consequently. tor has a value of identical.5 kVA. transmission lines. . The power cos = 4> L power.5 kVA V Because the 380 6. now Active the apparent various parts of a circuit to obtain the in S. Example of active and reactive loads connected to a 380 V source. We can only add them power absorbed by if meet. in we alternator).AND APPARENT POWER ACTIVE. tail accordance with the power of each device When we can starting point to the end the selection draw a power vector from the is complete. It is we Thus. in Fig. because that by the system. which yields the inclined vector having a value of 24. = 1 V24^+7~ 5? source furnishes the appar- ent power. solve the circuit of Fig.-25 16) Q = + 20 kvar kvar absorbed by the system: = 25) ( 16 kvar = +20 8) Reactive power supplied by the capacitors: 3. where electrical utility available to create magnetic fields. This power flows reactive comes = 24 factor of the system V The 380 (b) S/E is into the local distribution sys- company. is shown move from one progressively device to the next around the system. to head. the graphical solution to our problem. represents reac- .15 a. Reactive power absorbed by the system: 2. S = \ P2 7Q - 24.979 (leading) kW source delivers 24 of active receives 5 kvar of reactive power. b.5 A is 0. direc- each power vector. The horizontal component of the right. 24 we know kW and.

for example. Indeed.14 Solving AC circuits using the power triangle method thyristor. The reactive power example demonstrates the usefulness of power this triangle approach. the voltage is 60 V. 7. 7. Consider. if we connected a wattmeter and varmeter between the source and the (sometimes called displacement power factor) of 84. that this added algebraically. W would respectively read +500 and corresponds to a lagging power fac- + 318 var.17a.1 48 ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 5 kvar starting point Figure 7. they complex forced delay causes the current to lag part of each half cycle. This switching circuit will be cussed in detail in if is a reactor were present dis- Chapter 30. 7. 7. such as a itself.4 percent. switch. The switch opens and closes its rather contacts so that current only flows during the latter tation. 16 in We have seen that active and reactive powers can be 60 Hz source is connected to a resistive load of 10 (2 by means of a sy nchronous mechanical switch. We can some to vector (j) no- calculate the active and reactive powers associated with each circuit element and deduce the corresponding voltages and currents. This tor draw a phasor diagram or resorting We to solve ac circuits without ever having to almost by intu- behind the voltage. reactive power consumed just as surely as in the circuit. which a 100 V.13 Reactive magnetic We with the rapidly operating switch rather than with power without the resistor fields sometimes encounter situations where loads absorb reactive power without creating any magnetic field at all. The following see. the circuit of Fig. This enables us is associated Example 7-10 In Fig. ition.15c Power triangle of the system. between terminals 1 and 3 . Nevertheless. This can happen in electronic power circuits when the current flow is delayed by means of a rapid switching device.

therefore. of the reac- a. AND APPARENT POWER 149 0)^ 7. b. 60 V exists between terminals 3 and We now proceed in logical steps. be = S/E 3] The voltage across A in the resistor is /R = VP + Q = V300 + (-720) 2 = 780 VA /1 from which the reactive power generated Qc = 1 that E 23 = IXL 780/60 = A 13 the inductive reactance =13X8= 104 is V is The var terminals 1-3: 2 1 2 is 12 W The apparent power associated with and 2 I X 60 = 300 5 is reactive reactance power absorbed by the inductive is G L = E23 X = +1352 /.17 The delayed current flow is the cause tive power absorbed by the system. as follows: a. Figure 7. The current b. Solving ac circuits by the power triangle method. See Example 7-10. Active and reactive power flow in a switched resis- tive load. Voltages and currents in the circuit. b. The impedance between terminals in each circuit element I P = and 2 l S Solution We know the impedances of the elements and (Fig. = must.16 a.ACTIVE. REACTIVE.1 © — A 9- 700 = r VA S --^ *l = 780 VA 1 r^rs_+_ I (b) 60 V Figure 7. The current in the capacitor Ic = 60/5 = The current 12 = X 60 .07 A (eff 5ft (a) 12H R 60 V T ©6 (a) 141 V S 14. 7. The voltage between terminals c.-720 60/12 = 7b). from which the active power absorbed Calculate a. The current 5 A /. = var 104 X 13 .

833 power dissipated b) Active MW and 2 Mvar.4 Voltage factor at the substation FP = P S = 3 3.9 The impedance between terminals 2-1 Z= E 2\U\.4 il and a line il.25 Mvar is 1352 0. = 12. P = RI2 = = Calculate the line current and phase angle with respect its X 0. 7. currents and power.8 MW .8 MW 0. + Qc = = +632 var Q= the circuit 1.15 II 289 A Figure 7.25 Mvar MVA d) Apparent power at the load: Line current: / = S = 3 600 000 E Power Mvar 12 470 VA Sc = V 289.9/13 = 289 A is 4.75 Mvar 2 Mvar 2 The voltage of £2 = .18 Voltages.90 = MVA 289 A 10.720 ]— substation The total active power absorbed by the circuit 15 is 12.75 2 MVA load end of the line: Sc / 2.03 kV .03 kV therefore is 700/13 = V 53.47 kV 53. the circuit load Q 2.2 = 33.25 Reactive power absorbed by the load: Apparent power delivered VP S to the line: V3 + + Q2 = 2 3. c.6 MW MVA = 0.18). is C 10.833 = - + Ql = \fl& 2.4 Y a) at the substation: substation in- power dicate that the active and reactive the line are 3 Phase angle between the voltage and current has a resistance of 2.25 X line: 10 6 = 1.60 2 2 Qc 2 = Qsub . respectively.47 kV 3 The apparent power absorbed by 2.90 at the Ec= 0. a substation 10 6 X 289 2 = 0.03 kV 289 A MW = \P + Q 2 = V300 2 + 632 2 = 700 VA S b.2 MW Active power absorbed by the load: to the line voltage at the substation b) the active — power absorbed by the load power absorbed by the load c) the reactive rL ^sub = 2. See Example 7-1 1 Example 7-11 A kV single-phase 12. The reactance of 15 Instruments at the inputs to 6 = arccos 0.2 MW 3 MW d) the line voltage at the load e) the and phase angle between the voltage at the load c) Q L = XJ = Solution a) Reactive power absorbed by the 2 that at the substation 15 X 289 2 = 1.2 MW T .4 W P = 300 L2 the line = SII { 10.Gl = = 0.0.6° in the line: 2.47 transmission line several C from kilometers long feeds a load (Fig.1 ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 50 The power absorbed by total reactive Qi.75 Mvar 2 Mvar - 1.

sign notation current enters / Z is by used." We want to cal- and reactive power associated with note that current terminal Consequently.2°) = We that at the load is — (33. Consider Figure Z it = £ah /* S delivers active or the apparent the "rest of circuit" (roc). 7. REACTIVE. the plicity.4 and 2.90 FP MW MVA = 0./* The £]/* product is preceded by current / is shown as entering by Thus. 2. the in or- would be incorrect In Fig.15 If rest of circuit Power and vector notation vector notation is used to solve an ac can readily determine the active with associated We sources.5% p e — s= E. its conjugate /* = IL~ B. 7. procedure very important to follow a standard der to obtain the correct result.e.dh r *|b Phase angle between the voltage and current at the rest of circuit j load: (a) = 9C It = arccos 0. When It calculating the £7* vector product. because the current circulates to a in the roc. we would write: .' power S in terms of P + jQ. The procedure ap- 1 9a in which a circuit element of circuit. Z. 7. is therefore written ponent absorbs active or reactive power. 9a. 7. we want to. is (b) very appealing.5).965 ou 96. and reactive power means same sequence ab com- that the Figure 7. power and Q the reactive P E4 I* E power absorbed (or delivered) by the component. 19c.2° follows that the phase angle between the voltage the substation at 15. 2. plies to circuits that tion or the is culate the active nal a Z We to 7. 'If 1 use the double subscript nota- part of a larger "rest element is sign notation (see Sections 2. sis. when i. Negative values mean reactive component that the power.AND APPARENT POWER ACTIVE. the apparent power S element In the case of Fig.19 Method of writing power equations. and the Consequently. any current that P is the active value for rest of circuit or Q (c) The vector product it. calculating the product subscripts of voltage E must be written in the a current has a value /^B. that b. and summarizes the 8 1 S = + E\I* results of this analy- could have found the same values using However.4°. 1 we Zby write the ( — sign because ) terminal of S = — £4 /* be) terminal. in / flows from termithe sequence ab. we can determine power associated with from b ( it terminal. ) is seen given by is a ( + ) ( + the in Fig. cause the current enters If + = +£. Fig.965 15. Power factor 1 5 load end of the line: at the P.6° 18. 7. on account of its simpower method of solving this problem vector algebra. Z associated with The apparent power S (not ba). A positive S=- the the conjugate (/*) of the flows through £/* gives the apparent where including simply multiply the phasor voltage component by across the we circuit.* to write 9b. component. S = £ ba /.8 S.

/ x = 24. = P+. the acpower associated with the capacitor is zero. 4 Z40° Calculate the active and reactive power associated with element Z.39) connected actance. 7. 7.5 133° - 30 Z 0 a 45 i! rere- The source generates by the phasor a voltage described E ab = 159Z65°.60.5 7 + 90° Z47° 7 sin 90°) = power.20 which in E l2 = 30 Z78°. the power associated 3. 19c. The magnitude and phase of the current / . of Fig.5 var of reactive power.6 Z43° 2. 7.5 S = W and Q ~ -270. therefore I* Since the current flows into the power equation must bear 5 a — ( — ( ) = 4 the capacitor E y2 + /(— IO7) = Z-40° -£4/* ~ = -7()Z25° X 4 Z.5 var of reactive conclude £23 /* = -24.5 Z90° 2.46 Z -47° 90°) capacitor flows from terminal 2 to with the capacitor is 72. Consequently.10/ ~ = -2.32 to 2.46 Z - 10 7) 12. and tive it delivers 60.4 of power and absorbs 72.-60. Example 7-12 In the circuit 2 of Fig. 10 O. we can write (see The circuit in Fig.5 +7 sin (-15°)) in the We active 10. Example 7-14 Solution Going cw around the circuit.5 (cos 0 .iQ Thus P 0 10 J sign: ) given by = = £32 terminal.6 Z(-47° + = 24. determine the power associated with the capacitor whose reactance is Hence P — 0 and Q = —60.19c.1 ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 52 we would Similarly.5 var W that element Z delivers 270 .21 sistor Sections 2. E2] ~ 7 1(1 E2{ _ .5 1 Consequently. in Fig. given Figure 7.-40 0 = -280 Z-15° Current = terminal +7 28()(cos(-15°) = -270. write Let us illustrate the procedure by a few examples.46 . 78° Z -55° = + composed of with a 28 (1 inductive is in series 2.6 Z43° X = -60.20 E4 = 70 Z25° See Example = I 7-13. the is = +72.5.46 Z-47° Calculate a. = P +JQ Example 7-13 Given the circuit . The voltage across Solution We have / = 4 Z40°. the following values are 7.

= 65° 3 / (65° 31.11° + = 84^123. = 405 . the reactance. = (135^33.AND APPARENT POWER ACTIVE.89°) = -477^(65° is / X 3^33.32). + (1 j Thus.11° = power (405 real 0 obtain amplitude hence 45 no j component is Transforming the denominator into polar coordinates. a.11° /* The apparent power associated with the resistor is Figure 7. the resistor absorbs only Solution and so + (cos 0° = 405 and the source the resistor.89° Z_ the reac- 65° + 28 = 53 = arctan 28/45 = 31. REACTIVE.11° n 153 90°) The conjugate /* of the current / is = 3^-33.89° .11° 135zl33.528) is .89°) 0. is The apparent power associated with obtain tance b.11°) = -477^31.11°) = 3^33.849 = -405 - j + 252 j + j sin 31. 11°) (3^-33.53^31. the reactance absorbs only reactive power (252 var). and across the reactance the resistor c. 4512 a Voltage across the reactance Ecb = = 159 [65_° £\ib ' 28 j28 c. we because there sin 0°) jO) £ba + E ac + Ecb = -£ab + -159^65° + we phase angle / = + - j28 159 53 L 45/ + j28/ = 0 /(45 + j28) - 0 / - S r = 159 L 45 45 + j28 45 = 252/190° - 252 (cos 90° = 252 - + (0 + j sin 90°) jl) j252 Thus.11°) The apparent power associated with .21 S r = E.11°) = 405^0° b. = = Voltage across the resistor = in 2 2 ~ ~EJ A 31.89° \ W) . is / X 3^33.89° £ ac = 45 (84 Z_123.-477 (0.ll E\vJ''~ the source * = -(159^65°) (3^-33.11° j28 = 84^(33.89° = -477 (cos 31.405 The magnitude and phase of the voltage across 0 33. The active and reactive power associated with Applying Kirchhoff 's voltage law (see Section 2. 11°) (3^-33.J* Solving an ac circuit using vector notation.

7. or 180° Similarly. The following a. is current / is an active source. together with the phasor circuit lationships at right / that is parallel to phase with.23 in which a device ries a current / flowing in the direction b is enable us to state 3. tionships in Fig. / can be either 90° be either will therefore It active/reactive source or depending upon the phasor and one sign. 15. Figure 7. The £ab The . Also. angles diagram. Otherwise. . The following as entering the agreement with IEEE and IEC conventions.23 Same These rules are in fol- an active load when: £ab and component / p are a. voltage b. subscript notation is 7. A voltage b. on sources and loads (double subscript notation) an active load a. and a. the terminals + A carries a ( is £.22 in line current /. Consider Figure 7. device a reactive source because / q is 90° ahead of E.16 Rules (sign notation) We are often interested in determining whether a de- vice an active/reactive source or an active/reactive is load without such as sis. The device The voltage between which a device is part of a circuit. making a complete mathematical analy- we performed Section in To enable 7. / is shown in phase and A device is shown. xh rule also applies: a reactive load /c] when lags 90° behind voltage line current / is shown E and as entering the ( +) terminal.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 154 The active and reactive powers are both negative. / can be decomposed into two components. rule also applies: a reactive load when lags 90° behind voltage E. the device is an active source. re- is is an active source subscript notation used. We can also tell rule applies*: Otherwise. to E. and that are respectively parallel to. whether a device or active load terminal. the device Based on these rules. active load because A is / p is a reactive source. voltage between terminals a and when E and component / are is between Eand 7. As a result. ) A may be an active/reactive load tionship The phase angle between E and / can have any value. which proves that the source delivers an active power of 405 and a reactive power of 252 var. A device a. 7.22.22 except that double- used. p be the component of out of phase with E. line current / shown is in phase and as entering terminal Otherwise. consider Fig. and observing the phasor we deduce is in that device A relais an phase with E. component b. Let / E. ( and rela- /. the line current + ) A device when double /.22 us to positively identify the nature of the source or load. E between whether a device source. behind or 90° ahead of The 1 .17 Rules an active load or an active is The following device in E. is A car- lowing rule applies: 4. Figure 7. I p and / of the terminals bears a Device circuit as in Fig. W on sources and loads 7. the device 2.

Calculate: induction motor absorbs an apparent at a power factor of 80 percent. 17. The peak power absorbed by the resistor d. A 1 wattmeter line gives a reading of the Name motor and a static device that can generate reac- power. 7-8 with respect apparent power of the group.5 1 motor absorbs 600 kW at a power is An a. is connected across a 1 20 A 10 12 reactance 60 Hz line. Calculate the reactive power A 14) circuits in Fig. active source because A Also. is V. connected to a 240 V. 7.16 and in determine which of the devices in Fig. a single-phase motor lags power factor of the power it absorbs. What a.25. 10 (2 resistor and without drawing any power of 400 kVA 60 Hz source. capacitor having a reactance of 30 (2 connected power. Calculate: a. 7. . phasor diagrams. The duration of each positive power pulse 7. Calculate: generates. motor? Intermediate level A is with the motor of power reading of the wattmeter The total reactive power absorbed by the capacitor and motor The b. Calculate 50° behind the voltage. A single-phase motor draws a current of 2 A at a power factor of 60 percent.23. is we deduce tionships in Fig. 1 Calculate the in-phase and quadrature comPractical level 7-1 What ponents of current power? reactive the unit of active is power? apparent power? 7- 7-2 7-3 A capacitor of 500 kvar 7-5 placed 1 3 in parallel A 240 V. power absorbed by the resistor power absorbed by the inductor The apparent power of the circuit The power factor of the circuit . d. b. connected to a 120 V.F capacitor the ac line combination factor of A 200 calculate: active d. 60 Hz source. The power 7. The reactive c. Based on these rules. AND APPARENT POWER re- source. REACTIVE. c. The apparent power absorbed by the resistor c. device 90° behind Eab is I p is 1 that device A an is 80° out of phase with E. shown line current / is nal as entering by termi- c. The active power absorbed by the resistor b. is the approximate power factor. 7-1 1 Using the rules given 7. Calculate the apparent power and reactive power absorbed by the p. Otherwise. the device a reactive source. The active b. in The current in What is the power large The apparent power of The line current e. Calculate: a. Calculate the tive 7-4 is / the line voltage. a. it factor of the motor/capacitor Using only power triangle concepts (Section 90 percent. of a capacitor? of a coil? of an in- 7-6 and with an inductor of 400 kvar. 7-9 to connected into the c.14 a static device that absorbs reactive If a the reactive in parallel Problem 7-13. and observing the phasor rela- 1 The reactive power absorbed by the reactor The apparent power absorbed by the reactor The peak power input to the reactor a. lags Sections 7.24a through 7. 60 Hz line. 7-17 A power absorbed by the motor power absorbed by the motor What purpose does the reactive power serve The The active reactive circuit composed of a 1 2 ft resistor in series with an inductive reactance of 5 (2 carries an ac current of 10 A. Name 7.24f acts as an active (or power active) .ACTIVE. b. find the impedance of the 7-16 machine. b. candescent lamp? 1-1 / single-phase motor draws a current of A from percent. lb a reactive load because / q e. factor of the 7-10 a 2765 W. 7. 7-12 Questions and Problems 55 The peak power output of the reactor The duration of each positive power pulse d.

The reactive power absorbed Advanced 7-19 7-20 A ply voltage is connected 200 is ft. The value of E b.8 absorbs an active power of 1200 W. Hf- 1 40 V[ ^ ion 4I2( ] en 5A J X (c) (b) (a) Figure 7. The power The power V the system is 0.6 lagging (Fig. total active c. If the sup- V.26). The active power dissipated by the The apparent power of the circuit 120 place a capacitor of b. A coil having a resistance of 5 ft and an ductance of 2 H 7-2 in- carries a direct current of 20 A. calculate: a. Calculate: a. Calculate the reactive power drawn from the line. The impedance of the load re- in parallel with b. level motor having 500 var having a reactance of 1011 and a a capacitive reactance of 10 power factor of 0. 7. The reactive power absorbed by The reactive power generated by the coil the capacitor Problem a 7. In A coil sistance of 2 ft Z .24 See Problem 7-11. calculate: sy stem factor of the system 156 coil factor at the terminals of a source Without using phasor diagrams. calculate: a.(0 (b) (a) G E F / / (d) (e) Figure 7. 7_22 power absorbed by The The apparent power of the c. The active power absorbed b.3. with the motor.25 See Problem 7-18 7-15. if 1 in parallel we d. a.

The active and reactive power consumed by the line 7-25 In Problem 7-24 calculate: c. done by means of a by Baldor Electric Company. tor in Problem 7-24.27 See Problem Industrial application 7-24 A single-phase A p 7-23. and / and . capacitor has a rating of 30 kvar. calculate b. Calculate the value of the line current. its Calculate the active and reactive power ab- 7-29 A single-phase heater absorbs 4 kW on a 240 V line. The metering equipment at the substation indicates that the line voltage is 12. 480 V. The current flowing operates at If a 40 microfarad capacitor is connected current feeding the motor.ACTIVE. in The joules The voltage across A2 hp. a. has the line. Knowing the tance is when weight: 80 lb for the capaci- a.26 /= 5 A See Problem 7-22. 1 60 Hz single-phase line con- (1. q treat (Hint: Decompose / into / 5 them independently. Calculate its capacib. line when full load. 7-23 In Figs. The c. Based on the discharge power 1 1. 60 Hz.4 II and a reac- tance of 12 it across the motor terminals. A capacitor connected in parallel with the resistor delivers 3 kvar to the line. If the capacitor in the line new is line current.2 kV. The active. 7. 230 V. resis- sorbed by this machine subjected to the service voltage the capacitor is in operation.6 A 75. tance in microfarads. removed. REACTIVE. Calculate: a. indicate the mag- 150° (b) (a) nitude and direction of the active and reactive power flow. in ohms. the The Full load current: resistor permanently connected across the is fol- lowing characteristics: efficiency: capacitor terminals. 7-27 A 3.) Figure 7. 1 the load 725 r/min 60 Hz single- phase washdown duty motor. AND APPARENT POWER 157 29.5 kV and that the line of active power and 2 is drawing 3 Mvar of reactive power.5% factor: 74% curve of a capacitor. reactive and apparent power ab- sorbed by the load d. The peak voltage across the capacitor when it is connected to a 460 V source b.27b. a. b. MW Will the presence of the capacitor affect the temperature of the motor? has a resistance of 2. calculate the line nects a substation to an industrial load. manufactured 7-26 Safety rules state that one minute after a capacitor is disconnected from an ac voltage across discharge that is it must be 50 V or less. calculate the .27a and 7. resulting energy stored in the capacitor 7-28 at that instant. calculate the discharge resistance required. wattage rating. E= 120 V »E= 120 V Figure 7.

Furthermore. Three-phase Circuits familiar with the previous too chapters dealing with ac circuits and power. Furthermore. tant reasons: common A single-cylinder engine having one gasoline engine. far. a and to the shaft in successive pulses same lines is inherently better in In move up are staggered in such a from personal experience.0 Introduction 8. machine. essential to an understanding of power technology. the As a result. 6-cylinder engine identical pistons a. system 158 the is above description reveals basically that a 3-phase composed of three single-phase . and more down move efficient b. because the phases are techniques used to solve single-phase circuits can be directly applied to 3-phase circuits. merely represents a tap-off from the power Polyphase systems ing of polyphase systems by referring to the for single-phase basic 3-phase system. Three-phase transmission lines can deliver c. In this regard. Fortunately. the reader is As this the reader may know produces a smoother much smoother output torque. we assume not way as very smooth.Chapter 8 Three-Phase 8.1 Electric power We is tributed in the generated. transmitted. power to deliver rather than at the running engine and a A cuits knowledge of 3-phase power and 3-phase is. and transformers are simpler. On comparable The more common a 2-phase machine. and dis- form of 3-phase power. circuit will see that most 3-phase circuits we identical. Similarly. do cylinders. Homes and small establishments are wired power. cheaper. cir- the basic different times. can be reduced to time. generators. Although we must beware of carrying analogies elementary single-phase diagrams. more power for a given weight and cost The voltage regulation of 3-phase transmission inside identical They in unison. to 6-cylinder engine could be called a 6-phase machine. a 3-phase electrical system. the total one phase may be used behavior of power at power flow is all to represent the three. a 2-cylinder engine for several impor- is Three-phase motors. but this power ferred over single-phase is can gain an immediate preliminary understand- piston pre- is comparable to a single-phase the other hand. but they deliver therefore. but they three phases are identical.

S poles are properly shaped. A single-phase generator with a multiturn ded in two slots.1 in Fig. / V to the / / \ equation: / \ £al = B/v (2. * shown in the alternating voltage has a peak value of 20 V. the ring from one in it. 1 is Each each Ea1 = At this instant gap is flux does not cut greater than multiturn rectangular coil mounted 0 because the the conductors of winding A. the voltage when zero is is the other hand. the poles are in the because the flux density 1 On greatest at the center of the pole. con- The terminal voltage in Fig. such as a turbine. insulated ductors.3. 8.2 because flux does not cut the conductors winding stator A at this If tion.3 length of conductors lying in the magnetic field v V] \ / \ instantaneous voltage induced in the coil '0 \ / igle \ = / N Voltage induced in winding A. the flux density in the air if having terminals a. embedmaximum ( + ). xi maximum when is position of Fig. turn corresponds to two con- 8. 1 would generate an alternating rather brief t'lat-toppped positive and . Single-phase generator 8. inside the ring but voltage E. 8. [m] peripheral speed of the revolving poles [m/s] The poles shown The sum of the voltages induced in all the ductors appears across the terminals. A were absent. 8. 8. Machines that produce such voltages are called alternating-current generators or syn- chronous generators. slot. much fact is realized.2 Consider a permanent magnet stant NS revolving con- at speed inside a stationary iron ring (Fig. it sweeps across the con- inducing a voltage in them according / / / —y \ X \ \ 10 ductors. The particular machine shown Figure 8.2 ring (or stator) re- duces the reluctance of the magnetic circuit.25) wherein - / KJO \— — 90 0 10 2 ( B = instantaneous flux density cutting across conductors I = = the \ \ \ \ \ \ 3(i0 degrees 4S >0 / \ \ — \ f / / \ \ - \ / \ / 20 / in the slots [T] Figure 8. composed of negative pulses. 8. we obtain the sinusoidal voltage Suppose Fig. the poles are in the position of Fig. At this instant Ea1 is called a single-phase generator is 1 coil v + 20 As the magnet turns. moment. Once this basic A winding stator 59 1 of the mystery surrounding 3-phase systems disappears. we plot E.THREE-PHA SE CIRCUITS systems that operate in sequence. consequently.1). The magnet is driven by an external mechanical source. xl as a function of the angle of rota- and provided the N. The Figure 8.

This sets up mechanical vibrations whose frequency is twice the electrical frequency.3 If a resistor rent will is connected across terminals The current /. the instantaneous series of positive pulses. is is power is composed of a shown in Fig.6a rotates at 6000 r/min and generates an effective sinusoidal voltage winding A. sinusoidal voltages are in- Calculate each winding. same magnitude and frequency but do not reach maximum value at the same time.5.5 Graph of the generator stator. tl becomes zero and voltage maximum therefore out by curves load on phase Note A in Fig.6a). stator Figure 8. In effect. As a result. made one However. 8. to must deliver mechanical en- its match the pulsed electrical output. positive value. They obviously have the a. is in 1 a cur- phase with the voltage and. 8. and power when the under load. They are represented positive B. £ aj that positive value 8. As the magnet rotates.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 160 Power output of a single-phase generator 8.4). windings are respectively called phase A and phase Single-phase generator delivering power to a attains value. Consequently. 8. 8. current. con- sequently.414 X 170 (2. reaches its peak called a two-phase generator. is voltage.4 resistor.. angle of 90° (Fig. identical to voltage E.4 Two-phase generator Using the same single-phase generator. the turbine ergy in pulses. duced in their moment when the magnet occupies the position shown in Fig. leads This machine and the E b2 The two voltages are of phase by 90°.6} . quarter-turn (or 90°). the generator will vibrate and tend to be noisy.6c. at b. a second winding (B) on the let us mount Figure 8. £ ni = \2E = = 240 V 1. This is conductors Eh2 is an- gle of 90° the maximum The peak voltage across each phase The output frequency The time interval corresponding to a phase Solution a. whereas voltage zero. The peak voltage per phase is because the flux only cuts across the in slots 1 after the rotor has and a at this instant. The one-half the peak power. 8. 8.6a. Example 8-1 The generator shown in Fig. This elec- derived from the mechanical power provided by the turbine driving the generator. but displaced from it by a mechanical of 170 V per winding. its is it in Fig. flow and the resistor will heat up (Fig. 8. voltage passes through its c. as average power power trical a.6b and by phasors Eh2 because before E h2 does.

Currents and /.5 ins. This yields the two power waves shown of phase in Fig.5 = that /. and Eh2 - 90° out of phase with each other (Fig. 8.. One cycle makes one is completed every time the magnet The period of one cycle turn. constant (a) 1 load on (a) phase \ -h (b) 0- 90.8.THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS b. T= = = s = Power output now Let us 0.7a). if i 360 21 —t an jle of 450 _ r ot ation 6 i load on phase B (c) n (b) Figure 8. A phase terval is \/T= means Hz 100 1/0. /h They are respectively in The currents are. This of one quarter-revolution. b. Note that that when the power B is zero.7b). The instantaneous power supplied ms to each resis- tor is equal to the instantaneous voltage times the . {i (Fig. If both phases. and of phase we add the instantaneous powers of we discover that the resultant power is and equal to the peak power P m of one vice versa. Voltages induced c. Furthermore. reaches period before now produces /b its maximum value one quarter- does. 8. instantaneous current. or 10 ms/4 2.01 angle of 90° corresponds to a time in- Consequently. A .7 Two-phase generator under load. Figure 8. b. 8. in a 2-phase generator.5 is 161 £a] E h2 lags 2.6 a. connect two identical resistive loads across phases s 10 ins The frequency of a 2-phase generator 1/6000 min 60/6000 8. therefore. the generator a 2-phase power output. resistor. A is maximum.01 will flow in phase with /= c. phasor behind phasor A and B each E. Phasor diagram of the induced voltages. Phasor diagram of the voltages and currents. a.. Schematic diagram of a 2-phase generator.

The burned-out phase (the burned-out winding of a 3-phase 8. The icrm phase 1 i windings have the the rotor has turned through an angle of 120° (or :. This arrangement requires phase angle of the output voltage with respect to the input 9.9a. The phase-to-phase fault (a short-circuit between a line or /c .: i in Fig.9a. voltage designate different things. . its ini- position. r i positive value. 1 power to the individual singleThe resulting currents /. the generator same the is — are and as phasors — al . are respectively out of phase by shown as sine waves in Fig.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRA NSEORMERS 62 1 phase. As a As an important produces twice the power output not vibrate and so added power output of the at mechanical power needed result. At the moment when the magnet shown i Instantaneous power of phase B and c-3 are effective values. is the voltages induced in the three same Eb . 120° to each other. but they are winding and ground) 1 to can change the voltage) 10.9c. i except for the addition of an extra winding. the total 2-phase generator also constant. i shown A | j 8. 8.peak /MA. resistors are identical. line or machine are unequal and not displaced The pliase-shifi transformer (a device that at 120°) (a short-circuit between two line and E52 conductors) Phase-to-ground fault six wires to deliver phase loads (Fig. Three-phase generator A 3-phase generator is similar to a 2-phase generator. 'I 1 instantaneous power of phase in size. placed at The three windings a-1. b-2. E b2 Consequently. The phases are unbalanced (the line voltages. 90 0 at its positive peak after The following examples show some of the word phase is used. The 3-phase currents are unbalanced (the currents in a 3-phase 8. the three stator voltages three phases of a transmission line (the three conduc- tors of the line) £b2 and . as When magnet the position in- maximum Voltage in Fig. 1 that they are out of other) reach their positive peaks The 0b). 8. which out of phase with the voltage (relets to pha- tain its positive peak Ec3 will at- after the rotor has turned through 240° (or two-thirds of a turn) from Consequently. is benefit.8 Power produced by a 2-phase generator. 8. but the peaks occur at differ- ent times. is The The i i i i . tial sor diagram) 2.6 Pm = fa A 2-phase generator does i without any increase Ea every instant. except that the stator has three identical windings stead of two. 8. 8. Let us connect the three windings of the generator three identical resistors. Similarly. pov rer = . has to be read in context to be understood. which the phasors follow each other) 5. in Fig. or the line £al . 3. . ways the in Figure 8. Power output of a 3-phase generator mutually out of phase by 1 20° (Fig. The phase-to-phase voltage 4.7 machine) 6. .„ / b 0a). phase simply means currents.* In other words. 8. 180 270 360 the *- angle of rotation Total instantaneous power output it is used to current is one-third of a turn). are respectively in phase with voltages and EcV Because the currents have the same 1. The 3-phase voltage (the line voltage of a 3-phase system) 7. the effective values. it peak power = it is to drive the less noisy. are unequal or not displaced at 120° to each fact that they at different times. Ib = rotated at constant speed. only voltage will reach its Ea is in . The phase sequence (the line voltage) (the order in Ec3 They 120°.9b.

calculate an effective voltage of 120 V. constant. the power erator to the load. con- The power dissipated in each resistor The power dissipated in the 3-phase load The peak power P lu dissipated in each resistor The total 3-phase power compared to P lu connected Figure 8. 6-wire system. However. the 1 ^c3 SN \ put \ (b) 0 740 3iiO 50 \/ J output of a 3-phase generator has P m Because is 1 the electrical out- . is line. Each resistor to behaves as a single-phase load in each resistor (b) Three-phase. If three is T 1 Eai constant. 120 V. Three-phase generator. a.10 is the effective Solution induced voltages. connecting the gen- constant. therefore. Example 8-2 The 3-phase generator shown in Fig.THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS The instantaneous power supplied to each resisis again composed of a power wave that surges tor between zero and a (a) 163 maximum power peaks in the the same time. a. is 8. d. Voltages induced c. . Phasor diagram of the a.9 to also constant. and so a 3-phase flow over the transmission -N X is drive the rotor t J total a magnitude of 1. The power dissipated b. we discover that the resulting power voltages. the mechanical power required generator does not vibrate. Furthermore. voltage induced in each phase 120° (c) I 120° a. as in the case of a 2-phase generator.10a If the following: b. Figure 8. c. value do not occur the three resistors at the phase angle between the we add the instantaneous powers of all resistors.5 is. b. Corresponding phasor diagram. due to P nv However. in a 3-phase generator. nected to three 20 12 load resistors.

1 lb clearly c. 3 The ratio of X 720 is Pm to 8. This reduces the number of transmission line conduc- The tors from 6 tral conductor (or simply neutral). at the instant corresponding to = / max and I h = / a = -0.485 is 2 60/1440 1 = 1. Wye 8-8 The connection three single-phase circuits of Fig.7 * is absolutely constant from instant to instant. Consequently. 4-wire system.12 240°. For example.11 a. .485 A is 169.169. I c Three-phase. At first it seems that the cross section of this conductor should be three times that of lines and diagram of Fig. 3-wire system showing source and load.1 64 ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS I i u * U 'b AI 360 240 0 480 "\ t x I (a) Figure 8. b.5 / max making + 4 = 0. 'c return conductor. to 8. b. can connect the three return conductors together form a single return conductor (Fig.7/20 between 0 and a power for all in maximum each resistor of 1440 three resistors is W.7 V The peak current /m X 69. The (all total l20 The peak power /2() W power dissipated three resistors) 2 in the 3-phase load d. whereas the power The peak voltage across one resistor sates is tal E m = <2E = V2 X . 8. carries the sum to 4. c. 8. PT PT /P m = = 2160 This power each resistor = £ m /m = = 1440W is P v = 3P = in in 120 each resistor = EJR = = 8. 4-wire system.We arrive at the same result (and Figure 8. the shows that the sum of the three return currents is zero at every instant.10 are electrically we independent. Three-phase.5 Thus. 4+ A> .1 la). of the three currents (/ a + /b + /c ). called neu- a. pul- the to- unvarying and equal to 2 160 W. Line currents in a 3-phase. P = E 2 IR = = 720 b. However.

The line conductors are often called phases. transmission line.Ecn Eca = Ecn + E na = Ecn . . 8. £ab . are said to be as the of the is called as well in wye. n 3-phase. Method d.2) Line-to-neutral voltages of the generator.2) (8. in The induced voltage each winding has an effective value sented by the length of each phasor Fig.1 la 4-wire system. The circuit of Fig. connected load. In we accomplish a great saving because the number of conductors line However. c. 8. 8..12). to some people prefer use the term connected In star. the loads in order to remove not identical.13a. which is the same term applied to the generator windings. 8. Line voltages to determine line voltage £ab £ bC) and £ca placed at 120°. The circuit of Fig. based on we . lb Ehc and what are the line-to-line voltages £ca ? Referring E lN to Fig. 4-wire sys- tems are widely used to supply electric power to commercial and industrial users. (8. 8.12 generator.11a must be in Fig. The generator. 13a). We can. neutral conductor in such a same size or slightly smaller conductors. be- cause the three branches resemble the letter Y. sors 1 zero. therefore. are 1 3b.3) 3-phase gen- b.Ean (8. together without in remove the neutral wire al- any way affecting the voltages one stroke or currents in the circuit (Fig. can write the fol- Kirchhoff s voltage law: Eab = Ean + E nh = ^an ~ £bn £ bc = £ bn + E nc = E hn . the from drops six three! to 8. (8. . Eblv and Ecn the quesE. (8.13 Wye-connected a. Knowing represented tion is. The sum is clearly (/. + / b + I c ) in Fig. 8. in the repre- diagram in that the line-to-neutral voltages by phasors E ail . If the loads are absence of the neutral conductor produces unequal voltages across the three loads. lowing equations.9 Voltage relationships Consider the wye-connected armature windings of a 3-phase generator (Fig. For equally obvious reasons. 3 -wire system. 8. Three-phase.1) (8-0 Figure 8.3) stator windings of a erator.THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS I much more simply) by taking the sum of the phaOb. —composed and load — 8. are equal and dis- . system is The usually the than the line is called a 3-phase. identical the neutral wire.

8. tively. the voltages 8. and based upon the fact that the length of the line-to-neutral phasors is £j N we . l]v drawn according The line £" hc .4) c.) is Example 8-3 3-phase 60 Hz generator. etc. The peak line voltage is E m = V2E L = 1.55 ms. 8. 1 X 1/180 s 60 5. 800 is V. a phase angle of 120° corresponds voltages are equal in magnitude and to an interval of mutually displaced by 120°. but the voltage between b.414 X = 33 800 The same voltage 23 900 (2. Fig. The voltages between 120 360 a 3-phase 173 V.13c). b.13d.1.14 Voltages induced in a wye-connected generator. is The windings 1 3 V 800 are connected in wye. . line voltage line-to-neutral voltage symmetry of a 3-phase system. The of truth this = can be seen by referring to Fig.2. To further clarify these results. conse- quently. or tute a b and = 100 V. 8. connected in wye.1.V3 £ LN Calculate The line-to-line therefore V3 voltage (called line voltage) is times the line-to-neutral voltage: . the voltage induced in each winding all £ca The to Eqs. 8. consti- nevertheless an ordinary single-phase voltage. first to ex- E.55 ms positive voltage peaks are. 8. N cos 30° Figure 8. gen- erates a line (line-to-line) voltage of 23 900 V. The 1.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 166 Referring we draw phasor Eq. c\ b and n. have the following: E length x £ah = = of phasor 2 X 2 X £ LN V3/2 £. Using resulting phasor voltage E Ean leads ilb simple trigonometry. 8. Consequently. any two lines (a and T= shows d. we con- is peak of £ln = ^i/^ 3 = 23 900/V3 b.73] clude that the line voltage across any two generator terminals The peak value of the effective value of the line voltage [V] the positive B 13 c.6) relationships exist in a wye- connected load. = a constant [approximate value to the equal to V3 E t N . The line-to-neutral voltage The voltage induced in the individual windings The time interval between the positive peak A and voltage of phase where phase E = x £ LN — V3 = Due d.db a actly as the equation indicates: The diagram shows that line by 30° (Fig. therefore. A The 100 V3. c. between the terminals of generator whose line-to-neutral voltage The line voltages are all equal to 14 is 3-phase system. such as that shown in Figs.1 . b.3. (8. sepa- rated by intervals of 5. and phasors are and 8. One complete cycle (360°) corresponds to 1/60 s. effective value of the line-to-neutral Solution voltage [V| a. respec- .V3£ LN a. which shows three phasors: £. lines a.

6) h - (8.4) is 500/50 10A All the line currents are.5) 5a). connected across The connection letter A. already have seen) or in delta (Fig. The resistors are .* assuming a resistive load.7) 12 shown). Let us determine the voltage tionships in and current rela- such a delta connection. Phasor relationships with a resistive a. 8. Calculate The voltage across each resistor The current in each resistor The total power output of the generator a. c. equal to 10 Power absorbed by each c. resistor currents £bc . according to Kirchhoff's voltages are produced by an external gen- erator (not / are in phase with the respective line voltages circuits. 8.12 generates a line voltage of 865 V. in / each resistor = ELN /R = (8. b. is so named because it resembles the Greek . and ECiV h /2 . Solution The voltage across each a. consequently. Furthermore. (8. identical impedances connected across the 3-phase line. a condition that is usually encountered in The three impedances (as we The 3-phase may the line.10 Delta connection A is 3-phase load said to be voltages are equal and the This corresponds to three balanced when the line line currents are equal. and each load resistor has an impedance of 50 fl. and /3 £ab law. (b) is 10 W The power delivered by the generator to all three resistors is P = 3 X 5000 = 15 kW Figure 8.PHASE CIRCUITS and 8. the line currents are given by be connected 8. In other words. resistor is £ L n = £| A/3 = 865/V3 = 500 V The current b. the line voltage is 1 67 V3 times the line-to-neutral voltage. therefore. resistor P = ElN I = 500 X 5000 A. line load. Example 8-4 The generator in Fig. 1 2.THREE. -h wye in 1 (8. b.15 Impedances connected in delta.

by 30° (Fig. The resulting phasor diagram Eq. 1 5b). / b /c Referring line currents . Furthermore.15c). the apparent powers cannot be added. /. b. The apparent power supplied is Example 8-5 Three identical impedances are connected across a 3-phase a.5.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 68 1 Let the current each branch of the delta-connected in which corresponds load have an effective value the length of phasors /2 . times greater than the current in each branch of a delta-connected load: /. 8. = V3/Z (8. Using sim- write A — 10 lx = 2 X I. cos 30° = 2 X I. The question now arises: line E times the What is the apparent power supplied by a 3-phase line having line voltage valid for any type of circuit element (resistor. Consequently. first to that / a /. each branch is phases are identical.. .8) = l(W3 = Iy b. 5.15c See Example y . the three line currents are equal and displaced by Table 8A summarizes 1 the basic relationships bein by a 3-phase magnitude and readily determine the tween the voltages and currents wye-connected and delta-connected loads. calculate the following: The current in each impedance The value of each impedance [ft] is we can add ers of the three phases because they a. The relationships are motor winding. the relationships in Table 8A apply to any balanced 3-phase load. /. . 16a.73] position of phasors /b and /c and thereby observe that 20°.. inductor. V 3/2 = V3/ c o— Figure 8. the . If the in each impedance is \ 3 El \3 10 A.. /3 . power the apparent pow- have identical power factors are not identical. we can now 8. 8. * Consequently. X / X 3 = Solution The current :!: In 3-phase balanced circuits.11 If we 8. .) as long as the elements in the three line The apparent power supplied by is a single-phase equal to the product of the line voltage line current /. is 550 V apparent power in delta line (Fig. E and a a line current I? refer to the the apparent wye-connected load of power supplied to Fig. etc. leads ple trigonometry. where = — /. total current to all three branches obviously three times as great.77 A The voltage across each impedance is 550 V. generator wind- ing. we draw phasor exactly as the indicates. If the line S = E . Z= - effective value of the line current [AJ effective value of the current in one EIIy = 550/5. In other words.. let to the have an effective value / L which corresponds to the length of phasors /. capacitor. factors. Power transmitted 8.5.77 95 ft branch of a delta-connected load [A] — "V3 a constant [approximate value The reader can = 1. equation shows . The line current is therefore V3 8.

We each element phase. 1 6b).12 Active. each element is equal to the line • The voltage across each element line voltage E divided by V 3. phase. and apparent power S is the same for bal- wye-connected apparent power and apparent 3-phase circuits 8. where where S = total apparent power delivered by a 3-phase line E— / = V3 = [VA] effective line voltage [V] effective line current [A) a constant [approximate value = 1.THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS VOLTAGE AND CURRENT RELATIONSHIPS TABLE 8A Wye IN 169 3-PHASE CIRCUITS Delta connection connection 7/1.73 Figure 8.73] = total 3-phase apparent power VA| = P total 3-phase active power [W| Q = total 3-phase reactive power |var| cos 0 = power factor of the 3-phase load 0 = phase angle between the line current S | and the line-to-neutral voltage |°| 1 . in therefore have Q 2 (8. the apparent power supplied S = E X each branch to is equal to the line The voltage across each element The The 8. the as for a total in The relationship between active power P. • The current current /. is equal to the voltages across the elements are 120° out of currents in the elements are 120° out of power / is the same Consequently. which in divided by V3. also the anced 3-phase We circuits as for single-phase circuits. The currents In the / delta line voltage E. JO) and S = V 3 El cos 6 (8. is V3 is load. reactive power Q.9) = PIS (8.16b Impedances connected wye. phase.16a Impedances connected • The current current • • in in Figure 8. The voltages across is equal to the • the elements are 120° out of in the elements are 120° out of • • case of a delta-connected load (Fig. therefore have 2 S = \'P + same. phase. reactive.

8 also the line current.81 2 - 3.17 apparent power total S b. The following illustrate the Each branch X = ~~~ V4- 3^ = 5 The voltage across each branch a (2. factor of the The total active The total reactive 60 Hz power power absorbed by Solution The = V3 = V3 X 440 X EI = 3811 VA = 3.05 total reactive is X 3. 0. The A o 80 percent. w line machine the 3000 = 9" V 550 3-phase apparent power total c. O Figure 8.i: is be employed. The power dissipated by each resistor V 3-phase line is P = 3000 W/3 = 1000W The voltage across the terminals of each resistor is Figure 8. the easiest cuit is to consider examples way to be single-phase loads. balanced 3-phase load may be considered composed of three identical Consequently. 2. 17). If the motor a.E LN /Z - The current The value of each in each line resistor 440 Solution a.81 The The = \ S current in each line is 8 1 V = also 3.254 V Example 8-7 The current Three identical 3000 550 V W resistors dissipating a total are connected in wye in / across a 3-phase (50. is A . c. Consequently. each circuit element 8-8. calculate the following: b. resistance of each element is is A 3. the impedance of each branch Z to solve such a cir- only one phase. 8. ELN = ELN3 = 440 V/V3 . connected power a line current of 5 A.1 ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 70 Example 8-6 A 3-phase motor. 15 1 5 A.05 2 a.8 A is .13 Solving 3-phase circuits A a. is power of line (Fig. 1 8. method 4 { to is composed of an inductive reactance fl in series with a resistance R= 3 II. P draws \ 3. is The 440V to a line.18 E — 550 VA/3 -318 V See Example 254/5 = 50. calculate the following: The current in each line The voltage across the inductor terminals Solution 8. b. a. 8. a.15 101 12 Example 8-8 is In the circuit Q = 8-7.81 kVA total active See Example is O 1 R power = 3. The current P = ScosO = The JT 5 b.80 R = .28 kvar of Fig.) Calculate b.P2 = 2 each resistor 1 kW power in = P/E= 000 W/3 / EII = - 318/3.

14 Industrial loads In is connected = in delta or in capacitors. we do not know whether a particular 3-phase load 2400/V3 current per branch / is 1 is in cos 6 0 = power factor = = 29° 0.9) 000/(2400 V 3 = A 100 = b.9 12 The phase angle 0 between the line-to-neutral voltage 386 V) and the corresponding line current ( 100 A) is given by ( nal is S/(EV3) Z= wye. 60 the line current is line is connected connected to three in delta (Fig. the current per phase equal to the is line current. 22 A. Example 8-9 A identical capacitors If Hz 3-phase 550 V. 8.20a). 1386 The impedance per branch most cases.5 percent lag- ging. calculate the capacitance of each capacitor. 8. The impedance of the plant. terminals.19 See Example 8-9.19).8 X = 203. is 87.7 1/(2tt = 61. but for entire load centers such as a factory containing motors.3 il b. 8. that the wye. and so on. and so forth.THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS The voltage across each inductor b.2 V V In a is wye connection 1 impedance per phase the 7 is understood to be the line-to-neutral impedance. Solution The current / each capacitor in = / L /V3 = 22 A/V3 Voltage across each capacitor Capacitive reactance X Xc = EJI = is c - Example 8-10 A A = 550 V of each capacitor 550/12. three identical The voltage per branch E= = The Figure 8. transformers. The assumption of a wye connection can be made not only for individual loads. We assume a wye connection composed of impedances Z(Fig.7 - The capacitance of each capacitor C= 12.11) for the plant Solution |jlF a. The complete phasor diagram a. heaters.3 V (line-to-line) 8. We assume in that the load center is connected simply wye and proceed with the usual calculations. E = IX = 50. is voltage and the line current 1/2tt/Xc = manufacturing plant draws a from a 2400 X 60 X 43. The 4 voltage per phase is simply the line voltage divided by V3.3) (2.20b). furnaces. per phase The phase angle between the line-to-neutral c.11) . For ex- V = 415 ample. If the plant is power factor total of 415 kVA 3-phase line (Fig.875 (8. slightly easier to handle than a delta connection. Finally. generators. Under these circum- we simply assume (A wye connection is connection stances.) (8. often have only three external and there is no way to tell how the inter- connections are made. 3-phase motors. E/I = ) is 1386/100 13. calculate the following: 43. lamps.

746 equivalent to = 268 kW 1 Active power input to motor: of the factory load. The transmission line current The motor line current Draw the complete phasor diagram for one phase Solution a.2 1 ). for example. If the at 8-1 1 1800 kvar motor produces an output of 3594 hp at an efficiency of 93 percent and a (b) power factor of 90 percent (lagging).20c. Phasor diagram The factory.21 Industrial motor and capacitor. /. 5000 hp wye-connected motor 4000 2883/0. Reactive power supplied by the capacitor bank (see section 7. A delta-connected capacitor bo- is See Example bank rated also connected to the line. The The The d.93 = 2883 kW each phase lags 29° behind the b. g.„ Q m = \Si= A 1 P.n = V3203 T^r 2883 2 395 kvar . and is 0. 8.phase line —1((a) 1800 kvar 'Tan / a = 100 1386 A V Figure 8. Example 8-11 = PJcos 0 = = 3203 kVA V (line-to-line). b. 8. = p 2^ = 2681/0. Power input to a See Example wye connection b.90 Reactive power absorbed by the motor: and the phase angle between them. power absorbed by the motor power absorbed by the motor reactive power supplied by the transmisactive reactive sion line the transmis- sion line e. The apparent power supplied by a. Ean . Equivalent c. Sm c. 3-phase. (3. f. Figure 8. 60 is Hz connected to a line (Fig. The complete phasor diagram is shown in Fig. calculate the following: c.6) Apparent power absorbed by the motor: line-to-neutral voltage. of the voltages Power output of 3594 hp currents. c. In practice.20 a.5): . current in P 2 = 3594 X 8-10. we would show only one phase.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 172 4000 V 3 phase 2400V y 1 ?\ 3.

In bank furnishes no more than Qm The Active power supplied by the line P L = P m = 2883 5L e. an unusual situation because reactive being returned to the the capacitor most cases line. 1 and 1800 + 1395 we try to This is is pacitor bank..260 A 1 (b) is —IH 1800 kvar 4000) Figure 8. as shown in Fig. Motor /m g. f. the Where should phasor current /c be located on phasor diagram? The question is important be- b. Line currents.) Line current drawn by the capacitor bank /c = Gc/(£lV3) = 800 000/(V3 X . The to recognize that is in wye same reactive power). This can create unnecessary phase-angle complications QL = Qc + Q m = = -405 kvar 73 = power factor = = 25.8° 0.8° behind the voltage. Phase angle 0 L between the transmission current and line is ( - 405) £ LN cos6.9) 4000) 4000) 462 A is £LN = 4000/V3 = 2309 V 420 A 462 A 420 A 462 A 420 A 462 A Phase angle 9 between the motor current and the line-to-neutral voltage 4000 is: V 3-phase 6 line is: is = 5 m /(£L V3) = 3 203 000/(V3 X = 462 A cos 0 /'/ (while gen- is = SJ(E^3) = 2911 000/(V3 X = 420 A line current of 260 kW Apparent power supplied by the solution were connected erating the we draw kilovars of reactive power. N That is the correct position for phasor /c no matter how the capacitor /c . the line current would lead £ LN by 90°.THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS Qc = -1800kvar Total reactive cause the capacitors are connected power absorbed by assumed a wye connection the load: in delta.9 260 260 260 A A A (The motor current lags 25.22 Phasor relationships a. for one phase. 8.99 eL = 2883/291 8° (8. is bank is connected internally. = VPl + Qi = V2883 2 + = 2911 kVA Transmission line current h. d. A 90° ahead of £. 2 line-to-neutral voltage = PJS L = 0. See Example 8-11.22a. Consequently. Note that the motor currents exceed the currents of the source. if follow the actual currents inside the ca- the capacitors power we for the motor. .

reactive.22b. at a given factor. This is to be expected because most industrial loads involve electric motors. c are printed at 20° 1 tervals on a slowly revolving disc in- (Fig. current flows are We want to emphasize the ing a tual wye importance of assum- connection. They are usually represented as de- draw a given amount of power vices that power The situation is somewhat 3-phase transmission sistances fixed. or cab. bca. Phase sequence is important because it de- termines the direction of rotation of 3-phase motors and whether one 3-phase system can be connected in parallel with another.24 The letters are observed in the sequence a-c-b. calculations and eliminate confusion. As a final remark. the letters appear in the sequence a-b-c-a-b-c. lines. The impedance value of devices such as resistors. 8. Figure 8. 8. lights.15 sometimes both. 8. Consequently.23 The sequence are observed in the Figure 8. the solution of may L.22a. which are seldom described in terms of resistance and reactance. a 3-phase system has an important property called phase sequence. and so on. Phase sequence Figure 8. b. The phasor diagram one phase tor is shown in Fig. tive sequence. C elements — and 8. in any one of . irrespective of what the ac- connection nection for all may By assuming a wye conwe simplify the be. different in the case of Here we can define re- and reactances because the parameters are The same remarks apply to equivalent circuits describing the behavior of individual machines such as induction motors and synchronous machines. furnaces. and apparent power. In conclusion. phase sequence quency and voltage is as important as the fre- understanding of phase sequence by considering the following analogy. in the letters a-b-c."1 1 ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 74 The line current (420 A) leads Eln by 8° be- cause the kvars supplied by the capacitor bank ex- ceed the kvars absorbed by the motor. circuit elements. and capacitors seldom appears on a nameplate. It can be described three ways: abc. Phase sequence means the order three line voltages We can get a quick intuitive in which become successively the positive. the reader has no doubt no- ticed that the solution of a 3-phase problem in- volves active. and frequency. 3-phase circuits involve either active and reactive power or R.23). The circuit diagram and shown in Fig.25 The In addition to line voltage letters are observed sequence a-c-b. Let us call this the posi- are. in 3-phase systems. Suppose the letters a. mo- tors. If the disc turns counterclockwise.

measures are taken so are correctly represented shown in by the As they Fig. or bac. they follow the se- quence If Eab -E bc -Eca -Eab -E bc .. which is the same as the sequence AC-CB-BA-AC .27. . £ ac or- . sequence .23. and the negative sequence. Draw sequence can be converted into a negative sequence by simply interchanging two the line voltages. Phase sequence depends upon the order in the line voltages reach their positive peaks.24. in Fig. a negative sequence can be con- any two is the phasor diagram of Consequently. 8. We call this becomes a-c-b-a-c-b . . Although this verted into a positive sequence by interchanging change. we find that the sequence The source shown sequence a-b-c. Let us now busbars or high-voltage transmission lines have to consider a 3-phase source having ter- minals a. in Fig. major distribution systems The phase sequence of all is known in advance. is a-b-c-a-b-c . 8. and the horizontal axis in the conventional any future connections are planned accordingly. counterclockwise direction. the sequence of the first subscripts corresponds to the phase sequence of the source. Solution The voltages follow the sequence A-C-B. any one of three forms: acb ? cba. the sequence (Fig. In practice. Suppose the line voltages £ AC - is the corresponding phasor diagram Similarly. the line voltage sequence conclude that for a given direction of rota- tion a positive ters. 8.24).26b.26 a. ECB -E BA and shown in Fig. we direct our attention to the first letter in each subscript. 8. 3-phase one lamp source der: (a) — — ^/^^^^ Determining the phase sequence of a 3-phase £"cb source. . the Suppose we interchange any two in Fig. 8.26a is We can.. be such drastic mechanical changes do not have to made at the last minute. always burn brighter than (b) Figure 8.THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS If the same disc turns clockwise.. will The phase sequence is in the following bright lamp dim lamp capacitor the other. the result is letters on the disc while retaining the same counterclock- wise rotation.16 Determining the phase following Special instruments are available to indicate the phase sequence. 8. but ing we can also determine two incandescent lamps and a it by us- capacitor. Cil revolving phasors sweep past be interchanged. there a difference between a positive sequence is and a negative sequence. We to phase sequence of the source be A-C-B.. which Figure 8. it can be described by rule: When 175 using the double-subscript notation. 8. three devices are connected in wye.. . 8. If The we connect the circuit to a 3-phase line (without connecting the neutral). b. therefore. the letters If as shown becomes c-b-a-c-b-a a and c . . b ? c (Fig. Example 8-12 that £ab E hc E . The sequence now which is the same as the negative sequence generated by the disc in Fig. . is We can reverse the phase line by interchanging any two se- let- quence of a 3-phase conductors. 8. said to possess the state the 8.17. Clearly.25.27 See Example 8-12. In Fig.26a). it may appear to be a trivial can become a major problem when large letters. known are interchanged..

30 Measuring power in a 3-phase. circuit using the .28 a. . 3-wire system. If the brightly. the active power sup- may be measured by two shown in Fig. The total power is wattmeter readings. 8. E BA EAC The £" . Figure 8. equal to the sum of the two single-phase wattmeters connected as 8.17 Power measurement that a capacitor/lamp cir- if the will power factor is ac circuits Wattmeters are used measure active power to in single-phase and 3-phase circuits. 3-wire two-wattmeter method. Power measurement in 3-phase. b. Note that the ± cur- In single-phase circuits the pointer (b) scale are rent terminal nal. is less than 1 if the power 00 percent.30. cuit is connected to a 3-phase 8.18 Suppose. as to is phase shown C sequence is CB line volt- CB-BA-AC. In a 3-phase. the has 2 potential terminals and 2 cur- One of the potential terminals one of the current terminals bears a signs are polarity marks that ± sign.28b. 3-wire circuits plied to a 3-phase load factor 8. burns more C-B-A. For balanced loads. Resulting phasor diagram.28a.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 176 3-phase (a) line lamp Figure 8. Figure 8. to its external a wattmeter meter and ammeter combined Consequently. . the lamp connected phase sequence ages follow each other which is to say in the line. rent terminals. moves upwhen the connections between source and load made as shown in Fig. it way connections and the may be considered in it to be a volt- same box.29. The sequence in the corresponding phasor diagram 8. is that ± potential termi- connected power is way. The maximum voltage and current the instrument can tolerate are shown on the nameplate. a capacitor.29 Method of connecting a single-phase wattmeter. 4. in Fig. and The ± determine the positive when same time or negative reading of the wattmeter. Thus. Owing is built. When is connected to the the wattmeter upscale reading Determining phase sequence using two lamps and means supply terminals 1. an this flowing from 2 to load terminals 3. shown in in Fig. the ± voltage terminal as current is is entering the positive at the ± current terminal. the instruments give different readings. then the wattmeter will give a positive (upscale) reading. for example. 8. Indeed.

The total power supplied to the load is equal to the sum of the three wattmeter readings.. A at p and the wattmeter . and power LOAD .6 readings are P. • : p> 845 W. in 3-phase.20 Varmeter 845 A varmeter indicates W It is Power factor = P/S = 450/3741 = 0. C. In this case. power absorbed whether the load 4-wire 3-phase. factor.80.+1295 W. 8. Example 8-14 > When the the line motor Example 8-13 runs in current drops to 3. or 80 percent p. an upscale reading means that active balanced. P 2 = Calculate the no-load losses no-load. and the is power factor of power is flowing from source A. Some wattmeters. The threewattmeter method gives the active power for both balanced and unbalanced loads. the current in line circuits. shown When is total in Fig. 3-phase following results: P. each of the three lines 600 is V. No-load losses are P = P. 1 .31 Measuring power in a 3-phase. wattmeters are needed to measure the The connections are made tween the two wattmeter readings. to the motor is SSI P = 5950 + 2380 = 8330 W cosO = P/S= 8330/10 390 = 0. is.THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS less than 50 percent. such as those used on switch- boards. In voltage motor yields the = +5950 W. the of the 3-phase circuit is power equal to the difference be- The two-wattmeter method gives the active balanced or un- is single-phase three that the ± ± as current terminal potential terminal. Solution Apparent power supplied to motor ) S = V3 EI = V3 X 600 X = 3741 VA 3.6 Figure 8. out of the 3-phase power. Note again connected to the the wattmeters are con- nected this way.19 a negative reading.32 shows a Solution megawatt-range wattmeter Apparent power supplied to the motor ^3EI = V3 X 600 X S = = Active 10 390 power is circuit that a generating station. . 4-wire circuits nections of the potential coif so as to obtain a reading of this negative quantity. but an in- by 90° before it . Calculate the 10 A. Figure 8. The measures the current trans- formers (CT) and potential transformers (PT) step 10 down VA power supplied in the line currents and voltages to values com- patible with the instrument rating. N to the load. are specially designed to give a direct read- the motor. + P2 = = 450 1295 - 8. B. P 2 = + 2380 W. Example 8-13 A full-load test on a 10 hp. 4-wire circuit.3 power.12 = \2% built the the reactive same way power as a wattmeter ternal circuit shifts the line voltage in a circuit. one of the wattmeters will give We must then reverse the con- 177 Power measurement 8.

Varmeters are mainly rooms of generating and the substations of electrical utilities load resistance (Fig.21 It A remarkable single-phase to 3-phase transformation sometimes happens unity power 3-phase line. the 3-phase system becomes completely unbalanced.33). power from readings (Fig. circuit. This can create a badly unbalanced it three phases perfectly is possible to balance the by connecting the single-phase load b. 3-wire balanced We circuits.32 Measuring active power is in applied to the potential employed tions in the control a high-power coil. However. When is connected alone line balancing reactances are added across the remaining lines.30). When on the 3-phase factor load has to be connected to a system. as shown in Fig. For example. 8. Example 8-15 A 800 phases kW 1 = 440 Z single-phase load connected between is and 2 of a 440 V. essential that the three impedances be the +5950 W and +2380 W repower spectively.242 n is .ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 178 Figure 8. the reactive V3 -2-3- . 8. Note that 1 surement is if is this (5950 — 2380) . that a large single-phase a. X method of var mea- only valid for balanced 3-phase circuits.34 Solution a. phase sequence of the 1 it is line voltages £ l2 connected as indicated. two wattmeters indicate = 6 76 vars. E ]2 wherein E3l = 440 Z 120. E23 = 440 Z - line. given and the In 3-phase. l £23 E3l large industrial consumers. . capacitive and If the in- ductive reactances are interchanged. Furthermore. 12(X Calculate the load currents and line currents 8. the we can cal- two wattmeter simply multiply the differ- ence of the two readings by V 3. 8. 3-phase 0. The resistance of the single-phase load a capacitive reactance and an inductive reactance across the other two lines. culate the reactive impedances V 3 times greater than the value of the sta- The reactances must each have R E2 P = 800 000 0.

32).907 + j 523 =1047j = 1047Z90 Figure 8.242 we 0. each other (Fig. . 2.38 180) £23 Applying Kirchhoff's current law and Figure 8. introducing capacitive and inductive reac- tances having an impedance of 0.13 £23 + we 0.33 A single-phase resistive load can be transformed a balanced 3-phase load.1047Z. ~ /3 = 1817Z0 .1817Z0 907 .'.1047Z. By is and so the zero.4 19 fl. 2.-30 = 907 + j 523 . to .34. = 0 j 0.38 £ 3] - j obtain the following results: = 0 /. is badly unbalanced. V3 = obtain a balanced 3-phase line. we to nodes 1 . Taking successive loops around the respective Section 2.1817 -907 — j 523 1047Z210 = h ~ h = 1047Z30 .30 = 1817 . .j 523 = 1047/1-30 /b Ic = = = = = h ~ h 1047Z-30 .907 . / A / B /c make up a balanced 3-phase system because they are equal and displaced at 120° See Example 8-14. 8. obtain into U = /. £12 2.35).38 circuit and using Kirchhoff's voltage law (see 8. E ]2 - elements in Fig.419 U X 440Z(-120 + 0. = 4A3E l2 = X 440Z0 = 1817Z0 4.THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS The current in the 1 79 load and in two of the three lines is The current in the third line 3-phase system b. 3. /.242/.38 £ 23 = 1047^-30 U = .419 /3 - 0 = j 2.34 Thus.j 523 . 90) /3 X 440Z(120 + 90 - = £ 31 = = 1047Z30 -j 2. as demonstrated below.

each of these instants? is connected the polarity of terminal a with re1 at What connected b. What b. Calculate the apparent power supplied to the motor. . a to a 8-3 8-12 at 240° each of these b. connected in- Calculate the line voltage. 3-phase load? supplied to the load. needed so £ 23 8-9 8-14. Could we reverse is resistor the phase sequence in Fig. 8. If c.6 II. what is are con- between the resis- the voltage across each resistor? is the current in tance of each winding? each line? Calculate the power supplied to the 3-phase Three the resistors are also say that 8-14 Three 24 fl resistors are connected across a load. In b. 3-phase b. 3-phase generator using a resistive 8. The generator b. c. 15 (2. same power. a. instants? Referring to Fig. R = is £al Could we ahead of£ al ? . b. In delta The windings of a 3-phase motor nected in delta. 3-phase line. A 3-phase Calculate the instantaneous voltage between What to the in delta burns out. 3-phase line. 120°. age across terminals 2. and 330°.9 V What is 1. load.12 is 620 V.35 See Example Three 10 that the What connected kV and in delta V. calculate the resistance of each. a. If the resistance two terminals is 0. Calculate the value of The voltage between 8. Eb2 is 120° lines a-b-c of Fig. kW line. Calculate the resistance of three elements connected in in delta. What is the power supplied Figure 8. the instantaneous value of the volt- behind phasor Eh2 240°. 8-5 is if wye? the resistors are If We if 1 What the line current in kW when V. a.10? it by changing the direction of rotation of the magnet? 8-7 A 3-phase draws a motor connected line current to a 600 V line of 25 A.3 8-4 is wye. 8-6 The ohmic value of each a. 120 are connected in delta. phasor is c. is Practical level 8- 1 wye-connected generator V in each of its windings. What 208 4 kV.2 is a.180 ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS Tm e. to a each resistance the elements are connected wye a. calculate the line connected a. what resistors are line voltage is 13. If the line cur- is 60 A. calculate the following: The current in each resistor The voltage across each resistor The power supplied to each resistor The power supplied to the 3-phase load 600 8-15 that A 60 hp would dissipate the 3-phase motor absorbs 50 from a 600 V. If the wye the line current 1202 A. 8-11 voltage of 100 terminals is in Fig. fl resistors are new power Questions and Problems 8-10 If one cut. 3-phase line. d. b. the line current if the resistors are in delta? known to be connected in wish to apply full-load 100 kVA. 8-8 Three incandescent lamps rated 60 W. spect to terminal c. 8. line V is phase voltage or a 2-phase voltage? A 3-phase duces 2400 8-2 one the fuse in If line voltage lamps burn normally? on a 208 V. 8.9c. 90°. calculate the following: The efficiency of the motor The apparent power absorbed by the motor rent a. at 0°. b same conductor of a 3-phase line the load then supplied by a single- heater dissipates 15 generates a peak per phase.

cent draws a current of 25 across a 2300 V.THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS The reactive power absorbed by The power factor of the motor c. respectively. line current reactive 8. The 0 jxF capacitors are connected An In Problem to terminal 8-20 Hz line.5 1 16 A. 3-phase heater stalled in a hot water boiler. . which lamp will be brighter? connected resistors to a in in 3 8-27 absorb 60 3-phase line. 8. motor has an efficiency of 85 percent. across a 530 V. the resistance and reactance. rent and three 8 ft resistors connected as shown tors are the 181 does in series 8-3 1 it produce Three 5 if the line voltage il resistors are across a 3-phase 480 V connected line. B.19. Three delta-connected kW when deter- 8. b. line indicate 3. is 8-30 A 1 50 kW. 8. that the plant wattmeters connected into a 3-phase. motor. the following: a.30 register +35 kW and —20 kW. A 20 H resistor is connected A and B of a 3-phase. The capacitor is connected to termiand the lamp that burns brighter is What Draw draws 600 power ance of the plant? connected to terminal X. and C. is The wattmeters in Fig. line current if the line voltage 630 is V. Calculate b. What b. Without draw- 8-28 R and X in series. B. 1 resistor b. 8-29 In Fig. if the capacitor new power 1 V Calculate the active power supplied to the a. assume connected V from a 600 respectively. calculate the line current if the frequency A line. kW and motor having a cos 0 of 82 per- How much connected actors (X) are connected in different a. calculate the absorbed. 480 V between line.7. is in- What power is in 470 V? wye Calculate the . a. If the load is wye. 3-wire 220 level Three a imped- the equivalent line-to-neutral mine the values of 8-26 Advanced kVA from factor of 80 percent an equivalent circuit similar to Fig. connected in delta R connected in delta and X connected in wye 8-23 In is in wye and that the motor R with an inductive reactance X.18. the currents that flow in lines A. calculate the following: phases 50 Hz instead of 60 Hz. The 8-24 V. calculate the line cur- c. 460 V. What a. connected in wye R and X in parallel. energy does the motor consume h? The The load power factor. d. the phase sequence? is is Assuming b.5 calculate the mechanical 8. If a. 0 |jlF circuit capacitor are 8- 1 8 connected is V X-Y-Z of a 3-phase 20 1 8-25 wye 1 Two kW. rent for each of the following connections: 8-22 the load Industrial application ways ing a phasor diagram. power output. that each branch can be represented by a resistance a. and apparent power sup- active. Problem 8-15. nal Y. The to the terminals outlet. 8-16 Three 15 voltage If the line 530 is motor Q reac- in Fig. plied to the 3-phase load b. lines Calculate Two 30 il resistors are AB and BC connected between of a 3-phase 480 V line. line at a lagging. and C. b. balanced.4 kV 8- 1 7 The voltage across each W lamps and a Two 60 connected in wye. they are reconnected 8-2 electric 3-phase in c. Three 1 5 If the power generated 1 is X. respectively. 60 The can be represented by calculate the following: a. the phase angle between the line cur- is and the corresponding line-to-neutral voltage? following: a. Calculate the currents flowing in lines A. reactive. 8. 3-phase b. calculate the An industrial plant 2. the phasor diagram for the line voltages. If the line current The apparent power The power factor of b. 8-19 1 respectively. Calculate the values of R and X. H resistors (R) and three 8 fl reline.

60 Hz squirrel-cage motor. 450 kg Square D used to drive a 1600 hp. c. calculate the full-load current the line V. b. What power does the heater de- factor of 83%.6% and a current flowing in each. What is the reactive power drawn from the line at full-load? 80 r/min. of the three fuses protecting a 3-phase 200 kW. The apparent power drawn by the motor. efficiency induction motor X 24 respectively. 600 V is removed so as to reduce the heat produced by the boiler. premium 1 1 Company V. 3-phase steam boiler pro- 8-34 is 612 produced if A 40 hp.1 82 ELECTRICA L MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS has a full-load efficiency of 93. 575 lb V. 3-phase. 460 V. Calculate the following: b. full-load line current. in ciency and power factor of of steam per hour. If one of the resistors is that flows in the 8-32 One power disconnected. What is the phase angle neutral voltage and the between the line current? line-to- . The a. Estimate the quantity of steam voltage A 92 motor controller 2400 velop under these conditions? 8-33 8-35 c. Assuming the is 32 in. electric heater rated at A 450 kW. 60 Hz manufactured by Baldor Electric X in delivered by the controller. 3-phase. motor has a minimum 96% effi- and 90%. TEFC. calculate the current remaining two. The active power drawn by the motor. duces 1 300 a.

Chapter 9 The Ideal Transformer 9. and synchro- nous motors. Voltage induced in a coil A itive 9. links) a variable flux soidally at a The which surrounds (or links a vari- sinusoidal flux induces a sinusoidal voltage. 1) .44/7V<D max (9. the transformer enables us to transmit electrical energy over great distances and to distribute it safely in factories and homes. whose given by flux alternates sinu- E= frequency/ periodically reaching pos- 183 4. and it it can can increase or decrease the apparent value of a capacitor. isolate circuits from each other. It can raise or lower the voltage or current in an ac circuit. effective value is alternating flux in the coil. an inductor. alternators. or a resistor Furthermore. It will help us under- stand not only the commercial transformers covered in later chapters but also the basic operating princi- ple of induction motors.0 Introduction frequency/ The transformer ful electrical is probably one of the most use- devices ever invented. a. covered here. Consequently. and negative peaks $ max . 9. we encourage 9. We will study transformers some of the basic properties of in this chapter. la. The induces a sinusoidal ac voltage Consider the it flux. All these devices are based upon the Figure laws of electromagnetic induction.1 b.1 voltage able the reader to pay particular attention to the subject matter A is induced in a coil when coil of Fig.

whose value E E must be is cIJ milx given by Eq. Example 9-1 The coil in Fig. negligible.The peak value of this ac flux zero. 9. is in Fig. ]X is which.44 It on the and induced voltage and draws a current / m [Wb] the flux a constant [exact value = is It even by an ac current that flows — N is As in any inductive is in <l> The Thus. The coil has a reactance The voltage E induced plied voltage b.2b). £. 1 when and so the voltage AcJ)/Ar is is change the instantaneous induced voltage. use the peak rms value? The reason m induces an effective voltage of the coil. Finally. calculate the effective value and (a) frequency of the induced voltage E. across the terminals other hand. is The question flux Xm of the coil plained as follows: Eq. 9. detailed behavior of the circuit can be ex- c|> density sinusoidal current .1 possesses 4000 turns and links an ac flux having a peak value of 2 quency is mWb.44/MP max from which we obtain is (9. <l>. 9. The peak volt- 2131 V2 = 3014 V. / m and .1) 4. m produces rent. the flux the rate of is the flux time. I is peak flux Bm . the applied voltage voltage a sinusoidal sinusoidal flux called the magnetizing cur- £u = = 4.2 value a. / m lags 90° behind phase with the current (Fig. or connected coil of /V turns coil does not matter where the ac flux comes from: may shows a Fig. the voltage negative. derived from Faraday's law equation which AcjVAr A(|)/Ar in of flux and c b.1 is If the resistance . when decreasing with time. when the flux is neither in- creasing nor decreasing (even for one microsecond).002 (b) The induced voltage has an of 2131 age is V effective or RMS Figure 9. consequently. the rate of change Act>/A/ voltage given by is circuit. a nearby ac coil.2) 4. E a and flux 9.44 X 60 X 4000 X 2131 V 0. which Consequently. Phasor relationships between £fg! E. is The .2 Applied voltage E = effective voltage induced [V] /= frequency of the flux [Hz] = number of turns /V ^max = peak value of = 4. and so the why do we also arises: / in turn creates a zero. On the the induced identical because they appear be- tween the same pair of conductors. Conversely. the rate of change Ac|)/Ar is is is increasing with greater than zero positive.44/W* inax (9.44 JN determines the level of saturation. . 9. 9. and a frequency of 60 Hz. Because we can <J>. . e to a si- 2 tt/V2) be created by a moving magnet.2a nusoidal ac source £„.1 ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 84 where 9. Eg in a coil is equal to the ap- . Sol til ion 4. max instead of the that the is The mmf /V7 m E. the current and in the coil itself. the rate of change less than zero. write proportional to the peak flux in iron cores. If the fre- 60 Hz. 1 .

66 509. b. The inductance when is X m = EJI m = = 30 instant ampere-turns. flux. 1 mWb at the The inductive reactance d.2) 90) expect). the mag- smaller when the iron U= same - inside the coil. the peak flux must remain constant. If the effective value of the magnetizing current dispersed excited by /m will surround a portion 4> ml of the total coil voltmeter. 1 needed with The an iron core than with an air core. the it A coil Hz having 90 turns is in produces the space bring a second coil close to ac voltage and its E2 is therefore induced in the value can be measured with a The combination of the two coils is The coil connected to the called a transformer.10) X 60) . if the flux increased (as we would also increase.0796 = 9. The peak value of the ac flux will remain ab- solutely constant during this operation. If Figure 9. 9.THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER This equation shows that for a given frequency and a given to the number of turns.2 = EJ(4MJN) = 120/(4. suppose we gradually a. a coil having an air core an ac source E„. netizing current core is flux.3 The a. d. which we coil. In effect.3). Consequently. 120/4 SI is L = XJ2irf = 30/(2tt (2. is called the secondary winding . to produce the smaller magnetomotive force is in Fig. For example.2. at But this is we said. 60 source.44 X 60 X = 0. retaining original value $ max even when the core is its com- pletely inside the coil. c. b. 9. This means that if £g is kept constant.3 is much X 4 A 5. in Figs.4.6 mH Elementary transformer In Fig. For a given supply voltage E„. in Fig.3 79. the ac flux and 9. The The The The 185 peak value of flux mmf peak value of the inductive reactance of the coil inductance of the coil insert an Solution iron core into the coil while keeping E„ fixed (Fig.3 b.66 is NI m = 90 X 5. the induced voltage every instant and. is connected to a 120 V. E„ is is therefore the same. a The peak current is lm is much Wik) = ^2/ = = kept fixed. constant. (I> lllax varies in proportion applied voltage E„. flux is equal to 5 mmf is the coil 509.5 mWb <D max a. 9. is flux in the coil remains constant so long as Eg first. In effect. the magnetizing current mmf U >/2 smaller than c.0.005 . as 9. 9. The peak However. Example 9-2 is is 4 A. The resulting current (b) a total flux around the <1>. E would impossible because E — E„ (9. calculate the following: source is called the primary winding (or primary) and the other one (or secondary). An second Phasor relationships.

* "Positive" and "negative" are cause we can shown in quotation marks be- rarely look inside a transformer to see in which direction the flux is actually circulating. In most it collapses almost completely industrial transformers. Terminals 1 and 3 are terminal 1 and another large dot beside secondary The dots are called polarity marks. 9. tion. 9. which links the same does.5 Terminals having the Figure 9. two we coils is is very small compared to the then say that the coupling between weak. well be placed beside terminals 2 and 4 because.5 Properties of polarity A transformer is marks usually installed in a metal enclo- sure and so only the primary and secondary terminals are accessible.4 fluxes On and 3> ml are both stant.1 ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSF ORMERS 86 Figure 9. load connected across the secondary terminals. Conversely. A current entering a polarity. 1 that if worse is primary terminal then said to possess the same polarity. 9. Mutual flux is <I> f1 flux is . become simultaneously positive. 9. If the coils are far we at the can be shown by placing a large dot beside primary created by the primary can be broken turns of both coils. every half-cycle. together with their polarity marks. the fol- to polarity marks. When still be the cou- relatively small and. improve the coupling between them. parts: a mutual flux 4> ml . during instant as apart. But although the transformer may lowing rules always apply to not be visible. they too. We two coils closer together. both reaching their peak values at the same instant. the and is a primary and sec- ondary windings are wound on top of each other positive with respect to sec- (Fig.4 Polarity of a transformer tive" direction* (Fig. value voltage exists only between primary terminals is and secondary terminals 3-4. voltage exists between primary terminal ondary terminal trically isolated The flux up into two <I> 3. a current 1 . two coils touch. the mutual flux total flux <t>. the fluxes are in phase. The polarity marks in Fig. 9. when still. even mutual flux will small compared to the total flux pling is weak.5). in a secondary winding.4 marked Voltage induced <I> m1 leakage . A 1-2 same with a dot. In Fig. as the voltage alternates. It They also pass through zero at the follows that voltage E2 will reach same its in- peak As a result.marked terminal produces a mmf that acts in a "positive'' direc- 9. and a leakage flux the instantaneous polarity are one of these peak moments. This sameness ity E2 bring the secondary right up to the primary so that the secondary terminal 3 ondary terminal 4 can obtain a better cou- pling (and a higher secondary voltage ing the that positive with respect to primary terminal 2 which links only the turns of the primary. voltage E2 is <J>.6). respectively. Suppose. it produces a flux in the "posi- flowing out of a polarity-marked terminal pro- produced by magnetizing current /nr Consequently. Consequently. the ) by bring- However. .5 could equally terminal 3. the polar- marks may be shown beside terminals beside terminals 2 and 1 and 3 or 4. The secondary is No and sec- 1 therefore elec- from the primary.

in general. relationship. Primary and secondary are linked by a mutual flux. a. commer- we cial transformers. The primary of polarity-marked terminals of two coils pro- E„ and The If one polarity-marked terminal is momentarily positive. turns. voltage ratio Before undertaking the study of practical. (a) (a) t: g . 9.^. A'. 9. an ideal transformer has no losses and nitely permeable. currents that respectively flow into and out 2. Phasor relationships at no-load.6 Ideal transformer at no-load. and reaches a peak value ) mrtx . Instantaneous polarities b.7. (b) (b) 4>rr Figure 9. According to Eq. Consequently. by the primary ondary.THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER 187 9.8 The ideal transformer at no-load. . 1. phasor voltage on the secondary side ti with the phasor voltage on the primary side.8a shows an ideal transformer duces a mint and flux in the "negative" direction. current entering a polarity-marked terminal pro- duces a have properties which ap- Practical transformers Figure 9. This rule enables us to re- late the *m-. when the magnetizing cur- Figure 9. shall examine the properties of the so-called ideal transformer. b. For example.7 a.6 A flux in a "positive" direction. The which /V. Phasor rent is increasing. Thus. . we can therefore write: other terminal). Consequently. £ ab phasor £dc is in phase . is 4 the and N2 connected to a sinusoidal source the magnetizing current / U1 creates a tlux flux is <t> m it is a mutual flux. completely linked by the primary and sec- ondary windings and. our study of the ideal transformer will help us understand the properties of transformers Figure 9. consequently. Furthermore. then the other polarity-marked terminal to momentarily positive (each with respect is its in primary and secondary respectively possess duce magnetomotive forces that buck each other. flux varies sinusoidally. an ideal transformer enclosure transformer has no leakage flux of any kind. proach those of an ideal transformer. By definition. with phasor in Fig. is its core is infi- any flux produced completely linked by the sec- and vice versa.

tizing current I m flux 90/2250 in tT the apply Eq. Consequently. infinitesimally small. Phasor = Ei -3000 V and secondary voltages turns. The voltage on the sec- As is £. the voltage ratio O max (9. the phasor A not quite ideal is: an ideal transformer. infinitely no magnetizing current $m V E 2 = 3000 V . obviously phase with magne- senting flux <P m is which produces However. E2 X 25 Instead of reasoning as above. The turns ratio N2 /N where £| The secondary voltage N2 = numbers of turns on voltage induced secondary [V] in the on the primary turns 25 times more £ 2 = 25 X E Furthermore.44/JV. other . under no-load conditions. The peak voltage across the expression for c. tween the primary and secondary is 4 A. because the primary <F m they are necessarily in phase. 9.1 ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 88 = £. current / m lags 90° behind applied voltage Zs The phasor reprethan phasor £". turns ratio number of therefore 25 times greater is than the primary voltage because the secondary has the secondary This equation shows that the ratio of the primary mutual (9. phasor ] which again yields . given by: = E2 IZ we connect the load? To anwe must recall two facts. required to produce the is is every instant. 60 25 times greater than 9. shorter any inductor. First. it.7 Ideal transformer under load. The phasor diagram at no load is given is in If the transformer has fewer turns b. The secondary voltage at e 2 = 25 permeable and so diagram of such a transformer 9. The effective voltage across the secondary and terminals E2 = From 4..8b except that phasor / m is is identical to Fig.44. in varies sinusoidally./yV2 we deduce these equations. 9. (and not ondary than on the primary. 4.3) Calculate: a. equal to the ratio of the is and secondary voltages are induced by the same 9.9). transformer having 90 turns on the magnetizing current = e current ratio secondary current Hz when X 37 = 925 V Example 9-3 nected to a 120 V. phase with phasor £.5: l = the peak secondary voltage 2( E2 we can /E 2 =N /N 2 \20/E2 180° out of phase) as indicated by the polarity marks.4) b.<l> lllilx (9. an ideal transformer the primary and secondary windings are linked by a mutual flux <I> m and by no . 120 in Fig. consequently.5) voltage induced in the primary [V] numbers of = -2250/90 x = 25 = E2 = N\ = a is: E2 immediately flow. I 2 will I2 con- Does The coupling be- swer is is perfect. The instantaneous voltage across the secondary when the instantaneous voltage across the primary is 37 V and turns ratio a of an ideal trans- former: the secondary terminals Solution: a. in change when this question.8b. P cak)= V 2£ = V 2 X 3000 =4242 V c. Thus. but the let us connect a load Z across A the secondary of the ideal transformer (Fig. primary and 2250 turns on the secondary source. x 37 E x V Pursuing our analysis. because magnetic circuit this is is . Consequently: turns.

to Eq. the mutual flux change under <L> m But we just saw . current E2 by an angle Flux 6. a primary current /j that flux N2 I 2 at every must flow so AVi = N 2 I 2 To obtain . remains fixed whether a load Let us remains fixed. By definition. { mark on when effect. /2 goes through zero. We conclude that magnetomotive forces current I 2 produces a secondary — connected or created by the primary and secondary windings.THE IDEA L TRANSFORMER same the <*W: when time. A at 9. only remain fixed We if conclude If it acted that <E> in m does not <I> m can the primary develops a mmf which exactly counterbalances Thus. First. 9.9b). ( goes through zero. this turns on the secondary kept fixed. Phasor relationships under load. profound change instant. the voltage ratio under load is the same /Vj as at no-load. mutual flux <P m also remains fixed. In other words. Furthermore. but no magnetizing current produce the phasor under load (Fig. The mutual mains unchanged. must flow out of the the secondary side (see Fig. we can now draw facts. we the inverse of the volt- is requirement that the apparent power input An that: 9. namely: the if E„ the supply voltage is E induced voltage primary E2 E2 also remains fixed. maximum + is be E To N2 N. the primary E2 l 2 we lose consistent with the Ef to x must equal the apparent power output power inputs and outwould mean that the transformer itself absorbs power. polarity a resistive-inductive load. and when 1 this flux because this is <I> / lags 90° m m is needed an idea trans- former. this of the secondary. ideal transformer Assuming 9. Example 9-4 ideal transformer having 90 turns on the primary and 2250 turns on the secondary is connected to a (9. Using these to ( flows into a polarity mark /[ side. Finally. they are related by the equation: Figure 9. The load across the secondary draws a current of 2 cent lagging (Fig. Consequently. f and I2 what we gain and vice versa. If the puts were not identical. follows that number of on the primary x a Second. alone. b. in order to produce the in bucking (a) I 2 is 89 In other words. load. { now examine the is It mmf would produce in current not. currents ratio. 50 Hz source. 10a). on the primary /. an ideal transformer.9a). I 2 diagram of an I2 maximum + phase. Thus. has no leakage flux.5 and Eq. This is see that the in voltage.7. lags behind behind Ee . under load. secondary current [A] = number of turns N2 = . the primary and secondary currents (b) According are in phase. 9.6) 200 the required instant-to-instant bucking ef- fect.N /N2 £. the currents must ). ) /. In effect. Ideal transformer (9..6. a power factor of 80 per- .9 a. then Consequently. is impossible in it an ideal transformer. AT. transformer current ratio age mmf N2 I2 a turns ratio Comparing Eq.7) flux re- where f = primary flux. 9./£ 2 = I2 current |A) must increase and decrease at V. by defini- tion.

1/ 100 is mA c. = N 2 l2 .5 A the same as that linking the primary. by means of Eq. 90/. The peak d. Phasor relationships. The is The peak turns ratio = ?s / — '2 instantaneous = 25 X 0. .6. a. a./. is is: ^=yv. 25 X 2 d. Therefore Calculate: a. lows: Secondary voltage = we can The instantaneous current E2 is in Phase angle between in the power primary is al- ways 25 times greater than the instantaneous as fol- 25 X 200 phase with £. N. primary when /.2250 X = 50 A 90) is Consequently: /.90 1 ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS Figure 9. flux in the secondary = <P max 1/25 current ratio is = E^/(4MfN ) = 200/(4.9° phase with I2 . indicated by the polarity marks. b./yv 2 -90/2250 The = In an ideal transformer.44 X 50 X = 0. the current mWb the phasor diagram. 2 we reason is E2 = 25 X Ei = = 5000 V calculate 9. /. the primary current 25 times greater than the secondary current.01 ] therefore 25 and because the 10 primary has fewer turns. For the same reason. current in the secondary. = 2. Draw flux linked by the secondary winding the phasor diagram c. the flux linking the sec- ondary Solution: l2 is: instantaneous 1 the instantaneous current in the secondary when /j is in E 2 and l 2 is factor = cos 6 0. The b. The instantaneous effective value of the primary current current in the 100 mA.8 = cos e 9 = 36. To draw = 50 A Instead of reasoning as above. b.10 See Example 9-4.

Thus. * = a£ 2 Some texts show the respective voltages and currents as being 180° out of phase. and U are al- phase. and so we can write Furthermore. we (Fig. Consequently.10b). This situation can arise depending upon how the behavior of the transformer is described.THE IDEA L TRA NS FORMER Figure 9. 12a in which an former T load Z. ways in { flowing always accom- /. Consider. /. is also 36. 1 if we let the ratio of transformation obtain £. it is 9. = / 2 /a never any doubt as to we have adopted how the phasors in this book. and ing the methodology /. la. In and for an 1 To highlight the bare former.9°. Fig. ideal transformer best to /. 9. is phase and so are .* If the symbol 9. and specifically referring to Fig. is .9 Impedance ratio Although a transformer is generally used to trans- form a voltage or current. 1 1). to indicate the direction of current flow as well as the polarities of E voltages into .11 Symbol for an b. and phasor diagram using double-subscript The phase angle between £. 9. /N 2 = a. may sometimes the nature of the load be a source) connected to the secondary side. in- and the mutual tlux ing primary 4> m . / 2 . The mutual tlux lags 90° behind E„ (Fig.8 Circuit 9 an ideal transformer. it also has the impor- tant ability to transform an impedance. The is ideal trans- connected between a source E„ and a ratio of transformation is a. ideal transformer ideal transformer and phasor diagram using sign notation. and /. N /[ flowing out of the other polar- I2 x simply show a box hav- and secondary terminals marks are added. 9. and £2 F° r example. draw in it symbolic form. - a current one polarity-marked terminal panied by a current is ity-marked terminal. for example. 9. 9. Symbol for an a. enabling us Polarity and E The angle a depends upon essentials of an ideal trans- stead of drawing the primary and secondary windings notation. there should be drawn. we and E2 are always in phase. and so are double-subscript notation £ab /2 and Ecd are always (which in used (Fig. or how the By us- voltage polarities and current directions are assigned.1 lb).

but the shifted a~£\ a /. consider the circuit of Fig. a ! transformer T. ances to the primary side. because the reactance of a capacitor — (X c Figure 9. both the primary and secondary currents are zero.l3e. and not illusory like the image produced by a magnifying An glass. In secondary of the transformer is on open-circuit. and four impedances Z. Consequently. it 1 :5. modify the value a resistor. b. be ductor. amazing 9. 9. which contains a 1 3e.92 1 ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS impedance across the actual tical to the secondary terminals multiplied by the square of the turns ratio. EJE. comparing how a circuit shown Figs. if it Similarly. a shift the the circuit configuration remains the same. an ability to increase is iden- 1 3d). ideal transformer has the 9. It is composed of a source E„. . to On the other hand. a reactance of 1000 fl ondary. the the primary terminals actual value. the impedance seen across the primary terminals at the ex- 9. Impedance transformation using a transformer. In effect. The impedance transformation is real. or in- it a 1000 12 resistor if placed is across the secondary of a transformer having a pri- mary secondary turns ratio of to across the primary as X (1/5)" = 40 12. However. the ideal this position the a~Z (9. real we may wonT transformer . 1 is 2b).8) This means that the impedance seen by the source times the real impedance (Fig. (a) ideal transformer can of any component. 1 in Fig. move In der We can therefore re- the ideal transformer altogether. For example. the impedances are transferred a~. will appear it had a resistance of 1000 is if a capacitor having connected to the sec- appears as a 40 il capacitor across the primary. Z We its capacitance apparent capacitance between is 25 times greater than its can therefore artificially increase (or decrease) the microfarad value of a capacitor by means of a transformer. as shown in Figs. capacitor. Z = 2 secondary imped- impedance values are multiplied by If all Consequently. impedances from secondary to primary and vice versa 9. Z = E 2 /I 2 However.l3e. 9. to the pri- A.12 a. Zx can be expressed ^ = a£\ in another way: / 2 /a 2 Z As the impedances are shifted x 1 3b way. Z given by the secondary sees an impedance transformer has a turns ratio We can progressively to 9. 1 3a. in this transformer ends up treme right-hand side of the circuit (Fig. it sees an imped- the primary terminals given by: Zx = EJ1 As a further illustration of the impedance-changing properties of an ideal transformer. The impedance seen by the source differs from is inversely proportional to l/2ir/'C). 3a and 9. mary side. Z4 The a. 9. Thus.10 Shifting and LIU = As far as the ance source Z x between is l/a concerned. yielding the equivalent circuit or decrease the value of an impedance.

In effect. the voltage across the a"Z4 impedance £4 X is /4 a volts. 9. the voltages and cur- all /a and by a. On through the impedance side. Impedance Z 2 b. the corresponding changes T are now change E4 and in /4 zero. a 2 193 Z3 (e) Figure 9. is there between the two circuits? The answer is yes — there is a useful relationship between the real circuit of Fig. to the equivalent 3e and solve for 3a. secondary that the real current it cuit. the impedances are now transferred to the mary side and the transformer pri- no longer needed. the current each element the element On in the is secondary side becomes account of this relationship. The reason that the voltage is £ across each element in the secondary side becomes a£ when the element shifted to the primary side. 14 in the suppose that the is £4 volts and amperes. is can be reduced to a circuit which has no transformer any meaningful relationship at all. 9. Note shifted to the primary side. 9. change E3 and in /3 Note .l3e. The and actual circuit showing the actual voltages currents. is c. the current is equal to /4 ^ a amperes . is the corresponding d. Similarly. Note . Then. which yields the actual voltages illustrate. simply reduce in Fig. 9. 13a and the equivalent circuit of Fig. E 2 and in shifted to the primary side.13 a.The cur- shifted to the primary side. a real circuit such as the one We is / in in the equivalent ciris equal the other hand. by I 1 it Z4 easy to solve is it shown in Fig. real voltage across through to 1 form shown These values are then respectively multiplied and currents of each element To when //a shifted to the primary side. rents. 9. the corresponding e.THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER Z. Impedance Z3 Impedance Z4 is rents All in /2 . in Fig.

general. 1? words. showing the real voltages Note the corresponding change lower. 9. Note the corresponding change number of turns. the opposite way. z.16 a. 15). lower than the the ratio of the In real voltage — again.. The transformer is no longer needed because its currents are zero. The procedure in to the is the d. where the transformer voltage is b. also T are zero. If the side it changes impedance is is trans- to the other.15 Equivalent voltage and current (c) .ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 194 Figure 9. the real voltage across the impedance increases by a factor a. of course. All the impedances and even the source are now on the secondary side.14 Actual voltage and current in Z4 impedance a 2 . A. in £g Note . the voltage across the transferred impedance will also be higher. that actual circuit. transferred to the where the transformer voltage is higher. Z4 a£ 4 Figure 9. ferred to the side if the J proportion to in impedance is Figure 9. transferred to the secondary side. In other is Z4 in transferred to the primary side. trans- . Conversely. the voltage across the transferred impedance is The currents on the primary side. In ferred whenever an impedance from one side of a transformer the real voltage across the turns ratio.16a). whenever an impedance (Fig. in c. and in £-. 9. while the real current decreases by the factor a. that the currents in from the primary side and transferred to the secondary side. some cases it is useful to shift is Impedance Z 1 is The source is impedances secondary side (Fig.

9. 9. The peak value of / ni c. calculate the following: a. The peak and mm!' produced by The peak flux 4> m:ix In Problem to 40 9-3 .17. 9. We can even source E„ to the secondary side. e. d. 18 95 is shift the located at the extreme left-hand side of the the transformer + \ 16 - (5 - 2 (2. 300 current I 2 9-4. E knowing and current / in the circuit that ideal transformer primary to secondary turns ratio of 1 : T £7 100 has a 100. is connected to a 120 V. The it Z- becomes a ideal transformer \ R 2 + (X L . 17) ) 2 2) 9 on open-circuit. and the load a. = E/Z = / Example 9-5 The voltage across Calculate voltage Fig.16c).9 has turns on the primary and secondary.16b). before. but current / remains unchanged because 9- 1 The already on the primary side (Fig. The power delivered to The power output from the secondary In Problem the impedance seen d.2a has a re- actance of 60 il but negligible resistance.16d. but all vided by a 2 impedances so transferred are now (Fig. The the impedances to solve this to the problem is . The c.THE IDEA L TRA NS FORMER same. is both the primary and secondary currents are zero. 9-4 The ideal transformer in Fig. 9. 9.17. the 2 E A to shift all former. a voltage a resistance Calculate the following: The voltage E 2 b. Consequently. calculate the by the 1:100 9- the coil 9-5. The current /. 60 Hz source If £u . 9. it it is X is. by the source what is the primary [ WJ W] | .800 V Questions and Problems impedance values are or 10 000. = 8V therefore. of 12 Figure 9. 100 .Xc = V4 2 + primary of circuit (Fig. The impedance of the di- 1 we can remove = As the transformer completely. The s n current in the circuit is leaving us with the equivalent circuit of Fig. is primary side of the trans- turns than the secondary. 1 500 turns and coil in Fig.17 See Example 1 V. Z is 500 turns on the The source produces E„ of 600 V. Because the primary has 100 times fewer divided by 100 8 2 2X4 = //? actual voltage E= way easiest = = the resistor of Solution The 10/5 8). 9. meant by mutual flux? by leakage flux? Figure 9. Voltage E becomes £7100. if the voltage E„ What coil is new reduced is mmf developed and the peak flux (I) I1UIX . The effective value of the magnetizing cur- rent / m 9-2 b. where source having a voltage is now Eg /a.18 Equivalent circuit of Fig. 9. In this position the circuit in Fig. 9. 9-5 11.

The following transformer ratios are available: 120 V/330 V. |jlF. a rating of about proposed to use a transformer modify the 40 fxF so that it appears as fxF. When it Hz ac source.7 fl. 9. c. voltage across the 3-turn winding found to How many turns are there on the 480 V and 120 V windings (approximately)? A coil with an air core has a resistance of is connected to a 42 V. 60 minals We wish to deter- ondary voltage of 20 V. The having terminals coil 2 has 320 turns while the coil having ter- Industrial application minals 9-7 The nameplate on a 50 kVA transformer shows a primary voltage of 480 V and a sec- when 1 is mine the approximate number of turns on the primary and secondary windings. 9-8 1-2. the 4> ml A 40 but to and the is ^ 300 A voltage of 76 V is 20 22 and 4 has 160 turns.4. Calculate the following: a. It is is available. Calculate the peak values of <)>. across this 3-turn coil. .24 A). three turns of wire are and a voltmeter external winding. 9. 60 V/450 V.. a 56 V. Their respective resistances are small and may be it.196 9-6 ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS In Fig.24 A. 1. 3. calculate the voltage across the capacitor through 9-9 and the current flowing Two coils are set up as shown in Fig. 480 V/1 50 V. 60 14. 17. Which transformer is the most 300 be 0. neglected. Hz It is voltage is found that applied to ter- voltage across terminals 3-4 V. Toward this wound around the end. appropriate and what is the reflected value of the 40 fxF capacitance? To which side of the transformer should the be connected? 40 p. and its inductance The phase angle between the applied voltage (42 V) and the current ( 1 . The impedance of the coil The reactance of the coil. it draws a current of 1 . <(>. b.F capacitor . 600 V paper capacitor we need one having jjlF. then applied to the 1 connected is V winding. .93 V.

The equivalent and eddy-current hysteresis whose permeability R m and X m elements tribute to the temperature rise of the transformer. finally. This current lags 90° behind 197 E . Thus.0 Introduction In we Chapter 9 discovered real its with an imperfect core studied the ideal transformer and basic properties. Rm losses a small current developed from fundamental concepts.1 /m is flowing X m is relatively through X m represents low. the iron cores pro- duce eddy-current and hysteresis having core is can represent these imperfections by two circuit ondary. equivalent circuit comprising an ideal transformer cuit is rather is voltage £]. 1 a). This connected in parallel excited by a source is enables us to calculate such characteristics as volt- are low? the resulting heat they produce. the leakage flux must be taken into account. the netizing current needed to create the flux 3> m in the is core. age regulation and the behavior of transformers that also used to illustrate with the primary To furnish these drawn from the line. Thus. Furthermore. discover that the properties of and resistances and reactances. In this chapter What replaced by an terminals of the ideal transformer (Fig. We represents the iron losses and /. if The mag- low. simple analysis must be modified to take this into ers Ideal transformer 10. the windings of practical transform- have resistance and the cores are not iron infinitely is not completely captured by the sec- And losses. 10. the flux produced by the primary transformer studied ideal chapter had an infinitely permeable core. This The magnetizing reactance cir- The per-unit method mode of application. However.1b). } . a practical we primary which con- The transformer can be described by an resistance current is in is phase with E current its £p that 1 0.Chapter 1 Practical Transformers 10. the permeability in parallel. the previous in such a perfect core if losses and permeable. Xm a is measure of the permeability of the transformer core. in the The world transformers are not ideal and so our happens account. The produces a x (Fig. Consequently.

it is = E.1b.2a). current needed to produce the flux an imperfect core and a.7C = 120 to the core X is 5 = 600 VA The iron losses are P m = 80 W this less-than-ideal 1 The reactive Qm = power absorbed by ^^~Pi = 572 Figure 10.2) exciting current 70 of 5 large transformer operating at no-load A when draws an the primary is where a wattmeter test R [u = Xm = resistance representing the iron losses [Cl] equal to 180 magnetizing reactance of the primary Calculate winding Ei = Pm — Q in = The [flj primary voltage [V] c. 10. 9. From known that the iron losses are nected to a 120 V.2a See Example 10-1 .* Solution a. 60 var the core = V600 r^780I is .1 ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 98 = 0 /1 Jo /o=0 A 5 120 V 60 Hz A An ideal X T Figure 10. the core t) The apparent power supplied Sm in percentage of the full-load current.1b Phasor diagram of a practical transformer at no-load. The phasor diagram W.2) ) it The following equations then apply: R m = E* 2 /P m Xm = Er/Q m in Fig. [W] flux <t> m to set up the mutual It is ally a small is equal to the phasor called the exciting current 7 0 . <t> m at no-load for The reactive power absorbed by The value of R m and X m The value of 7f 7 m and 7 sum of 7f It is usu- . iron losses reactive power needed IvarJ total / in . .1a An imperfect core represented by a reactance a resistance Rm Xm and Figure 10. of the mutual flux <£ m Example 10-1 (10-1) A (10. 10.2: E f(AMfN x x (9. Xm The values of the impedances R m and can be found experimentally by connecting the trans- transformer is shown former to an ac source under no-load conditions and <t> measuring the active power and reactive power absorbs. m = is The peak value again given by Eq. b. con- Hz source (Fig.

infinitely is permeable and be- /.44 /TV. consequently. The leakage fluxes are due to the imperfect coupling between the coils. 99 1 to the iron losses is 2 Rm = E = { 120 /180 The magnetizing reactance c. We now assume a transformer having a perfect core but rather loose coupling between ings. 10. E2 = (N2 /N E p Owing zero.2 The exciting current - V/? 5 is x $m its h = infinitely + /t) i peak value Vl. there is no leakage flux linking with the primary.8 /m 10. keeping the source voltage A'L^Si = 4.PRACTICAL TRANSFORMERS The impedance corresponding b. 2 } = 0 is 2 /Q m = 120 /572 25. We also its primary and secondary wind- assume that the primary and sec- ondary windings have negligible resistance and the turns areN . connected The voltage former under load.3 at no-load.8 2 cause it A E2 to the current is given in Fig.5 2 + 4.). no mmf is available to has no losses. Ep and it sets up a mutual flux given by ^> nikl is Ep and = £ p /(4.5 A 120 V Let us now connect a load Z across the sec- ondary. 10.4 Mutual fluxes and leakage fluxes produced by a trans- . l in Fig. Because the core is = II permeable core is is given by being drive flux through the air.2b Phasor diagram.3 A Transformer with The magnetizing current /m = E IX m = = 4.5 = is 120/80 Figure 10. the no-load current The voltage The phasor diagram at no-load. /« ~ 5 A Ep fixed (Fig.2 Ideal transformer with loose coupling We have just seen how an ideal transformer behaves when it has an imperfect core. = 0. 10.4). { ) . This simple operation sets off a train of events which we list as follows: Figure 10.2b.2 ft The current needed If 1 a so Xm = E / 2 = IP m supply the iron losses to = E\/R m = 1.8 A across the primary 120/25.N2 Consider the transformer to a source E„ and operating Figure 10. This flux lags 90° behind a in the core. . If = 1.

5). . .44. 1 2 a total ac flux 4> 2 winding while another portion Flux in by the ideal-transformer equation related /.44/7V2 induced by leakage flux £. Sixth.-. situation? we voltage upset /2 that existed in the core be- produced by flux. created by phase with are not in phase. and /. s in the secondary is cuit as parts: induced by leakage flux winding <I> I2 and secondary leakage reactance is in . given by ( new First. t called the secondary leakage flux. of (<I> t 2 - produces a (<I> ml is . we now proceed to note that the primary leakage flux / lr and leakage flux O l2 10-3 Primary E We can better identify the four induced voltages E2 £ n and £ t2 by rearranging the transformer cir- induced composed of two A voltage E [2 .44/N 2 <I\2 (10. is drawn twice age stand out by itself. 2 is <I>. <I> n and induced by mutual flux x (10. c ( primary leakage flux./N <I> l Ep = six basic facts. In general. 3. and (Fig.. a same the new mutual flux (The mutual flux <!>. I primary in the =4. the E [2 composed of two reason as follows: is tp induced by mutual flux Similarly. mmf /V]/. the secondary show even more that the jV 2 turns are linked $m given by shown in Fig.^.*. 10. mutual Similarly. the 4. Third.) Second. portion of C I> ( 2 ( <t>. 10.4.3. while another portion not.5 not./.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 200 1 Currents .6. flux transformer possesses two leakage fluxes and a ac flux total was connected. m and and a leakage (p mJ in Fig. A portion Flux <I>. clearly <J> r2 and This rearrangement does not change the value of the induced voltages. leakage flux is in induced parts: develop the equivalent circuit of the transformer. forces due to |. does make each it becomes volt- clear that . They are the primary and 10.-. the total flux A 2. ondary mmfs. ^ m 2) links with the primary ondary winding.. composed and we combine is £n A voltage E 2. The question fore the load A . to . A $ ni links with the sec- P n ) does analyze this and /.// 2 immediately begin I2 and secondary windings. 2. it Thus. induced voltage cre- h while the secondary leakage created by /V 2 / 2 Consequently. E2 #m given by not m2 and a leakage flux <£ (2 <t> 4.-. Ep 3> m2 into a single ated by the joint action of the primary and sec- Fourth. Referring to Fig. <I> inl total flux posed of a mutual flux <I> A voltage E n . produced by mutual flux <I> m ni . 10. (J>. This /2 com- is is we flux <I> n is mutual flux is NJ phase with 2 1 .4) given by . (10. I2 flow to = N2 /N hence : { produces an mmf /V. but Er Thus.5) 4> in and = 4. equal and /V. 1 of two parts.4 as ( F mla in Fig. 10. ) called the The magnetomotive the magnetic field ) does we can Figure 10./| mmf N2 I 2 = N2 I2 while - /| produces an These magnetomotive forces are in direct when opposition because flows into the polarity-marked terminal flows out of polarity-marked terminal The mmfiV 2 / 2 produces 3.6) m applied voltage E^. 4. the voltage is /] E2 E2 = how is. the voltage actually Using these . Fifth.3) by two fluxes.44. / 1. (10.

drop across a reactance. in series and b. Figure 10.7. of course.PRACTICAL TRANSFORMERS 201 Figure 10. Furthermore. This really a voltage X secondary leakage reactance - { 2 is given by Example 10-2 The secondary winding of 180 turns. act windings. The m has a peak value of secondary leakage flux <I>.8) // l tive which. Calculate a. This pri. 2 has a mWb. it is clear that E n is simply a voltage drop across a reactance. with the respec- c. the mutual its in the secondary winding leakage flux The value of the secondary leakage reactance The value of E 2 induced by the mutual . to separate £. mary leakage reactance Xn Xn is =£ fl shown in Figure 10. the secondary current has an effective value of 8 A. X = Ef2 /I2 (1 l2 0. 60 1 The primary winding also is shown twice. /?.6 Separating the various induced voltages due to the mutual flux and the leakage fluxes. from E n Again.7 Resistance and leakage reactance E l2 is of the primary and secondary windings.7) When a transformer possesses the transformer is under load. We (10. mWb. 20 peak value of 3 <I> given by The primary and secondary leakage reactances are Hz. The voltage induced by have also added the primary and secondary winding resistances Ri.

9 impedances their 'ns kVA V same It the rules as the ideal transformer discussed in 9.3) primary and secondary terminals 0.9 X 180 T is an ideal transformer. is sesses the Ens .7) {2 = 143. R 2 X n X r2 X m and R m for transformers ranging from kVA tests b.210 317 .024 0. elements circuit sent a practical core. 1. we can find the values of all the circuit elements that make up a practical transformer. 10. EnpInp = En J ns — each case 5n power of the transformer.09 0.0003 pos- R.354 X~n a 32 4. The corresponding primary and secondary currents / np and / ns range from 0.. I -2 and 3-4 are ac- other components are "buried" inside transformer the V all However. 1 0.8). The exciting current /0 for the various transto = 8ft c. as we by shift multiplying did before. is is It always much smaller than the rated primary current = 959 V Note that in where S n is the rated /.101 0. Table 10A shows typical values of /?.44^2*. The effective voltage induced by the secondary leakage flux an is we add ideal transformer.4 7 A to 29 000 A. 400 MVA.4 17 4. R 2 X n X i2 .8 167 145 943 a 58.0 5.44/yV 2 f2 X 60 X 4. we Xm and Rm to repre- obtain the complete equiv- alent circuit of a practical transformer (Fig. I .ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 202 —Oi Eo 1 'lm Figure 10.4 Equivalent circuit TABLE 10A of a practical transformer The circuit of Fig. = (10.3 39 151 0. The leakagepled together by a mutual flux free <t> in same properties and obeys For example. /„p the dotted actually an ideal transformer.09 1. but only the (10.44 1 X 80 0. .16 11.9 0..028 Chapter Xa xm Q.0134 0.02 formers also shown. resistive . we can primary (Ay/V 2 ) side 2 .003 cessible. magnetic coupling enclosed square £n P ACTUAL TRANSFORMER VALUES to the values by a 200000 29000 400000 51000 220000 505000 432000 A 0. fi 1.5 27 150000 460 Km A» 52. is In this circuit E l2 = = 4. 10. The secondary leakage reactance is X = EnJI 2 (10.16 0.5 29000 2.095 0. Z) cou- m which links the primary and secondary windings.4) X 60 X 4. .17 8. .7 and inductive elements is composed of (/?. The voltage induced by voltages the mutual flux is 1 E2 = 4.6 27. The nominal primary and secondary £np and £ ns range from 460 V to 424 000 V.44 = O 143. I 10 2400 2400 1 400000 100 1000 2470 69000 13800 V A A 460 347 600 6900 424000 0.9/18 . The shaded box T circuit of If Solution a. by appropriate itself.2 0.17 28.0952 0.8 Complete equivalent /f X a practical transformer.25 0.02 14.

and high resistivity. For built up so as Figure 1 to is 0. in larger transformers the cross section Leakage reactances X n and X r2 are made as small as possible by winding the primary and sec- pling ensure much bigger transformer.9a Figure 10. both and resulting heat and high efficiency. weighs more because the Aluminum ductors are used. the much smaller. small transformer are stacked to build up the core.9c shows the primary winding of a voltages.PRACTICAL TRANSFORMERS 10.9a). in Fig. tions will permit. laminated iron core Figure 10. amount of copper windings respective A high-voltage winding has far more turns is in As a result. laminated. to a simplified version of coils are distributed over both core of the laminated iron core is is which the primary and in legs in order to reduce the same are kept low. or copper con- . high-grade silicon steel is used. I0. In practice. ondary windings depends upon between the sec- primary reason. to attain high permeability. Thus. voltage regulation 1 the laminations of a ondary coils on top of each other. to keep the iron losses down. current in a HV winding is On the other hand. Figure 203 N2 /N i good to the The number of turns on the primary and sectheir than a low-voltage winding. cou- secondary almost exactly equal to times the primary voltage. the current supply the iron losses than /m is /r needed to usually 2 to 4 times smaller power transformer and secondary leg.5 Construction of a power Winding resistances 2 to reduce the J transformer R loss R and R 2 : 1 0. Furthermore.9a) length per turn is greater. them as closely together as insulation considera- The coils are carefully insulated from each other and from the core.9b Construction of a simple transformer. the the primary and secondary about the same.9a Power transformers are usually designed so that a characteristics approach those of an ideal ondary are wound on one their transformer.9b shows how 2. In practice. enabling us to use a smaller size conductor. and by spacing voltage at no-load the not square (as shown) but be nearly round. . 1 0. Such coils is means that the tight when It also guarantees a load is connected secondary terminals. Figure 1 0. Stacking laminations inside a coil. (See Fig. Consequently. the made of The resulting magnetizing current / m is at least 5000 times smaller than it would be if an air core were used. the amount of copper. 10a). the core core is is iron (Fig. the outer coil (coil 2.

3. we do not have to identify the terminals by symbols. and Xi have the Although the H2 bols H.10). of a large transformer. . 10. This type of marking on instrument transformers.9c Primary winding 290 A. 1 where primary means the winding that is we proceed as follows (Fig. If we know is adjacent to that a power transformer has additive (or subtractive) polarity. (Fig. however.7 Polarity tests To determine whether (Courtesy ABB) a transformer possesses ad- ditive or subtractive polarity. known when the sym- are given. the terminals are designated by the symbols H. to the source. polarity X. . A transformer is said to have Figure 10. rating 128 kV. provided the high-voltage winding is rated above 8660 V. We Connect Connect a voltmeter adjacent HV and LV Ex between the other two terminals.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 204 subtractive polarity additive polarity x2 « Figure 10. 2.10 Additive and subtractive polarity H cation of the 1 -X additive polarity 1 depend upon the lo- terminals.ll): . All other transformers have additive polarity.6 Standard terminal saw in markings Section 9. A ther transformer is reversible in the sense that ei- winding can be used as the primary winding. H.. former can be shown by means of dots on the primary and secondary terminals. 10.. On power is used j transformers. is diagonally opposite terminal X.4 that the polarity of a trans- a jumper J between any two adjacent HV and LV terminals. in the case of common practice to mount terminals on the transformer tank in a stan- way so that the transformer has either additive or subtractive polarity. and H 2 for the high-voltage (HV) winding and by X and X 2 for the low-voltage (LV) winding. I0.. 10. Figure 10. By con( vention. and power transformers the four dard X2 it is is same polarity. when terminal H. Subtractive polarity is standard for all single- phase transformers above 200 kVA. a transformer has subtractive polarity when terminal Hj terminal X. connected Connect the high-voltage winding to a low- voltage (say 120V) ac source E„.11 Determining the polarity of a transformer using an ac source. Similarly.

The trans- former terminal connected is is to the positive side marked X. Ex LV is greater than voltage is only 2076 would use terminal (or H 2 and and Some X. . we 5 to obtain 120 V whenever above or below a preset the secondary voltage level. the transformer terminal connected effectively connects in series Consequently. Thus. source. Example 10-3 the polarity is ably less than 120 V. a dis- voltage drops in transmission lines. Determine markings of the terminals. this problem taps are provided on the Taps enable us 8 V.11). the pointer of the voltmeter upscale. the secondary side. 119 V. the volt- s region of a distribution system tribution transformer having a ratio of may be connected voltage the polarity test.12 shows another circuit that may used to determine the polarity of a transformer. Incandescent lamps are dim. Solution X2 electric under moderate overloads. if £x than E the polarity is subp are diagonally opposite. gives a lower reading jumper J In this polarity text.. . Ep = were obtained: H. to the On the other hand. 13). This tells us that H. tractive. nominal voltage may be several During a polarity test on a 500 kVA. is momentarily induced in the HV wind- Figure 10. if the line 2400 V). is HV the gives a higher reading than Ep ing.8 Transformer taps Due to age in a particular may consistently be lower than normal. from Ep — Es depending on how . ratio so or 13'/> is 1 V 1 0. H2 marked ditions the voltage across the secondary making even though Ep ) the terms additive and subtractive originated. 2292 V. an ordinary 120 V. the across the change the turns can therefore maintain a satisfactory nected by the jumper must respectively be labelled to the to referring to the transformer of Fig.PRA CTICA L TRA NS FORMERS Connect another voltmeter 4.). Figure 10. and terminals H. We can now see is marked H. even though the primary voltage terminals con- Consequently. are adjacent. the and X. Thus. is additive because HV may be 4'/>. Ex = We percent.12 source. at moves 205 Distribution transformer with taps at 2184 V. . 9. hundred kilovolts. as to raise the secondary voltage the following readings 10. Such tap-chang- ing transformers help maintain the secondary volt- age within ±2 percent of its rated value throughout the day. in series with an open switch. 60 Hz source can be connected 2400 V/120 to a transmission line V where the never higher than 2000 V. 10. . In The + ( and the other either adds to or sub- In other words. and electric stoves take longer to To correct transformer (Fig. . winding. 2400 V. be 1 or 13'/2 percent below normal. A dc voltmeter is of the Determining the polarity /. polarity consider- primary windings of distribution transformers (Fig. 9. (instead of and tap 1 3. Under these con- is its to the HV winding. 69 kV/600 motors may 1 1 V stall 10. moment. source by 4 secondary voltage. connected 2 O- Figure 10. When the switch is closed. and cook food. and 2076 V. and X.13 of a transformer using a dc on transformers are designed to change the taps automatically HV terminals.. . this If. LV winding a voltage A dc connected of the transformer. polarity Ex If Ep across additive. E secondary voltage the Ep voltage tracts s E E s with the primary terminal of the voltmeter is Ex = Ep + £ or Ex = the polarity.

10 No-load saturation curve the required flux. the primary or secondary result is winding. to operate at a which corresponds roughly to the knee of the saturation curve. winding is S — 250 X 1000 — — — £ 480 £ns pends upon the current they carry. (Fig. are composed of The nameplate of a distribution transformer indicates 250 kVA. the heat dissipated in the windings de- able level. These nominal current A 521 . exceed and and wise the windings will overheat. the mutual flux in direct Om in- proportion. to = 60 A s other hand. when nominal voltage is applied to a transformer. V 480 n. We can exceed the nominal voltage by perhaps 10 percent. keep the transformer temperature is n the core will be cooler. depending on the na- ture of the load.5 T. the flux rent should not we must set limits to at an accept- two limits determine the nominal voltage / np E np The power rating of a transformer is product of the nominal voltage times the nominal current of the However. 9. the load its maximum power output the of the transformer winding (primary or secondary). with the secondary open-circuited. Exciting current / u will therefore increase but. other- is peres (VA). in accordance with Eq. On the . If The temperature cur- nominal value. a transformer has They losses. nominal If the nominal S — / winding 250 X 1000 Nominal current of the reach V 4160 Sn ~ £p nominal in the we pass we draw a graph of Ep versus see the dramatic increase in current as the normal operating point Transformers are usually designed peak flux density of about 1 . creases As the voltage rises. the capacity of a transformer is power-handling expressed in voltam- S = 2000 V X is directly related to the through it.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 206 Losses and transformer 10. it may Nominal current of L np nominal S = 99.. we 10. can we still draw 250 kVA from the transformer? If b. apply 2000 V to the primary. and voltage are always shown on the nameplate. the following: Calculate the nominal primary and secondary a. Hysteresis and eddy-current losses in the core 1 Stray losses due to currents induced in the tank and metal supports by the primary and sec- Solution ondary leakage fluxes a. we . not expressed in watts.5 T. of a transformer 60 Let us gradually increase the voltage voltamperes (MVA).9 rating Like any electrical machine. but if we were to apply twice the nominal . depending on the size of the rise using this far lower 10. 2.14). in kilovoltamperes (kVA) or in mega- transformer. the magnetizing current /m has to increase very steeply to produce /Q . we apply 2000 V to the 4 60 V primary. A= 120 kVA Ep on the pri- mary of a transformer. secondary 480 V. apparent power This means that a 500 will get just as hot feeding a as a 500 kW kVA that flows transformer 500 kvar inductive load resistive load. 3.. temperature and 2) a drop in Under normal operating conditions. In large transformers the corresponding rated currents are also shown. Thus. efficiency of transformers is very high.2. The duce l) form of heat and pro- losses appear in the an increase efficiency. — ns The heat produced by the iron losses depends upon the peak value of the mutual flux <E> m which in turn depends upon the applied voltage.. Consequently. Consequently. the iron losses will be lower than normal Consequently. The rated kVA. when the iron begins to saturate. primary 4160 V. be- cause the phase angle between the voltage and current may have any voltage and equal to the value at all. 60 Hz. However. the corresponding flux density is about 1. E np 4160 b. both the applied voltage and the current drawn by the load. 2 1. I R __ Example 10-4 losses in the windings currents. frequency.5 percent for large power transformers.

forced circulation of clean air must be provided. Oil carries the heat a transformer.4 kV/480 V. width: 434 mm. cooling fans blow over the radiators (Fig. the exciting current could become even greater than the nominal full-load current. in the 1 air 8). Hot drawn from the transformer tank heat exchanger where it is pumped to a flows through pipes that are . dissipated by radiation and convection to Oil 1 consequently. and so R m and X m terials inside close to rated voltage. for are added to increase the cooling surface of the oil- by the natural flow of the surrounding louvres so that convection currents immersed steel tank.14 No-load saturation curve of a 167 kVA.17). cooling effected by an oil-water heat exchanger.11 Cooling To prevent rapid at methods deterioration of the insulating ma- kVA air. adequate cooling of the Indoor transformers below 200 200 kVA Distribution transformers below usually where windings and core must be provided. 0. In reasonably constant. but away from mineral in the outside air (Fig. appears. is a much it is better in- invariably used on high-voltage transformers. weight: 79. 10. ings. 1 6). The metallic housing is fitted the can be di- with ventilating may flow over windings and around the core (Fig. 60 Hz transformer. depth: 230 mm. 600 V/240 10. most transformers operate at 60 Hz. is. air. it away in a to the tank. As the power 1 0. Oil circulates around the transformer windings and moves through the radiators. although Rm not as constant as is Ep and /0 (composed of R m and it Xm de- creases rapidly with increasing saturation. rating increases. megawatt range.5 6 5 4 1 A exciting current /Q Figure 10.15 Single-phase dry-type transformer. Figure 10. where For the heat still is again released to surrounding higher ratings. 10.PRA CTICA L TRA NS FORMERS 207 kV 20 18 16 - no 'mat oper atincjpoi it 14 En 12 10 — nc>min al cu rrem 8 6 4 2 0 0 0. type AA. la) is effect. rated voltage. (Courtesy of Hammond) 15 kVA. rectly cooled V. Height: 600 mm. The nonlinear shows Xm relationship between that the exciting branch in Fig. insulation class 150°C indoor use. However. filled tank (Fig.5 kg. remain essentially constant. For transformers may be Such dry-type transformers are used inside build- oil hostile atmospheres. is are and enclosed oil sulator than air Larger transformers can be built the same way. 15). external radiators 10. 14.

but big transformers are designed to have a multiple rating. depending on the 1 in Fig. method of cooling may have a triple rating of 000 kVA depending on whether by the natural circulation of it The type of transformer cooling is designated by the following symbols: air (AO) ( 1 8 AA-dry-type. The tempera- .16.2%. is still self-cooled. self-cooled 000 AFA-dry-type. self-cooled/forced- air cooled/forced-air. a transformer 18 000/24 000/32 .17 crease the effective cooling area. Three-phase. 26. The power of this transformer is 25 times greater than that of the transformers in contact with cool water. 10. 10. pedance 4. self-cooled/forced- cooled A O/FA/FOA-oil -immersed. 14. im- Figure 10. Some is shown however.4 kV/240 V. Thus. 55°C temperature rise. rated 1900 kVA. transformers is rise by resistance of oil-immersed either 55°C or 65° C.immersed. The small radiators at the side inkVA.19). rated 75 60 Hz. self-cooled by forced-air cooling with fans (FA) (24 000 kVA) 3. 60 Hz. forced-oil These elaborate cooling systems are nevertheless cooled economical because they enable a much bigger output from a transformer of a given size and weight The temperature (Fig.4 kV. because the water itself used.16 Two single-phase transformers. that the radiators occupy as OA/FA-oi I. but also very costly. Such a heat exchanger is very effective. type OA grounding transformer. Note. it cooled kVA) 2. has to be continuously cooled and recirculated. type OA. or by the forced circulation of forced-air cooling (FOA) oil (32 air accompanied by 000 kVA).ELECTRICA L MA CHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 208 Figure 10. the transformer much room as itself. forced-air cooled or OA-oil-immersed.

transformer rated 1300 MVA. Other nuclear power generating station. an ideal transformer.4 kV. 10. be seen rise.8 gives far more detail than is needed in most practical problems. only the exciting current Figure 10.6 pumps can coil (44.5 oil. Consequently. oil to expand as and reduces the surface of the m3 ): 38.20) because T is when no-load and 2) 1 2 is /n flows a transformer at no-load.8 Total weight: 104. l ) at At no-load (Fig. The is one forced-oil circulating below the cooling (Courtesy of Westinghouse) just of the largest weight of core and turc must be kept low By fans. 225 kV/26. This step-up transformer. current in is /. 60 Hz 65°C temperature oil in ance: 1 1 imped- contact with air. 60 Hz. impedance Figure 10.12 Simplifying the equivalent circuit N.2 t t t of the contrast. depending on the type of insulation used.7 t weight of tank and accessories: 28. is 1 obviously equal . 10. We can. The complete equivalent circuit of the transformer as shown in Fig.2 . the trans- drop across them zero and so These impedances are so small circuit of at full-load. Furthermore.PRA CTICA L TRA NS FORMERS 209 Figure 10. that the voltage is negligible. installed at a units ever built.4%. neglect these four impedances. giving us the much simpler tio.18 7. the temperature rise of a dry-type transformer may be as high as 1 80°C. a = N /N2 ] circuit of Fig. details: . type OA/FA/FOA transformer rated 36/48/60 MVA. 10. Consequently. 1 let us try to simplify the circuit former operates I .20 Complete equivalent N2 in R and } Xn .5 kV/345 kV. the R 2 and X [2 is zero. The circular tank enables the Three-phase. therefore.19 Three-phase. The turns ra- to the ratio of .5%. the temperature rises 24. weight of to preserve the quality coils: 37. 0. type FOA.

Consequently. by summing the respective resistances and reacwe obtain the circuit of Fig.23 Equivalent circuit with impedances shifted to the can further simplify the circuit by shift- mary pri- side. Xp reactance Rp *f2 *2 as . 10. .9) Xr (10. In such transformers voltages tance Xp 10.* The is thus reduced to a simple reac(Fig. thus elimi- nating transformer T (Fig. This simplified when be used even the load is a cir- 2 Z J cir- only 10 percent of the rated capacity of the transformer.10. In tances.25).ll) 10. 10. least is at we can 20 times larger than sponding magnetizing branch. This tech- Section 9. we can neglect Rp .24. is as far and currents are concerned.23). We 1 . primary side Xp = Figure 10.21 Transformers above 500 Simplified circuit at no-load. nique was explained in 10. 2. 2 we have tal 1 \Rcn VR. L.10) . neglect /0 and the corre- Figure 10.24 internal impedance The transformer leakage reactance referred to the primary side The combination of R p and X constitutes the totransformer impedance Z referred to the prip mary side. a transformer at full-load. simple reactance Figure 10. The resulting shown cuit is cuit may /() a£ s in Fig. Figure 10. 2.22 possess a leakage between the source and the load It complex kVA that is at least five times greater than equivalent circuit Simplified equivalent circuit of (I0. this circuit Rp = fl t + crR 2 Xn = X n + a 2 (10. ing everything to the primary side. where Rp = total transformer resistance referred to the total of a large transformer is mainly reactive.+ X. N2 when one of the important parameters of is the transformer. From Eq. Then.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 210 primary the to secondary voltages Ep/E meas sured across the terminals.8 can be reduced to a in series with the load. Impedance Z p a:1 N.22. It produces an internal voltage drop the transformer is loaded. Zp affects the voltage regulation of the transformer. hi full-load I p Consequently. quite remarkable that the relatively circuit of Fig.

With the primary impressed voltage held constant at its rated value. Consequently. the no- the full-load voltage. no-load Example 10-5 A is = 69 000/V127 2 + 2380 2 = secondary voltage 2 referred to primary side: Referring to Fig. is voltage regula- Load impedance defined by the equation: a voltage regulation = — E l — E .95 A no-load [V] at a£ at full-load s [V] 2 (a Z) / p = 2380 X 28. a = t-t^ = at 4. I The rated primary and secondary currents The voltage regulation from no-load to fullload for a 2000 kW resistive load.25 The internal impedance b.16 69 kV c. 69 X Because the primary voltage it = (4. \ kV Calculate a. x9 = 127 n Ij_ Zp referred to the primary side. the approximate imped- ance of the 2000 10. 10. at 3000 kVA. The primary and secondary ondary is currents if accidentally short-circuited. of a large transformer = SJEns = 3 000 000/4160 = 721 A Because the transformer exceeds 500 kVA. knowing that the primary supply voltage is fixed .26a. 60 1 of 127 (1. 10. b. the sec- Figure 10. Rated primary current /np = 5 n /Enp = 3 000 000/69 000 = 43. 16. 16) /2 secondary side 000 000 8. we can therefore write Zp = X p = 127(1 Referring to Fig.58 V 69 kV.PRACTICAL TRANSFORMERS Solution a.26b (10.65 il volt- age regulation.5 A Rated secondary current Ais Figure 10.26a See Example 10-7.65 = 2380 12 we have 28.13 Voltage regulation An important attribute of a transformer is its Z = E~IP = 4160 = 8. Hz has a total internal impedance V.16/69) is 4154 held constant follows that the secondary voltage 4160 is 68 902 at at single-phase transformer rated kV/4.12) where £ NL = £ hl = kW load on the 1 z T is . in which case the voltage regulation E = s negative. 6 kV.95 = 68 902 V The voltage regulation depends upon the power power factor factor of the load. mainly reactive. the windings have negligible resistance compared to is their leakage reactance. load voltage If the load may exceed is capacitive. the tion. the must be specified.X 100 2 Z= / p 2 secondary voltage X (69/4. in percent.

and ratio. The circuit-breaker damaged P~m corresponding to the core loss and 2. are ings are firmly braced and supported.14 Measuring transformer is is tromagnetic forces are also set up. .26b. The secondary open-circuit voltage E s is also mea.5 2 or imme- diately to prevent overheating. is . rated voltage and current plied to the primary winding /0 . Very powerful elec- Turns a ratio (10. /? . short-circuited and a voltage E„ normal (usually 10.21 rapid change in winding resistance while the test being made. 10.24 by means of an open-circuit and a side: short- circuit test. too. 1 2 The I R 1 Rm R m = Ep losses are. values of Xm . to prevent a we can determine m R p and the secondary winding applied to the primary (Fig. X voltage regulation 4160 ^ 100 41 54 X (10. 12.26b See Example short-circuit currents in both the primary secondary windings are rated values.12) 100 4154 0.5 times greater than the or fuse protecting the transformer must open 1 - = S m = Ep Ia = Qm 10-7. test results give us the following in- formation: active power absorbed by core = apparent power absorbed by core power absorbed by core reactive where Figure 10. = /s a/ p = (69/4. is ap- voltage E p and active power P m are measured (Fig.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 2 2 1 Voltage regulation is. 10. Referring again to Fig. 10. unless the wind- may be During the short-circuit is or torn apart. Ep/E. particularly. is accidentally short-circuited. They. on the secondary and 10.1) X m = Ep 2 /Q m (10.2) Xm is a = NJNo 56 times greater than normal and. current impedances test. These sured. less than 5 percent much lower / sc should be less than its than of rated voltage) The primary nominal value to prevent overheating and.27 Open-circuit test and determination of 69 000/127 The corresponding current /s turns Rm Xm . they 2 /P m Magnetizing reactance 56 times greater than normal. is For a given transformer. therefore.28). 10. is excellent.16) X 543 During the open-circuit = 9006 A test. / p = E p/Xp = = 543 A if the secondary aEs = 0 and so Figure 10.27). Resistance The Qm = f* in X p shown the actual in Figs.14% The voltage regulation c.

the efficiency of the transformer plies a load of 80 % when 250 kVA. 10. The following results were obtained when the low-voltage winding was excited. determine leakage reactance and = 4160 2 /5000 = 3461 (1 sup- factor is .150 2 Xp Total transformer leakage reactance referred to the . X2 Figure 10. calculate: on the primary side (Fig.650 (2 following calculations made: Total transformer mary side impedance referred to the pri- is RJtJ = Rp 1 is 2600/4 Resistance referred to the primary (10.29). Solution shop. 10. Example 10-6 (10.1 to the secondary side: Figure 10. were in short-circuit (see Fig.28 Short-circuit test to winding resistance. the following 1 age. and power (Fig. a 69 Referring to the equivalent circuit of the trans- former under short-circuit conditions (Fig. referred to the HV side.13) is 2400/16 = ison Total transformer resistance referred to the primary side 2 is Leakage reactance referred to the primary is (10. 10. (In some cases. 69 kV/4.11) __ During a short-circuit test on a transformer rated 500 kVA. we was conducted on the transExample 10-6.21) b. Applying Eq. 6 kV. 2600 V £\ ( volt- power measurements were made.632 a is VZ. = 2A 5000 W information and the transformer char- found in Example the values of X m and Rm 10-6. measured on the primary side .. 10. 60 Hz.14) primary side V650 2 . current. Solution a. such as in a repair open-circuit test former given in kV voltage may not be available and the open-circuit test has to be done by exciting the winding LV at its rated voltage.PRACTICAL TRANSFORMERS The voltage E sc current / sc .29 See Example 10-6. whose power it (lagging). and Terminals X.28): 2600 V 4A 2400 Example 10-7 W An Calculate the value of the reactance and resistance of the transformer.) find the following values: E = 4160 V /n K Using this acteristics a. 10.28) P sc are Transformer impedance referred to the primary and the Zp = £ sc //sc = .

The Rm = X 2602 275 275 X = II = 3461 fl 715 X 10 952 X 10 3 turns ratio = 715 kH (1 . ^s^pI Qm = much cause these impedances are is: to the load is represented by Fig. = 16. 10.8.59 if understood that the load that the is The current on /. = V8320 2 . in 60/16. These are the values 000/4160 = 69W/4I60 V - a (1 3 is The values on the primary side are therefore: Xm = calculate the efficiency of = SIE. assumptions that make it much able to give active + 1966 W = 7 kW power delivered by the transformer its add the The values of R p known.952 k(l the time.30 the transformer = + bosses = 200 + = 207 kW The See Example 0.8.5000 2 The values of We now V. = 250 = 60 A 12 = 4160 2 /6650 = 2602 will be (69 Xp the transformer. Total losses are certain it. load A 3.62 arriving at a precise mathematical an- we can make and - P iron = 5000W Consequently.30.200/207 = 0. it all state that a load is is kVA and power The total swer. even in if iron loss is = 3. To simplify the calcu- lations. there we were The equivalent Xp Il = The is easier to arrive at a solution. when we = with cos 6 is about 250 about that loads and voltages fluctuate b. 50f2 X m and R m from points 3. 4 to the 2. the primary voltage 0.62 X is 150 1966 same the rated voltage on the is LV as that measured at side of the transformer. would have been found primary had been excited at 69 kV.8 kW its ciency calculations. justified be- = 200 The active power received by 60 A Note efficiency that in is 7 therefore = PJP . no point = is: copper loss (primary and secondary) 250 kVA. 632 This change a is /.6% X making the calculations. transformer and 10-7. Thus. factor the primary side /2 /a Copper the Furthermore. 1 greater than that the voltage across the . and so we only have to magnetizing branch. Industrial 0.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 214 The apparent power S m = E 5m s = 4160 X I {) 2 and R p Let us assume = 8320 VA load is 4 60 6650 The load current 11 /? Xm m and 000/4 160) 2 11 referred the primary side = 275 times greater. we is Rp 2 is calculating efficiency. The reactive we only con- power of the load does not enter into effi- . PG = S cosG = 250 X are already shifted input terminals 1 1 1. is 3 ti Figure 10. = 6966 The circuit of the transformer and 5000 bosses Knowing this. sider the active power.966 or 96.59 2 = about 69 kV.

Similarly.101 0. the rela- value of the primary resistance R\ /?.012 Using value of the secondary resistance who are easy to understand. there is side R2 0. the relative Similarly. amperes. In nominal load impedances as the reference impedances.E by: 1 (HU5a) sa . Table 10A.02 14. obtain the relative m (pu).09 0. this not yet familiar with per-unit calculations will find V V A A trans- 347 with numbers. A 0.17 8.15/. 16 1 1 a Q 200000 29000 150000 505000 460 Rm 400000 51000 220000 432000 317 A. a range over all that the various voltages.11 in Chapter 1 tual values R of { . transformers ranging from scanning through the table. ACTUAL TRANSFORMER VALUES /„s *i Ri *n Q Q n n 4. the respec- Z np and Z ns are chosen Using the rated voltage and power of the transformer.0090 576 The l 1000 100 10 12 and R 2 (pu) are pure relative values R\(p\i) numbers because they are the ratio of two quantities that bear the same unit. they are given E _np Instead of expressing pri- 12 the primary side.5 29000 167 145 943 .0952 0. . impedances of the other transformers /? are calculated the tive way same way. for the other impedances we transformer. Consequently.R 2 X n X l2 X tn and R m in ohms. displayed in Table 10B.09 1.9 to 1.210 52. at Table be- 1 OA which .095 0. The relative in this side.3 39 151 0. reason is relative rents employ to The that per-unit values give us a feel for the its ohmic value and use For example. the nominal load im- pedance on the secondary side and powers. each case.0134 0. we could express them relative to another ohmic value. . En.15 Introducing the per-unit best approach calculate is often encountered when dealing with transformers and other electrical machines.PRACTICAL TRANSFORMERS The 10. readers useful to read Sections 1.6 27. Ens can is along units £„p kVA case of the 10 in the We as a reference.(pu) is 5. on the secondary side are compared with the nominal load impedance Z ns on the secondary Proceeding of the 10 kVA values X.024 0. the it magnitudes of impedances. method Per-unit notation is 215 *«P.0079 (pu) of five excess of a billion to one. currents and impedances are expressed in actual values using volts. The reason R mary Let us begin by looking ohmic value it fore proceeding further.9 R\.017 ~ np tive is 0. Thus. Circuit elements on the primary side are always compared with the nominal load impedance Z np on 400000 2400 2400 12470 69000 13800 460 347 600 6900 424000 0.9 0. voltages. . former listed in _ E ns _ " L ~ and kilowatts.8 58.16 1.354 32 4.16(2 = 0. they are impedance on the is: in is TABLE 10A 12. 1 kVA we is 400 to ances vary from 505 000 17 to 0. circuit elements kVA /np E no recognizable pattern to the values. |(pu). etc. curZ.028 0. amperes and ohms. The question is: what value should we . impedance 576 as a reference.25 0. the nominal load displays the ac- It R 2 Xn X (2 X m and R m map.ls is the nominal load (voltage and current) of the transformer.0003 17 28.417 4.0003 MVA. The per-unit method as applied to transformers V 8 A 28 ' 12.5 27 2.095 12 2 re- see that the imped- as a reference. produced here for convenience. However. (10. Furthermore. .) choose as a basis of comparison? s tt . we simply work volts we don't have to carry when per-unit values are used.0 5. 1.17 / np Using this load V A 2400 . In 12. instead of dealing with ohms.2 0.

60 47.6 %. R2 X values of/?.0055 0. . the per if the nameplate unit value of Zp is 0. ratings are quite dif- For example. leakage actance.1 %..0057 0.69 2 /S n = 4160 2.24. Similarly.002 for all MVA. This pat- does not show up tern of similarity £„» and sec- are nearly the same. etc. 4761 0.17 Typical per-unit impedances We have seen ative that we can get a better idea of the rel- magnitude of the winding resistance. 69. Similarly.013 90.00071 /? 2 (PU) 0.. therefore. the per-unit method offers insights that In making the comparison. Table 10B are impedance on the base base quantities.4761 211.051 X 69 (1 = is: 3.(pu) and X r2 (pu) kVA V V A 2400 100 1000 400000 2400 12470 69000 13800 460 347 600 6900 424000 0.023 0.5 141. In practice. the values of X. Table IOC is.61 449.(pu) of the I kVA trans- of the same order of magnitude 1000 kVA transformer despite the fact that the latter is (0.0018 2 is /250 000 tt Base impedance on the secondary side 2 n Q zns Base impedance on the primary side Table 10A.s z„ P ri of the trans- Solution a.0057) 1000 times more powerful and the voltages are vastly different. Thus.0317 0.4 (pu) 0.0101 0. 7\? 2 (pu). For that the per-unit resistance of the primary winding of a transformer ranges from 10.8 167 145 943 5760 576 1555. 4 60 V/480 V.009 to and 100 0. a. we shall use the lat- Typical per-unit values are listed in Table IOC for to 100 MVA. we can readily estimate the order of magnitude of the real values of the transformer impedances.3 96.7 0.0101 ) is as the /?. circuit elements located on the primary side are compared with the primary base impedance.032 A.<P») 88.015 666 0. ratings between 3 kVA tremendous power range. . In the primary ondary side Zns = E /S n = 480 = 0. 12 and highlighted in Fig.02 14.0067 0. ter. etc.5 0.0090 0.4 R\ (pu) 0. Thus.17 8. The comparison can be made either on a percentage or on a per-unit basis. PER UNIT TRANSFORMER VALUES TABLE 10B Aip Zp primary side to the AVpu) and are nearly the same. is expressed as a percent of the nominal load impedance.0588 (pu) 0. Calculate: used as references are called base quantities.0075 0.036. in 10 I A A.0601 (pu) 34.0075 0.92 n 2 s b.009 to 0. is it always indicated on the nameplate.0315 0. Knowing the base im- pedance of either the primary or the secondary winding.. the table shows would otherwise not be evident. the values of /? 2 (pu) t„p impedance the total internal b.0053 0. The actual value of Zp = Zp % X Z np = 5.16 Impedance of a transformer The total internal impedance Zp of a transformer was defined in Section 10.7 50.0079 0.ELECTRICAL MA CHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 2 6 1 symbols #|(pu). Over the per-unit resistance power this 7?. the reader I will note that former referred for a given transformer.5 29000 17 28. Z np Z ns S n E .0075 0. the R\(pu) of the former (0. . a useful source of information. Clearly.0250 0.8^ A transformer rated 250 kVA. 60 Hz 1 has an impedance of 5. quantities Example 10.0056 0.417 4.52 11 10. of the primary or secondary windings varies only from 0. the relative < tl . / / ns listed in .0251 0.1 is /250 000 on the primary side 0. 3. There is even a similarity between the per-unit whose values of transformers ferent. 10.0 3.6 12. kVA transformers ranging from 3 example. is marked 0. circuit elements on the secondary side are compared with the secondary base impedance.00079 X X rj X ni (pu) 0. . £ ns . all examining Table OB. re- of a transformer by comparing these im- pedances with the base impedance of the transformer. The etc.5 106 966 /? ni Znp = E p . In power and distribution transformers its value However. and are designated by the are called per-unit values X n (pu).002 of the base impedance of the transformer.0090 0.

025 0.10 The 500 kVA.3450 (2 - method of estimating impedances.35 12 H= = 0. 10. . The reason is that the per-unit values given in Table 10C are broad estimates covering a wide unit 2 kil 3. 10.05-0. 60 Hz transformer shown in Fig.005 X 0.025 X 69 0.92 tt 10-9.002 0. 0.6 mil alent circuit of the range of transformers.025 X /?.005 X 69 R2 = Xn = X r_ = Xm = Rm = 0.PRACTICAL TRANSFORMERS TABLE 10C 217 TYPICAL PER-UNIT VALUES OF TRANSFORMERS Figure 10.6 mSl impedances of a real values of the 250 kVA. 69 kV/4160 V.03-0.005 Example 10-9 Using the information given the approximate 0.005 0. Typical per-unit values Circuit element (see Fig. calculate in 23 ma 4.03 0.7 SI Table 10C. X n orX n kVA to 250 kVA l MVAio I00MVA 0.32 have See Example Z np = Z lls = 69 0.92 (2 1 = 4.5 kI2 Example 10.31 Equivalent circuit of a transformer. we From side.02-0. 30 50 (2 0. 4160 V/480 V. the results pri- of Figure 10. /?. tt = 0.7 12 23 m() X 69 fl = 2070 12 = X 69 n .06 20-30 50-200 20-50 100-500 0. The true values may be 20 to 50 percent higher or lower than those shown in the figure. Solution We first determine the base impedances on the mary and secondary Example 10-8. This yields the following results: = 0.005-0.92 n This example shows the usefulness of the per- We now calculate the real impedances by multiplying Znp and Z ns by the per-unit values given in Table IOC.30 has a resistance R of 150 (2 .008-0.3 1 3 1 orR 2 . The equiv250 kVA transformer is shown in Fig. 60 Hz distribution trans- former.32.35 SI 1.009-0.

5 2 when the voltage regulation kVA tween zero and 250 = VS 2 (pu) .616 + j 1.50 Z34 (pu) 0. Fig.053Z 38.4 £2 (pu) _ X L (pu) Consequently.5 j per-unit value of the active the load 3.50 ~ P(pu) P is corresponding to 1. per-unit value of Rp Figure Note terminals per-unit value of Xp (pu) The Xp it 4 of the circuit 250 = 4 The Z ]2 (pu) = primary Figure 10. the base current 'b = Pb/Ek = 300 = 7. The per-unit im- is 2/136.2 + 1.333 The magnetizing branch pedance between terminals 000/7.) is 632/9517 is does not enter into the calcula- is ft shown (These terminals are not accessible. 2.30.6 + j(1.3 per-unit load resistance load { examining 2 lagging power factor at a of In 0. and currents to the side. they exist only in the = 9517 3.0664) is = 69 000/69 kV = A-p(pu) flp(pu) 1.33 power absorbed by is P(pu) = 5(pu) cos 9 = 0. calculate: = V0. X p of 632 f2. £ 2 (pu _ . X 2 2. The base power P H The base voltage E is is ti kVA 69 kV 500 Consequently. 500 kVA transformer .0 j 0.33 + j 3. Using the per- G(pu) method.P 2 (pu) the load varies be- = The 80% b. the actual line current I 250 kVA R The Solution clear that the pres- is it R p and Xp voltage drop across magnetizing branch does not affect the voltage We now draw regulation. 10. 0. HV (69 kV) terminals 1 is We assume the voltage between 69 kV. in To determine fer all voltages.33 = 1.5 X 0.6+j per-unit value of the apparent by the load 3.0158 The corresponding to v " 0(pu) 10.266 = 2.87° 1.25 A and the base impedance Z B = E B /I H = 69 The will re- impedances.0 ) (pu) v per-unit load reactance ence of the magnetizing branch does not affect the /?.33.0664 power absorbed = 250 kVA/500 kVA = A'.4 is power absorbed Per-unit equivalent circuit of a feeding a 250 kVA load. 000/69 000 per-unit value of voltage E.3 that the load appears across the 3. 2 .ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 218 and a leakage reactance unit a. 0.30.07° is E i2 in impedance between terminals per-unit is = not X j 3. shown because tions.4 Figure 10. and that it remains fixed.0664 0.0158 + 1. 2 (pu) Uf_ the equivalent per-unit circuit R p (pu) = 150/9517 = 0.0158 The shown equivalent circuit diagram.2 0.33 The per-unit value of the reactive by the load is is 5(pu) The 2 = 1.8 - 0.25 = Q is 0. the actual voltage across the c. the . we the voltage regulation. 0.(pu) 0.

0263 is former referred therefore 2.9744 X 69 000 = b. The 1^ -j0. Figure 10.35a Equivalent circuit of a transformer feeding a load ZL .9744/1 -1.87°) = same the X Z34 (pu) circuit as 0. * 2# .PRACTICAL TRANSFORMERS The per-unit current I 219 ensure proper load-sharing between the two trans- is { formers.35a). is = /.0 - Z 12 (pu) L 2.34).23 Actual voltage across the load £ S6 = *H 1 in parallel growing load eventually exceeds the power rating of an installed transformer. .(pu) = 0.9744_ a. The same primary and secondary voltages The same per-unit impedance = 0.07° Particular attention must be paid to the polarity The per-unit voltage £34 (pu) = /j(pu) £34 across the load of each transformer. 2 kV 67. they must possess the following: /i(pu) .20° polarity An soon as the transformers are excited. full-load full-load at connected together (Fig. in parallel to share a load. 2 We can now calculate the actual values of the volt- O- age and current as follows: Voltage across terminals 4 3. If the ratio %. so that only terminals having is 10. determine the equivalent circuit of the the equivalent circuit when a single transformer feeds a load Z. are error in polarity produces a severe short- £p pri- and the impedance of the trans- to the primary side is Zpl .63 is first mary voltage 0.246 A 10.18 Transformers When X 1# 0. (Fig. 10.53 X X /B 7. To Figure 10.0603 = 4054 V c.34 Connecting transformers a . connect a second transformer we sometimes in parallel with it.23 is B (4160/69 000) X 10 3 X >H 2 Actual line current /. first system.07° b.4872^-38. . 38.4872/1-38. = £34 X 67.9744 The voltage regulation when we they are connected in parallel. A is O- £ 34 = EM (pu) X £ B = 0.. In order to calculate the currents flowing in each transformer The per-unit voltage regulation E 34 (pu) at £34 (pu) is must — £34 (pu) no-load at Consider 0.4872 = 3.07°) (2^36.053 a.(0.

the primary side actual primary current in each transformer Solution a. The transformers are rated 7200 V/240 but the ratio is kVA transformer to 1 V. A 1 00 kVA transformer an existing 250 (10. a procedure we are already portional to the respective we want kVA ratings. (I0. 10. load . X t H. The b. spectively /.17) The of the primary currents is connected in parallel with supply a load of 330 kVA.35c. we can write across the impedances that the desired condition is met if the trans- formers have the same per-unit impedances. and /2 .18) 2 in Fig. In effect.18 10. 10.= X 2 b- : 7200 6% ::|Zpr Figure 10.36a Actual transformer connections.35b Equivalent circuit with all impedances referred to the = 250 000/7200 34. for both transformers. and 10. b V 330 kVA . If is a second transformer having an impedance connected circuit the in parallel becomes with the shown that first. - 1:250 kVA -d H 7 1 > 240 j: V z a Z y .16) Example 10-11 that is. kVA unit has an impedance of 4 percent 250 kVA transformer has an impedance of 00 therefore de- while the termined by the magnitude of the respective primary impedances —and not by the ratings of the two 6 percent (Fig. trans- formers.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 220 of transformation that shown in Fig.35c Equivalent circuit of two transformers a load Zv All impedances in parallel feeding referred to the primary side. to fulfill the following condition: familiar with. impedances of the transformers are The primary currents Z the equivalent in the From Eqs.7 A primary side.36a). But in order that the temperature rise be the Calculate same a. <\ H. The following example shows what happens when the per-unit impedances are different. 100 kVA: Z p2 d :H 2 = 4% X2 Figure 10. the currents must be pro- The nominal primary current of each trans- former c. X. (10. Nominal primary current of former the 250 kVA trans- is Figure 10. Consequently. proved transformers are re- Because the voltage drop £.35b. the circuit can be simplified to 0. is 1 a. 17 can readily be it in parallel. The impedance of the load referred to the primary side The impedance of each transformer referred to d. 3 is the same.

8 10-4 A Which winding is connected to the load: the primary or secondary? ma a z pi = Z pl = 20. not overloaded because carries a current of 28.7) carries a primary current of it The 250 kVA cause the transformers are fairly big. primary 10-2 Explain how a voltage is induced in the secondary winding of a transformer.9 of the two transformers circuit in Fig. d.9 A.04 X 518 = 10-3 20. 10. A primary to the Note Zp2 13.36b Equivalent circuit.8 A versus its it only rated value of 34. we justified be- 46 find that the Load impedance referred primary side to the is = A 28. Clearly.9 A Figure 10. referred pedances 1 1 load current divides in the following way: The equivalent given Referring to Fig.7/(12.2 A.4 The 100 kVA transformer because are considered to be enis = 46 X /. is / n2 b.06 Base impedance of the 100 Questions and Problems 12.8 17. is im- 0. = JE p S hr = 330 000/7200 = 46 A The base impedance of the kVA 207 unit its Transformer impedance referred tends to carry proportionate share of the load. . rated value of 13.7 A = 28.4(1 kVA Practical level unit is 1 Znp2 = 7200 2 /10() 000 = 518 Transformer impedance referred side to the transformer (6 percent). trans- 22 17. 10-6 Name 10-7 What purpose does the no-load current of a transformer serve ? the losses produced in a transformer. + 20.PRACTICAL TRANSFORMERS Nominal primary current of the 100 kVA former = and A = 46 - side.7 il The secondary winding of a transformer has twice as many turns as the primary. that transformer This assumption tirely reactive.7 A. Zpl = 100 000/7200 and the load. is low impedance (4 percent). The 100 kVA transformer of load current its c.8 20.36b. Is the secondary voltage higher or lower than the primary voltage? /„. the load would be shared between the transformers il power their respective to the in proportion to ratings. that the ings of a transformer under load. is Z p2 = 0. = 34. A 7 = 13.2 which is A seriously overloaded is 25 percent above unit is its A 28. A low-impedance transformer always more than 250 kVA Z npt = 7200 2 /250 000 - side overloaded because is impedance of the 250 A.7 46 A 10-5 State the voltage and current relationships between the primary and secondary wind- 7200 V n 157 I 2 = 17. If the is percent impedances were equal. transformer is Calculations show seriously overloaded. the two transformers are not carry2 2 = E p /S| olld = 7200 = 157 n The approximate 2 /330 000 ing their proportionate share of the load. compared 0- 1 12 to the Name the principal parts of a transformer. The primary and secondary windings have /V| a 100 kVA and N2 turns. /. primary is Zpl = X 207 = 0.35c. respectively.2 /n .

connected to b. X. The secondary voltage b. calculate the peak transformer remains fixed as long as the calculate the secondary voltage.222 10-8 ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS Name in three conditions that must be met order to connect two transformers 10-15 What the purpose of taps is on a trans- Name 10-16 three methods used 10-17 The primary of a transformer is connected to a 600 V. . If terminals H. 1 . The voltage indicated by the voltmeter The peak value of flux 4> The peak value of <t> m Draw the phasor / tr 4> m 10-19 In Fig. calculate the voltage across terminals c. Calculate the power delivered by tlux culate the following: primary and 24 turns on the secondary. The primary and secondary windings respectively possess low-voltage winding 200 and 600 turns. If d. calculate the following: a. If mary linked by the secondary. is excited 60 Hz source and draws a no- load current / 0 of 3 A. terminals H] and nected across the secondary. <£. What and is E h £2 the voltage .37 in Fig.37 See Problem 10-18. calculate the voltage across the A 6. and 0. are connected together. the load across the secondary has an im- pedance of 5 H. cal- V is excited by a source. . 10-14 why Explain in the core.4 kV.38. fixed. the transformer have additive or sub- tractive polarity? . The windings of a transformer respectively have 300 and 7500 turns. 60 Hz source. diagram showing when 600 V is applied to V is measured H2 across terminals X.. transmission line a transformer having is a. is 40 percent of the pri- the transformer. X2 ? b. as well and secondary currents. between terminals H. the peak flux a 60 in Hz ac supply voltage 10-18 The transformer by a 20 1 V. 10-12 In value of the tlux to cool trans- formers.9 kV HV winding. 10-9 A 3000 kVA transformer has 60 kV in Does H2 X2 . If the 2400 10-13 Problem 10-11. a. The primary and secondary currents The primary of a transformer has twice as many turns as the secondary. parallel. 1500 turns on the c. 80 X2 . Calculate the current of each winding. If the primary has 1200 turns and the secondary has 240. The primary voltage is 220 V and a 5 17 load is con- as the primary Figure 10. 10-11 nominal Intermediate level former? 10-10 a ratio of to 2. is 10..

transformer un- Calculate the losses and efficiency the transformer delivers 66.22. ( MVA. If line The following information 10-29 pedance 1(2] referred to: a.005 xn = connected to terminals 40 10-25 A 66. 10-26 If the transformer shown were placed ture rise Explain.7 when MVA to a load having a power factor of 80 percent. and X 2 b. calculate the peak value of flux Explain leg reversed? Explain. Calculate is in Fig.PR A CTICA L TRA NS FORMERS ^ = 300 /. and H2 of trans- Would X2 The primary if H h H2 terminals of transformer B were and Advanced 10-27 level Referring to Fig. The voltage between terminals X. Calculate the following: a. the operation of the transformer bank be affected X. Problem 10-15 has an impedance of 6 percent. if we reversed terminals H.4 kV secondary 1 increases reduced between the primary and secondary windings. 10-30 During a short-circuit test on a 10 66 kV/7. Transformer impedance b. 10.39. 10. 10. The 60 kV primary b. calculate the following: a. The current in each winding.28). The percent impedance of the transformer The impedance [12] referred to the sec- d. TV. Fig. The percent impedance in the f.2 kV transformer (see the following results were obtained: Eg = 2640 V / sc . 10-21 wound on one is other.72 A R = 9.85 kW . Percent impedance of a transformer The transformer in 0-24 A 2300 V the im- is R\ = 18 12 R 2 = 0. b. 223 = 1200 (96 A) Figure 10. if a 12 kVA load given for the is transformer circuit of Fig.7 kVA.39 See Problem why the secondary voltage of a in the supplied by a 50 is core Hz if the transformer source.3 percent to a The transformer impedance the primary side connected across the secondary MVA transformer has a s 1 b. 10.15 the tempera- be reduced to 65°. oil.38 See Problem 10-20 10-19. Figure 10. 10-33. a. what would happen a. referred to the sec- ondary side e. is 12 E p = 14. [12] c. and the secondary on the former B? b. The 2. Referring to Fig. 10. an efficiency when it delivers full power load having a power factor of 100 of 99. . practical transformer decreases with in1 creasing resistive load.34..13. in a tank of would have to The total copper losses at full load The percent resistance and percent reac- tance of the transformer der these conditions. Calculate the losses referred to ondary side percent.oi n the transformer has a nominal rating of 75 and 4 in Fig. The impedance of a transformer 0-28 as the coupling 10-22 10-23 What is meant by the following terms: a. Explain.4 kV (nominal) £ = 240 V (nominal) x n_ = o. 10.

oil-filled distribution kVA transformer used. Explain propose a method of improving why and it. 10. referred to the primary side c. ing has a resistance of 62 H. Calculate the approximate 85 percent. 1 in gauge 1 AWG wire. a what voltage appear between terminals 3 and 4? If a single load is applied between terminals what is the 3 and 4 current that can be maximum drawn? allowable . The windings of a transformer operate current density of 3. kVA weighs 1 transformer rated whereas a 100 18 kg. total leakage kV primary The nominal impedance of re- 10-34 side A transformer has a rating 200 kVA. of the same kind weighs in watts per kilogram in each case. The percent impedance of V approximate resistance of the 277 the transformer winding? 10-31 In Problem 10-30. 13 has rating of 40 kVA. calculate the copper loss per aluminum windings were 0-33 If cording to Fig. calculate the full- load efficiency of the transformer power factor of the load is if 10-35 The primary winding of the transformer Problem 10-34 the is wound with No. if rated voltage are 35 the iron losses at kW. it would have very poor voltage regulation. If at a conductors 1 operate 0-36 tempera- at a If 75°C. 400 V/277 14 the transformer The high-voltage windWhat is the V. in the they are The transformer shown in Fig.39. The Industrial application and the total resistance actance referred to the 66 b.5 made of copper and ture of A/mm 2 . calculate the loss per kilogram under the An at kilogram. 1 secondary winding. 10. Calculate the power output same condi- tions. If 80 V is applied between terminals X. b.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS Calculate the following: a. and will X 2. 10-37 a transformer were actually built ac- 10 445 kg. cross section (in square millimeters) of the 10-32 a.

each rated 11.Chapter 1 Special Transformers windings.2) to kVA 500 kVA. induction furnaces. In this chapter at 1 20 V. bonded winding so a result. The center tap. ). Although possess the basic properties still are voltage be- The nominal rating of these distribution trans3 mounted on poles of the fre- pany (Fig.1 their Dual-voltage distribution transformer normal rating. 4. with the result that during most of the 24-hour day the transformers operate far below 11. tem. they are special. and the flux in the core. laboratories. The ampere-turns of I . 225 to . 2. I on the high-voltage winding to the neutral terminal is usu- of the secondary windings are connected that both to ground. In residential districts a peak occurs morning and another peak occurs primary winding noon. distribution transformers varies greatly throughout the day. called neutral. As I ground. The windings and so the in series. the following approximations can be made when H2 Terminal ally of the standard transformers discussed in Chapter 10. total tween the lines is 240 V while that between the lines and the center tap is 20 V (Fig. The apparent power input to the transformer equal to the apparent power output.0 Introduction connected Many transformers are designed to meet specific we industrial applications. and high-frequency applications. neon signs. is always connected to study 1 some of the special transformers that are used in dis- tribution systems. the primary are equal and The load on opposite to the ampere-turns of the secondary. This resi- two secondary is is made utility sys- keep the no-load losses achieved by using special low-loss silicon-steel in the core. depending on customer 3. The exciting current may be in the is demand. they 1 . 1 1 . The power peaks never neglected. every effort Transformers that supply electric power to dential areas generally have Because thousands of such transformers are connected to the public small. quency. the transformers are under load: The voltage induced in a winding is proportional to the number of turns. in the in the late after- last for more than one or two hours. They are comsupply power to as many as 20 formers ranges from directly to the electrical utility customers.

60 Hz. E2 is given by E 2 = (N2 /N0 X £.2).2 Autotransformer Figure 11. the flux is As in Suppose a tap there are any transformer. mounted on an ing connected reconnected to give only 120 V. taken off the winding. so that turns between terminals A and C. the mmf due to /.l) Clearly.4 kV/240 V/120 V.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 226 — I A Figure 11. A and the A are no longer isolated from the primary terminals B. N Consider a single transformer winding having is iron core (Fig.1 a. must be equal and opposite to the mmf produced by (7 2 — /]).4). this simple coil resembles a transformer having a primary voltage £. 1 . and a secondary voltage E 2 However. H2 11. (ll. Because the induced voltage between these terminals is proportional to the number of turns. The BC portion of the winding obviously carries current /. 1 1 to a fixed-voltage ac . Therefore. As current law. the peak value of fixed so long as E\ N2 C is is fixed (Section 9.N2 = ) (I 2 . (N I ] l . turns. Same The 1 central conductor 20 V/240 V secis distribution transformers the neutral.. .2 a result.I. b. turns on the primary and on the secondary. Furthermore. common each other. we have Single-phase pole-mounted distribution transformer rated: 100 kVA. the Figure 11. Distribution transformer with ondary. 14. { The windand source the resulting exciting current /(> creates an ac flux <& m in the core.3). secondary terminals C.)N2 . according to Kirchhoff s 1 CA portion carries a current (I 2 — /]). the resulting current I2 immediately causes a pri- mary current /] to flow (Fig.3 Autotransformer having N2 turns A/-. a load to secondary terminals CA. because of the If we connect terminal A.

in general. when the pri- The conductors in the secondary winding can be one-quarter the size of those ing BC because the current (see Fig. and exciting current are negligible. 2) ] £. is 300 V.4 Autotransformer under load. In effect.240) = 60 V.4 has an 80 per- cent tap and the supply voltage £./. i However. important lies = = PIE.3 CA and Solution = E 2 I2 and . Finally. induction mo- voltage of transmission lines. is this autotransformer the secondary separate secondary winding. to regulate the mary output. calculate: a. kW the upper and lower windings. I 11.2. BC is However.SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS 221 B O— : (N. when The secondary ratio Example 11-1 The autotransformer is close to in Fig. the absence of electri- tors. c. is The secondary voltage and current The currents that How in the w inding The relative size of the conductors on windings BC (U. 1 1 1 1 . autotrans- becomes power and 2. the apparent c. the two windings require essentially the same amount of copper. Thus.-N 2 c ) (h -fx) E2 A -o- load Figure 11. and.5). standard transformers of equal 0. As difference in size cal a result. 1 1. On isolation windings is a E = PIE 2 = 3600/240 = The current supplied by ] /E 2 The /. the current in between between the primary and secondary serious drawback in Autotransformers are used to some start secondary applications. current and cheaper than lighter. is the current in = A winding BC = 12 A winding CA = 15 — 3600/300 12 12 = 3 A the other hand. If a namely (300 . 1 . Consequently. connected across the secondary. Consequently.6 to I ] assuming N = I2 N 2 that both the transformer losses b. . Equations load (ll. particularly the ratio of transformation b. 1 1 .5). winding 1 1. The currents flow which reduces opposite directions in 3. power drawn by the load must equal the apparent power supplied by the source.5 I2 an autotransformer eliminates the need for a formers are always smaller. in winding actually part of the primary winding. winding CA has four times as many turns as winding BC. to transform voltages to is 15 A the source (Fig. in The secondary voltage are identical to those of a standard transformer having a turns ratio N /N2 is E2 = 80% X 300 = 240 V . is in CA wind- 4 times smaller the voltage across equal to the difference be- tween the primary and secondary voltages.3) a.

the secondary volt- or subtract from. The current its and Xj) are con- an autotransformer by connecting the upon how the connection age X2 two-winding transformer can be primary and secondary windings The H2 or when H. The H2 winding must flow from and vice versa. 3.6 Standard 15 kVA. B -O 2 = / G : 15A 300 V 1 3A A 240 <\ V Figure 11. voltages subtract A . c. 60 ways it as an autotransformer to obtain three different volt- ratios: 600 600 20 1 to 720 V V secondary primary V primary to 480 V secondary V V primary to 480 maximum secondary load the transformer can carry in each case. and connected as an autotransformer conventional changed into may add to. and 5 1 rent will automatically flow in the other wind- are H2 single-phase transformer has a rating of a Calculate the rating. any winding should not exceed nominal current ceed (or are connected together. rated voltage exists across one winding. 2. Consequently. If the i current in a winding flows from Hj to the current in the other X 2 to X. nected together by means of a jumper. rated current flows in one winding. shown in kVA. 5. wish to reconnect in three different age a. in If nominal voltage 1 1 .6 We Hz. rated voltage automatically exists across the other winding (reason: The same mutual flux links 2 both windings). . 11. 600 V/120 V transformer.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 228 -12A /. the following rules apply whenever a conventional transformer is connected as an auto- transformer: 1 . the primary voltage. Depending made. The voltages add when terminals of opposite X2 polarity (H. rated cur- ing (reason: 4. The voltage across any winding should not exits Fig. ) Example 11-2 The standard b. is in series. and X. — 120 v-^o o .3 Conventional transformer 6. basic operation and behavior of a transformer unaffected by a mere change in is external connections. Figure 11. 600 V/l 20 V. rating. If The ampere-turns of the windings always equal).5 Autotransformer of Example 11-1.

9 Transformer reconnected to give a ratio of 600 V/720 V. ing schematic diagram Note . If in Fig. 1 1 . 25 A to 1 1 Note the following: . V = 60kVA 600 + Consequently.8. The . is wind- ing has a nominal current rating of 125 A. and X2 in the must be connected ) in Fig. 720 V = 90kVA load current to- . as in Fig. we assume from X.7 Transformer reconnected as an autotransformer to . . give a ratio of 600 V/480 V. V 1 1 winding Because this Figure 11. = 100 To obtain a = 720 V. 1 1 secondary winding load 125 is is again and therefore the is again 125 A.. A X 25 480 V= 60 kVA currents flowing in the circuit at full-load shown are 1 1 power.8 Schematic diagram current flows. maximum maximum Sb add shown The current the A X ratio of voltage must 120 the source equal to that absorbed by the load: The now A X The previous examples show ventional transformer is that when a con- connected as an auto- Figure 11.8. the X2 between terminals X. that the current X2 in the of 1 25 A flows winding.7. site polarity gether. = = S/E 2 To obtain 480 15 000/120 = A 25 is 125 A secondary voltage (120 V) V. as that in the load. = 000/600 15 { is Nominal current of the 120 V winding I2 a. the maximum load can draw a S. All other currents are then found by applying Kirchhoff 's current law. 1 The correspond- given that the current in the 120 same the 1 is as that in the load. to- in Fig.. Consequently. the of Fig. must subtract from we the primary voltage (600 V).SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS 229 Solution Nominal current of the 600 V winding = SIE = /. The apparent power supplied by is S b. in the other winding. 2. as same 600 V/720 = V.9. terminals of oppo- (H. a current of H2 must flow from to H. connect terminals having the same polarity shown gether.7 showing voltages and secondary primary voltage: 600 to the Figure 11.

We want to make one final remark concern- reason metering of conventional transformers. This time. c. is volume of . Figure 11. to be isolated The temperature rise of the transformer is the same in each case. AX and Sc = 25 This load is less than the 480 the isolate V = 12kVA full line nominal rating (15 winding voltage on the In this regard. The construction of voltage transformers is as that in the load. mentioned earlier. rating of voltage transformers 500 VA. is with is copper or al- In the case of voltage transformers and current transformers. Note between the windings. As a result.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 230 69 kV line primary \C c/__ 25 A distributed \^ capacitance voltmeter Oto 150 V secondary grounded Figure 11."' constant. be used on the secondary side. (as in solution but the source the V is respective of what the rated primary voltage shows. the distributed ca- visible connection between voltage ground. 90 kVA. again connect H. the load is called burden.11 on a 69 kV line.10 Transformer reconnected to give a ratio of 120 V/480 V.4 Voltage transformers sim- side. to terminals (Fig. Although the secondary appears from the primary. phase with the primary voltage. The pacitance between the two windings that the currents in the windings and to eliminate when touching one of the secondary leads. Potential transformer installed transformer. and 12 kVA. is. lines and ground The nominal usually less than insulation is is makes an in- which can produce a very high the flux in the core are identical in each case 11. the secondary voltage steel. is HV to withstand the one terminal of the secondary always connected to ground ing these three autotransformer connections. the secondary By grounding one of nals. the often far greater than the volume of Voltage transformers (also called potential trans- formers) are high-precision transformers the ratio of primary voltage to a known load. the highest voltage and so the losses are the same. consequently. and X. To obtain we the desired ratio of 120 to 480 X. the The corresponding maximum load to measure or monitor the voltage on lines equipment from these in the ir- may This permits standard instruments and relays ers are used to a). However. However. the insulation therefore.11). the danger of a fatal shock is is between the primary and secondary windings must be particularly great kVA) of the standard transformer. as the next part of our not al- be. in winding and the secondary termi- between the secondary limited to 115 V. 10). even though the loads are respectively 60 kVA. the current usually 115 V. this is the distributed capacitance one of the advantages of using an autotransformer instead of a con- most exactly ventional transformer.X 2 is now connected same transmission 600 V winding maximum ilar to that load current cannot exceed 25 A. to lines (Fig. 11. it can supply a load far greater As than the rated capacity of the transformer. Voltage transform- V. 11. this is The nominal secondary voltage ways example the case. in which secondary voltage which changes very little Furthermore.

irrespective of the pri- is rating.Packard) Current transformer installed on a 69 kV secondary secondary grounded to voltage. with- . Because current transformers (CTs) are only used for measurement and system protection. as 1 ondary current mary current 1 usually 5 A.SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS Voltage transformers installed on ways measure the line-to-neutral eliminates the need for two one side of the primary is late the kV lines al- to ground. 80. The insulation between in HV the primary and secondary windings must be great enough withstand the line surges. tio of 150 A/5 A between 15 VA case of conventional transis inversely proportional turns on the primary and sec- A current transformer having a rahas therefore 30 times more turns on the secondary than on the primary. 23 650 kV expresses the transformer's ability to withstand Current transformers are high-precision transform- which the ers in rent a is of primary to secondary cur- ratio known constant that changes very little with the burden. The highly accurate current ratio and small phase angle are achieved by keeping the exciting current small.12 7000 VA. The latter houses the actual transformer.13 (Courtesy of Ferranti.5 This bushings because connected example. For transformer shown 11. weight: 740 kg. the 7000 VA. 3. The phase angle between the pri- mary and secondary current is very small. usually much less than one degree. 50/60 Hz potential transformer having an accuracy of 0.5 kV.12 has one large porcelain bushing to iso- HV line from the grounded case. including always shown on the nameplatc. The secondary is composed of two 115 V windings each tapped at 66.3% and a BIL of 650 kV. 69 kV al- trans- - line. The basic impulse insulation (BIL) of Current transformers 1 1 . Current transformers are used to measure or lightning and switching surges. For safety reasons current transformers must ways be used when measuring currents mission lines. the line. monitor the current ondary in a line and to isolate the equipment connected tering and relay me- to the sec- The primary is connected in series with shown in Fig.5 in Fig. HV HV voltage. stand is full line-to-neutral The maximum voltage the CT can line load' primary C :-j-:c / distributed capacitance Figure 11. height of porcelain bushing: 1880 mm. Figure 11. their power rating small is and 200 VA. The primary terminal at the top of the bushing is connected to the HV line while the other is connected to ground. 1.4 V Other details: total height: 2565 mm. oil: 250 L. the current ratio to the number of ondary windings. The nominal sec- side. As —generally in the formers. 80.

100 A/5 transformer designed for a 230 into an ac line.// 2 VA current much 2 280 A.14 500 VA. the up the bushing and out by the other terminal. 11.17 has a rating I2 = 80 is smaller.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 232 the As in the case of voltage transformers (and for same reasons) one of the secondary terminals is always connected to ground. ing serves to isolate the HV 1 kV line line. 400 A/5 A. The terminals that are connected in series with the The line current Hows HV current c. II. Example 1 1-3 The current transformer If il. 11. bushing. then ternal construction 3.5 A connected ! Figure 11. having a line-to-neutral voltage of = = 1/80 is 280/80 = 3. the 1. (Courtesy of Westinghouse) N Figure 11.15 Current transformer in the final (Courtesy of Ferranti-Packaro) process of construction. total the transmission-line Solution insulated for only 36 kV. 17 in Fig. down into 1 ance (burden) of CT is housed in the grounded steel case at the lower end of the bushing. 36 kV. calculate in Fig. 60 Hz. through the primary of the transformer. . trans- The turns ratio = 400/5 N^/Nn 11. wires on the secondary side possess a b. Figure 11. mainly It is imped- ratio is and The secondary current of 50 VA. The upper end of the bushing has two manner similar to that shown in The ammeters.6%. in a Fig. shown is 1 1 . relays. from The A current large bush- the ground.16.4 kV. former shown because it is in Fig. The secondary current The voltage across the secondary terminals The voltage drop across the primary /. one terminal. The of a a. 60 Hz current transformer. insulated for a 230 kV line and having an accuracy of 0. The current in Fig. line. CT a typical installation is shown By way of comparison.15 is is 50 in- a. and connecting 4.14 shows a 500 VA. 100 A/5 A.

2 = 4. If the sec- to- primary current the unsaturated intervals.0525 no further bucking effect due ampere-turns. during tremely high primary flowing is accidentally opened. flux <P secondary circuit of a current transformer while ondary higher of every half cy- II. = 4. Because the line current is to E2 = compared the exciting current of the transformer because there a substation. (Courtesy of Montel. During these saturated intervals. This is a dangerous situation because an unsuspect- .2/80 = is 1 . rises same 11-6 to the tally saturated for the greater part /.2 V than normal. 0. for but it most of remains at a the time. the primary current in the circuit. the burden negligible is of the electrical load.17 Epoxy-encapsulated current transformer rated 50 VA. the induced volt- age across the secondary winding cause the flux changes very little. The thing happens during the second half-cycle. the flux in the therefore 4. IR = X 3.5 The secondary voltage The primary voltage is E. The line current thus becomes of a is b. Current transformer 220 kV.2 V.5 a miniscule voltage drop. continues to flow unchanged because the imped- ance of the primary Figure 11. at an ex- inducing voltage peaks of several hundred volts across the open-circuited secondary. A. is = 52. saturation level secondary may be 00 Every precaution must be taken to never open the current to that normal exciting cur- core reaches peaks flux Referring to Fig.SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS M " 233 Mm ' Figure 11. 18. Opening the secondary of a CT can be dangerous and falls <t» much s first falls.16 rate. 3-phase in one phase series with line inside The voltage across c. mV The the is compared to line-to-neutral voltage. the 14. as the core also rises and in the 1 so large that the core during the fixed. Sprecher & Schuh) 400 A/5 /. This 200 times greater than rent. 60 Hz and insulated for 36 kV. the flux changes is is half cycle.4 kV cle. is negligible be- However.

ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 234 ing operator could easily receive a bad shock. the CT causes the Figure 11. If the voltmeter indicates 1 1 V 1 and the ammeter reads 3 A. 1 9). Example 11-4 A potential transformer rated 14 400 V/l 15 current transformer rated 75/5 V and a A are used to measure the voltage and current in a transmission line. con- line. 11-7 Toroidal current transformers Figure 11. a toroidal A or turns. It consists Primary current. calculate the voltage and current in the line.20 in the line is Toroidal transformer surrounding a conductor inside a /= 3 X (75/5) = 45 A bushing. The primary is composed of a sin- gle conductor that simply passes through the center of the ring (Fig. secondary winding and short-circuit the then remove the component.19 Toroidal transformer having a ratio of nected to measure the current in a 1000 A/5 A. simple and inexpensive and are low-voltage (LV) and medium-voltage in 1 bushings to monitor the line current 1. exceeds a predetermined circuit-breaker to trip. They are also incorporated in circuit-breaker (Fig. The moved short-circuit across the after the secondary circuit is again closed. CT has 200 turns on the secondary winding. If the current limit. voltage is The particularly high in current transformers having ratings above 50 VA.20). we can some- times use a toroidal current transformer. Short-circuiting a current transformer does no harm because the primary current remains unchanged and the secondary current can be no greater than that determined by the turns ra- winding may be re- tio. Toroidal widely used (MV) CTs are indoor installations. If the the ratio of transformation is having a ratio of 1000 A/5 200 turns position of the primary more N N. The unimportant as long as it is secondary possesses less centered. view of In ondary must the above. Thus.18 When the line current exceeds 100 A. . and secondary voltage when a open-circuited. first if CT circuit of a a meter or relay in the sec- we has to be disconnected. CT is flux. of a laminated ring-shaped core that carries the sec- ondary winding. Solution cm The voltage on E= The current 111 the line x is (14 400/115) = 13 900V Figure 11. conductor is 1 1 .

A composed of movable carbon brush in slid- winding serves as a variable ing contact with the tap. This enables E 2 to vary from 0 to 1 10 percent of the input voltage. a fixed A variable autotransformer is often used when we wish to obtain a variable ac voltage from a fixedvoltage ac source. 0-240 V. of a variable autotransformer hav- It is composed of eight . Variable autotransformers are efficient and provide good voltage regulation under variable ondary line loads. (3) the mov- able brush. any position between 0 and 330°.21 Cutaway view number of of a E2 turns increases in pro- swept out (Fig. The sec- should always be protected by a fuse or circuit-breaker so that the output current /2 never ex- ceeds the current rating of the autotransformer. connected in series-parallel. 50 A.21 and 11. the secondary voltage portion to the Figure 11.23 200 A. As the brush slides over the bared portion of the winding. 120 V units. Dimensions: 400 mm x 1500 mm. Figure 11.22 Schematic diagram ing a fixed 90% tap.8 Variable autotransformer 1 1.23). manually operated 0-140 V. 11. 15 A showing (1) the laminated variable autotransformer toroidal core.22). (2) the single-layer winding.SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS 11. {Courtesy of American Superior Electric) Figure 11. {Courtesy of American Superior Electric) Variable autotransformer rated at 50/60 Hz. is winding wound uniformly on a The brush can be set in 235 The input voltage £. is usually connected to 90 percent tap on the winding. a single-layer The transformer toroidal iron core. Manual or motorized positioning may be used (Figs. This motorized unit can vary the output voltage from zero to 240 V in 5 s.

b. per unit (Section 1 <T> 10. 1 . it is if a transformer usually is used to more economical porate the reactance in the transformer designing it itself. the load. The electric toys arc welders corresponding voltage across the neon tube fluorescent lamps electric arc furnaces to neon signs reactive oil and with increasing current. To maintain a uniform discharge. Electric arc furnaces and discharges in gases possess a negative E/I characteristic. c. some 3). Schematic diagram — 15 of a 30 mA neon-sign transformer. 2.. but being used ther practical nor safe to protect Consequently. the transformer that its leakage reactance is is it it nei- is with a fuse. or we must add an imped- with the load. the current increases is as the voltage falls.236 ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 11. but lights up. falls rapidly as typical applications: kV) 1 soon as the neon tube current is 1 . Owing falls The power of these transformers ranges from 50 VA to 1500 VA. 1 is 1 the neon-sign transformer .24.03 to 0. as seen in the regulation curve times reaching values as high as 0. and the two secondary windings 240 The transformers we have studied so far are alt designed to have a relatively low leakage reactance.voltage secondary will not cause overheating. the current is auto- matically limited by the high reactance so as not to burn out the transformer or damage the fragile annunciator wiring. meaning that once the arc struck. applications require and commercial industrial much higher reactances.9 pu. have a high leakage reactance. designed so so high that even a permanent short-circuit across the low.24 a. 0 supply to incor- by A Figure 11. ance in series ance may a steady arc. However. some- across the long neon the secondary voltage of the transformer (Fig.24c). Construction of the transformer. S are connected tube. If a short-circuit oc- curs on the secondary side. to typical example shown in Fig. 1 However. ranging perhaps from 0. The high open- initiates the discharge. burners Let us briefly examine these special applications. Typical E-I characteristic of the transformer. Such high- impedance transformers are used b . A toy transformer is often accidentally short- by children circuited. the automatically limited to 15 secondary mA. circuit voltage (20 following in the in series to the large leakage fluxes E2 tp. The same remarks apply to some bell trans- formers that provide low-voltage signalling power throughout a home. . The series imped- be either a resistor or reactor. The secondary voltages power regulators 1 5 kV.9 High-impedance transformers The primary winding P is connected to a V ac source. but prefer the latter because it consumes very we little active power.

4.welding transformers are also designed to have a high leakage reactance so as to stabilize the arc during the welding process. line 765 kV) while windings (typically 6 kV) to vary accordingly. incorporated in a static var improve the power factor of the pensator. a final example of high-impedance trans- formers.SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS range from 2 kV to 20 kV. In kVA and 500 secondary leakage flux very big furnaces. ac source is A relatively high- connected to a coil surrounds a larse crucible containing molten . the primary and secondary wind- High-power induction furnaces also use the former principle to produce high-quality other alloys. inten- produce leakage flux and. Capacitors are usually added to total circuit. as soon as the arc lished.10 Induction heating transformers welding current. consequently.24a. enormous 3-phase power from a 3-phase These transformers are tionally designed to 11. A change in the flux produces a corresponding active power absorbed by leakage change in transformer. is The 237 further discussed in Section 25.25). 3. less insulation is have properties similar to neon-sign HV 1 . Fluorescent lamp transformers (called ballasts) 1 ondary current needed for the high-voltage winding. Some oil Q secondary open-circuit voltage of The M '4 arc continually ignites the va- while the burner is in operation. transformers. The controller permits more or less sec- causing the leakage flux to flow. The induction stood by referring to Fig. kV and between 230 are connected to an electronic controller (Fig. As a result. As and the is falls to about we mention the units that absorb reactive transmission line. kV Q M two closely immediately above creates an arc between spaced electrodes situated porized 3-phase primary input 230 characteristics as neon-sign trans- formers do. together with the reactance of the conductors. the leakage reactance of the secondary.26. leak- estab- depends upon the length of intensity of the Figure 11. Arc. The open- about 70 V. mary windings upon the length of the tube. frequency 500 that Hz 1 trans- steel and principle can be under1. This ensures that the secondary line-to-ground voltage three pri- are connected to the the three secondary grounded. a value that the arc 5. 1 1 . Such trans- formers have ratings between 100 MVA. depending mainly ings are very loosely coupled. Oil-burner transformers possess essentially the same about 10 A kV the oil jet. between two carbon taining an intense arc A relatively low secondary voltage leakage flux elecis used tertiary and the large secondary current is ^ primary electric furnaces generate heat by main- trodes. However.27. the secondary voltage 15 V. winding limited by the leakage reactance of the transformer. which facilitates circuit voltage striking the arc is when the electrode touches the work. is the re- The com- the transformer. Returning to Fig. usually sufficient to provide is the necessary limiting impedance.25 Three-phase static var compensator having high age reactance. we note that the center of the secondary winding (typically is only one-half the voltage across the neon tube.

26. current to a highly is furnaces are often called coreless induction furnaces. and the molten iron secondary turn. In effect. copper. and the secondary current in the liquid primary is than that in Fig.27 Channel induction furnace and is required to drive the flux through the molten iron and through the must remember far air. The operating frequency becomes progressively lower power as the Figure 11. This current provides the energy that keeps the iron scrap metal as 15 it is melting other in a liquid state. itself. 1 1. Such induction furnaces have ratings between kVA and 40 000 kVA.27. short-circuited acts like a single upon flux The Consequently. 11. As a is higher being typically between 60 result. that the temperature of above the Curie point. is On is the large because the sec- obviously not tightly coupled to the Nevertheless. ply the reactive confined is behaves concerned. Figure shown a ceramic pipe that bottom of the crucible. 1 1 ted to the . the power factor II. The primary excited by a 60 12 is other hand. a very special application of is source.26 Coreless induction furnace. carries a very large it secondary current.11 High-frequency transformers In electronic power supplies there is often a need to from the input and to reduce the isolate the output weight and cost of the such as in aircraft. added to the pool. water-cooled copper on is itself. equiva- the induction heating principle. conductors. Thus. That water-cooled rating 60 Hz is used when the power exceeds about 3000 kVA. Owing to the very high ambient temperature. a transformer having a laminated iron core made to link with a channel of in Fig. aluminum. a smaller capacitor bank required to furnish the reactive power. a frequency of netizing current its transformer. far as permeability is and so it we molten iron The magnetizing is like air as why these Capacitors are installed close to the coil to sup- In power it known as a channel fur- nace. The power factor of coreless induction furnaces is very low (typically 20 percent) because a large magincreases. and 80 percent. the channel lent to a single turn short-circuited coil. The channel Hows molten iron. and other metals. O produces eddy capacitor furnishes power absorbed by the coil. a strong incentive to . unit. as Hz is fit- coil is channel and through the molten iron in the crucible.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 238 primary molten iron Figure 11.28 shows as well as iron. In this regard. the reactive The iron. another type of furnace. The currents in the molten metal. Induction furnaces are used for melting absorbs. In there is other applications. coil is the primary. the primary windings of induction furnace transformers are always made of hollow. the leakage flux ondary turn low because the flux is permeable iron core.

1 1 . Clearly. corresponding primary voltage to the fre- 50 kHz. increase in frequency reduces the size of such devices as transformers. is coil- clean and produces a very uniform is was designed it flux density. for.5 600 total 300 cm mA 120 V 60 Hz is for the secondary. while in electronic to to.30. typically power supplies quency may range from 5 kHz An is the at a fre- same peak ^ max will re- to Eq./TV] 400 Hz. These objectives are best achieved say. according at ondary voltage 60 Hz. a rat- 0.29.5 300 it which shows a conven- peak flux density of at a to will raised. core: 6 x 5 x 2. us consider the effect of operating what is which induces large eddy currents let quency of 6000 Hz. 9.28 Special application of the transformer effect. 29.44. 00 times greater than shown in Fig. inductors.5 T. A coil of as- its temperature up to 280°C expansion enables the ends. This picture of shows one stage in a steam-turbine generator. and capacitors. This method of duction heating temperature in to the transformer. 1 in Fig. The lami- nated core is about made of 1 ordinary silicon steel having mm (12 mils) and the W. The main resulting be slipped over the rise of the large this it in- mass. limit we how avoid a cumbersome theoretical analysis. In <I> (9. 60 Hz transformer having V. 1 follows that the flux minimize weight. The coil creates a 2000 Hz magnetic field.3 is is VA.3) max X 6000 X 600 X 750 X 000 V 12 is 6 l() 100 times greater than before! The sec- becoming 2400 frequency Assuming 4. However. raising the a very beneficial effect. The operating conditions are The primary and secondary currents remain unchanged and so the power of the transformer is now 3600 VA.3. Thus. V. Furthermore. be- 1 .44 by using a relatively high frequency compared in aircraft the it 00 times higher than 750 |xWb. 11. (Courtesy of ABB) means that the can be increased E= = = which 4. bestos-insulated wire Without making any changes the construction of the rotor will likewise be 100 times greater. J P = 36 VA B=1. the ring. tional 20 V/24 1 ing of 36 in the II.29 Figure 11. frequency has had . 120 24 V t T . 2000 Hz source (left foreground). This small transformer weighs and operates loss we our discussion to transformers. the diameter of a 5 t It consists of expanding coil-retaining ring.5 kg The flux core attains a peak of 750 fjiWb.SPECIAL TRANSFORMERS 239 order to illustrate the reason for this phenomenon. The and the primary 1 .5T 0max = 75OAWb core loss = 1 W Figure 11.5 A current rating silicon A >~ 1 t core mA for 12 mil 1. where it ring to in h. which wound around the ring and connected to a 35 kW. bringing about 3 cools and contracts. a thickness of 0. take a practical transformer and observe when haves the frequency Consider Fig.

the flux density to 0.5T 2400 V ^max^SOjUWb 1600^ core loss = 700 6 kHz ^ W 600 r 120 5 p = 480 VA B = 0. This is al- most 3 times the original power of 36 VA. due to the increase in is eddy current and hys- Thus. the efficiency of the in high frequency transformer It is now obvious is better.32 core: 6 x 5 x 2.29. As be a result.3. By using thinner laminations made of re- it is special possible to raise the flux density above 0. while the secondary will have only 9 turns.31 interested. 1 1 will quickly overheat. This 20 read- is number of turns on the primary will be reduced to 600 t X (120 V/1600 V) = 45 turns.2 T. It in the frequency power ca- follows that for a given A cm special core J ' = 3600 VA 300 mA 1 ff=1.3 = 96 V and 64 V. is . this requires a from the flux density The new power of P = 320 X 0. I mA 12 kV 6 kHz ^Wb. and lighter than a 60 Hz transformer.29.5 T) means primary voltage can be raised to that the 100 £ = 4.2 T <^max = lOO^Wb core loss = 1 W . 11.04 T while maintaining the same core losses.5 — / I(T A= the cm 15A 600 X 100 . get around this problem.33) has the special core (Fig. they were The corresponding secondary voltage not as great as is the core loss 64 A vh Y P = 96 VA # = 0.5 achieved by rewinding the transformer.5 T to 0.2 T/1.31 ). that the increase in has permitted a very large increase pacity of the transformer.30 300 VA (Fig.5 32*0V^ 1 power output a high frequency transformer is much smaller. cheaper.5 .44 X 6000 X 600 X = 1600 V core: 6 x 5 x 2. Thus. of course. because the iron and copper losses same are the both cases. as reduction in steel. not feasible because To it seems enormous (about it in Fig. * nlllx = 4. 480 core: 6 x 5 x 2.5 cm core loss = 1 W t 120/ cm special core 1.5 12 mi silicon 300 120/ silicon 12 600 Figure 11. from 600 mil mA 6 kHz 1 Figure 11. This rewound same size in the trans- 11.2T A t+ t «W= lOO^Wb 320 V r core: 6 x 5 x 2. = cl> max of 750 |xWb X (0.33 9/ 24 V T 0. we of 12 mil silicon cording to 1 . ac- Eq. Furthermore. its that significantly. more efficient. re- the transformer will VA (Fig.04T 0max = 2OAiWb core loss = 1 W 4 20 A A B= 120~\T 6 kHz 1 45/ Figure 11. and weight as the one in Fig.32). 1 .04 T. Thus. Such a drastic reduction in the wire the Bearing former can size mind in is still number of turns means be increased that the capacity of the trans- 480 VA. the primary and secondary volt- ages will have to be reduced to 320 spectively. the transformer teresis losses. in maintaining the 1 V to 24 V. it follows that the rated pri- mary current can be raised to 4 A while that secondary becomes 20 A. while same temperature rise. ily can be raised This corresponds to a peak flux 1 former with taining the nickel-steel.30 can reduce the flux density so that the core losses are the in Fig. 11. which V. Figure 11.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 240 However. the advantage because at 6000 Hz 700 W). 9. if we replace the original core with this special material. V X We are 320 original voltage ratio of same 320 is and so the enhanced capacity of the transformer is Based upon the properties 1.4477V.

. the purpose of a voltage trans- a current transformer? 1 if of 0. .. 7200 V/600 V. 12. calculate the load former terminals (H. line in inter- using wire. a. Problem 11-14 1 1-7. toroidal current transformer of Fig. Industrial application why the secondary winding PT must be grounded. spaced 138 kV.SPECIA L TRA NS FORMERS Questions and Problems Calculate the voltage across the secondary a.1 5 n. Calculate V 13. In one installation. 11. calculate the Fig.6 should the connections be made? of 250 pF. 11-13 Intermediate level 11-7 A single-phase transformer has a rating of 100 kVA.8 current transformer has a rating of is il. 480 V/l 20 60 Hz transformer yields the following V. what Why the secondary voltage be? this voltage the nominal voltage across the primary in- applied to the primary. Calculate the voltage across each lamp.4 kV.8 would 2. or vice versa? sion line it where is installed numin 60 Hz kept constant at 20 A.74 If V were 120 at no-load available. the line-to-neutral voltc. 1 V 8. X2 ) be con- in Advanced 11-10 A of 6. how should the trans- H2 . the primary cur- recon- level age 0. calculate the capacitive vals. 60 Hz.19 has a ratio of every 50 No 14 minimum voltage of the Assume the wire operates at connected 11-15 A source. calculate the voltage across the primary on a transmis- winding of each transformer. winding Practical level 11-1 What is What the difference between an auto- is former? 1 1 -3 Why 1 -4 11-5 Calculate the voltage drop the transformer c. The transformer ratio However. 2000 A/5 A. Explain CT or A toroidal of a 11-12 The nameplate of a small transformer dicates 50 VA. 6. has a primary to secondary capacitance If is 100 W.07 resistance of the secondary winding 0 while that of the primary Knowing It that the is is 0. The secondary A to a incandescent lamp. 1 Referring to Problem 11-12. primary conductor must we never open the secondary of 1500 A/5 A. If the produces on the Of a is looped four times through the toroidal opening.8 V When 1 current transformer has a ratio of How many turns does have? it current transformer has a rating of 10 VA.008 U. no-load test on a 1 5 kVA. b. 50 A/5 A. Is the upon source. large windings are individually connected carry 100 VA. The 0. 60 Hz. the windings are encapsulated in at in series power The a temperature of 105°C. is of 7800 V/7200 V. the resistance of which the primary windings of a nected? 1-9 epoxy and cannot be seen. magnetizing current and the leakage reactance are both negligible. 60 Hz.6 k V/600 how is Problem 1 1-7 is V What load can it 120 V winding wound Many airports use series lighting systems in rent winding. If re- it is connected as an autotransformer having a ratio it 1 1-8 In can carry. The conductor carries a current of 600 A. If 140 lamps. are leakage current that flows to ground (see 11-11 V the 12. 1 000 A/5 A. 138 kV. transformer and a conventional transformer? 11-2 24 is higher than the indicated nameplate voltage? winding. the is voltage across the secondary is A line conductor. X. M.2 11 and that of the secondary 1 ber of current transformers are connected nected again as an autotransformer having a and mary series across a constant current. calcu- current transformer? new late the current ratio. 11-6 ammeter has an impedance the b.13). 120 V.306 the pri- 5.

8 31 A) 59 99 49. Draw is If the the 1 20 V c. At what point on the saturation curve does turns.7 210 90. known to have 260 Draw the saturation curve at flux in 60 Hz (peak mWb versus current in mA). experiment were repeated using a 50 Hz source. redraw the resulting saturation curve. current in b.5 430 110 120 130 136 142 V 700 1060 1740 2300 3200 mA . uration the saturation curve (voltage versus become important? sat- Is the flux dis- torted under these conditions? mA). when excited by a sinusoidal source.3 144 66.242 ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS saturation curve data winding is The primary a. E 14.

a 6-phase. or a Indeed. These are fairly As and the secondaries only upon the turns ratio of the transformers.8 power to that has to be transmitted and the distance is also A it uniform. In order to transmit this power efficiently and economically.1 The amount of phase depends again upon the turns phases. Clearly. practical application for it. or 3-phase transformer bank can also produce a the 3-phase output voltage. observe transformer polarity may produce polarities. in a result. Thus. the primaries in several be connected the various connections. However. the ratio of the 3-phase input upon how they phase the appropriate voltage levels used in factories and homes. Another aspect in delta voltage to the 3-phase output voltage depends not voltages must be at appropriate levels. the phase- having three primary windings and three secondary the are connected. basic behavior of balanced 3-phase trans- lowing simplifying assumptions: 243 fol- . ranging from systems to 600 V 1 20/240 shift from one this re- ratio of the the primaries and secon- enables us to change the number of if there were a 12-phase system. but 765 kV) depend upon the amount of has to be carried. and on quires the use of 3-phase transformers to transform the voltages may wye. it is An imporerror in a short-circuit or unbalance Basic properties of 3-phase transformer banks the line voltages three single-phase transformers are used to former banks can be understood by making the The transform a 3-phase voltage. single-phase transformers connected together to 12. V single-phase 3-phase systems. In making tant to When how into a 2-phase. form a 3-phase transformer bank.Chapter 12 Three-Phase Transformers connected 12. same shift daries are interconnected. a 3-phase system can be converted windings mounted on a 3-legged core. These levels (1 ways. the Power vice versa. result between the 3-phase input voltage and shift feature level to another. transformers. Furthermore. we could even convert a 3-phase system into a 5-phase can be achieved by using three system by an appropriate choice of single-phase transformers and interconnections. The transformers may be inherently 3-phase. the windings can be and currents. kV 3. Thus.0 Introduction is distributed throughout North America by means of 3-phase transmission lines.

Similarly. 2. they retain their basic single-phase properties. Furthermore.2 Schematic diagram is in Fig. in the sense three single-phase transformers P. The incoming connected to the source. is put power. but also the phasor H2 X. Ho X2 load I transform the voltage of the incoming transmission line A. The transformers \ 3/„ line are con- Figure 12. when single-phase transformers are connected into a 3-phase system. C and . X2 in and Hj.2. I2. line l. and the outgoing connected to the load. The transformer impedances. -O-i 1 2 balanced BOH .2 Delta-delta connection The is of suc- The acshown in equal to the total apparent out- given is in delta-delta. and are negligible.1 The corresponding schematic diagram all such as current 12. The incoming lines (source) are A. B. phase with EH the core. and 12. of each trans- H2 connected to terminal of the next X2 tance and leakage reactance of the windings. voltage ratio. 3. The total tual physical layout of the transformers apparent input power to the trans- former bank Fig. s load Figure 12. H2 is . due to the resis- is Terminal H.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 244 1 . 2. Given the C AO the phase shift Ht X Ho X. zero. between primary and secondary that Ex x is in Fig. B. terminals X. and flux ratio. 3. transformer. polarity marks X.1 Delta-delta connection of three single-phase trans- formers. 12. cessive transformers are connected together. the outgoing lines (load) are V3/ 1 . 3. 2. former of a delta-delta connection and associated phasor diagram.l. Hi X. three-phase CO R of to a level appropriate for the outgoing transmission line is The schematic diagram is drawn in such a way to show not only the connections. The exciting currents nected are negligible.. Q.

E AB (primary £2 3 s m phase transformer P) must be in phase with of the same transformer). and E3i ECA with i- tween the respective incoming and outgoing mission lines are If in small. a balanced load lines 24.13 138 000 MVA X 58. bank in the The rating of I2 single transformer. in the rent / s if it were placed Thus. is c. This currents are 21/0.9 A associated with a curin the The secondary. The apparent power drawn by S .86 = is with the mutual flux and the leakage fluxes are . with £ BC . Referring to Fig. Similarly.9 . For example.4 = 102 in the / V3 times greater than the respective and /s ondary windings the transformer flowing (Fig. Ex En (secondary voltage of b. Furthermore.9) X 10 )/(V3 X 138 000) A LV lines is = 5/(V3 E) = (24 A 6 X 10 )/(V3 X 4160) = 3386 A although the transformer bank consti- a 3-phase also 24. if is G source in- current in the HV current in the LV lines lines currents in the primary and secondary windings of each transformer pro- according to the The The The 245 f. the current in each pri- is = 1 02/V 3 = 58. Thus. such a delta-delta connection. The load carried by each transformer dicated phasor diagram. corresponding primary winding to e.4/3 The - 8. b.4 (7. individual transformer load can also be obtained by multiplying the primary voltage of 86 percent.4 line 6 current in the three times the rating of a is is HV primary and sec- The power 12. mary winding in a single- flowing from H] to / p 1 2. the incoming = (24. phase by phase.7) The transformer bank itself absorbs a negligible amount of active and reactive power because the 1~R losses and the reactive power associated resulting line currents are equal in magnitude. current in each secondary winding /s = 3386/V3 = 1955 is A Example 12-1 Three single-phase transformers are connected delta-delta to step down a line voltage of 4160 V to supply power The plant draws 21 MW 1 38 kV in to to a manufacturing plant. Note tutes that arrangement. the primary windings are same way. currents MVA follows that the apparent power fur- in any delta connection. drawn d. Because the plant load is balanced.=5/(V3£) d. Because the primary and secondary voltages EH and Hn phase. times the primary current: Calculate a. The apparent power drawn by the plant The apparent power furnished by the HV S = line = E p Ip = 8. each trans- former carries one-third of the 24. HV line current in each /. . the line produces balanced line currents A-B-C.2. a current primary winding flowing from X2 to is X| / p MVA. As It nished by the trans- phase.2).THREE-PHASE TRANSFORMERS relationship between the primary and secondary c.13 total load. voltages. is (8. at a lagging power factor f. each secondary parallel to the which is it winding coupled. in the same direction Solution oriented the £AB as phasor a. the primary of transformer P between lines A and B is oriented horizontally. connected to lines 1 The -2-3. considered alone. the voltages be- In P/cos 0 of a given transformer must be in Xi follows that it = = the plant e. or MVA. acts as phase H2 circuit. duces voltages £AB £ BC ECA . each transformer.

in delta.2 X f 1 — C—-— balanced 2 : I H.3 Delta-wye connection of three single-phase transformers. times as the currents in the secondary windings. Thus. AO- 12. some are single-phase loads operating at much lower voltages than 4160 V. load Figure 12. 12. sum total of these The calculate the line currents and the currents in the transformer windings even though The relative values of the currents in the trans- former windings and transmission Fig. X H2 M X. the line currents in V 3 times the currents line currents in in the phases lines are given in phases A. is equal to the incoming line volt- However. (The phasor diagrams on the mary and secondary sides are not drawn to the same scale. 3 are the l.4 Schematic diagram of a delta-wye connection and associated phasor diagram. the secondary windings are connected so that all the common X2 terminals are joined neutral N CO (Fig. together.3). in Furthermore. represented by the box. the voltage across each primary winding age. Xt H2 X. the plant load 3-phase load (shown composed of hundreds of which are connected as a is connected.ELECTRICA L MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 246 Note that we can do not know how the fect. we others 12. In 3 -O--I such a delta. 1 . 1 2. and primary windings. individual loads. the outgoing line voltage is a/3 the secondary voltage across each transformer. X H2 x 2 |— -O( • three-phase load However. creating a BO same H. outgoing line loads usually results in a reasonably well-balanced 3-phase load. the three primary windings are connected the way as in Fig. Figure 12.3 Delta-wye connection When the transformers are connected in delta-wye. 2. In ef- box in Fig. same A shift delta-wye connection produces a 30° phase between the of the incoming and line voltages outgoing transmission lines. C 1 are The 2.2) is some of wye. B.) pri- . H.4.wye connection. powered by smaller transformers located inside the plant. Thus.

1.3.2kV« 375 A 3932 A Figure 12. 2. The voltage across ously 13.2 kV kV/80 kV at The current If in each incoming /= they feed MVA load. there results a 30° phase shift between the voltages of the incoming and outgoing lines. the 30° shift may make such a parallel connection impossible. a 13. the H 2 terminals are connected together to create a neuand the X X 2 terminals are connected in delta. 3 is A 12. 1 to consider the primary winding is obvi- [ . But.5 See Example E i2 voltage £ AB . say. trans- P. 12. 2. of the important advantages of the nection if is. = 30 MVA/80 kV = = 375 1 . A 375 40 are connected in delta-wye on transmission line (Fig. The secondary line voltage The currents in the transformer windings The incoming and outgoing transmission line A. or 58 percent of the The p is = 30 MVA/ 13. The load C is kV 139 carried by each transformer S = 90/3 is = 30 MVA wye conThe reduces the amount of insulation needed inside the transformer. The to the therefore. the phase shift creates no problem. 2. The voltage between outgoing line feeds an isolated group of loads. is line has to ing the secondary 80 kV.2 a 90 1 3. Again. is 30° ahead of incoming as can be seen The voltage across line voltage from the phasor diagram. . The primary and secondary connec- tions are simply interchanged. if and 3 the outgoing be connected in parallel with a line comfrom another source. In other words. = 3937 A current in each outgoing line / a. 12-2. B.2 kV. c. a. calculate the following: The 2273 V 3 b. /s Example 12-2 c. the outgoing lines E = 80 V3 = otherwise identical.2 kV = 2273 A current in the secondary winding is line voltage. tral.5). even line voltages are One that is it s b.THREE-PHA SE TRANSFORMERS 375 A 3932 A 247 1 80 kV 90 MVA 13. If the current in the primary winding HV winding has / be insulated for only 1/V3. Three single-phase step-up transformers rated MVA.4 Wye-delta connection line The currents and voltages currents in a wye-delta connection are identical to those in the delta-wye connection of Solution The easiest way Section to solve this the windings of only former problem is one transformer.

o [h x~| in three transformers A O- 12. strange can only deliver 86. usually way of the ground (Fig.8). if mainly used is b n^-Mj Q I possible to transform the voltage of a 3-phase The open-delta arrangement is in identical Figure 12. kVA before the transformers begin to overheat. connected only 86. the open- .6). often provide the substation service is delta connection is is ample.6 The open-delta connection emergency situations. Another way is by to provide each transformer with a third winding. For ex- Note that there is no phase shift between the incoming and outgoing transmission line voltages of wye-wye connected trans- seldom used because the load capacity of the transformer bank voltage where the transformers are installed. to prevent the distortion is to connect the neutral of the primary to the neutral of the source. it X 50 = 100 kVA. Wye-wye connection to a delta-delta connection.8a Open-delta connection. ' Figure 12. the installed capacity of the transformer transformer. spe- precautions have to be taken to prevent severe One way distortion of the line-to-neutral voltages. 12.7). 0—4 It is in open-delta. But.6 per- cent of the installed transformer capacity. However. system by using only 2 transformers. 12.7 Wye-wye connection using a 12.6 Wye-wye connection ac source with neutral of the primary connected to the neutral of the source. if two 50 kVA transformers are connected bank as it is obviously 2 may seem.6 Open-delta connection open-delta. three 1 2. called tertiary winding. except that former When cial transformers are connected in wye-wye. a one absent (Fig.5 tertiary winding. Thus.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 248 ac source | Figure 12. The tertiary transformers are connected They windings of the in delta (Fig.

A transformer bank transformers former Solution may (Fig. The 3-phase transformer option is . suppose a manufacturing plant absorbs 5000 ond one as kVA a spare. 3 (Fig. 7200 V/600 in 0.9) 259 800 Figure 12.8b). the maxi- load that the transformers can carry when a replacement unit one 3-phase 5000 (8. The windings are the The nominal secondary current of each former connected internally. Nevertheless. = Example 12-3 Two single-phase 150 formers are connected maximum V kVA. the ratio possi- maximum on a temporary basis with the kVA 300 kVA 260 load installed transformer rating two remaining transformers. or 86. Consequently. Alternatively. 1 two together cannot carry a load of 300 kVA. either in wye the result that only six terminals or in delta. The following calculations show why: secondary windings of each phase. For ex- kVA.THREE-PHASE TRANSFORMERS are connected in delta-delta and comes defective and has ble to feed the load to one of them be- be removed. a 3-phase is transformer = /s 1 50 kVA/600 V= 250 A is single-phase always smaller and cheaper than three transformers.7 Three-phase transformers trans- open-delta. it is 249 Thus. cannot.7% 12. For a given total capacity. single- phase transformers are sometimes preferred. 2. VA is essential. we can single-phase transformers each rated plus one spare. therefore. Calculate the 3-phase load they can carry. with have to be brought trans- outside the tank.8b Associated schematic and phasor diagram. ex- 12. The magnetic core of such a transformer has three legs that carry the primary and Although each transformer has a rating of 50 k VA. 1 composed of three single-phase be replaced by one 3-phase trans- 2. To guarantee continued service we can is S = ^3EI = V3 X 600 X 250 = = 260 kVA ularly ample.9). install transformer and keep a sec- at install three 1667 kVA. partic- The current ceed 250 A mum /s in lines 1.867.

9 Three-phase transformer for an electric arc furnace.8 kV/1 60 V to 320 V. which simplifies the problem of shipping.10a Core of a 1 1 0 MVA. The tap-changer is a motorized device under the control of a sensor that continually monitors the voltage that hns to be held constant. 222. Other characteristics: impedance: 3. 3-phase transformer. the core legs can be made almost circular.250 ELECTRICA L MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS more expensive (total capacity: 2 X 5000 = 10 000 kVA) than the single-phase option (total capacity: 4 X 1667 = 6667 kVA). Fig.14%. magnetic core has two addi- 1 £ lap-changing transformer regulates the secondary voltage by automatically switching from one tap to another on the pri- mary winding.5%. diameter of each leg of the core: 71 mm. The secondary voltage is adjustable from 1 60 V to 320 V by means of 32 taps on the primary winding (not shown). The three large busbars in the foreground deliver a current of 65 000 A.10b Same transformer with coils windings are connected in in place.10 shows successive stages of construction of a 3-phase 1 10 MVA. 1 3. the designer is faced with the problem of overhead clear- ances on highways and rail lines. (Courtesy of Ferranti. overall height of core: 3500 mm.5 kV. 222. Mass of copper: 1 5 230 kg. 12. . They enable the designer to re- duce the overall height of the transformer. wye and The primary the secondaries in Each primary has 8 taps to change the voltage in steps of ±2.5 kV/34. rated 36 MVA. This reduces the coil diameter to a minimum.5 changing transformer/ Note that 1 three A main legs. delta. center line distance between adjacent core legs: 1220 mm. when- ever large equipment has to be shipped. 60 Hz. the ' in kV tap- addition to the tional lateral legs. 60 Hz. By staggering laminations of different widths.5 kV/34. The legs are tightly bound to reduce vibration. resulting in 2 less copper and lower l R losses. 3 I 1—t w V Figure 12. In effect. Mass of core: 53 560 kg. Figure 12.Packard) Figure 12. The motorized tap-changer can be seen in the right upper corner of the transformer.

5 kV windings (connected in delta) are to the core. 12. given shown and the corresponding schematic in Fig. 12. The oil to ings that protrude nected to a 220 bushings are kV much HV bush- from the oil-filled tank are con- line.5 kV windings (connected in wye) are mounted on top of the 34. The respective di- line- to-neutral voltages of the primary and secondary are obviously in phase. t.10c). Consequently. lib. A space of several centimeters separates the two windings cool 251 to ensure good isolation and to allow flow freely between them.8 Step-up and step-down autotransformer When the voltage of a 3-phase line has to be stepped up or stepped down by a moderate amount. Other details: power rating: 110 MVA/146.11b Associated schematic diagram. nomically advantageous to it is eco- use three single-phase transformers to create a wye-connected autotrans- The former.2 m.11a Wye-connected autotransformer. The neutral is line connected voltages are to the otherwise a tertiary winding must be added to prevent the line-to-neutral voltage distortion mentioned previously (Section 12. in system neu- TN Figure 12. 8. The 222. The medium voltage (MV) smaller and cannot be seen in the photograph (Fig.5 kV mounted next windings.2 m. {Courtesy of ABB) A B O2 -o H Figure 12. width: and outgoing transmission phase. 1 agram is 2. in Fig. load .7 for shipping. It overall height: 9 m.5).10c Same has been subjected to a 1050 kV impulse test on the HV side and a similar 250 kV test on the LV side.THREE-PHASE TRANSFORMERS The 34. length: 9. 1 actual physical connections are 1 a.7 MVA (OA/FA). the incoming Figure 12. total mass transformer ready including oil: 158. 12. tral.

3-phase. tank and accessories: 46 t. 60 Hz transmission line to an existing 300 kV system. The transformer ratio is 404 kV/173 kV. The basic impulse insulation (BIL) of 1950 kV and 1050 kV expresses the transformer's ability to withstand lightning and switching surges.11c Single-phase autotransformer (one of a group of three) connecting a 700 kV. (Courtesy of Hydro-Quebec) properties of this transformer: weight of core weight: . A tertiary winding rated 35 MVA. Cooling is OA/FA/FOA.9 kV maintains balanced and distortion-free line-to-neutral voltages. respectively.252 ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS Figure 12. at a temperature rise of 55°C. Other and windings: 132 t. oil: 87 t. 1 1. total 265 t. Note the individual 700 kV (right) and 300 kV (left) bushings protruding from the tank. to give an output of 200/267/333 MVA per transformer. while providing power for the substation. BIL rating is 1950 kV and 1050 kV on the HV and LV side.

A = say).0. kV an existing 300 kV The cerned) = 3 66. stepped up to 345 in fact that the ratio of transformation gle of a voltage very simply.9) 6 1() )/(V3 X 345 000) output A voltage The power associated with winding X. Voltage with respect to EAC C P .11c shows a large single-phase auto- transformer rated 404 kV/173 is if outgoing line voltage to The is smaller and cheaper than a conventional trans- 253 = 66 000 X 335 - 22. Figure 12.12 EAP can be phase -shifted by means of a potentiometer. an autotransformer former (see Section 1 1 . sic rating of each single-phase transformer fore 22. Phase shift- QMne a voltage each phase of the outgoing = Such multi- is kV 133 secondary voltage rating of 133 in line. To simplify the calculations.1 capacity of 200 2.5 and particularly true winding rated 1 1 . line mary . Solution 199 stations ing is and in - 199 H2 between H.THREE-PHASE TRANSFORMERS For a given power output. basic transformer rating (as far as size is considerably less than MVA.X 2 between = 1 us consider only between X. The (345/230 ables us to create 2-phase.3 with a tertiary MVA. line-to-neutral voltage £AN = let shift the Such phase systems from an ordinary 3-phase phase systems are used of a 3-phase line (Fig. This lies between 0.1 MVA.9 Phase-shift principle A Three single-phase transformers connected as au- one phase (phase A. is load-carrying system. con- between phases B and 12. As we slide contact A o £ kV AP P A is = 66 kV — — o to B : rheostat line C pri- 66 kV. assuming they are connected as shown in Fig. The is ba- there- Figure 12. This is the ratio of the incoming line voltage lies between 0. Example 12-4 The voltage of is its part of a 3-phase trans- It is former bank used to connect a 700 line to basic rating of the 3-phase transformer bank X 22. and 12-phase sider a rheostat connected Em = keeping with the 2.5) kV The voltage of winding X. and 230/V3 to I. SN3E = (200 X = 335 lines 1 is and lx power flow over trans- the phase shifting principle.9 kV. 1 Winding H. 6-phase. The con- 12. in large electronic also used to control output = 133 H2 This means that each transformer has an effective The current phase an- shifting en- mission lines that form part of a power grid. totransformers are to be used.H 2 has the same power is MVA rating.2). and = 345/V3 line-to-neutral voltage £.5 and kV to kV transmission 230 kV line has to be supply a load of 200 MVA.X 2 S converter special electric controls.11b. 3-phase system enables us to To understand 12. a 3-phase. 12). Calculate the basic power and voltage rating of each transformer. line is (8.

2. voltage both amplitude and phase. 1 5. U^A-^^^A/->^^^A/'•^l O line B 1 1 3 4 b b Figure 12. 12. and ECA are fixed by the source. problem. 14 P h P 2 P 3 whose phase angle ate a 3-phase source changes stepwise with respect is a result. B. 100 1 2. the voltage across each turn re- fixed shifter. 12. we connect a mulautotransformer between phases B and C 12. E when the contact Such circuits draws is in the middle of the rheostat. same open-circuit voltages and phase fore.ELECTRICA L MA CHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 254 from phase B toward phase C. the resulting pletely changes the voltage A and P heavier load ap- is in the rheostat com- and phase angle from what they were on open-circuit. Contacts P. The voltages shows . Why is is connected between termi- this so? The reason flux in the autotransformer fixed. P 2 P 3 move in obtain a maximum tandem as we switch from one set We now to source of 60° as ABC. of taps to the next. voltages EAT and £ NC are both equal to 86. 3. is to use a at 50 per- between any it shown B. a simple phase-shifter can only be used in where the load between terminals few milliamperes. There are several ways to create a source. the magnitude of E AP varies slightly. 1 Phasors 2.6 V. Furthermore. Figure 12..866 .6 percent. this nals shifts as be- but this time they remain essentially un- changed when a load A and P. We two phases of a 3-phase line.10 Three-phase to 2-phase transformation 2-phase system are equal but dis- in a placed from each other by 90°. By moving contact P. changes a 60° phase the potentiometer we move from B Thus. a If a IR drop plied. mains As is is that the E BC fixed because (both in magnitude and phase) whether the autotransformer delivers a current 3 tapped autotransformers con- nected between lines A. We we move the autotransformers to the some practical applications of the phase-shift principle. 7 n line Phasor E AN cause the is in phase with phasor same ac £ AB be- flux links the turns of the au- < totransformer. . This relationship can be seen by referring to the phasor dia- gram 1 .13). we obtain the To get around titap (Fig. One 2-phase system from a 3-phase of the simplest and cheapest single-phase autotransformer having taps cent and 86.14 Three-phase phase connect as voltage between lines A. from E (voltage between the lines) to 0. V. (Fig. and C. in moving from one end of shift in to the other. This arrangement enables us to cre- line phase from one extremity of other. to the load or not. 1 5c) and reasoning as follows: EAB £ BC . in phase with phasor £ AB for the . they are displaced from each other by 90°. Fig.C is in Fig. Phasor same E AT is reason. as E AP We obtain C. If the A discuss shift .13 Autotransformer used as a phase-shifter. voltage to EAP gradually advances in phase with respect to £AB At the same time.

motor produce a 2-phase system Scott connection. the 3-phase line supplies only the active and reac- 1.6 - the fixed and given by EAH /EAV = to is 9036/0. C secondary and the 2-phase load windings. b. Example 12-5 A 2-phase. 12. c. 295 VA. kW (10 hp). tive total ap- parent line 1 1 is. <b) Calculate a.15. The apparent power drawn by the motor The current in each 2-phase line The current in each 3-phase line Solution a.80. the value is P = PJt) = 7500/0.5 A other. Schematic diagram of the connections. of transformation (3-phase voltage to is 1 <|> the in the figure.16c). consequently. nals A.6 percent tap on tap the 255 primary The transformers are connected as shown in 12. Fig. 240 V. B. The power furnished by die 3-phase therefore. The 3-phase source is connected to termi- winding. 0.THREE-PHASE TRANSFORMERS and the other an 86. 2-phase 1 systems are seldom encountered today.5 an efficiency of 0. Another way 295 = motor f=S/E = 5648/240 = 23. Phasor diagram of the voltages. 3-phase line using a Scott- connected transformer bank (Fig.83 = 9036 W (c) 4. The is given Scott connection has the advantage of isolating the 3-phase and 2-phase systems and provid- ing any desired voltage ratio between them. load Except for servomotor applications. c. The ratio connected to the is of transformation (3-phase line voltage to 2-phase line voltage) by EAB /E l2 . 60 Hz motor has 7.8 VA 295/2 is = 5648 VA each 2-phase line is c. and 2 must be isolated from each 2-phase voltage) 1 5=11 such as the two windings of a 2-phase induction motor. using a single transformer winding.83 and a power factor of 0. It consists of two is lo use identical single-phase transformers.15 a. P/cos The apparent power per phase voltage law. . -NC The power drawn by active the The apparent power drawn by Figure 12. Simple method to obtain a 2-phase system from a 3-phase line.16. is to It be fed from a 600 V. the one having a 50 percent power absorbed by the motor. b. Consequently. From KirchhofPs ECA = Loads I E AN + £ NC + phasor £ NC must have and direction shown = S = The ratio b. The current in 1 00/86. The transformer bank tle itself consumes very lit- active and reactive power.

1 7). 2. incoming Figure 12. 3 are shifted connected twists a magnitude. B. Scott connection. Phasor diagram (Fig. Phase-shift transformer A phase-shift transformer is a special type of 3-phase autotransformer that shifts the phase angle between incoming and outgoing the lines without changing the voltage ratio. The through an angle that all the voltages of the line line of such a phase-shift transall the without.16 a. result is outgoing transmission with respect to the voltages of the incoming line A. changing their 1 .ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 256 86.1 1 1 6c shows the power circuit and the and currents. former of the Scott connection. C. C The transformer line voltages however. line voltages 12.6% phase AO 1 OB Figure 12. Consider a 3-phase transmission to the terminals (b) b. 2. B. The 3-phase = / line current 5/(V3 E) = l 1 is 295/(V3 X 600) = 10. The angle may be lead- . 1 A.9A Figure 1 2.16c See Example 12-5.

SL = (150 = 377 Fig. The values of E.025 S L a max leg.025 = The incoming line and the outgoing result Similarly.THREE-PHASE TRANSFORMERS 257 Example 12-6 phase-shift A phase-shift transformer is designed transformer MVA on a 230 kV. all line currents are the same both lines. is 15°. (Fig. The line current is I Figure 12. Calculate the line currents b. and is usually variable between zero and ±20° The phase angle is sometimes varied in discrete means of a motorized tap-changer. PN = basic power rating of the 3-phase 000) A an example of a 3-phase transformer with a tap brought out shift of.18c). 3. B. and upon the phase shift. Figure 12. 3. it is given by the approximate formula ST = 0. 0. is £2 n ECN l is connected to terminals line to terminals 1.18a ing or lagging.025 (12. be- in cause the voltages are the same. Thus. a£ s C £. a. steps by parent that N3E = connected in series selected so that the output voltage is gener- E PN E ]b are with equal to the in- put voltage while obtaining the desired phase angle .025 S L a max = 56 The X 0. feature of b. the leg associated with phase winding The (I2. voltage shift |°] has one The wind- transformer bank VA] a max = maximum transformer phase 20 ings of the three phases are interconnected as shown.17b Phasor diagram showing the range over which the phase angle of the outgoing line can be varied. to control 50 1 The phase angle line. principle of obtaining a phase shift connect two voltages in E ]b apparent power carried by the trans- mission line [VA] generated by phase A. N lags 20° behind £ AN 20° behind E HN and £ 1N lags that .1) X 150 15 MVA power rating is much that the transformer carries. 12. A. 3-phase ± variable between zero and a. is = = that the power rating less than the This a is autotransformers.9) h 10 )/(V3 Thus. Calculate the approximate basic power rating of the transformer. S. by two different phases. [ = A terminal at a second winding having terminals The basic Sv X 230 The transformer has two windings on each 20° behind where (8. . For angles less than 20°. say.l) is X could be used to obtain a phase degrees. 12.17a The basic power Phase-shift transformer. Solution a.> N and B is is to series that are generated ated by phase an approximate coefficient A and 2. outgoing transmission Tap changer incoming and in the lines. ST Note 0. The basic power rating of the transformer (which determines power its size) depends upon the ap- carried by the transmission line.

the outgoing terminals Figure 12. it rests upon the The purpose of such transformers just discussed. even if they are not (see Section 8. basic principles we have is be covered in Chapter 25. In our particular example.2.3. we proceed as Figure 12. B. 12.\4E = 0.E EPN = \. much more complex. We assume that the primary and secondary windings are both connected between them. In making the calculations. C. the re- spective voltages across the windings of phase A are in wye. 12._\-SS ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS coming terminals are A.18b Schematic diagram follows: of the transformer in Fig. a transformer that gives a phase- of shift of 20°. 1. will of a tap-changing. This eliminates the problem of having to deal with delta-wye and delta-delta voltages and currents. .12 Calculations involving 3-phase transformers The behavior of a 3-phase transformer bank is calculated the same way as for a single-phase transformer. .40E In practice. the internal circuit phase-shift transformer However. line-to-neutral voltage of the incoming if E is the line.18c Phasor diagram are 1.14).18a.

84° £ s (Fig.9. MVA.3 MVA The (pu) - per-unit voltage 0. a.0 nominal voltage of winding as our base voltage. this hypothetical trans- the line-to-neutral voltage of the in- line. is impedance ZT (pu) = former. per-unit up line.(pu) L F = 199.(pu) 11 £ L (pu) is 345/V3 = is 0.115 The voltage = 81 0/3 = 270 1 2. the per-unit voltage across the load that both £ L (pu) = windings are connected We this shall use the per-unit We problem. in It steps The power a S. 9.THREE-PHASE TRANSFORMERS 2. Figure 12. 433.5 = 5. /. We don't need this information.19 The load on transformer this is See Example one-third the 12-7. kV 11. per phase.5 percent. The power of the load per phase is circuit of this trans- Calculate the voltage across the generator almost entirely reactive. we By note that the primary and second- ary winding connections are not specified. 5.115 bank. is power 5 B Thus. we assume in selecting £.2 = wye. Fig. MVA = 5 L (pu) = 270 MVA/433.90 = 25. the secondary select the method EB = The to solve £B /. wye-wye transformer 259 Z T (pu) MP") = tO. The equivalent circuit is shown in Fig.18 (Chapter 10) is rated 1300 impedance kV. Consequently.6231 Solution a.0723Z. The = 370 kV/V3 = 213. 60 Hz.19) is . j 0. b. power 810 therefore.6W per-unit power of the load is factor of 0. First. The nominal power rating of this transformer is one-third the rating of the 3-phase transformer bank. -25. We consider only one transformer (single phase) of this assumed 3.0723 is 0.2 kV The power /u Ratio of transformation a = per-unit current in the load = is 345/24. 6. the amplitude and phase of the 14. load on the transformer bank. . The base voltage 213. Determine the equivalent a very large transformer. as the reference phasor.6 kV/1 99. Consequently. b. the 24.581 1Z. 12.84°. consequently.3 0. The primary voltage of former is coming 4.90. This Example 12-7 The 3-phase step-up transformer shown 10. by an angle of arcos 0.5 kV/345 the voltage of a generating station to 345 is transformer impedance £.581 1300/3 = I 1. However. across the load is ter- HV side of the transformer MVA at 370 kV with a lagging minals when the delivers is.6231 £L = 0. The secondary voltage of this transformer is the line-to-neutral voltage of the outgoing line. 1 MVA £.08 is given by rating of the transformer will be used as the base SB = factor of the load lags behind per-unit load current The nominal power kV 0 1.

and so on. 12° effective voltage across the terminals of the generator is. is also 103/13. HV side LV side. there results a 30° phase shift between the primary and sec- 3. of 3-phase transformers The HV terminals of a 3-phase transformer are marked H h H 2 H 3 and the LV terminals are marked X h X 2 X 3 The following rules have been stan- ondary dardized: are . E HH leads £ X|Xi by 30° EH H| leads £ XiX| by 30° £H Hi leads Ex 30° x by Fig. the voltages between similarly-marked terminals are in phase.12° 1.1014 = 1.0723^0° + (0. 12° + j 0. is in phase with E xx £ HiH| is in phase with Exx EH is in phase with Ex £H H H x If the .20 shows two ways of representing the delta-wye terminal markings.103 X 345 kV = per-unit voltage on the primary side Ep = The 381 kVZ.5811/1 -25. E = s The 1. Thus. therefore.0668(cos 64. The so that the voltages on the always lead the voltages of similarly-marked primary windings and secondary wind- ings are connected line voltages.0601 Therefore.103 X 27.1 15/190°) = 1. . 2. £g = = = £p(pu) X £B 1. 1 .0723 + 0. If the wye-wye terminals on the or delta-delta. made in wye-delta or delta-wye.02 kV ( primary) 24. .16 = 1.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 260 E s (pu) = EJpu) + / L (pu) X ZT (pu) Hi = 1. Thus. 12.20 Polarity 12.16°) = 1.0723 + 0.5 kV Figure 12. These rules are not affected by the phase sequence of the line voltage applied to the primary side.3.103/13. primary and secondary windings are con- nected internal connections and so on. .13 Polarity marking marking of 3-phase transformers.84°) X (0.0668Z.64.16° j X1 0 + sin 64.

7200 V/600 in V. sion lines b. Is What gle-phase transformers are to be installed The transformer shown b.THREE-PHASE TRANSFORMERS Questions and Problems 1 2-7 In order to 261 meet an emergency.02 pu.19 oper- used to raise the voltage of a 3-phase b. . 230 V/208 Calculate the corresponding primary indicates that a 150 and secondary currents. Three 1 50 kVA. The copper losses are 150 A. 10.8 nominal currents ondary 12-4 kV/320 in the has a rating V Calculate the lines. 3-phase line. What Delta-wye b.4. the Industrial application Calculate the currents in the sec- ondary lines 12-6 is A-B-C b. 480 V/4000 V. morning peaks. Calculate 600 c. Intermediate level is 250 kVA. If the a. and 3 Then.9 13.0015 pu. V. make wye-delta on a 3-phase 18 a.9 2. 12. the transformers overloaded? ings of transformer 12-10 age at are connected in open- Referring to Figs. mode ates in the forced-air 225 current during the 600 to is 1. 2-3. the transformer operates effectively at no-load 50 percent of Problem 12-2 are V line to 7. 12-9 incoming and outgoing transmis- In the of 36 MVA. . How must they be kVA load the bank current has a value of 0.4 Assuming 12-12 one year. are con- wye-delta on a 12 470 V.18. maximum lines the line current The transformers a. 400 kVA.003 pu.5 cents per kWh. in Fig. in line. three single-phase transformers rated Practical level 1 2- 1 that the transformer terminals H2 have polarity marks H.3 and 12. 12. 3-phase autotransformer weighs V. X2 . 3-phase 10. is calculate the cost of the no-load operation in the course of connected? Calculate the line currents for a 600 load. balanced and equal on a 4000 V. 13. is connected nections: are connected in schematic drawings of the following con- 1 kV 100 kVA.. in a P are by mistake con- Determine the voltages measured between lines 1-2. 60 Hz sin- is if the primary line volt- kV and 12-11 when The exciting the transformers are The core loss in a 300 kVA distribution transformer the primary line is 3-phase estimated to be 0.2 kV/2.2 kV. Two calculate the following currents: the delta to supply a load of 60 Hz. V nected in reverse. at load 450 kVA. the transformer overloaded? If the time. Open-delta 1 2-2 250 kVA.4 Three single-phase transformers rated nected What b. The bulletin of a transformer manufacturer kVA. 60 Hz. 2-8 2. operating at no-load. in Fig. is In the a. new phasor diagram. the outgoing line voltage? transformers rated Are kV load that can be voltage between phases primary and secondary windings The transformer maximum can carry on a continuous basis? is 12-3 is kV/600 b. Draw the and 3-1. line.. the line Calculate the nominal currents in the pri- a. and the voltage between a. knowing that 12-5 transformer bank? to the similar installation the secondary wind- primary and sec- the windings are connected in delta-wye. a. kV 6. 0. and the cost of electricity 4. mary and secondary windings of the transformer shown in Fig. X.

the transformers should be How would you connect them? Are they connected. 3-phase motor from a 600 V. V load function as autotrans- polarity Show how (kVA) at metal housing. 460 V..262 ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 310 lb. The full-load current of the motor 42 A. marks appear on the is 1 single-phase transformers are available. a. 3-phase line. You wish to operate a 40 hp. 3-phase input. whereas a standard 3-phase trans- 12-14 former having the same rating weighs 1220 12-13 1b. Determine the 3-phase voltage output the c. Problem 12-13 calculate the maximum line current that this difference 9 Three single-phase transformers rated nected In motor without overheating? drawn by . shift between the 3-phase voltage output and the 600 V. Three 5 kVA. The H. able to furnish the load current b. source. Determine the phase of the transformer. 60 Hz are con- 12-15 Then can be drawn from the 600 calculate the maximum that the autotransformer can carry. V. 480 V/l 20 5 in delta to formers on a 600 H2 X h X2 . Why 1 kVA. 20 V/480 V. 3-phase sup- V ply.

motors. and. made of has two main separated from the stator by a small air gap is medium-size motors. these is motors are not supports main- at essentially zero to full-load. a revolving rotor. internal of rotor slots to provide space for the rotor winding. windings are made. wound-rotor. so that all the bars are short-circuited together.4 power of the motor.3a). parts: a stationary stator rotor is and 1 3. However. provide the space for the stator winding. rugged. 263 In are die-cast tegral block (Fig. In this hollow. low-priced. depending on the from 0. quency electronic drives are being used more and more a punched out of the easily adapted to speed control. general construction and the We way use two types of rotor windings: (1) conven- 3-phase windings made of insulated wire and then cage induction motors (also called cage motors) the and wound-rotor induction motors. speed of commercial induction we cover frame made up of The rotor is also composed of punched laminaThese are carefully stacked to create a series fre- tional chapter steel core inations. They run tain. the bars and end-rings . motor and develop the funda- mental equations describing discuss that tions. and linear induction all circumference of the lam- (2) squirrel-cage windings.Chapter 13 Three-Phase Induction Motors that ranges 13. 1 ) small and in- aluminum. The stator (Fig.1 A 3-phase components induction motor (Fig. The opposite ends are welded two copper end-rings. variable mm to 4 mm.3b and 13. The entire construction pushed thousand horsepower permit the reader to see that same rotor per bars. (bars and end-rings) resembles a squirrel cage. molded The show progressive 13.0 Introduction Three-phase induction motors are the motors most frequently encountered and easy are simple. They in industry. 13. from which the name Principal 13. cylindrical stacked laminations. slightly longer than the rotor. to control the the 3-phase induction its We the basic principles of its behavior. they A number of evenly spaced slots. which are motors ranging from a few horsepower to several operate on the The type of winding gives rise to two main classes of motors: squirrel- Squirrel-cage.3c stages in the manufacture of a squirrel-cage motor. Figs.2) consists of a to basic principles. to form an 13. derived. to constant speed from The speed frequency-dependent consequently. A squirrel-cage is composed of bare cop- into the slots.

2 Exploded view of the cage motor of Fig. The winding tributed in the slots and is is uniformly usually connected in 3- wire wye. lockedrotor current: 85 A. whose extremities are short-circuited by two bars A and B (Fig. and 81%. . showing the stator. which is ribbed to improve heat (Courtesy of Baldor Electric Company) fan. cooling and terminal box. Consider a series of conductors of length /. A permanent magnet placed above this conducting ladder. similar the one on the stator. premium efficiency induction motor rated 10 hp. Other power fac- characteristics: no-load current: 5 A.7 A. 13. end-bells. total weight: The operation of a 3-phase induction motor is based upon the application of Faraday's Law and the Lorentz force on a conductor (Sections 2. which revolving turn with the rotor (Fig.3 pu. overall height: 279 mm. service factor 90 kg.20. the three brushes are short-circuited. slip-rings and 13. 1 .7%. 13. under normal running conditions. associated slip- The stationary brushes enable us to connect external resistors ries to dis- in se- with the rotor winding.1. The fan blows air over the stator frame.5a).15. rotor.2 pu.2 Principle of operation Figure 13.2 1. 60 Hz.22). so that across the conductors. The behavior can readily be understood by means of the following example. This to- tally-enclosed fan-cooled motor has a full-load current of tor of 1 2. 1760 r/min. 3. (Courtesy of Baldor Electric Company) 2. ball bearings.4). 3-phase. over-all length including shaft: 491 mm. moves rapidly to the 1 right at a speed r. locked rotor torque: breakdown torque: 3. transfer. its magnetic field B sweeps The following sequence of events then takes place: Figure 13. efficiency of 91 . 460 V. The terminals are connected to three rings. and 2.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 264 A wound rotor has a 3-phase winding.1 Super-E. The external resistors are mainly used during the start-up period. 2.

If the celerate move. (Courtesy of Lab-Volt) 1 A . is The induced voltage immediately produces a /. blanked (4).3a Die-cast aluminum squirrel-cage rotor with integral cooling fan.THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS moving magnet field is replaced by a rotating windings. the magnetic field of the lies in permanent magnet. Coils that are diametrically opposite are connected in series by means of three jumpers connect terminals a-a. (5). the to move at the will also decrease.5b) and the in the manufacture of stator and Sheet steel is sheared to size punched (3). rotating field Consider a simple stator having 6 salient poles. and that respectively c-c. CN. b-b. it experiences a mechanical force (Lorentz force). free to it it will ac- picks up speed. The force always acts in a direction to drag the conductor along with the magnetic field (Section 2. This creates AN. blanked punched (2). 1 3.6). which flows down the conductor un- 2. through the end-bars. induction motor the ladder is form I a squirrel-cage (Fig. conducting ladder is toward the However. (Courtesy of Lab-Volt) . and back through the other conductors. The flow that explain. closed upon 3. BN. Because the current-carrying conductor 3. the current all /. with age E and the current the force acting If the ladder magnetic the result that the induced volt/ will diminish. each of which carries a coil having 5 turns (Fig. as in the stator 13. current derneath the pole-face.3b (1). and Progressive steps rotor laminations. that are mechanically spaced at 120° to each other. 4. the conductors will be cut less rapidly by the moving magnet. as right. be- zero.23). same speed and the force dragging the ladder along would come as the induced voltage E. on the conductors were field. E— voltage while it Blv is induced in each conductor being cut by the flux (Faraday's law). Consequently. The three identical sets of windings Figure 13.3 is produced by the 3-phase currents The we now will 265 field. In an itself to Figure 13.

line. flux. Compressed rams the mold assembly into the cavity. can determine the instanta- neous value and direction of the current each in winding and thereby establish the successive flux patterns.„ /h .ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 266 upper Figure 13. referring to Fig. are interested will be create a we corresponding a as- by the arrows) A will is 1 0 turns = 70 amof value positive. rent /a has a value of in. to enable us to work with num- neutral impedances are identical. Because the current ings. revealing the die-cast rotor. that positive currents (indicated vertically the wind- time by an angle of 120°. cur- both —5 A. magnetic in and 10 A. Molten aluminum is forced upward through the and into the upper mold. negative currents flow from neutral direction. B. A X 1 0 turns 1 3. while the mmf have a value of 10 + 1 . according to the right-hand As time goes by. The mmf of phase A is = 00 ampere-turns. Thus. to the line-to- bers. whereas fb and 1 /c . C. order to follow the sequence of events.3c Progressive steps a. (Lab-Volt) air rotor bar holes c. Compressed air withdraws the mold assembly. the wye. now completely filled with hot (but hardened) aluminum. the two coils of phase mmf of 7 A X together produce an we connect a 3-phase source to terminals A. In other words. suppose that the peak current per phase Thus. These currents produce magnetomotive forces which. we rule. when /a = +7 pere-turns balanced 3-phase system. directed upward. d. to Furthermore. as If line to neutral. regards terminals A. The cross section view shows that the upper and lower end-rings are joined by the rotor bars. It is this flux we same value but in turn. and /c will currents will have the in flow In sume B. The displaced /. the windings constitute a alternating currents windings from in the Conversely. The laminated rotor stacking is firmly held between two molds. rotor. the flux is flux. two coils in each winding produce magnetomotive forces that act in the The same three sets of windings are connected in thus forming a perfectly common symmetrical always flow neutral N. b. in Molten aluminum the injection molding of a squirrel-cage is poured into a cylindrical cavity.7 at instant 10 A. is A. The upper and lower molds are pulled away. Owing arrangement. C.

(Courtesy of Brook Crompton Parkinson Ltd) Close-up 267 .Figure 13.4b of the slip-ring end of the rotor.

using the right-hand rule. 5. the six salient poles together produce a magnetic having essentially one broad north field pole and one broad south pole. that is.8f). later. itself to are each 50 ampere-turns.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 268 length / Figure 13. upon the duration of one cycle.8b). we find that the magnetic plete turn during field one cycle (see Figs. makes one com1 3. C connected to a 3-phase source (not shown). Note The di- the instantaneous magnetic we find is as that as far as the rotor is field concerned. 1 3. both have a value of +5 A new has the same shape as before. therefore.5a Moving magnet cutting across a conducting ladder. Proceeding Figure 13. In other words. I3. Currents flowing from line to neutral are considered to be positive. 2.8a to I3. and way 7. for each of the successive quency is 60 Hz. This means that the 6-pole stator actually produces a 2-pole field. ength Figure 13. the resulting separated by intervals of 1/6 in 1/60 s. that the direction of the resulting shown in Fig.8a. the flux makes 1/6 of a turn between instants l and cycle. except that it field has (Fig. field If the fre- makes one turn 3600 revolutions per minute. which in turn depends on the frequency of the source. combined magnetic At instant tains a 2. On . 6. peak of field points one-sixth cycle — 10 A. in this instants 3. and current /b / L at. mmf depends upon current flows and. The rotational speed of the field depends. moved clockwise by an We discover that the angle of 60°.6 Elementary stator having terminals A.5b Ladder bent upon of phases B and C rection of the B / form a squirrel-cage. while /a The upward. 4. B.

6.7 Instantaneous values of currents and position of the flux 269 in Fig. 13. .Figure 13.

8c Flux pattern at instant Flux pattern at instant 3. it is called synchronous speed.8e Figure 13. This phase sequence its 3.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 270 A A g O I'- N N Figure 13. A-C-B.3.8d Figure 13.8f Flux pattern at instant 5. If line positive crests of the currents in Fig. Flux pattern at instant the other hand. giving a speed of only 300 r/min. By following of reasoning developed in Section in the opposite. produces a speed field that rotates clockwise. direction of rotation. A g N Figure 13. Although early machines were poles. in the we connected to the will be interstator.7 follow order A-B-C. the field would make one turn in 1/5 s. Because the speed of the rotating field is change any two of the the new phase sequence necessarily synchronized with the frequency of the the same we find that the field source. will. reverse The lines now revolves at 1 3. built with salient modern motors have internal di- . the stators of 1 synchronous Interchanging any two lines of a 3-phase motor 13. therefore. or counterclockwise direction. if the frequency were 5 Hz.4 Direction of rotation each other 6. A 4.

13. 13. The four identical A now span only 90° of the stator cir- cumference.6 as shown is 1 3. as can be seen in displaced Number 13. the coils are distributed as shown in Fig.9a.2 In Fig. 120° to each other. two by the two coils shown are lodged in stator. In a current flows /. 13.5 A) Figure 13. they are resulting mag- to all three phases again consists of In practice. coil pitch is covers more duces more flux per turn. They now 271 which improves performance of the motor and makes it less noisy. magnetic A and / b full-pitch. wye-connected windings are connected source. group phase Figure 13. (/ c 1 C = . 10b). replaced by a smooth stator such in Figs. The netic field at due 1 3. because efficient /a pro- it flowing from N yields the flux distribution are identical to those Fig. 13. Spreading the coil way over two or more slots tends to create a is in this sinusoidal flux distribution per pole.9b Two-pole.5 13. In practice. 10a). 13. winding of phase two poles. We this is so. the are replaced Note that two each coils of phase A (Aa and An) slots coil in Fig. two. field current in phase A = +10 . terminal shown A to the neutral coils of phases 1 80° of the circum- A current only 60°.. as be placed in series to synchronous speed groups of phase B and C of phase A and.9a. it was found that the speed of the revolving flux could be reduced by increasing the number of poles.24a. it in the stator creates four al- N-S poles.6 cover The 180° gered coils connected cessive slots and 13. To construct a 4-pole stator. I3. in . a phase group usually consists of two or more staggered coils. the salient-pole stator of Fig. The shown is on the inner surface of the ference whereas the coils in Fig.9b. = /c lap-wound stator and resulting when the = -5 A. The windings of the other two phases ternate cal but are displaced are identi- from each other (and from When phase A) by a mechanical angle of 60°. instead shown in Fig. 13. in the figure.6.9a Phase group 1 is composed of a single coil lodged two slots. the coils coil lodged in is subdivided into adjacent slots.THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS ameters that are smooth. the in 5 suc- in Fig. This field rotates speed of the 2-pole will shortly explain field why shown at the to a 3-phase is created only half the in Fig. three or more of using a single coil per pole 13.20. 13. A phase group (or simply group) composed of 5 stag- A in in series and groups produce magneopposite directions. Phase group 2 is identical to Phase group 1 The two coils are connected in series.l0a. Thus. The staggered coils are connected in series and constitute what known as a phase group. The groups are connected in such a way that adjacent tomotive forces acting when other words. of poles Soon after the invention of the induction motor. (Fig. a revolving field having four poles (Fig.9b.

II shows a 3-phase. Fig. 13. Each all the field. S poles and vice versa (Fig.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 272 phase group group 1 group 1 phase B 1 Figure 13. 1 group 1 -5 A. 13. 8-pole stator.12b). rent flow in the three phases.10a The phase groups four pole magnetic group of phase A produce a 4- field. In Fig. at a synchronous speed of 900r/min. lap-wound stator magnetic field when /a = +10 A and and /b = The A will reach its maximum except that all N the poles will resulting lc = -5 A. On a 60 Hz system the time fore 4 X 1/60 = 1/15 to s. 13. it is netic field has shifted clear that the entire by an angle of 45° this gives us the clue to finding the We we can increase the number of poles as much as please provided there are enough slots. How will can we tell what the synchronous speed be? Without going into all nega- same as behave become flux pattern will be the the details of cur- tion. 13. Suppose the current in phase A is at its maximum positive value. full-pitch. Figure 13. and the N-S poles are located as shown in Fig. the flux r/s or 900 r/min. Four-pole. we can prove that the synchronous speed always given by the expression is . One-half cycle later.12a.11 each phase group covers a mechanical angle of 360/8 = 45°. the poles turn. phase consists of 8 groups. and the groups of phases together produce an 8-pole rotating When connected to a 60 like the Hz spokes of a wheel. Using the same reasoning as turns at the rate of 15 above. the current in phase tive value.10b fore. The speed of a rotating field depends therefore upon the frequency of the source and the number of poles on the stator. The magnetic flux is then centered on phase A. cles mag- — and speed of rota- The flux moves 45° and so it takes 8 half-cy(= 4 cycles) to make a complete turn. make one turn is there- Consequently. source. Thus. let us restrict our at- tention to phase A. In comparing the two figures.

ing field created by the stator cuts across the rotor bars and induces a voltage in P This where is cut. The current-carrying conductors Calculate the synchronous speed of a 3-phase in- Hz by a conductor per second. they all experience a strong mechanical force. S pole.12a Flux pattern 273 when the current in phase A is at when Flux pattern its maximum positive value.12a but it The phase A in pattern is is the at its same as has advanced by one pole pitch. rent to flow — usually bar in machines of Example 13-1 duction motor having 20 poles when it is connected several hundred amperes per medium power. are in the path of consequently. when the rotor This equation shows that the synchronous speed a 50 of them. to the in- Because the rotor bars are short-circuited by the num- end-rings. tend to drag the rotor along with the revolving Solution In ns = 120///7 = 120 X = 300 r/min 50/20 1 .6 Starting characteristics of a squirrel-cage 2. summary: A revolving magnetic field 3-phase voltage is is set up when a applied to the stator of an induction motor. = synchronous ns /= speed fr/min] the creases with frequency and decreases with the N is pole followed by a number of N and S poles that sweep across always equal is at rest. it a is frequency of the source. field. in Fig. the current negative value. The induced voltage rents which flow creates large circulating cur- in the rotor bars and end-rinizs. with the rotor locked. These forces source. motor Let us connect the stator of an induction motor The revolving field induces a voltage in the ro- tor bars.THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS phase group phase group 1 maximum 1 Figure 13. the induced voltage causes a large cur- ber of poles. .12b Figure 13. 13. 13. in rapid succession. The frequency of the voltage depends upon frequency of the source [Hz] p = number of poles to all an ac voltage because each conductor the flux created by the stator. The revolv- 3. to a 3-phase source.

running at no-load. therefore subjected to a strong mechanical force. never actually turn and 13. The cut first. The per-unit slip = = — s ns n The given by the equation is motor comes slip synchronous speed [r/minl rotor speed fr/minj zero slip is practically equal to l 100%) when (or no-load and at the rotor is is locked. apply a mechanical load to the shaft. induction exceeds 0. In effect. the speed will cease to drop and the motor will turn The = = \20flp = 120 X 60/6 (13. if same speed as the field (synflux would no longer cut the and the induced voltage and current fall to to produce a current overcome tor bars sufficiently large to usually less than machines That ( motors field (called slip). motor hp. the is 3. It is motor speed field. the motor is resulting current in the bars will increase progressively. is it rapidly acceler- ates in the direction of the rotating field. If the revolving field will rate. excited by a 3- is the full-load speed If is 1 140 r/min. the motor cut the rotor bars til ). calculate the slip.5 a higher and higher duced voltage and the the and more) rarely speed. . The moment this state of equilibrium as the rotor released. upset. and for small the braking At no-load the percent difference between the rotor and Suppose 1 zero. Thus. very large at decreases rapidly as the motor picks up speed. 0. constant The sum of the mechanical forces on motor only turns which tends tor bars produces a torque the rotor along in the volving same the ro- all to drag direction as the re- at —slip load. up speed. expressed as a percent (or per-unit) of synchronous speed. but never catch up with the revolving it rotor bars field. As picks it the relative velocity of the field with re- spect to the rotor diminishes progressively. induction motors are considered to be Example 13-2 the kW 000 (1 kW and less). rotor bars are by the field created immersed in they are stator. When this state is reached. at full-load. The speed change (Section will start to slip for large As soon when constant speed exactly equal to the torque exerted by the mechanical Under normal 13. The in- at synchronous speed. No. However. equal to the load torque. This causes both the value and the frequency of the duced voltage to decrease because the rotor bars are more slowly. The rotor speed is always slightly less than synwould is will the rotor did turn at the chronous speed). close to synchronous speed.8 Motor under load we 1 motors run very loads. 10 why is the ro- in 13.7 Acceleration of the rotor a at very important to understand that a rate.1% of synchronous in speed is small: motor will begin to slow is initially down and at greater motor torque. chronous speed so as torque.5% of synchronous speed. 6-pole induction phase. Solution The synchronous speed of ns producing a greater and The question is. in- will continue to increase. magnetic the 5. it constant speed machines. the torque its rotor current.1) 1200 r/min difference between the synchronous speed of to a halt? motor and the mechanical load the revolving flux and rotor speed is the slip speed: will reach a of equilibrium when the motor torque is exactly ns - n = 1200 - 1140 = 60 r/min .ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 274 The current-carrying 4.9 Slip The state are speed slip slip s of an induction motor is the difference be- tween the synchronous speed and the rotor speed. 60 Hz source. the Under these conditions the force acting on the rotor bars would also become zero and the friction and windage would immediately cause the rotor to slow down. because they A 0. for how long can this go on? Will the speed continue to drop un- the seldom exceeds 5%. they sometimes called asynchronous machines.

the s voltage true. the frequency of the source connected to s the stator [Hz] = E2 = Eoc = slip at rest would be induced bars were disconnected from the £oc is c. is [1200 — 35 slip is = is 1 opposite direction = /V 3 times the voltage between the open- circuit slip-rings. Calculate frequency of the rotor current under the follow- ing conditions: The motor speed turns in the same n = +2000.3) sf (approx. current f2 = Example 13-3 rotor is f= s X 60 = 1. 13.2) d. the open-circuit voltage In a (« s the rotor current) open-circuit voltage induced in the ro- when - = is The frequency of the induced voltage (and of voltage induced in the rotor at slip s tor 1 is the rotor [Hz] s = The frequency of the induced voltage (and of (13.10 Voltage and frequency induced in the rotor f2 = opposite in the direction to the revolving field = n)/n. A slip However. the standstill the where /= direc- 1200 r/min. Motor turning 500 r/min tion as the revolving field in the same direc- positive because the rotor direction as the field: slip is = (n s = (1200 standstill at is - n)ln s - 2000)/ 1200 = -800/1200 = -0. In n in the motor speed = —500. slip is = n)/n s - (1200 0)/1200 the induced current) h in b.583 (n s 1 slip is is — is The 0.4 = 1.4) frequency of the voltage and current synchronous speed of the 13-2. thus. between zero and full-load the actual value of E2 is Hz negative.417 85 Hz The 6-pole wound-rotor induction motor of Example 13-2 the is excited by a 3-phase 60 Hz d. 5% Motor turning 2000 r/min at From Example The voltage and frequency induced in the rotor both slip. It 500)/ 200 X 60 = 0. = n)/n s in the rotor bars wound-rotor motor the open-circuit the case of a 700/1200 fi the voltage that if = [V] cage motor.) = motor speed n 0. The s a. When = tf= the = direction as the positive. source.583 motor turns to the field.3 always holds (1200 + 500)/ 1200 but Eq.417 valid only if the revolving flux (expressed in webers) remains absolutely constant. 13. The - (-500)1/1200 should be noted that Eq. At b.05 or - 500 r/min at 60/1200 (13. only slightly less than the value given The frequency of the induced voltage and by the equation.667 . Motor turning 215 /?)//? s greater than = 1700/1200 implies that the motor 1 is operating as a brake. - (1200 the end-rings. When = = 4' X 60 = 60 Hz 1 motor turns the same in the motor speed n field. s = (« s = 0. At K- = s (13. is Consequently. the ing equations: f2 = same Solution motor E 2 = sEoc in the tion as the revolving field 13. They are given by the follow- depend upon the a.THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS The slip is c.

is in the rotor wind- stator quency is mutual flux is can say that the frequency is a transformer (Fig. Thus.05 for large the is is zero. and the that sup- friction losses in the rotor plus the iron losses in the stator. to . the active power (kW) absorbed addition to the mutual flux <f> (Fig. The opposing mmfs of change the mutual flux 4> . are created.9 0. is machines efficiency that the current rents are is the full-load current is compared to it. The following explanations will clarify the meaning of the values given by the motor increases in in the table. windage and plies the A-B-C when the frequency is posis A-C-B when the frenegative.004 0. in a transformer.3 pu full-load current).03 0. As far as a frequency meter is rotor voltages component ing flux 3> m and a small active the phase sequence of the if (of of a magnetizing component that creates the revolv- phase se- that the the motor runs at no between 0. Consequently. However. needed zero because the output power ing current flow in and Similarly.87 to to to to 0.2 (or 20%) ceptable limits. the phase sequence itive. the base it to 0. operating as a generator. current 1 links both the similar to the is Motor under load. 1 lists I kW simply 40 Hz. in order to keep for small 13. the mechanical load. and all Finally.9 -0 0 0 0. a negative frequency gives the same reading as a positive frequency.96 0. the base torque the full-load torque and compared to The base torque are expressed in per-unit values.3 0 5 4 to to to to 6 6 3 1 11 kW (15 hp).14).667 X 60 = -40 Hz A Motor load. is to it.5 0. no-load therefore low. follows that the power factor TABLE 13A size — No-load * Small Current Torque Slip (per-unit) (per-unit) (per-unit) means under factor Big* Small Big Small Big Small Big Small Big l 1 1 1 0. in The total m power needed to produce these three fluxes is slightly greater than when the motor is operating at no-load.05 1 0 0 0. Note m chanical tolerances will permit. under load. it is composed and rotor f2 = sf= -0. The motor mmfs of the secondary and primary As a result. the stator current lies chronous speed of the motor. 13. big 1 .1 The consequently rotor. is quence of the voltages induced ings When at no-load. Thus. the typical properties of squirrel- cage induction motors 3.2 0.4 0.85 0.8 0. Considerable reactive power concerned.98 0.5 means over 1 1 120 kW (1500 hp) and up to 25 000 hp.1 0.5 rotor Power Efficiency Small* Full-load Locked almost direct proportion TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SQUIRREL-CAGE INDUCTION MOTORS Loading Motor It 0 0.7 0.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 276 A negative slip implies that the motor actually is 1. The no-load current is similar to the exciting current in a transformer. When 2.5 and 0. the air gap we Characteristics of squirrelcage induction motors 1 in flux the revolving field and. reactive the syn- is to create within ac- machines. power range between in the and 20 000 kW. is the current in the rotor produces a Table I3A <E> it is made as short as meThe power factor at ranges from 0. leakage fluxes <J> n and other torques are speed it the rotor and stator are very similar to the opposing other cur- all 3). The frequency of current the induced voltage means negative frequency reversed. mmf which tends m This sets up an opposthe stator.

The power zero. the factor making low because considerable reactive power to produce the leakage flux stator windings.13. but stator considerable reac- needed. 13. and Example 13-4 a. of the motor improves dramatically as the mechanical load increases.80 for small machines to 0. and rotor leakage fluxes are created. is this flux.) (13. The locked-rotor current the I The 2 is R 5 to 6 times the full-load current.90 for large machines.12 Estimating the currents in an induction motor Solution a. State the nominal rating of this motor. lies is 5 to 6 pu and between 0. is mainly the mu- At full-load the mutual flux decreases. 3-phase induction motor having a rating of because the stator and 500 hp. locked-rotor current. Estimate the apparent power drawn under c.600 X 500/2300 = 130 A (approx.2). Calculate the approximate full-load current. b. expressed 13. where ranges from 0. losses 25 to rotor 36 times higher than normal.5 and readily estimate the value of these currents for any induction motor. full-load current [A] output power [horsepower) rated line voltage (V) empirical constant Locked-rotor characteristics.5) calculated by proximate equation: I in kilowatts. it The / = Ph = E= 600 = effi- can attain for very large machines. At full-load it 98% 3. and no-load current of a These leakage fluxes are much larger than in a transformer the rotor in the rotor is V. locked-rotor conditions. 2300 windings are not as tightly coupled (see Section 10.14 At no-load the flux tual flux tive (t> power the motor in m To create .13 Figure 13. Although the mechanical power is needed Recalling that the starting current that the no-load current we can 0.5) . The full-load current of a 3-phase induction may be motor means of the following ap- = 600 P h /E (13. at standstill is motor develops a strong torque. must therefore never remain locked for more than a few seconds.THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS Figure 13. ciency 211 at full-load is particularly high. The reactive power needed is slightly greater than in Fig.3 pu. The full-load current / is = 600 P h /E .

is lowing the active power as = The motor. By definition. it converted into mechanical energy by chine. is its its efficiency.6) . Another portion dissipated as heat in the stator core. windage and bearing-friction tain PL .ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 278 The no-load current = /0 = 0. active Pc is = 780 A (approx.15 Active power flow in a 3-phase induction motor.34 = 373 kW (see Power Appendix AX0) to identify conversion chart in ties Voltages. 1 it pated as heat ried across the air 3 how copper losses.) 6/ - X 6 The remaining the watts. and the remainder in kilo- The nominal SI units is is. currents. a portion 130 is = easier to see to the stator tions = V3 is flows from the line into the 3-phase The apparent power under locked-rotor condi- S c. we finally ob- subtracting a small fourth portion mechanical output to the electrical input.15. f js is owing active power P v gap and transferred Due dissi- windings.9) is relates to the motor expressed in expressed car- is to the rotor jr to the PR losses in the rotor. 13. it and not of this fol- power stator. 13. (2) its torque. a third portion dissipated as heat.3 1 energy 30 39 A starting current = / LR (approx. Thus. EI = V3 X 2300 X 780 When electrical flows through the ma- in the iron losses.13 Active power flow to is { to the by electromagnetic induction. the mechanical is finally power P m By . The power flow diagram of Fig.3/ X 0. power available at the shaft to drive the load. P Due 00 kVA power of a motor always (8. However. referring to Fig. and phasor diagrams enable us understand the detailed behavior of an induction Figure 13. the efficiency of a the ratio of the output power to the input power: efficiency Cn) .PJP e (13.) . and (3) L 13. P available in the form of mechanical (approx. rating therefore. motor is us to calculate three important proper- of the induction motor: (1) power. and Efficiency.15 enables P = 500/1.) b. f v representing losses.

55 279 is the given by Pm (3.5 we can write tn) Substituting Py = (ii).P 1 9. slip P = power gap -v) s) 9.7) T 9.55 but from Eq. the rotor [ W] losses portion of the P therefore.7) proportional to the active tor. the rotor s)P T is power transmitted kW from a 3-phase electrical X speed of flux losses transferred electromagnetic torque p.55 where rotor ]V — s PR losses [W] P r 9. / power P T by Motor be shown * that the 4. we find . slightly less than overcome the available Tm due .55 transmitted to the rotor T Equation 13.8) power available P m due to drive power overcome the windage and friction most calculations we can neglect this slightly less than . consequently. any speed at 9. It can rotor rR losses P-. mechanical electromagnetic power heat. windage and at the shaft friction losses. rm = Tmia _ nT^ Also from Eq.5 _ (iii) p. The form of latter is dissipated in the to the small loss. PJn torque developed by the motor rotor turning at half synchro- 50 percent of the active power r where consume a larger and larger propower P r transmitted across the air to the rotor. Example 13-5 A 3-phase induction motor having a synchronous speed of 1200 r/min draws 80 power output directly to the ro- Thus. all /n s it the (13. (i) 1 rotor speed Pm ~ Tm must but the mechanical torque X mechanical torque the electromagnetic torque 9. at speed [N-ml form of heat receives.7 shows that as the PR A nous speed = (s slip increases. the 0. whence The actual mechanical the load is needed to losses. 3. (iii). are related 2. the temperature of the rotor rises very rapidly. Thus.55 P = rotor (1 « s (l actual torque 7. to develop a high locked-rotor torque.9) s P power transmitted r "s 9. developed by the motor any [W] to the rotor synchronous speed [r/minj multiplier to take care of units [exact value: 60/2tt| dissipated as heat. of rotor to rotor Pm .55 When = = power transmit- The Mechanical power. Pm = P 1 1 = P r Equation 13.55 in rotor i 9. this small difference.9 shows that the torque J'* sP r r (13.THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS R losses in the rotor.55 Timc equal . (iv) and (iv) in (i). must absorb a large amount of active power. SP. 3. to the rotor input motor „ the equation The torque Tm developed by torque.5) dissipates in the locked is ted to the rotor is (s = 1). 3. most calculations we can neglect in is to the torque required to However.5) Pjv = sP n (13. In (13. Thus Hence. The mechanical power P m is equal to the power transmitted to the rotor minus its PR losses.

kW The efficiency of Example 13-6 A 3-phase.55 motor could be rotor P losses in . this problem (the at a standstill or running at power P transmitted v full to the equal to 34 kW. The - 80 = 5 75 kW Pr slip is = s = (n s - Tm = n)/n s - (1200 Rotor I R Note torque) ]v c.04 losses are P = sP = ~ Pi . Calculate the torque developed by the motor. the motor develops a torque Example 13-7 to the load to the friction 2 to independent of the speed of rotation. d. The active power transmitted to the rotor The rotor ER losses The mechanical power developed The mechanical power delivered to the load. but as long as the is The mechanical power P delivered is to the rotor 0. tor The copper losses and iron losses in the stato 5 kW.9) 34 000/900 solution the that is 100 See Example kW fn s losses. amount 1 e. The efficiency is = PJPC = 1 T) calculate the following: 70/80 0. and 5 kW and 1 kW.= 34 gap Pjs = 52)/ 1200 11 = 48/1200 2 = Pc ~ = 40 - air total power con- .ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 280 feeder. P mt due = is 72 13-7.16a). knowing that the windage and friction losses are equal to 2 e. possesses a synchronous and iron losses the copper motor the 60 Hz to a speed of 900 r/min. b.16a (13. The and A 3-phase induction motor having a nominal rating of 100 hp (-75 = 70 kW is kW) and a synchronous speed of 1800 connected to a 600 V source (Fig.875 or 87. c. 13. If the motor runs at 52 r/min. The two-wattmeter method shows a HP(^75kW) 1783 r/min Figure 13. v X 75 = 3 The mechanical power developed P^n d. 0. Active power to the rotor Solution is The power transmitted across the = b.55 X = 361 N-m T P>„ - P. r/min Pi 1 9.04 = P\ = 75 ~ - 2 I 3 kW windage rotor P 9. in the stator amount to respectively. 8-pole squirrel-cage induction motor.72 kW x slightly less than 5 speed. connected line. Solution a.5% a. The motor absorbs 40 kW. = is of 361 N-m.

1 in P = 344 N m The above 2 3 I Power flow - = PJP e - = 1.33 losses are P = Pr is is R = 2 kW to the load: Efficiency of the motor T] Stator resistance per phase (assume a PL 63.1 - summarized a Pi' - in motor depends upon speed. The slip is a rotor s known about stator iron losses windage and P = between two resistance kW 2 r = (1800 = 0.55 X 64 900/1800 The torque developed by to the rotor: ^js 3. = 64. nection) = 64. 13. kW R 0.17 ft 9. Precise line b.17 y in s = 9.34 (2 2 J R b.0205 X c. the following characteristics are 281 kW kW we 2kW prefer to show the relationship in the form of a .2 1. In addition.THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS sumption of 70 kW. and an ammeter indicates a measurements give current of 78 A.5 62. but the relationship between the 2) Figure 13. 13. its two cannot be expressed by a simple equation.33 to the rotor d.3 - X 1.5 = 1763 r/min at - "4.3/70 - 0. 763)/ 1800 P = sP = 0.14 Torque versus speed curve kW 13-7.5 kW = 62. Power supplied 1 losses: ]r Calculate a. Mechanical power supplied Mechanical power developed = to the load.55 R = = 3.16b.34/2 wye con- e.34 (hp) is 62. Torque developed Solution Power supplied to the stator P c = 70 is d. in Py ~ P)v = e.9 3.9 Mechanical power P.2 1 kW stator terminals Rotor = 0.16b Example calculations are Fig.3 kW = = 83.9 r horsepower a. Torque 63.0205 the motor: friction losses Px = . n)fn s (n s speed of 1763 r/min. Consequently. Efficiency Stator f 1.1 kW P = 2 ]s Iron losses { Power supplied = Pc = (70 - X 3 2 (78) X 0.89 or 89% 1763 r/min: at = T0.5 hp - /\ 63. Rotor I~R losses c.

7 fHbf). starting torque is the it breakdown torque. such as bronze. Fig. 50 Hz. maximum 2. less) a speed synchronous speed. the locked-rotor torque attains a value of 250 A (Fig.5 3.5. 80 100 % load .5 Ti o ^pull-up 0. 1 8b. drops to 20 A.5 aluminum. N-m it max- for a corresponding current 13. further increase in rotor resistance decreases tance increases with increasing load because the both the locked-rotor torque and locked-rotor cur- temperature rent. the resis- 1 again double the rotor resistance so that 5 R. Thus.4 hp). the speed will drop until the and end- minimum The torque developed by the motor while At full-load the in the rotor bars torque (called breakdown Pull-up torque T. for the rotor bars chronous speed.5 full torq ue nominal T T 20 60 40 — p~ rotational speed Figure 13. The new torque-speed curve of 13.17 shows inal full-load torque T and 1. nom- The torque-speed curve is greatly affected by such a change in resistance. the locked-rotor current tance can be set over a wide range by using copper. the rotor resis- creased 25 times (25 R). 1 again equal to the load turn at a constant but slightly speed.17 Typical torque-speed curve of a 3-phase squirrel-cage induction motor.15 Effect of rotor resistance sentially constant 380 higher resistivity. If motor torque torque. 500 hp and more) about 8a shows the torque-speed curve of a Let us increase the rotor resistance by a factor of T their 80% 1 tor has an arbitrary resistance R. 13. the motor Small motors (15 hp and breakdown torque at 20 breakdown torque ( at develop of about /z d 1 98% that it from no-load to full-load. N-m (-73. the the load torque exceeds 2. The motor develops its breakdown torque at a speed /Vd of 500 r/min. Big motors attain their of 100 are in balance. The full-load current is is 100 A.5 T 2 T .5 torque) the is is following example illustrates the changes that occur. compared to the original breakdown speed of 800 r/min. The ro- This can be achieved by using a material of in Figure 1 3. However. The A 2.18c).ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 282 curve. creases from If we becomes imum es- is motor having a syn- and the locked-rotor current shown of syn- rotor resistance of a squirrel-cage rotor V and end-rings. The T. As soon motor will as the two torques breakdown if torque). or other metals the torque-speed curve of a conventional 3-phase induction motor whose of 70 except A increases with temperature. It can be seen that the is start- ing torque doubles and the locked-rotor current de- 00 A to 90 A. The only characteristic that remains unchanged is the breakdown torque. rises. chronous speed of 000 r/min and a full-load torque me- the chanical load increases slightly. (the is 1 kW (13. lower will quickly stop. | locked-rotor torque 1. For example. if the rotor resistance is in- In designing a squirrel-cage motor. but the motor develops the same breakdown torque 2. is Figure accelerat- ing from rest to the 10 n. motor runs at a speed is rings.

18 Rotor resistance affects the motor characteristics. 283 .Nm N-m Figure 13.

the resistance the rotor resistance has to be varied if over a wide range. Such a motor envalues. a low rotor resistance (Fig. it may a long time to bring wound-rotor motor. way (see Fig.18c). it current (Fig. because the slip at rated torque The losses are high. also produces a rapid fall-off in 2. to overheat. Nevertheless. we offers the fol- lowing advantages: a large thermal capacity. wound-rotor induction motor. are set to their highest value. a high rotor resistance is The locked-rotor current can be rotor torque will low squirrel-cage motor. the efficiency is R therefore low 3. Consequently.5. torque (100 starting as locked-rotor current was 100 In summary. it start large motors.19 at rated torque is The speed de- less with increasing load. To 13. The is com- a suitable we simply vary large thermal capacity of the electrolyte Figure 13.19 to the three slip-rings of in the level of the electrolyte surrounding the elec- speed controller connected use liquid rheostat posed of three electrodes immersed starting rheostat External resistors often rheostats because they are easy to control and have a wound-rotor induction motor. more than 1 . Fig. the locked- desirable produces a high starting torque and a starting drastically re- duced by inserting three external (Fig. and the motor tends is high. it is preferable to have up and the slip We is is small.18a). 13.1 8d). the effi- high and the motor tends to run cool. 13. Chapter 14). trodes. which require is a diagram of the circuit used to start nected to three wye-connected external resistors by set of slip-rings and brushes. the variable resistors and a low running resistance by designing the rotor bars in a special However. The rotor windings are con- means of a can obtain both a high starting resistance ideally suited to accelerate high- to speed. Under running conditions creases motor 2 load speed be necessary to use a is is As the motor speeds gradually reduced until full- reached. still be as high as that of a The speed can be varied by varying the exter- speed with increasing load. 13. resistors in series with the rotor. and . load current. Furthermore.16 Wound-rotor motor We explained the basic difference between a squirrel-cage motor and a wound-rotor motor in Section 1 3. a ciency The motor inertia loads. 13. ables us to vary the rotor resistance at will by means of an external with a stator current that never exceeds twice full- rheostat. 14. Unfortunately. because it relatively A it when did the 1 . A liquid electrolyte. much I nal rotor resistors.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 284 Nm). Under locked-rotor (LR) conditions. up. To vary its resistance. whereupon the brushes are By properly selecting the resistance we can produce a high accelerating torque short-circuited. Although a wound-rotor motor costs a squirrel-cage motor.

3-phase stator having 5 Figure 13. 1 3. a 4-pole. group must have a When mechanical load varies. However. the effi- is therefore low. 40 which it operates. the speed will drop. total The X of (4 and are staggered intervals (Fig. The distance between adjacent poles the pole pitch. 600 mm has a pole-pitch of 600/12 or 50 mm. 3. group and in coils are held upright.20 The five coils are connected phase group. 2-pole machines. Because a group must have coil. 3-phase stator must have one and easier to insert in the slots. in a lap winding the stator has as it let shown at least minimum number 3-phase stator must therefore have slots as laid out flat as 4X3=12 phase groups. Since then the design of induction motors has evolved consider- modern machines ably.6. it 60 lodged coils. the if can deliver 50 motor is in 60 slots. for the same temperature rise. with one at least of 12 coils.THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS limits the temperature rise. Consequently. The 24 is phases Thus. However. the shorter pitch also makes the suppose a 24-slot stator given by the equation the air gap. a multipolar revolving field duced. a 4-pole. It is is is pro- called equal to the internal circumfer- about ence of the stator divided by the number of poles. the coil pitch is between 80% and 100% of the pole pitch. or more coils per The number of tion. Furthermore. are built with lap windings distributed in slots around the stator. X coils in each are connected in series may 3 at 5) group one-slot coils are identical possess one or more turns.17 Three-phase windings named and to Nikola Tesla invented the 3-phase induction motor. For example. from a the stator windings are excited 3-phase source. 13. can also regulate the speed of a wound-rotor motor by varying the resistance of the rheostat. For cooled example. The number of groups groups start-up. motor preferable to use rather than only one. The coil pitch is usually made less than the pole pitch in order to save copper 13. As we increase the resistance.20). starting torque it improves the and reduces the noise under running conditions. = The width and of each coil is called the coil pitch. a motor that can lOOkWat 800 r/min can deliver only develop kW at 900 r/min. This method of speed control has the disadvantage of heat lot ciency is that a dissipated in the resistors. Furthermore. in series to create one . In practice. is in of the windings. A stator must have at least 2. while the more sinusoidal flux dis- coils of phase groups improve the flux distribution it is However. Such a distributed winding is obviously more costly to build than a concentrated winding having only one coil per group. The shorter coil width reduces the cost and weight In 883 a 27-year-old Yugoslav 1 His first model had a similar to the one scientist salient-pole stator winding shown in Fig. in conjunction bring a large synchronous machine up We used one ap- kW wound-rotor motor to plication a liquid rheostat with a 1260 in is to speed. many 5 coils per group has coils. a 12-pole stator having a circumference of 1 by a separate fan. slots increases in propor- For example. coils 12 slots. often results in a quieter machine. the speed varies considerably if the rating of a self-cooled wound-rotor motor depends upon the speed at Thus.21a. The 13. get an overall picture of a lap winding. The power coils per 285 kW at 900 r/min. = poles X coils is it follows that the equal to the number of groups. a 4-pole. for a given rheostat setting. In the case of evenly distributed around the stator circumference. 3-phase designers have discovered that us 4-pole. A lap winding consists of a set tribution improves the torque during much To Fig.

each group consists of 24/12 2 b. 2. 1 Number of groups poles d. Each wind- ing consists of a One ber of poles. to make a typical lap winding. Coils per phase 120 - 3 - the coils the phases coils. d. Similar connections will 120-slot stator requires 120 coils. = with a Solution The 3-phase winding has 24 (Fig. 13. e. down so that all the other coil sides fall into the slots. Successive groups of phase site magnetic polarities. Each rectangle X 3 in Fig. The total number of coils The number of coils per phase The number of coils per group The pole pitch The coil pitch (expressed as a percentage of the pole pitch). stator. this is done. around the circumference of the rically distributed The following examples show how stator.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 286 coil side set in each the windings are slot. b.22). producing the two terminals shown. 4-pole winding. (say) to slot 13. of = 40 4- = 10 4. 1 3. made for phases B and C. the motor 4 groups per phase.21a in 2 con- secutive coils. pitch corresponds to pole pitch number of groups equal to the numThe groups of each phase are symmet- = number per phase 10 Coils per group connected together to create three identical windings. Each shaded rectangle represents two Figure 13.2 b). one Assume coil side in that they each slot will first determine the coil distri- A and then proceed with the con- nections for that phase. Here is the line of reasoning: a. c. 1 to slot if Example 13-9 A late the following: the coil width extends from slot stator having 24 slots has to be 1 . 3-phase. Figure 13. Note that the me- chanical distance between two successive 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 groups always corresponds to an electrical 7 phase angle of 180°. 1 wound 3-phase. A must have oppo- Consequently. Because the stator contains lln iVr 1/2 20 21 22 23 24 3 4 5 6 24 7 / slot number coils. The groups (poles) of each phase 24 must be uni- The group distribution for phase A is shown in Fig. The revolving p field creates 4 poles. 13.22b. with We bution for phase Solution a. we obtain the classical appearance of a 3-phase lap winding having two The coils are coil sides per slot (Fig. e. how the coils are interconnected in a typical 3-phase sta- Example 13-8 The stator of a possesses 120 tor winding. The connections between The connections between are standing upright. — = - = slots/poles 120/10 12 slots pole pitch extends therefore from slot 1 The coil pitch covers 10 slots (slot to slot The percent coil pitch = 10/12 = 83.3%. A b. 10-pole induction motor slots. If now laid c. The pole one for each phase. = 1 13.21b Coils laid down c. the four . formly spaced around the Coils held upright = stator slots. upright coils connected in series. calcu- a. or 4 therefore has phase groups in all.22a I represents one group. Determine the following: then be 40. 1 The next example shows in greater detail 1 1 ). If a lap winding is used.

22e When all phase groups are connected. phase C 1 1 cil :b. A Figure 13.22b The four groups of (electrical)— phase A are selected so as start of phase to be evenly spaced from each other. 120° 240°— Figure 13.22d The start of phases B and A C C begins 120° and 240°.^each each group one group of one phase coils are ot two composed of coils in series AAA Figure 13. start of N-S poles.22c The groups of phase A are connected start of in series to create alternate phase . respectively. '4 Figure 13. 287 .22a The 24 is grouped two-by-two to make 12 groups. BtJtfMtzftlMt (—180° Figure 13. after the start of phase A. only six leads remain.

24a A of phase ( suit stator of a located at 120° and 240° (electrical) with re- A is span of to a may be 3. and three leads are brought out delta. and a finishing terminal d. are connected in as those of phase B|B 2 and C)C 2 They may be connected either in wye or in delta inside the machine. This yields six terminals: are in Fig.5 (Fig.22f The phase may be connected A are groups of phase wye in connected duce successive N-S-N-S poles Phase A now 1 A2 B and C same way around the stator.22e). sulting 3 wires corresponding to the 3 phases are brought out to the terminal box of the ma- chine (Fig. so that half the winding removed and only two complete (per phase). 6 slots. 13. 4-pole. let N and S poles are us connect the three phases wye. or have been (as laid down 13. 13. pro- f. the coil pitch A phase . the origi- small air .24b show the kW (600 hp) and coil induction motor. according to Fig.22e.22f). 450 after they first coil of 1 and connections 3. The re.25 illustrates the (Fig.A 2 . The groups series in the in phases B and same way C A are A. are spaced (Fig. and C. e.22d). starting terminals B. . 13. All the other coils 1 follow However. 13. 13.18 Sector motor Consider a standard 3-phase. wye-connected motor having a synchronous speed of 1800 r/min. Thus. are respectively spect to the starting terminal = to 5 slots (slot ter- to Because the pole pitch corresponds 24/4 3. a starting The phase groups of phases the in in series to (Fig. Finally. Let us cut the stator is left in in half.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 288 Figure 13.23). without making any other changes to the ex- isting coil connections. the shortened the first and sixth slots winding a smaller 37.22c). to slot 6). 13. the connections made. the the terminal box. In practice. minal A. procedure used kW (50 hp) in stator. Next. not while the coils are upright shown) but only in the slots.26). has two terminals. and 13. 1 lodged Figs. nal rotor gap above we mount this sector staton leaving a (Fig.

the rotor will again turn 1800 r/min. In practice. Thus. in a straight line.27).5. If a flat flat stator. its sector motor produces a revolving field that the at same peripheral speed as However. Such a flat stator produces a field moves at constant speed. 13. Rotor diameter: 500 460 mm. a linear induction motor. the original 3-phase motor.THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS should be reduced to half the stator winding nal now 289 original value because its has only one-half the origi- number of turns. to increase the power and duce the reluctance of the magnetic path. the rotor is composed of a . If we connect the stator terminals to a 3-phase. along with same speed as that of a 6-pole linear provided they have the same pole-pitch. 1 1 80 r/min. 60 The lap winding is composed of coils having a pitch from slots falls into the bottom of a slot other at the top. at close to the voltage In many practical applications. two tors are usually sides of the Figure 13. To prevent saturation. Using the same reasoning as in Section 3. this re- markable truncated sector motor still develops about 20 percent of The moves original rated power. 108 preformed One coil side 450 kW. in some high-speed trains. 575 V. moving at the stator (say). 60 Hz source. 1 to 15.19 Linear induction motor It is flat. face-lo-face.24b Close-up view of the preformed coil in Fig. Under these conditions. Furthermore.24a that Stator of a 3-phase. For example. the rotor is sta- tionary while the stator moves.2). making the flux in instead of a complete turn. and the 1 prove that the flux travels at a linear synchronous speed given by axial vs = 2wf (13. we can magnetic Figure 13. it possible for a 2-pole linear stator to create a field to re- flat sta- mounted. Hz induction motor. 13. squirrel-cage winding is brought near the the travelling field drags the squirrel cage it use a simple (Section 13. The combination The is direction of the called motor can be reversed by interchanging any two stator leads. 13. on opposite aluminum plate. obvious that the sector stator could be laid out without affecting the shape or speed of the field. (Courtesy mecaniques Roberge) length: mm.24a. the field simply travels continuously from one end of the stator to the other. aluminum we generally or copper plate as a rotor (Fig.10) of Services Eiectro- where \\ = linear vr — width of one pole-pitch /= Note synchronous speed |m/s] frequency [Hz] that the linear speed does not depend upon the number of poles but only on is [in] the pole-pitch.

The remaining 10 slots each carry one coil a slot and same slot.25 50 Stator winding of a 3-phase. 1 side side placed is The wye. of 5 turns of five No. (Courtesy of Services Efectromecaniques Roberge) 290 . 15 wires b. Each composed coil is in hp. in parallel is and the other side goes The wires are covered equivalent to one No. Five No. d. 1764 r/min induction motor. in and 4 empty fills the does not touch the second coil shows 3 empty and uninsulated slots a composition paper liner. A varnished cambric cloth. carrying 48 coils connected a. from Each coil side threaded stator possesses 48 slots into slot 1 (say) in parallel. provides extra insulation between adjacent phase groups.Figure 13. the photograph half slots insulated with is covered with a paper spacer so that it side. 575 V. 60 Hz. The coil pitch is. cut in the shape of a triangle. into slot 12. Starting from the top. One coil fore. 15 copper wires connected with a high-temperature polyimide insulation. c. there- to 12. 8 wire.

Consequently. flat.27 Components of a 3-phase linear induction motor. 1 in the does through a rotating motor. ear motor produces a traveling wave of The lin- which flux moves continuously and smoothly from one end of shows how the flux moves from left to right in a 2-pole linear motor. Eqs.3 (13.THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS 13. (13. If the distance be- 3. that the to both types of machines: = PJP c P}r = sP 3. This a linear stator. — = = F = thrust [Nl P = power transmitted to the rotor W] v = linear synchronous speed |m/s| v s ( . The linear bolted to the undercarriage of the train and straddles the plate. Train speed is varied by chang- ing the frequency applied to the stator (Fig. aluminum thick tending over the stator is plate fixed to the full v ground and ex- length of the track. = 2vv/ = 2 = 45 m/s or X X 1 75 62 km/h T (13.. the stator. pears at the right.6.20 Traveling We sometimes are 291 waves with the impression that left when the flux reaches the there must be a delay before more at end of the beginning. active way it 3. However.8 apply tween consecutive phase groups of phase mm. it N as fast as a or S pole disap- builds up again at the left. power. except and rotor are stator 1 ). power flows through a linear motor and 13. returns to restart once it is not the case. is defined by = s (v s - (I3. (13 .21 (aluminum.8) r thrust or force developed by a lin- ear induction motor Solution The pole The 13. B of the stator to the other.26 Two-pole sector induction motor. linear rotor Properties of a linear induction motor 13.3 2. thrust.6) (\ -s)P is given by: F= P pitch vs is 300 mm. The flux cuts off sharply at extremities A. A is 300 calculate the linear speed of the magnetic field. Slip Slip. 1 slip synchronous linear speed [m/s] speed of rotor (or stator) [m/s] Active power flow. copper or iron plate) The properties of a linear induction motor are al- most identical to those of a standard rotating ma- chine.ll) v)/v s where s \\ Figure 13. 15. 1 3. same Consequently. With reference to Fig.28 Figure 13. t\ Example 13-10 The stator of a linear induction motor is excited from a 75 Hz electronic source.10) 0. Figure 13.7) T Pm = Thrust.12) /v s where (13. the equations for slip. L etc.7. are also similar. Consequently.

! R s (13.28 Shape of the magnetic field created by a 2-pole. Mechanical power and thrust 2 R slip to the rotor loss in rotor Solution a.25 X = kW (13.P f (see Fig.2 X 0. (13.15) 1 4kW loss in the rotor is Figure 13.10) .4 to the rotor /> js r = c.4 m/s vs The Power = (v s = 0. Synchronous speed and b. I d. Pir = *P = 0. During a test tors.v)/v = (2.7) r 1 4 .4 . Power c.292 ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS Example 13-11 An overhead crane in a factory is driven horizon- by means of two linear induction motors tally whose two rotors are the I-beams upon which steel The 3-phase. over one complete cycle. 4-pole the crane rolls. linear stators (mounted on opposite sides of the crane and facing the respective pitch of 8 webs of the I-beams) have a pole cm and are driven by a variable frequency electronic source.8 m/s Calculate a.11) is P = Pc . 3-phase linear stator. 13.8)/2.08 X = 2.1.25 . the on one of the mo- following results were obtained: Hz stator frequency: 15 power kW to stator: 5 copper loss + iron loss in stator: 1 kW crane speed: 1. Linear synchronous speed = 2wf . The successive frames are separated by an interval of time equal to 1/6 cycle or 60%.5 - 2 15 slip is j b.

This current. Because the distribution of the nnn and sss poles kN (-375 is sym- lb) metrical with respect to the center of the magnet. sweeping across a conducting ladder.32.30). 13.2 moving permanent that a magnet. Mechanical power cause the flux density is The (Fig. and the resulting equal. now show We that this horizontal tractive force accompanied by a is also to Referring to Fig. their . This delay the is low speeds) hy an the in- IJR time constant so brief that. The center of the N pole of the stationary the sweeping across the top of conductor age induced in this conductor is 2.4 = same at virtually the turning by conductors poles thrust greatest at the center of magnet moves very slowly.12) to the laws of attraction and repulsion. suppose that conduc- 1. tors Consequently. magnet moves very its maximum con- value a fraction of a after the voltage has attained Consequently. magnet (stationary) \ s s s s / / that the nil. 13. by the time the current its in maximum. is According F = PJv s = 4000/2. at low speeds. A powerful electromagnet fixed un- derneath the train moves above a conducting ducing currents Figure 13.31 and 13. respective maximum values. while the rear half N= 1. the vertical forces of attraction and repulsion are 13. 13. conductor 2 maximum. at high speeds. however. 777TTT\ n n ss is to its inductance. with the low result that a strong vertical force tends to magnet upward. the current in speed N conducting ladder Owing ductor 2 reaches magnet :: force vertical only a horizontal tractive is force.3 are three conductors of ladder.15) }r sulting value induced current reaches nnn and 1 time. second push the magnet away from the ladder. Currents and magnetic poles at low speed. If the Pr-P 4-1 = 3kW Pm = = is 293 1667 (13.* This effect push the called the principle is of magnetic levitation.13. there will which tends vertical force.22 Magnetic levitation In we saw Section 13. of course. current reaches place as the at which depends upon its same delay At produces a significant shift in space be- Figure 13. On the other hand.67 magnet the front half of the attracted is repelled upward is downward.THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS d. \ 1 Magnetic n n n 0' levitation is used in some ultra-high- speed trains that glide on a magnetic cushion rather than on wheels. the center of the magnet is already some distance ahead of the conductor (Fig. in the rail in the The force of levitation same way is rail in- as in our always accompa- nied by a small horizontal braking force which must. m of the rotor. the maximum at virtually the same lime and voltage does. re- and creates magnetic 3.2. magnet is The volt- maximum be- But suppose now rapidly. speed N The current is always delayed (even terval of time A/.29 ladder.30 tween the points where the voltage and current reach Currents and magnetic poles at high speed. See Figs.29. shown as sss the re- maximum its Fig. the pole. tends to drag the ladder along with the magnet. the is now directly N pole of the above an nnn pole. in 13. The current returning by conductors and 3 again is 1 creates nnn and sss poles.29. be overcome by the linear motor magnet high that propels the train.

31 This 17 t track. energized by a 4. is obtained by and 400 mm deep. The current density is 80 A/mm and the resulting flux density is 3 T. The vertical force of repulsion attains a maximum of 60 kN and the vertical gap between the magnet and the reacting metallic track varies from 100 mm to 300 mm depending on the current. The magnet is 1300 magnet are maintained at a 2 temperature of 4 K by the forced circulation of liquid helium. means of a brush assembly in is contact a superconducting electromagnet. Direct-current power at 4 kV is fed into the inverter by means with 6 stationary dc busbars mounted on the left-hand side of the track. of and weighs 500 kg. The coils of the . The rotor is the vertical aluminum plate mounted in the center of the electric train fixed to the The 3-tonne stator is varied from zero to 105 Hz. is driven by a linear motor. 600 mm wide. The motor consists of a stationary rotor and a flat stator undercarriage of the train.7 MVA electronic dc to ac inverter whose frequency can be The motor develops a maximum thrust of 35 kN (7800 lb) and the top speed 200 km/h.Figure 13. (Courtesy of Siemens) 294 . Electromagnetic levitation nun long.

and induction motor increases? 575 Would you recommend using a 50 hp induction motor to drive a 10 hp load? Explain. 13-2 Explain how a revolving field is set up in 13-10 a 3-phase induction motor. does the rotor of an induction motor turn slower than the revolving field? 13-6 How many being applied 13. is 60 Hz source. If the voltage 600 V. locked while to the stator. 1 3-3 If we double the number of poles on stator of an induction motor. per phase? Describe the principle of operation of a linear induction motor. 13-7 1 1 groups are there. Practical level 13-1 Name the principal components of an Both the voltage and frequency induced 13-9 in in- the rotor of an induction duction motor. no-load current of a 150 horsepower. . from 4 kVdc source Figure 13.THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS 295 superconducting electromagnet conducting track guide and support wheels linear motor (stator) conducting plate (rotor) brush assembly for power input. the synchronous speed? is reduced to 300 V. Explain.12 Calculate the approximate values of the What happens to the rotor speed and rotor current when the mechanical load on an starting current. What is b. will the synchronous speed change? 13-4 The rotor of an induction should never be c. 13. motor decrease as the rotor speeds up. full-load current. 12-poIe induction motor. will its A 3-phase.3 1 V.32 Cross-section view of the main components of the high-speed train (Courtesy of Siemens) Questions and Problems shown in Fig. 1 3-5 Why full voltage is 13- Explain. 1 3.31 Give two advantages of a wound-rotor 13 -8 motor over a squirrel-cage motor. a drawing of the magnetic field cre- ated by a 3-phase. connected the syn- chronous speed also double? 20-pole induction motor to a a. Make 3-phase induction motor.

load speed d. b. when Calculate the nominal current per phase. 1 Fig. and calculate 3-24 If we rotor ( \ 7c\ slightly increase the rotor resistance of an induction motor. A and a 385 and a power factor of 83 percent. calculate the approxi- mate voltage induced and a. in the same direction as the rotating field b. cited by What is load a 3-2 1 ex- is if produces the slip at full synchronous speed a when connected to number of source. full- The kW. sponding speed open-circuit voltage of is 240 V appears total active found to is wye and tween two stator terminals total iron losses are windage and motor turns same direction as the r/min. 13. 3-phasc. If the motor turns in the 13-17 its 13-22 The 3-phase. a. The load mechanical power [kW|. current of a 75 con- coil ro- load current. 4-pole stacking (axial length) of 200 At 1000 r/min maximum At 1500 r/min calculate the following: a. /h . kW corre- be 709. connected to a is The peak voltage induced The pole-pitch has a full-load efficiency of 91 percent An is a the cage induction motor draws a current of variable-speed dc motor. 12-pole induction motor that b. calculate the instan- taneous values of I5() /.2 r/min. 60Hz torque knowing that the slip 3- stator of Fig. and efficiency 1 At 3600 r/min. The stator duction motor when the rotor is locked. b. The stator has 6 poles and is excited by 60 Hz source.25 has an internal diameter of 250 frequency: c. starting current. 13.. the A to instants 3 60 Hz a coils per phase group as well as the probable 1 3- 1 6 A 3-phase 6-pole induction motor Hz nected to a 60 induced supply. connected if bars in the rotor 60 Hz V. kW and the 23. 3-phase. the resulting mmf point in a direction Does c. The kW. 1 3-phase. d. field Referring to Fig.296 ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 13-14 How wc change can the direction of rota- the motor? tion of a 3-phase induction mmf developed by the windings. following steps (a) to (f) in tor Draw coil pitch. 13. and /c for an angle u . At 300 r/min the nection diagram. across the slip-rings of a wound-rotor in- the slip-rings 0. 440 V 2 percent. 1 3-23 when the stator induction motor A large 4000 3-phase. Starting current c.4 The power factor at full-load The active power supplied to the 2 The total I R losses in the rotor a. If the rotor is driven by a a The accurately measured and in the dc squirrel- power of 2344 operating at full-load. have (increase or decrease) upon Starting torque b. intermediate between the Intermediate level 13-15 sponding Calculate Ihe synchronous speed of a a. a. in the rotor bars is con- The voltage is 4 V when the is locked. Full. and no-load 13-18 complete same direction as the flux.7. torque [kN-m]. Efficiency . what effect does this a.7 T. opposite to the rotating is 0. Calculate the approximate values of b. 4000 V. calculate the 13-20 flux density per pole If 60 Hz source Calculate the nominal full-load speed and is mm and mm. c. c. At 900 rotating field c. 1 9 A 900 b.wound stator possessing 72 60 Hz source.22. Determine the actual direction of current flow in the three phases at this instant 10 friction losses are 12 il.. Calculate the 6 percent? is slots of 900 r/min nominal speed mmf s corre- and 4? 3-phase lap. peripheral speed |m/s] of the revolving field induction motor. 75 hp. r/min. is the resistance be- Calculate the following: open-circuit voltage and frequency across a. of b. in the At 600 r/min.

0073 3-28 has the 1 = 13-33 17°C = V 1600 = 6000 V = 100 A line-to-line stator voltage 6. I at e. Calculate the current 1 3-27 If the conducting ladder in Fig. calculate under 297 at full-load. pole wound-rotor induction motor turns 594 Active power supplied to the rotor following: is on the magnet? the braking force exerted I~R losses c. b. 2300 V. a. motor [mm]. R losses in the stator when the Iron losses motor runs no-load (winding temperature 75°C) Active power supplied to the rotor at no-load 13-34 A 3-phase. 6000 V. per phase The train shown in Fig. 13. Problem 11 at wish to control the speed of the motor at 13-32 dc resistance between rotor slip-rings 2. tractive force. is no- kW power a speed of 1 develop a torque of 20 1780 r/min induction motor no-load stator current. given and the / LR in full- Reactive power absorbed by the motor a. 1.THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS e. locked-rotor current 2207 power supplied to motor at 450 3. a 200 r/min and Breakdown torque i. Rotational speed d. at = The motor has load efficiency and power 1 V = 2760 terminal voltage rises to kW effect (increase or decrease) 1800 A to stator with rotor locked = kW a full- factor of 92 per- cent and 86 percent. V If the while the determine the upon a. Power f. hp. 60 Hz linear induction motor has to reach a top no-load speed of 12 m/s . motor operates = friction losses 60 Hz. rise 594 r/min j. A 3-phase. We are the approximate rotor dc resistance between stator terminals 0. Motor torque c. tors in series with the rotor (see Fig. Temperature 13-30 factor of the motor rise rated at its power output 1 3-25 13-26 voltage Explain the principle of magnetic levitation. Motor temperature in the rotor at Starting current h. Starting torque factor and efficiency Calculate a. 60 Hz 1 What r/min.112H Torque developed by the rotor power dissipated lowing characteristics: 1. what 1 3-28 A 5000 3-phase. per phase 10. Power f. rings with rotor locked load inserting resis- fol- open-circuit voltage induced between slip- 3. 3. Advanced In Fig. 91 kN-m to calculate the length of the pole-pitch of = 17°C 4. 13. iron losses in the stator 9. wye connection) Voltage and frequency induced when c. Full-load current e.5a the The permanent magnet has and moves at 30 m/s. mm flux density in the air gap is 0. 1 (locked-rotor) conditions: b. Flux per pole Exciting current create the revolving field.31 moves at 200 km/h when the stator frequency is By supposing a negligible slip.5a 1 is pulled along with a force of 20 N. calculate the Voltage between the slip rings Rotor resistance (per phase) and the tolal Approximate rotor current. Mechanical power output e. Reactive power absorbed by the motor to k. level a width of 100 Referring to the motor described Problem 13-29. active at the linear 5. Problem 13-29 by in If the c. respectively. active 7. windage and 8. r/min. I~R losses 1 3-29 at The motor at 0.5 T 1 3-3 1 and the effective resistance per rotor bar is mil. 300 kW. 2- rated load? in the stator in d. at no-load 2 d. = motor has 105 Hz. Mechanical power delivered by the motor b. kW 39 6000 5 used to drive a compressor. it turns at at g. 1 9). Rotor and stator resistance per phase 75°C (assume b.

6 V. is 1 3-37 What making them effect will this a. when the . 575 V. b. similar to the rotor 3. 60 Hz induction motor has 90 slots.54 wound-rotor induction motor produces in a lathe. loss in the rotor. The number of coils on the stator The number of coils per phase The number of coils per group The coil pitch (in millimeters) The area of one pole The flux per pole if the average flux hp. cutting off the cooling fins and also a portion of the rings. The end-rings are trimmed 1 f. ter of 1 1 1 17 bars and a diame- inches. have on the following: b. d. 575 V. Estimate the no-load speed of the motor.3a. The The starting torque The temperature rise c. 60 Hz at full-load induction motor has 1 known It is brush voltage drop load speed of the motor Hz at between the open-circuit lines of the rotor. an internal diameter of 20 inches. 0 hp. 3-phase. A 25 density T 0. 1 760 r/min. 60 320 V is 3-36 The stator of a 600 that the RMS about 0. 3-phase. Industrial application 1 3-35 A 1 e. 60 Hz induction motor has a rotor made of alushown in Fig.298 ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS and must develop a it standstill thrust of Calculate 10 kN. 1 1 60 r/min. full hp. and an axial length of 16 inches. 3-phase. standstill. minum. 575 V. 1 1 83 r/min. at c. standstill less thick. 1 3-38 The rotor of a 60 hp. Calculate the required pole-pitch and the minimum 2 I R a. Calculate the average force on each bar (in newtons) motor is running at full-load. 1 1 60 r/min.

without having to change the mounting holes.2 Classification according special appli- interesting devices will enable the reader to gain a better understanding of induction all requirements as in- nous generators and frequency converters. pump. fan. and temperature cations of induction machines. Thus. generally simplified because the manufacturer of the lathe. Thus. often discover that selection is establishes limiting values for electrical. a choice. but also we the need. torque. and so forth indicates the type of motor best suited to drive the load. These The frames of minimum locked-rotor current. The two standards arc essentially identical. The means of a fan directly couCool air. cooling methods classes. overload capacity. de- into several motor protects the windings against induction motors* 725 r/min. motors the basic construction and characteristics of the various types of 3-phase we stan- ical. . The frame motors of one manufacturer can (NEMA) which they have We limit our discussion to five important and solid particles which in a MG-I fall at drip-proof liquid drops any angle between vertical. * Manufacturers Motors and Generators. the governed by Canadian Standards Association (CSA) publication titled are similarly 299 C 154. 60 environment and pending upon the environment in general.1 mechan- and thermal characteristics. Consequently. 1 rise. to operate. industrial to starting 14. such as asynchro- 14. Nevertheless. drawn into the motor are cooled by pled to the rotor. several types can have to make fill The for shaft height. duction motors that are available on the market. or the type of coupling. ful to know something about it that is is use- must satisfy also cover some to motors Motors are grouped Standardization and classification of 1. Standards publication in Canada Drip-proof motors.Chapter 14 Selection and Application of Three-Phase Induction Motors be replaced by that of any other manufacturer.0 Introduction When purchasing a 3-phase induction motor we a particular application. Hz motor categories. Standards in the United Slates are governed by National Electrical in 0 and 15 degrees downward from the motors under 500 hp have standardized dimensions. 14. In this chapter The dardization covers not only frame sizes. a 25 hp.

blows usually cooled by an external blast of fan. tal 26 1 . depending on the type of insulation used the windings. 84 per- full-load current of 93 percent. 3 hp. They oil refineries. overall height: 365 mm.2). Explosion-proof mo- tors are used highly inflammable or explosive in surroundings.3).2 Two enclosed nonventilated (TENV) 2 hp. locked-rotor current: 214 A. vertical. overall height: The 30 hp motors have a efficiency of 377 235 mm.6 pu. is the same The permissible tem- as for drip-proof motors.0 pu. fan-cooled motors. Most are rated below 10 kW beof the case. Drip-proof motors (Fig. breakdown torque: 2. and power factor of 76 per- efficiency of 84 percent cent.2 breakdown torque: 5. perature rise 5. and are totally enclosed (but not also the same. 85°C. and power factor of cent. A concentric outer shield prevents physical contact with the fan and serves to channel the airstream. in ) ribbed motor frame (Fig. service factor: 1 . to- weight: 39 kg. is and then expelled. 460 V motors are intended to operate at variable speeds totally r/min ranging from a few revolutions per minute to about 3 times rated speed. A. cause it is difficult to get rid of the heat of larger machines. Other characteristics: no-load current: locked-rotor current: pu. The frame Cooling Totally enclosed. 60 Hz. drops and solid particles that is coupled in can be air.0. maximum allowable and high-power motors (measured by the change may be 6()°C in wind- 80°C 105°C 125°C. Explosion-proof motors. Splash-proof motor.1 used 2. grain elevators. 14. 10°C. The 2 hp motors have a full-load current of 2.1 Company ) . 1750 r/min. similar to that in drip-proof motors and maximum the to the shaft.9 A. overall length including shaft: 834 mm. wet locations. {Courtesy of Gould) (Courtesy of Baldor Electric Figure 14. These 3-phase.7 A. in is An external air over the 1 4. Totally enclosed.84 pu. 1725 cage motors are shown in foreground and two 30 hp. 1780 r/min totally enclosed blower-cooled motors (TEBC) in background. 14. total weight: 200 kg. such as coal mines. tion Energy efficient drip-proof. nonventilated motors. Other characteristics: no-load current: 12 A. service factor: 1. or I30°C. The motor losses are dissipated by natural convection and radiation from the frame. overall length including shaft: mm.0. 34 A. The ings temperature rise resistance) ing blown over the wind- 4. locked rotor torque: 1 . depending on the class of insu- lation (see Fig. The permissible 1 temperature rise is 65°C. These motors have closed frames that prevent the free exchange of air between the inside and the outside They are designed for very wet and dusty locations. directly Medium- enclosed are that are totally or most locations. 3-phase squirrel-cage inducmotor rated 230 V/460 V. locked-rotor torque: 4. in a splash- proof motor protects the windings against liquid fall at any angle be- tween 0 and 100° downward from the temperature rise These motors are mainly used 3.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 300 through vents in the frame. Figure 14.

that have to start starting conditions piston-type compressors under load are two typical applica- tions.3 Totally enclosed fan-cooled induction motor rated 350 440 (Courtesy of Gould hp. sponding locked-rotor current should not exceed 6.4 a. these motors are double-cage rotor. a The excellent performance of a (Fig. and so tools. The corre/. Motors with standard locked-rotor torque (NEMA Design B). a . High starting-torque motors (NEMA Design C). Such explosions ) much 2) smaller than those of cage 2 to withstand the spark or a short-circuit within the windings. it ranges from . forth. Note the particularly rugged construction of this type b. equipped with In general. 1 be initiated by same 4. 1760 r/min. (Courtesy of Brook Crompton-Parkinson Ltd (cage ) airtight) the and the frames are designed enormous pressure that may to an internal explosion. being 1. Owing ductive reactance of squirrel-cage to the high in2. lies close to the rotor surface has a lower inductive reactance than The as for to- The conductors of cage 1 are When the motor is connected build up inside the motor due an explosion. the flanges on the end-bells are made extra long Furthermore. V. in order to cool any escaping gases generated by such may permissible temperature rise tally the is enclosed motors (see Fig. 60 Hz. developed. double-cage rotor lowing Figure 14. the locked- rotor torque is 200% of full-load torque.7. Consequently. The per-unit locked-rotor torque decreases as the size of the motor increases. the rotor cur- rent flows mainly in the small bars of cage effective motor resistance is essentially equal to that of cage high starting torque is 1. These motors are employed when Pumps and are difficult.SELECTION AND APPLICATION OF THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS 301 14. Thus.3 to 0. explosion-proof motor.3 Classification according to electrical and mechanical properties enclosures just mentioned.5) is based upon the fol- to the line with the rotor at standstill.4). In the range from 20 hp to 200 hp. as the power increases from 20 hp to 200 hp (15 kW to 150 kW). The therefore high. which cor- responds to a per-unit torque of The locked-rotor 2. centrifugal pumps. purpose motors are used to drive fans. facts: The frequency of the rotor as the motor speeds up A conductor that of motor. machine 2. the frequency of the rotor current is equal to line frequency. Totally enclosed.4 times the rated full-load current. current should not exceed 6. 1 current diminishes one buried deep inside the iron core (cage c. fan-cooled. These general- 3-phase. as listed below. Most induction motors belong to this group.4 times the rated full- load current. l Figure 14. 14. In addition to the various 3-phase squirrel-cage motors can have special electrical and mechanical characteristics.

a clutch When the Punching a hole requires a tremendous amount son is that the punching energy fraction of a second.5 Typical torque-speed curves of NEMA design B. punch does The energy delivered in a is is furnished by the in a itself. As the work. Owing to its small may melt. as the hole is D the line at the lower speed is pierced. along with that of the fly- wheel. At rated speed the rotor frequency used. the only load on the flywheel. thus releasing a energy the drawn from exceed As soon of synchronous speed. Design D).ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 302 Figure 14. Design recommended not reason is that punch holes for starting high-inertia loads. during the impact. 10 hp. in cage 1 . which take a rel- motor its design ensures that rated value. then limited only by the resis- is and cage 2 operating in parallel. and breakdown torque of a 3-phase 1800 r/min. Each curve corresponds to the values of locked-rotor torque. the sistance squirrel cage thus restoring the energy is machine tools flywheel rather than by the motor motors are most of the rotor tR losses during up are concentrated it C to large drop in speed with increasing load also ideal to drive impact-type Because the conductors of cage 2 are much larger than those of cage designed for intermittent duty prevent overheating. ates the operation. The speed of the motor also drops considerably. tends to overheat and the bars High-slip (NEMA motors rated speed of high-slip. The cross-section As falls. the Class D will not The high-remade of brass. During the acceleration atively long time to reach full speed. 60 cage induction motor. The rea- the current motors usually worker is that causing the punch to descend and pierce the sheet. and D minimum NEMA Hz squirrel- motors. For this reason the double-cage rotor develops both a high starting torque and a low slip at full-load. Design lies between 85% and 95% These motors are used in sheet metal. C. of power. and the mo- its drops immediately. A . both squirrel-cage windings diminishes. which is now gradually brought back up to speed. Despite their high torque. However. the rotor frequency with the result that the inductive reactance of tors are usually windings that the reactance of both The rotor current tance of cage 1 so low (typically is is Hz) I negligible. motor delivers energy it lost to the flywheel. period. the of the respective rotors indicates the type of rotor bars motor speeds up. the speed of the flywheel lot of kinetic very short time. The rated speed is 1 . sometimes exceeding 1000 hp. pull-up torque. the effective rotor resistance at much lower than at standstill. The loads (such as centrifugal dryers). to accelerate high -inertia initi- engages the flywheel. 3. The start- size.

drive a 1200 hp.444 means that 44. sible to build a and running ing an acceptable efficiency say. depending upon the frequency and the number of poles. a On much the other hand. The 2000)/3600 = slip of (3600 - 0. totally en- in price justify the use of a high-speed alone motor and a 900 to drive a load operating at.4 Choice of factor are The locked-rotor torque of a high-speed motor is The torque-speed curves of power will only take longer to bring the flywheel up to speed.5 The Two-speed motors stator of a squirrel-cage induction supplied to the rotor would be dissipated as heat. a high-speed rectly is it obviously determined by it has to drive. 1 3.S. repetitive operation of the punch is press. $ l() 7. For example. and speeds motor can be at Efficiency Locked-rotor Mass torque Price (2002) hp kW r/min % 9c % kg U. the repetition rate smaller motor will suffice. and fly- wheel. One way stator with that only one winding only half the copper gearbox: is in Power being utilized. at a speed. 14. in one industrial application a large gear unit is used to 5000 r/min centrifugal compressor a 3560 r/min induction motor.5 enable us to NEMA rotor construction of equal power. compare efficiency and higher. synchronous speed of induction motors changes the 60 Hz. The difference would is rather limited because by quantum jumps. hp. fan-cooled induction motors having different gearbox lower.4% of the power 14. For a given output power. However.5 900 75 85 1 70 2000 25 1 . its 303 A gearbox is when equipment also mandatory has to run above 3600 r/min.SELECTION AND APPLICATION OF THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS powerful motor will quickly accelerate the motor. coupled to Such a motor would require 2 poles and a corresponding synchronous speed of 3600 r/min. C.) The speed of a motor the speed of the for machine low-speed machines. of a low-speed to two separate windThe problem is in the slots is high-speed motor less than that differ- ings having. 13. the locked-rotor torque creases. low. obtained by changing the rotor design.6).5 3600 89 90 150 50 650 10 7. 3-phase. it impos- is conventional induction motor hav- of 2000 r/min on a 60 Hz supply. is always greater torque) than that of a similar low-speed motor can be seen that the distinguishing properties are the rotor resistance in- two 10 motor speed The choice of motor speed synchronous speeds. mandatory. special windings have been invented whereby the speed TABLE 14A is changed by simply changing The synchronous COMPARISON BETWEEN TWO MOTORS OF DIFFERENT SPEEDS Synchronous Power speed factor drill obtain two operation at a time and so the external stator connections. say. speeds (100 r/min or r/min. 14. Table 14A compares the properties of When equipment 14. However. There are several advantages 1 often preferable to use to using a is to wind the pumps. The (as a percentage of full-load Fig. For example. permitting rapid. designed so that the motor can operate (See Section ent speeds. has to operate at very low a gearbox less). is if increased (by using brass instead of copper or aluminum). blowers. if 2. of example. For example. say. but the speed at rated torque is By way also shown. di- coupling a low-speed motor to the load. is The gears are often an integral part of the motor. is motor and a gearbox instead of . the size and cost of a is two Such motors are often used on presses. making for a very compact unit (Fig. Design B. it and and D it the characteristics of motors. closed. 4 poles and 6 poles.

). It . Consider.7 Two a. When and current 1 two poles the are 60 Hz ac source. the connect the two poles flows into terminal 2. When the coils are connected motor is produced. 1740 r/min. minal now in Fig. Two Because every in parallel. a 4-pole poles are conse- each pole covers only one-quarter of the achieved by using a coil pitch equal to 50 Let us in r/min circumference instead of the usual one-half. 3-phase motor (Fig. In this case. nection produces 4 poles in speed is all. 1 N .ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 304 ac source Figure 14. at the instant cur- result. we can double the number of poles by simply changing the stator connections. connected in series to a flows into terminal of terminal As 2. is upon this principle that 2-speed motors are built. As a windings. ratio 2:1 The lower produced by the creation of consequent is poles. 1200/600 r/min. are created and the flux has the pattern shown. The new con- and the synchronous 1800 r/min. two S pole. is connected quent poles. = 3600 Note b. one phase of a two-pole.6 Gear motor rated at 2. one N I2 (= l\) I { tlows out pole and one S pole Figure 14. shown rent /. as 14. - short-pitch coils two-pole motor.25 kW.7b. etc. series produce a of the in parallel. 60 Hz. The output torque and speed are respectively 172 N-m and 125 r/min.7a). current a result. Thus. The synchronous speed = ns is 120f/p that stator This 120 X 60/2 percent of the pole-pitch. for example. The way south poles created in this inge- are called consequent poles. current I2 flows into ter- poles are created by the it two nious N pole must be accompanied by a follows that two S poles will appear between N poles. (Courtesy of Reliance speeds obtained Electric) usually are speed the in (3600/1800 r/min. 14.

the load be driven. Consequently. Six leads. are 3-phase motor. that has to The choice depends upon The 2-speed motors described so tios of 2: l . yielding 4 poles.8 shows the stator connections for a 2-speed. motor characteristics under 14. develop to both (at speeds) either constant power.8a).SELECTION AND APPLICATION OF THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS now again produces 4 poles per phase. numbered at these limits the torque-speed curve 8 poles. the steeper the slope. High-speed connection of a 3-phase stator. Two-speed motors have a 1 they all 4. in Fig. It so happens that between circuiting terminals 1-2-3 The 1 4. .8 a. supplying a torque that varies from zero to full-load torque straight line (Fig. and rotor resis- are related by the expression 4 poles per phase = kTR/E 2 (14. relatively lower effi- ciency and power factor than single-speed motors They can be designed do. but most of the time a motor runs Figure 1 4. but possess the same polarity (Fig. 1 s N and the four poles are The that close to synchro- nous speed. Low-speed connection of same motor yielding 4.8b). is this problem. In effect. the slip tance R s. 26/28. it can be shown that torque T. which To overcome power drops half. 1) that where k in series. ing. or variable torque. b. 1 1 larly useful in driving and 38/46. power is applied terminals 1-2-3. frequency. The low-speed connection minals 4-5-6. constant torque. this is may that the ra- be too power of a fan varies as the cube of the speed. is essentially a The slope of pends mainly upon the rotor resistance the line de- — the lower the resistance. at rated line voltage E. This expression enables us formula showing how to establish a simple the line voltage and rotor . 10/ 4. brought out from the stator wind- For the high-speed connection. 1 4/ 6. if the speed is reduced by one-eighth. far have pole fan. and terminals 4-5-6 are open. must be recognized it shortto ter- double-wye connection is a constant that depends upon the con- struction of the motor.6 Induction various load conditions The complete torque-speed curves displayed 1 Figure 14. or 2-speed fans horsepower range and more. If the motor drives a The reason big a change in speed. motors amplitude modulation. moderate reduction in fan PAM are particuthe in hundred motors enable a power by simply recon- necting the windings to give the lower speed. resulting delta connection produces having two Tn two S poles connected (Fig.5 are important. the to often too low to be of interest. some 3-phase wind- ings are designed to obtain lower pole ratios such as 8/10.9). Note is made by and applying power resulting 4. 4-pole/8-pole. to I to 6. These pole PAM.

05 (215/240) 2 - .9 The torque-speed curve is resistance affect the behavior of the load. V.05 n)ln s - 11 40)/ 1200 torque [N-m] When the voltage rotor resistance rises to stator voltage [V] applying the formula.2. and so on. 14. Consequently. when connected Ax points. In — . increases to 240 at 1 140 r/min and driving a con- speed if the voltage V. conditions (the given conditions spond to the = subscript referring to the s = slip E= may The slip at 215 Vis corres nominal rating of the motor) x T= R = or given load new load conditions = (n s = (1200 = 0. we can predict its speed. 208 induction motor having a syn- chronous speed of 1200 r/min runs to a V 215 line stant torque load. power.ELECTRICA L MA CHINES A ND TRA NS FORMERS 306 Figure 14. torque.04 (E n /Ex ) 2 = 0. These quantities are related by the formula an accuracy of better than 5 percent which cient for most suffi- Example 14-1 A V 3-phase.2 yields that the 240 and rotor resistance remain the same. the only restriction . In effect. the load torque we can write is new torque Tx must not be greater than Tn (EJEn ) 2 Under these conditions Eq. in applying Eq. Calculate the A- is practical problems. for any other load condition. motor once between the no-load and rated torque operating essentially a straight line we know motor under the characteristics of a for a given load condition.v x = sn = 0. where n = Solution subscript referring to the initial. 14.

3 kV.= = to 10 r/min cold rotor resistance. knowing they are made of copper m .592 r/min n = = Consequently. we can apply x Eq.v the The is: 1. Solution to a.v n to the change b.s due entirely .55 X (3.55 X 110 000/1760 = 597 N m is + T ) .444 motor develops 10 that the m.33 (234 = 108°C + 23) . .5) 10 000/200 = 478 N-m ) The greater than the rated torque 7Vaicd = is 9. Three ex- velops a torque of 300 cold rotor temperature a. atcd . X 1200 = 48 0. b.03 sx = (900 - 864)/900 = 0. com- 8-pole induction motor driving a connected to a fixed 460 V. The synchronous speed ns The = 120 initial = ///. is = rotor temperature t. The speed drops connected these conditions the motor de- a. 60 Hz. 2. 0 1 rotor slip-rings. r/min.592 Solution a. x = 0. 307 we have for a N m the following: rotor -v x = - sn (TJTn ) = 0-444 (400/300) 0.(1800 - All other conditions being fixed. = 33% - = The torque corresponding Tx = 1.03 Rx = Note are fixed. pressor runs at 873 r/min immediately after 864 r/min 1 ternal resistors of 2 f i are is Example 14-2 A 3-phase.234 The slip is sx = (1800 - 200)/ 1800 = 0.SELECTION AND APPLICATION OF THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS The slip speed Example 14-3 therefore. 1800 load. and 120 X = 900 slip speed (900 - 873)/900 = 0. sistance b.33 /?„ hot rotor resistance - 1800 734 r/min with increasing therefore write (RJR n X speed drops from 1000 r/min to that the (R x /R n ) 0.55 Pin 9. is.2.04 speed change is in rotor resistance.v Calculate The hot in is initial 23°C. 60 rotor resistance in terms of the cold re- n torque of 400 The approximate hot temperature of the bars. The it wye across the Nm speed of 1000 r/min. \ = 1066 r/min.89 . at a N Calculate the speed for a torque of 400 b.234 (6. Calculate the value of the external resistors so kW at 200 1000)/ 1800 = 0. the motor speed final slips are The voltage and torque The 60/8 n . consequently. 734 r/min 1066 kW at 200 is 9. 14. is The hot R. The given conditions are machine has run for several after the Tn = 300 N hours.5) Because Tx is less than r. 4-pole r/min rating of The new speed nx = 240 at 1200 V .55 Pin - R (234 9.48 = 1152 r/min Under is Hz line.04 = .04 A 3-phase. We can 0. wound-rotor induction motor has a kWJ 760 r/min.

The starting In current in both the stator and rotor and is high during this that the revolving field lem. and rx = Three 2. and so in the revolving parts. ceive electromagnetic power the motor. thus affecting other connected power drawn by suddenly turns site direction to the rotor.8 Plugging an induction motor High-inertia loads put a strain on induction motors some because they prolong the starting period. Depending upon the tor and its is then 5000 5000 joules in size of the ro- cooling system. a prolonged starting period may even is installed. However. the It below normal chanical relieve the problem. this energy could easily produce overheating. plugging produces time. is plugged. Reduced voltage lengthens the start-up Consequently.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 308 we All other conditions being fixed. irrespective of the stator volt- age or the torque-speed curve of the motor. if a motor brings a massive flywheel up to speed. This limits the During its speed to power P m is fall. have. 14. so becomes a major prob- interval so that overheating its R losses are very high. it is worth . the form of heat. For motors of several thousand horsepower. many loads. oppo- in the plugging pe- acts as a brake. 14. the following rule for a it is motor also from the heat /"/? (Fig.89 = 0. causing seconds. This can be done by interchanging two stator leads.2: sx = *n speed) (TJTn ) (RJR n ) all 0.5 if the energy stored in the flywheel joules. the rotor 2 l stator. the rotor will have dissipated resistors in the ro- enable the motor to develop kW at 200r/min. To The line voltage may fall overload the motor riod. The associated me- entirely dissipated as heat in the Unfortunately.7 Starting an induction motor 14. 14. 10). Thus. melt the rotor bars or overheat the stator winding.10 a 3-phase induction motor as even exceed those when the rotor high rotor temperatures is not loaded mechanically: When dissipated Motors should not be plugged too frequently because worth that is rotor that usually not important. the induction load have to be brought to a quick stop. and consequently reduces this absorbs kinetic energy from the still-revolving load. from Rule 1 The - heat dissipated in the rotor during the starting period (from zero speed to final rated Eq. the rotor also continues to re- P r the line voltage drop as well as the heating rate of the which windings. losses in the may is locked. but this is whether the start-up time remembering is long or short. induction motors are rotor.44 (478/300) (RJ2) is equal to the final kinetic energy stored This rule holds true. In this regard Figure 14. often started on reduced voltage. transmission line feeding the plant where the motor for motor industrial applications.5 ft n wye-connected tor circuit will 10 2.

and allowed to run up to 1 175 r/min in the reverse two or three times the rated current of Even larger values can be used. direction. vided that braking torque proportional to the square of the is dc braking current.424 kJ Ek = = Jn 2 X 25 X 1760 (3. 4-pole induction motor produces 4 dc poles. all ergy dissipated original it produces In effect.48 X 10" 3 5. 24 heat therefore a. Calculate the energy dissipated in the rotor if the flywheel is the only load.9 Braking with direct current high-inertia load can also be brought to a quick stop by circulating dc current in the stator winding. Calculate b. The motor then kJ. no matter is current of the motor.48 X 10" 3 . The in direct current produces stationary N. motor finally comes to rest when all b. the stator will the stator. S poles This current The number of poles created is equal number of poles which the motor develops to the how the motor ter- When the rotor an ac voltage is sweeps past the stationary induced in the rotor bars. The heat dissipated 1 rotor is 3 erates to X 300 kJ = 900 nominal speed kJ. the motor speed drops from 175 r/min to zero.32 We moment of inertia of between two stator ter- and the rated motor current 12. 1760 r/min. the en- only equal to the in the rotor is energy stored kinetic that is does plugging. 14. energy dissipated in the rotor during 300 in the 25 kg 62 A. However. The kinetic energy of is 300 kJ when the motor The motor is plugged to a stop the revolving parts all runs at rated speed. the total dissipated in the rotor from start to finish 900 accel- in the reverse direction. An 50 hp. The field.32 = 75 A nals can be connected to the dc source. The dc cur175 r/tnin motor 1 is coupled to a flywheel by means of a gearbox. induction motor and m2 minals c. a smaller Example 14-4 A 100 kW. dc current increases the braking time. want total resistance to stop the is motor by connecting a battery across the terminals. the rotor absorbs 424 kJ during the braking period. The rent can be the motor. The energy dissipated in the rotor is independent of the magnitude of the dc current. 3-phase induction mo- tor drives a load The dc current in the stator The energy dissipated in the rotor The average braking torque if the stopping time is 4 min Solution a. and not three times that energy. 440 V. is kJ. a 3-phase. volt- age produces an ac current and the resulting rotor 2 I R losses are dissipated at the expense of the kinetic energy stored in the revolving parts. prothe stator does not become too hot. Example 14-5 A Solution During the plugging period. 60 Hz. Thus. Consequently. this + 300 = 1200 is The period By reversing the speed this way.SELECTION AND APPLICATION OF THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS remembering the following tions for a Rule 2 motor that The - is heat dissipated in the rotor during is three times the original kinetic energy of the revolving parts. r/min minals are connected to the dc source. slightly higher than the rated not overheat. . The kinetic energy in the rotor and load at 1760 is 5. The dc current stator termi/ is — EIR — 24/0.8) 2 The the kinetic en- ergy has been dissipated as heat in the rotor. However. because the braking time normally. far less heat than the plugging period (initial rated speed to zero speed) The advantage of dc braking rule for plugging opera- not loaded mechanically: 309 in the revolving masses. is short. Any two having a is The dc 0. its V .

and the motor will be- gin to overheat. balance of as 14. Frequency changes the stator voltage decreases by if voltage drop to the We will examine the nature of these problems in the sections that follow. Finally. the 3-phase voltages are unbalanced. . a operate satisfactorily on any voltage within ±5% 10%. The current drawn from the remaining two lines will almost double. as if recommended the external frame perature of the windings Abnormal motor operation may be due problems (short-circuit overloads as to carry long as supplementary external ventilation N-m may pro- is for long periods is cool. due increases both the iron losses and the magnetizing If may exceed is starting current above normal.) or to external conditions. In practice. yielding a higher temperature. etc. Mechanical overload as twice their rated power for short periods. At higher altitudes the the permissible limits poor cooling afforded by the thinner due air. the sum of the two percentage changes must not exceed 10 percent. 2. and for any frequency within of the nominal frequency.11 often produced during start-up. External problems may be caused by any of the following: 1 . Some drip-proof motors are designed to carry a continuous overload of 15 percent.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 310 c. motor will The thermal eventually trip relays protecting the the circuit-breaker. not much as 125 percent. This overload capacity is shown on the nameplate by the service 14. According motor shall ±10% of the nominal voltage.15. the overload causes the thermal overload relays starter fore its box re- to trip. The utility company should be notified whenever the phase-to-phase line voltages differ by more than 2 percent. As may the line. In effect. if the line voltage A voltage un- 3. For a motor running to operate satisfactorily at altitudes m above temperature all heavy at A line a result of the lower voltage. The average braking torque 7" can be calculated An = 1760 - factor 1. bringing the motor in the to a stop be- temperature gets too high. with the result that the temperature increases slightly and the power factor is slightly reduced.2 T X (3. this current.55 T= 19. heating. If the voltage and frequency both vary. to internal overheating of the bearings. Single phasing 4. the motor is is too high running. little as they should not be allowed to run continuously be- yond their rated capacity. Although standard induction motors can develop as much drawn from the other hand.5% can cause the temperature to increase by 15°C.55 TAt/J 9. thereby disconnecting the motor from the line.13 Single-phasing If one or if line of a 3-phase line a fuse ning. less than its rated value. 14. The allowable temperature 10°C higher than from the equation tors operating at 9. designed tors are up to 1000 to the mo- much On when sea level. the flux per pole will be at full-load.10 in the stator. the is accidentally opened. During emergencies a drip-proof motor can be made 60)/25 then rise is that permitted for drip-proof pro- is portional to the square of the applied voltage. the torque at any speed Mechanical overload mo- normal load. they can produce a serious unbalance of the three rents.12 Line voltage changes The most important consequence of a line voltage change is its effect upon the torque-speed curve of the motor. the torque every speed will drop by approximately 20%.14) X (4 vided. the tem- be excessive. line cur- This condition increases the stator and rotor losses. Supply voltage changes 3. Overloads cause over- which deteriorates the insulation and duces the service life of the motor. This is because even Abnormal conditions 14. blows while the 3-phase motor machine is run- will continue to run as a single- phase motor. Thus. the starting torque be to national standards.

a 50 Hz line. a fully loaded 3-phase motor simply stop if one of its lines is resulting locked-rotor current normal 3-phase enough LR current. are examples of this is in a lumber type of supply. 14.14 Frequency variation turbance. Power factor. is when motor operates on single phase. the motor speed drops by 5%. and the generators camp. on isolated systems where and A 50 Hz motor operates rise icantly the are con- system. but its motor can also operate on 83%) of its nameplate and fore. The break- 40% and the motor develops no of its original starting torque at Consequently. The is about It is to trip the circuit breaker or to 90% of the therefore large blow the 1 4. The breakdown torque same as be- starting torque are then about the and the power ture rise factor. Everything runs applications. Hz faster than normal. except during a is major dis- However. As powered by a is directly the train climbs up a hill. shows the typical torque-speed curves of a 3-phase motor when it runs normally and when Note that the curves follow it is single-phasing. efficiency. The torque-speed curve a 3-phase down seriously affected torque decreases to about value. efficiency. well on a 60 Hz line. The in a hospital.15 Induction motor operating as a generator Consider an electric train cage induction motor that wheels. and tempera- remain satisfactory. The most important consequence of change may 20% not be acceptable we either have motor speed or supply an expen- 50 Hz source. may suddenly opened. but terminal voltage should be raised to 6/5 (or its of the nameplate rating.SELECTION AND APPLICATION OF THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS % 311 breakdown torque 250 'X 200 3-phase P" ^ 150 i ^pull-up torq ue nominal torque T 100 full — load i\ i 50 sirigle- phase — i i i \ \ \ \ \ ! \ i 40 20 80 60 100 % speed \ Figure 14. II each other closely single-phase until the breakdown is 50 Hz may cause problems when they nected to a 60 torque approaches the in some to gear 1 large distribution system. The 20%) torque is new breakdown then equal to the original breakdown torque and the starting torque is only slightly re- remain satisfactory. Fig.11 Typical torque-speed curves when a 3-phase squirrel-cage motor operates normally and when it operates on single-phase. terminal voltage should be reduced to 5/6 (or value. the frequency may vary electrical signif- energy generated by diesel engines or gas turbines. In such cases down sive auxiliary 14. all. squirrel- coupled the to the motor will . Machine tools and other motor-driven equipment imported from countries where the frequency a frequency the resulting change in motor speed: if the frequency drops by 5%. the electrical system on a ship. fuses. A 60 Hz Important frequency changes never take place on a emergency power supply this duced. and temperature torque.

and the rails provide phase C. the Q. (Courtesy of ABB) run than synchronous speed. called an asynchronous generator. returned to the induction line are rarely motors Such a ma- a motor In cranes. on no longer comes We can make an asynchronous generator by connecting an ordinary squirrel-cage motor to a 3- netic field. 50 Hz. 700 V. move begins it to rotate is to a it gasoline engine (Fig.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 312 Figure 14. Thus. to overcome the The motor runs at and the motor has only into play friction of the rails light load and the and very close What happens when to air. However. 14. However. it ^ gasoline converts the engine mechanical energy and this chine is energy receives into electrical energy. the motor becomes a generator. A toothed gear-wheel 573 mm in diameter engages a stationary rack on the roadbed to drive the train up and down the steep slopes. line. Although 3-phase is it mechanical Figure 14. An in- P duction motor that turns faster than synchronous speed acts. therefore. the G squirrel-cage induction motor applications that above synchronous speed. This 1 brake. 12). to create its to mag- in- speed. 14. as a generator. the tor to above synchronous crease in speed. level ground. as soon as this takes place. rated 78 kW. The drive is provided by four 3-phase wound-rotor induction motors. The rated thrust is 78 kN. delivering active it is power P to the electrical system connected. motor has to absorb reactive power power can only come from the ac line.12 The makes electric train the round trip be- tween Zermatt (1604 m) and Gornergrat (3089 m) in Switzerland. with the result that the reactive power Q flows in the opposite direction to the active power P (Fig. motor receives power from f a example. for to run running off it to the line. there are several industrial may cause the line. The speed can be varied from zero to 14.13 Gasoline engine driving an asynchronous generator connected to a 3-phase opposite directions. This torque has the and coupling line 14.13). 3). 1470 r/m. "load" and returns ooo QHill used to drive trains (Fig. Two aerial conductors constitute phases A and B. downhill? The force of gravity causes the train wheels. the force of gravity friction hill. as the engine speed exceeds the synchronous speed. instead of being dissipated as heat. a higher engine speed produces a mo- develops a counter torque that opposes the same As soon effect as a coupled to the speed. devel- at slightly less overcome both oping a torque sufficient to and the force of At the top of the gravity.4 km/h by means of variable resistors in the rotor circuit. Note that Pand Qflow in . during the lowering cycle. The active power delivered to the line is directly proportional to the slip above synchronous the train begins to accelerate and because the motor phase which synchronous speed. However. mechanical braking power the 3-phase line in the is 3-phase system returned to the form of electrical energy.

but its less the less connected reactive when power as 2400 than Consequently. the power absorbed machine operates as an asynchronous 17^-3 = per phase than that corresponding to the speed of rotation. 26. Figure 14.SELECTION AND APPLICATION OF THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS 313 Solution a. the Calculate the capacitance required per phase X 60 X how if 34) the generating system is the load also absorbs reac- power. The apparent power drawn by when it operates as a motor is = = = S 1. the capaci- /c phase is = QIE = 5700/440 = 13 A magnitude is limited by is The capacitive reactance per phase insuffi- Xc ~ Ell = = 34 il at least as the machine normally ab- is 440/13 The capacitance per phase must be at least operating as a motor.P However. 1760 r/min.2 X The corresponding greater electrical output. The sorbs is V is Hz.14 Capacitors can provide the reactive power for any asynchronous generator. The driving engine must turn at slightly more than synchronous speed. a 4-pole motor driven reactive generator. the slip . saturation in the iron. 440 tive current per generator voltage will not build up. the rated out- 41 power absorbed active P = S cos B = 31.73 X 440 X 31.2 the generator increases capacitor bank must be able to supply much 2 5. the capacitor bank must be increased to if provide it.2 Q = \ S2 .2 2 = 7 kvar slips. l/2ir/X c = 1/(2tt We = 78 [xF 40 hp. If the capacitance cient.15 shows connected. 3-phase squirrel-cage induction motor as an asynchronous to use a The motor 84%. Thus. 440 V. 14. Example 14-6 generator. b.84 = V31. is 0.7 kvar per phase. Typically. The voltage in delta. 14). 2 because the capacitors are C= wish 26. the capacitor bank must supply at arrangement we can supply a 3-phase The frequency generated kW 1 load without using an external 3-phase source (Fig.2 kVA = for put reached is very small at 3%. rated current of the and the full-load power factor is is 41 A. At what speed should the driving engine run generate a frequency of 60 Hz? to b. machine V3 EI The corresponding Figure 14. the capacitors are connected in delta. Note that tive a. The reactive power may be supplied by a group of capacitors connected to the terminals of the moWith this is slightly When least r/min /= produces pni\2{) = 4 a at frequency a speed of slightly X 2400/120 = 80 The terminal voltage of with the capacitance. This eliminates the need a 3-phase external source. typically less than tor.

together with the adjoining Figure 14. 1800 = 40 The engine should slip - 1760 r/min We see. the therefore run at an approxi- must turn mate speed of n shaft must turn faster than at less than synchronous speed.15 See Example 14-6. — motor. that when the shaft turns in same direction as the revolving field. the shaft . generator. power flow illustrates the overall properties This dia- of a 3-phase squirrel-cage induction machine. Finally.16 Complete torque-speed characteristic of an induction machine 30 = = Q 7kVar kW t ^ OOP 4D= 1840 r/min I ^>25 kW On j^r B We have seen that a 3-phase squirrel-cage induction motor can also function as a generator or as a brake. But to operate in the generator the mode. Similarly.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 314 14. as can be seen from the torque-speed curve of Fig. the shaft n m r | speed stator rotor + 2 h i rotor stator T = torque developed stator n = speed of rotation by the machine Figure 14. These three modes of operation and brake — merge into each other. grams.16 Complete torque-speed curve of a 3-phase induction machine.800 + 40 = 1840 r/min 1 must turn in the opposite direction to the revolving flux. 16. for example. Consequently. n s = synchronous speed of the revolving field . 14. in order to operate as a brake. should be equal to the full-load machine operates as slip = when the a motor. to operate as a motor. curve. the induction machine operates in either the motor or the generator mode. V- u BRAKE synchronous speed.

Germany.6 m in is diameter and The water is pumped from Lake the Alps. this 14. below synchro- power dissipated when the motors have ratings of several thousand horsepower. During connected to the slipup to speed the sliprings are connected to an electronic converter which feeds the rotor power back into the line. make attractive in special indus- it These may be listed as follows: final We have already seen that for a given load. such a variable- very efficient. 425 to 595 r/min. provided by a pipeline that 11 0 km long. is lost in the form of in the sense heat. Thus. speed can be reached possible time. The converter changes the We recall that whenever a load is brought up to speed by means of an induction motor. 14. imparted to the load. Thus.17 Features of a wound-rotor induction motor sult. motor is the its to the squirrel- that this type is of in industry. 5 kV. The pump in the background driven by a wound-rotor induction motor rated at 3300 kW. caus- that become excessively ing it the wound-rotor motor in the to is hot. 2. The variable speed enables the water supply to be varied according to the needs of the city. the wound-rotor induction motor has cer- trial 1 applications. Another advantage power As The advantage of that the heat external resistors connected to the slip-rings. by varying the exter- fall. 14. The stator of Figure 14.19 Variable-speed drives any speed Variable-speed drives 3.17 The water supply in the City of Stuttgart. but when the motor is . that the external resistors can be varied as the motor picks up speed. 50 Hz. liquid rheostats are rings. (Courtesy of Siemens) start-up. itself is dissipated is is a result.18 Start-up of high-inertia loads around this problem by connecting the We get slip-rings to an electronic converter. the energy dissipated in the rotor is equal to the kinetic energy power at system (Fig. The problem Frequency converter We now examine in the shortest 14.20 Frequency converter A conventional remains cool. nal resistors of a Start-up of very high-inertia loads . wound-rotor motor we can obtain want. The enclosed motor housing seen in the foreground contains an air/water heat exchanger that uses the 5°C water for cooling purposes. an in- crease in rotor resistance will cause the speed of an induction motor to we Thus. Constance is in is 1 . the So 315 as heat in the resistors it is that the is makes for a very inefficient system.SELECTION AND APPLICATION OF THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS 14. This means that a high-inertia speed control system load will produce very high losses in the rotor. the rotor little into power at line frepower back into the 3-phase low rotor frequency quency and feeds As a re- wound-rotor motor may be used as a frequency converter to generate a frequency different from that of the utility company. so long as nous speed. we have directed our attention cage induction motor and generator and brake. it imum possible for the motor to develop is far. which becomes too costly these applications. max- related properties as a The reason one most frequently used tain features that its torque during the entire acceleration period. 17). However.

6 X 60 = 36 Hz a rating Under locked-rotor conditions.? s n)ln. (13.4) In general.6 rotor voltage at 720 r/min E 2 = sEoc = = 300 V as a 800 . According be positive and greater than 1 . rotor voltage and frequency driven a. ro- The ro- tor voltage tor is between the slip-rings is 500 V. is f2 = sf= 0.18 Wound-rotor motor used as a frequency converter. the shaft a ing flux. . the frequency converter is when to the the rotor revolving Solution must be rotated against the direction of the revolv- The operation of 720 r/min opposite at field two or three order to attain this frequency the slip must The b. b.6 720 r/min is - (1 then identical to that of an induction motor operating as a brake. is to the utility The The is turns ratio of the stator to rotor windings when the rotor same direction as rotor voltage and frequency driven 720 r/min at in the the revolving field h = (13. is driven 14.19 Power flow in a frequency converter when the output frequency machine the wound-rotor line. 14. Figure 14. driven by a variable-speed dc motor.4.3) sf c. power P ]n usually is now . 13.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 316 R n R R wound-rotor induction "motor" Figure 14.3 kV. 2. = 0. the open-circuit rotor frequency c.16). The Example 14-7 A3-phase wound-rotor induction motor has of 150 hp (—110 kW). 1 connected at rotor supplies power E 2 and to the 3 -phase load at a voltage both of which depend upon the slip. and the rotor by a motor is M (Fig.720)/l80() 0.3 and 13.3. an appropriate speed The 8). The turns ratio a result. 1760 r/min. the dissipated as heat in the rotor. accord- Calculate a. greater than the line frequency.6 is X 500 brake (Fig. we have ing to Eqs. and the active in Fig. frequency / 2 Thus. The slip at —720 r/min is . However. the desired times that of the 13. The motor speed is considered to be negative ( — ) when it turns opposite to the revolving field. The converter acts as a generator. 14. The slip at is = E]/Eoc = 2300/500 = 4. power flow Note how similar is as shown this is to the power flow when an induction motor runs = The (.19. 60 Hz. As is to Eq.v = available to supply power to the load. in utility frequency is company.

The negative sign indicates that the rotor must run opposite to the re- volving 1.4 X 60 = 84 Hz P useful power delivered The power P r transferred is ]V to a load (Fig. from the stator to the rotor P. 800 r/min. the synchronous speed of the converter ven is at a 900 r/min. we can see how must be rotor receives 20 kW of power from the stator and 40 kW of mechanical power from the driving motor M.20.3) sf 180 X 60 s load from which f s The stator is still = = 60 Hz 3 fed from the 60 Hz line.SELECTION AND APPLICATION OF THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS = (n . d. = 700 V f2 = sf= 1.7) kW Example 14-8 We wish rotor 60 to use a 30 kW. . therefore. summary. 60 kW. calculate the following: a. 19 active power delivered to the stator of the c. 880 motor as a frequency converter kW at an The power 60 Hz wound- r/min. The Fig. verter. Will the frequency converter overheat under Solution To generate 1 80 Hz the slip the small cop- Fig.20 n = -1800 r/min the into (and out of) the con- electrical these conditions a. 60 Hz. If the supply-line input to the stator of the frequency is See Example 14-8. 14. 720 r/min b. 14. converter (F) to generate c. kW plus the stator.20) = 40 kW. the 1 f2 = (13. Induction motor M must therefore have a rating of 40 kW. This but instead of being dissi- = P vh = 20 is 60/3 (13. The converter must be dri- speed n given by s = (/? s 3 = (900 - h)//? s - (13. The speed of the induction motor (M) b. In The power of the induction motor (M) and power flows active frequency converter in The remaining power input to the rotor amounting to (60 .4 The rotor delivers an output of corresponds to Ppated in the rotor. frequency is 60 Hz. have a synchronous rotor voltage and frequency at speed of 1800 r/min.n)ln = (1800 . 14.20). are E2 = = sE„ c 1 X 500 . By referring to that dri- ves the frequency converter equal to 20 per and iron losses approximate frequency of 180 Hz (see Fig. The rotor converts this power into 60 kW of electrical power at a frequency of 180 Hz. is derived from the mechanical input to the shaft.(-720))/1800 = (1800 + 720)/ 1800 s s The converter must s at a speed of 1800 r/min. The induction motor driving the converter must.2) frequency converter driving «)/900 motor from which Figure 14.18). con- sequently. 14.4 The therefore be driven 317 field.

Calculate torque remains the same for the following applications: Give some of the advantages of standard- We V. even though The increased power arises from the the voltage induced in the rotor higher than at standstill. 14.5). the is 1 having a rated voltage of 575 V. consequently. The is and the rotor stator how much 60 kW. Full-load current f. 14-8 14-9 to start If the line on such a line? b. The generator voltage builds up when three 100 fxF capacitors are connected in .3. The will frequency is 60 Hz. 3-phase three times Hz. the cooling 50 hp. Full-load iron losses in the stator are normal. because the rotor turns standard squirrel-cage induction motor less than delivers it A rated at a. motor components shown 14. 60 Hz The generator is driven at 2100 r/min by a gasoline engine. c. fact that 14-11 more at A is By breakdown torque and are the nected to a 520 180 V line. knowing We The new power output 2 The new I R losses in the heat that the load rotor wish to make an asynchronous generator using a standard squirrel-cage induction tor rated at 40 (Fig. iron losses in the is V. No-load speed e. or by ex- a dc source. locked-rotor torque reduced? probably not overheat. 14. Locked-rotor torque c. The new speed. pull-up. in Give the values of the LR. Which amount of 2 I R the losses. 3-phase squirrel-cage induction motor 60 Hz. b. Questions and Problems g. No-load current d. least 590 r/min. 14-12 Practical level 50 r/min 1 line. 900 r/min (see Fig. The rotor overheat either. rated at 30 hp. 14. and the load consists of three 5 12 resistors connected in wye. a. if we eliminated the gearbox and used another motor directly 14-1 What is between a drip-proof the difference coupled motor and an explosion-proof motor? 14-2 What is the approximate life expectancy of a motor? 14-3 Explain a NEMA Design D unsatisfactory for driving a 14-4 Identify the b. 440 connected to a 208 V. Locked-rotor current b. 14-5 what would output have to be [hp]? hp. calculate the following: A saw in a lumber mill A variable speed pump it 2300 if type of ac motor would you recom- ization as and r/minl. power factor Full-load efficiency Referring to Fig. 14-13 why to the load.6. voltage then drops to 1944 V. ELECTRICA L MA CHINES A ND TRA NSEORMERS 8 The because the 20 its 14-10 stator of the converter will not overheat kW it absorbs much is nominal rating of 30 kW. 3-phase.3 1 d. however. and breakdown torques and the correflow of active power 3 -phase induction a. mo- 870 r/min. 14-6 As As a motor when it operates 14-14 motor A 300 b. approximate value of the rotor a. 14-15 relates to induction motors. a. sponding speeds Show power its the typical torque-speed curve of a NEMA Design C is Fig. Explain is con- how the following parameters are affected: twice effective. 14). full-load speed of Will a 3 -phase motor continue to rotate What mend lbf squirrel-cage induction motor turns at a a brake motor be able [ft in a one of the lines becomes open? Will the 14-7 squirrel-cage induction motor. will not rotor will be high because the frequency normal speed. hp. 208 V. can bring an induction motor to a quick stop either by plugging from method produces the citing the stator in the 60 Hz it motor? Explain. motor How many Draw poles would the motor have? the pump.

during the plugging interval and the average starting torque during a. 3-phase. squirrel-cage. 1760 r/min. d. The motor runs at a. Calculate the The The rotor winding resistance per phase resistance that must be placed in series with the rotor (per phase) so that the motor knowing 14-22 A 150 hp. 575 V. by means of a gearbox.) of water through the heat exchanger per minute. wound-rotor induction motor 2. 520 c. % and a c. close to its is running The motor and compressor in Problem at 1. Problem 14-16 D class . from 0 air-to-water cooled induction motor drives pressor line. and what level kgnr. The stator leads are suddenly exchanger. 14-21 in Which A The is of the two rotors will be the hottest. has the shortest acceleration nominal open-circuit voltage between circulating Calculate the increase motor and. The magnitude of the plugging torque The moment of inertia of the rotor In Problem 14-22 calculate the energy a. 100 hp. 440 V.25 pu.3 kV.S.SELECTION AND APPLICATION OF THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS wye is a. 60 Hz.2 pu). and 150 14-16 A 3-phase 1450 r/min. across the terminals. the acceleration period compressor has a The squirrel-cage 2 000 lb -ft a J of 18 How What long will is clocked ( 1 . A plant. The motor deliver if so.4 165 r/min. 60 Hz. motor accelerates an manufacturing kW.8 r/min and factor of 0. 40 hp at a speed of 600 r/min. is 530 V. e. LR are respectively 0. torque and current The full-load current The total losses at full load The exact rotor TR losses if the windage and friction losses amount to 62 kW The LR current and torque The torque developed at the compressor shaft The motor 1 1800 r/min. rating of 8-poIe induction motor has a 40 hp. stator current If the induction motor rated nected to a 60 bank available— 30 hp.4 this having a rating of 150 hp.7 1 comThe motor power drives the speed of 4930 r/min. no-load? the energy dissipated in the rotor during the starting period [Btu]? 14-24 A 3-phase. at synchronous speed of reversed. 60 Hz. connected the slip rings in wye and a. and the stopping time shaft. The is moment s. without overheating? following gasoline engines are which one 10 at to be con- approximate speed of the motor? What power b. b. cooled by 350 gallons (U. voltage 14-19 is A 30 000 hp— Advanced 14-20 best suited to drive the 60 Hz hp. that the line voltage water tempera- is load.2 kV. 13. is equal to calculate the b. calculate the following: to speed. Hz line voltage will be the generator? b. it dissipated in the rotor during the plugging take to bring the motor and compressor up b. an it has an efficiency of 98. no- following: of inertia of lb ft~ referred to the Assuming the starting torque 0. d. Design 1 time from zero to 1200 r/min? b.3 14-16 are started on reduced voltage.90. exact full-load speed of 1792. 50 Hz has The approximate frequency generated active power supplied to the load reactive power supplied by the capaci- The The b. B induction hp.7 pu. 1 3-phase induction motor ture as the water flows through the heat 14-18 the following. at interval. 3-phase. pu and 4. 130 000 2. It drives a . What a. 380 V. If the line V. motor rotor alone has is that the torque exerted 14-23 . kV 1200 r/min. The tor e. [hp] can the motor be replaced by a a turbo compressor in a large oxygen- at a should be used. Could to Which motor will deliver 14-17 inertia load of after reaching the no-load Calculate the following: a. drives rotor is in speed? a belt conveyor.

lubricate Motor A runs continually. 24 hours per Motor B drives a compressor and op- at 0. in Fig. The often should the bearings of each motor be torque between 0 and 180 r/min. $2243. 60 Hz induction motor has the following recon- properties: when going downhill. 14. 2-speed induction motor rated 2 hp. lubricate every 10 000 hours of running time.06/kWh. Calculate factor of at full-load the loaded train erage weight of a passenger e. 460 Gornergrat |MJ] | mo- climb from Zermatt The minimum time required trip g. but not too often. a.5 The in. c. 12 has a mass of 78 500 lb and can carry 240 passengers. 720.540. priced knowing r/min. and810r/min. at Calculate the cost of driving the motor addition to The train in Fig. motor given The bearings greased regularly. cost of energy described gear wheel d. 460 V. the flywheel load. in following schedule applies to two motors: Calculate the mass of the flywheel and moment b. in tor during the 3-year period. costs $1723 82%. 3-phase. r/min.8 calculate the kinetic energy in A 40 hp. c. Calculate the time required to accelerate the flywheel from 0 to 1780 r/min. similar mass of line current The energy required to to is 14-30 the av- if A constant has windings similar to those shown 60 kg minals to make tion the min] when is The resistance V in Fig. every 2200 hours of running |lb-ft~|. greased per year? 14 calculate the time required to accelerate the flywheel from 0 to 180 14-28 mium the flywheel at 180 r/min. 3. 180. Calculate the loeked-rotor torque a its the corresponding torque [ft-lbf]. 14-25 to be 40 hp the torque-speed curve of the motor and give the torques [N-m] motor have Motor A: 75 hp. to the Problem 14-28. in the ter- What high-speed connec- resistance would you expect to measure between terminals 4 and Assuming energy horsepower. energy induction motor has a power factor of d. 460 60 Hz. Problem 14-24 calculate the average a. of inerlia d. calculate the total electrical en- ergy consumed during a round trip [kW-h]. The approximate transmission when the motors are operating total is and has an efficiency of 90. f. that 80 percent of the the train is going uphill and that 80 percent of the mechanical energy verted to electrical energy 6 electrical converted into mechanical energy is 14-31 A in the low-speed connection? 150 hp 7 1 175 r/min. 1760/870 r/min. 540 that this N-m in 14-29 A standard 40 hp motor.320 ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS steel flywheel having a diameter of 3 inches and a thickness of 7. runs during a 3-year period. r/min. Calculate the rated speed of the motor and Motor B: 75 Draw [ft-lbf]. and an efficiency of 93. one the energy sav- ings that accrue to the high-efficiency 14. Using Eq. Industrial application 14-27 torque-speed curve corresponds to that of D a design a. hp. drip-proof Baldor Super E assuming no other load on the motor.5. 5 days a week. knowing that the Calculate the following: c. time. 14. 900 day. 3550 r/min. In b.2% and power The speed of rotation of the gear wheel when the train moves at 9 miles per hour The speed ratio between the motor and the The at full- $0. 3-phase. pre- time the load exerts a fixed counter-torque of 300 14-26 86% The motor. 360. b. How erates about 6 hours per day. 3. Using Eq. V.875 1 . load 12 hours per day. no-load current: 71 A full-load current: 183 A . is and 2 1 measured between 12 il.6%.8.

calculate the locked-rotor torque: 1205 ft-lbf locked-rotor Determine the equivalent tor 321 estimated to be 25°C. 850 elboard is ft away. i -32 In Problem 14-3 1 express the currents and torques in per-unit values. torque: ft-lbf A power factor: from the main panelboard motor. percentagewise. pan- and the average temperais the cable c. d. . sistive. 3-conductor 250 kcmil copper cable stretches Assuming when 32% circuit of the under locked-rotor conditions. Compare it with the rated starting torque. The voltage 480 V ture of the cable to the at the mo- the motor is impedance is purely re- approximate current started up across the line.SELECTION AND APPLICATION OF THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS locked-rotor current: 1 550 A full-load torque: 886 breakdown 2552 A a. Estimate the resulting starting torque. ft-lbf b.

Chapter 15 Equivalent Circuit of the Induction Motor 15. are identified as follows: the equivalent circuit of an 3-phase wound-rotor induction motor have lime 1 acts exactly like its their basic differences.0 Introduction secondary windings cal —one The preceding three chapters have shown that we single primary winding can describe the important properties of squir- we want if pensible. 322 ideal transformer having a turns ratio of 1 : . 15. Thus. The wound-rotor induction motor motor has 3 5. characteristics of a is On consider a and a single secondary wind- When the motor is at standstill. Xm = magnetizing reactance Rm = resistance does not iron losses whose losses correspond to the and windage and friction losses study the more theoretical aspects of induction T= motor behavior. the to ) meters. effectively connected slip-ring and the neutral of the rotor primary windings and 3 identi- This chapter can be skipped by the reader source voltage. and a turns ratio of 1:1. each phase. and so we develop the equivalent from basic principles. set for account of the perfect symmetry.20. Chapter 10. 10.1 A cuit (Fig. rel-cage and wound-rotor induction motors without using a circuit diagram. an equivalent circuit diagram we can ing in analyzing the behavior of the motor. then analyze the asynchronous generator and determine ties it a conventional transformer. to gain even a better understanding of the properties of the motor. Fig. We indis- We low-power and high-power mo- we develop its proper- is the same in equivalent cir- as that of a transformer. line to neutral between one construction to a 3-phase transformer. In this chapter'" circuit and observe tor Finally. assume a wye connection E„ = r\ — stator a-. = stator leakage reactance x2 = rotor leakage reactance r2 — rotor winding resistance is very simi- for the stator The and circuit para- identical who winding resistance externa] resistance. However. Rx = lar in 1 previously developed under load. the rotor. per phase.

2 motor when the rotor How when affected the Suppose the motor runs the rotor speed is ns ( I — motor starts a slip at s). Let us form a single secondary lump resis- given by should R. 1 5. Furthermore. it sfi the frequency of the source E„. the amplitude of the induced voltage tions that describe the behavior of the motor. is turning? that the syn- chronous speed.2. l . Figure 15. the values of r2 and the two together tance For motors under is shows 5. as shift 5. Fig. where meaning /7 S is The frequency locked.2 Approximation of the equivalent for 3-phase trans- the case of a conventional In acceptable circuit is load current true: / 0 may / . = (I5.1 Equivalent circuit of a wound-rotor induction motor at standstill. to the input terminals. with- out 1 where operating conditions. tionary. .\ 2 to jsx 2 Because resistors are not frequency-sensitive. on the primary and secondary side of in the secondary winding will become these new to Ei (the turns ratio This greatly simplifies the equa- induced is Fig. hp the exact circuit of Fig. the frequency because of p eliminate the magnetizing branch.3 E2 would ) E2 = a true rep- is resentation of the is it is But because the compromising accuracy.* / Directing our attention to the secondary side. and the ideal transformer T. in a motor this be as high as 40 percent of the air gap. I x we would be justified in removing the magnetizing branch composed of jX m and R m because former. for motors exceeding 2 hp. s. can 1 E2 U . the exciting current /0 motors above 2 hp. However. This will modify the values of be used. R2 .EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF THE INDUCTION MOTOR 323 Figure 15. 1 5. we cannot to the no longer is shown we in Fig. R K remain to the same. p compared negligible is However. is sfand I be equal motor were sta- the actual voltage sEi this changes the imped- ance of the secondary leakage reactance from j.l) . 1 if the slip is v. Consequently.

3 Equivalent circuit of a wound-rotor motor the stator in The is details of the Fig. (frequency /) absolute value of that of U. To summarize: 1 . diagram It is 1 5. in The frequency the rotor of the voltages in I 2 is ^ . 5. and where the frequency Nevertheless.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 324 external resistance frequency frequency f sf Figure 15. equal to the effec- even though their frequencies (b) are different. and ] /] Figure 15. Equivalent circuit of the rotor. . The effective value of tive value of 3. and /.2) 2 Cvx. 15.4b. . I2 (frequency Furthermore. frequency = sf it cannot be integrated into the phasor diagram on the primary there is side.4a. / as that (3 same as between between E2 and This enables us to draw the phasor diagram for £. and /. E2 and / 2 have a frequency sf Phasor diagram showing the current lagging behind the voltage by angle (3.3) circuit shown is of rotor in important to realize that this phasor relates to the frequency sf Consequently.) where total (3 = resistance arctan sx 2 IR 2 ( The corresponding phasor diagram Fig.B /U'2 (15. In ef- exactly the is /. 2. the . sE. as shown in Fig.s. 1 and currents is sf. /. is /. The effective value of tive value of 2. the phase angle is exactly the same (a) sf) in the stator. /2 is a direct relationship between in the rotor £.x 2 slip s.5. I5. „ A- = • R2 VRj + +js. is the same b. Z_ a-£. E2 E equal to the effec- is { divided by the slip The phase angle between as that between E 2 and I 2 E . fect. it is running at a secondary circuit are shown and the resulting current ^~ = when But the frequency of the voltages and currents f.4 a.

15. 2 of the ideal transformer the primary termiis. In this di- agram. Its value depends upon the slip and hence upon the speed of the motor. and x2 are combined to form an equivalent total leakage reactance x. Power relationships some power relationships for the 3-phase induction motor. is sometimes called a rotary transformer. there being 15. (15. Z2 = 1 = + jx 2 (15.6 Equivalent circuit of a wound-rotor motor referred to the primary (stator) side.5) R2 Zn jx2 S The impedance Z2 seen between nals 1. The equivalent circuit of a squirrel-cage induction motor is the same.4) jsx 2 Therefore. even though the frequency The is different.5 voltage and current in the stator are separated by the same phase angle p.7. 15.6.2 no external resistor. Thus. motor The leakage reactances jx Jx 2 can now be lumped together to create tion a single total leakage reactance jx. Figure 15.EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF THE INDUCTION MOTOR we can Thus. on the primary side = U = /. except for the resistance R 2 /s.7 The primary and secondary leakage reactances x-. The final equivalent circuit of the wound-rotor induction motor is shown in Fig. The following equations The equivalent circuit enables us to arrive at basic electromechanical can be deduced by visual inspection of the equiva- V P = lent circuit of the wound-rotor motor (Fig. As a result.6) /. the value of R 2 ls will vary from motor goes from start-up speed (s = 0).v R 2 to infinity as the = 1) to synchronous Figure 15. . (.7): (sx 2 h arctan sx 2 IR 2 Figure 15. 15.3 to that shown in Fig. motor 15. the circuit elements are fixed. it is is so similar to that of a transformer that not surprising that the wound-rotor induction { total It is equal to the leakage reactance of the motor referred to the stator side. except that R 2 is then equal to the equivalent resistance r2 of the rotor alone referred to the stator. therefore. R2 + 325 write (15. we can This equivalent circuit of a wound-rotor induc- simplify the circuit of Fig.

8. 5. motor is torque. P = ICR 2 /s 7.7. ( 1 - lation of Torque developed by the motor j 9. r. v and Mechanical power developed by the motor is a are fixed. 1 5. is 15. is { ]V 2 I R 2 -sP Because stator. Active power supplied to the rotor 1 is is r Power cuit dissipated as I R losses in the rotor cir- V>~ +jc 2 a — arctan xlr In these equations r. 15. motor Apparent power absorbed by the motor = S 2 \ P + Q is: multiplied by 3 to obtain the total quantities. circuit for the analy- . motors above In large (1 the stator resistance and jx the total leakage reactance of the is P = 8.7. we can neglect the magnetizing branch Xm Rm This yields a simpler motor behavior. and jx are than r and so the angle x = 9. Power factor of the motor If cos 6 = PIS we use current /.55 Pl\ ^ is (\ s)' s) (1 5. and speed de- and R 2 is. { for these calculations the equi valent circuit and cor- responding phasor diagram can be simplified to that shown in Figs. is some must be Q = E^IX m + Irx 3. Consequently. The magnetizing branch pends upon r jx. P. and sis of .7 as the reference phawe obtain the complete phasor diagram of the 1 sor. Active power absorbed by the motor Efficiency of the motor 10. Figure 15.9 and 15. 10. The power factor of the motor is cos tt.55 - Pm 111 9. jx is a approaches In the equivalent circuit . is to the follows that it 1 000 hp. in Fig. Reactive power absorbed by the motor Note: The preceding quantities are "per phase". v Figure 15. R m and jX m does not come into play. Line current 6.7b) motor referred fixed. 5. wound-rotor motor shown in Fig. 1 much larger 90°.ELECTRICA L MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 326 1 . is PJP n = 2. torque. In this diagram (and also in future calculations) it is useful to define an impedance Z.V) 5.3 Phasor diagram 2 of the induction 4. { irrespective of the speed of the motor. the calcu- mechanical power.7a) Z of Fig.9 As far as mechanical power. 5.55 P - I ns n _ 9. 2 = Z. and speed are concerned. and angle a as follows: 5.8 Phasor diagram of the voltages and currents in Fig.

the R2 pends upon The phasor diagram corresponding to condition is shown in Fig. can be as low } breakdown torque occurs two motors The impedances and resulting equivalent circuits of two squirrel-cage motors. 18 (Chapter 13). rated 5 hp and 5000 hp are given in Figs. The = EJ2 cos ^ /. which is the resistance of the rotor alone reflected into the stator. if R2 = Z. 1 5.. sense that they are independent of the rotor in the can therefore write (I5. 5.9. the at slips as small as 2 percent. 15.8) l the magnitude of the R 2 /s.10 Phasor diagram of the circuit of Fig.ll) % (4Z.10) is equal to the absolute value of im- pedance Z|./(2Z.r. cos a/2) The breakdown torque (I5. b £. Figure 15. for maximum R 2 /s = Z Under these circumstances.. the (and therefore the torque the value of R 2 /s is is breakdown torque slip at = R 2 IZ sh The current is (15. Note that phasor / Z is always a degrees ahead of phasor 1 15.Z.9).9) X breakdown torque at the is According power is max- maximum) when = /. The larger angles to medium. /-.55 Th = . the angle a lies correspond tors. In the case of squirrel-cage motors. BC and have the same length and between them the angle CAB = angle 327 is ( 80 1 ACB = — a)°. Thus. 1 is torque - (15. We note that the magnitudes of both the breakdown Tb and torque circuit resistance However. cos. 1 5.4 Breakdown torque and speed We have seen that the torque developed by the motor is given by T = 9.and high-power cage mo- R 2 /Z such machines the ratio as 0.02. Consequently.a/2) S /? equal to that across 1 9. /t hR^s /. 15. 13. 15.55 P /n where P is the power der livered to the resistance to a basic imum power s v R 2 is transfer theorem. breakdown current the / ib are fixed. 1 2 and 1 5. together with the . In between 80° and 89°. These conclusions are all is borne out by the torque-speed curves in Fig.. the breakdown torque coincides with the starting torque because s b this special special case of the phasor diagram of Fig.EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF THE INDUCTION MOTOR 1 Phasors . 1 3. the resistance R 2 becomes equal to r 2 . a/2 Consequently. In practice. voltage drop across Z. Simple geom- etry yields the following results: then equal to l . breakdown torque de- slip at the Indeed.11 Phasor diagram when the motor develops its maximum torque. We (Fig. R2 .5 Equivalent circuit of practical Figure 15.10. It is a 1 1 . Under these conditions R2 ls = Z. AB angle 2.

motor in Fig.6 Calculation of the We now will calculate the 2 l + . = /*. b 0. rotor.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 328 motor The motors ratings.) 1 stator resistance 0. Although this powerful than the motor gram remains the same. 5000 3-phase A lneked-rotor current: 39 A hp. = 76° 1 8 nb for arclan . arctan 6/1. 440 full-loiid cuitciu: 7 V. is no external resistor in the Equivalent circuit of a 5000 hp squirrel-cage induction motor.x = total = magnetizing reactance 46 leakage reactance 2.5 6 2 = 6.4 kW for windage and kW (per phase) consist of friction and 1 1 .12 Equivalent circuit of a 5 hp squirrel-cage induction Because there R2 ^ r2 motor.5 12 .13 Figure 15.083 fi Rm = no-load losses resistance 900 12 3-phase = /X m 10 (1 V.194) is = a/2 6900 V/V'3 Motor rating: 60 Hz.5 l. 600 r/min. the 15. . a is breakdown hp motor. and the corresponding speed n h and current the 5 breakdown = R 2 /Z = sb breakdown torque - 38°.v 440V/V 3 0. at breakdown torque Th /. a/2 = 4.12. cos 5 hp. 60 Hz. the circuit dia- .4 kW for the iron losses. wye and are both connected in 3. The - n s (\ = 1450r/min .K Motor = 8 1 O 6. 2/6. 0.2 12 reactance 1 6 6 1 A r2 rotor resistance 0.788 ] The speed n b 5.194 is = = breakdown current at /.x - total 1 1 . V I. is 1000 times more 15. Figure 15. 358 r2 rotor resistance j.v/r.6 12 12 no-load losses resistance 600 (2 (The no-load losses include the iron losses plus The no-load windage and 15 friction losses.080 (2 j. cos a/2 losses of 26. 1 800 r/min. leakage reactance 6 12 6900 A locked-rotor current: stator resistance jXm = magnetizing rating: full-load current: = Rm = b) - 1800(1 2 Z. The slip at impedances are given per phase.

Note the relatively low starting torque for this large motor.0 11520 581. 3 X 22. 5000 hp 1 5.6 2674 14.8 2921 480 17.6 358 0.8 80. TORQUE-SPEED AND LOAD CHARACTERISTIC 5000 60 Hz squirrel-cage induction hp.2 720 0.44 1777 5.1 1133 0.3 1440 0.2 93. X 26.4 1535 42.4 4196 22.3 Note 22.18 9.60 1755 0. r/min.9 1617 0 1616 8.6 0.14 Torque-speed curve The same 15.6 1788 0.0 1710 0.9 5000 596 90.60 649 3.025 1 for the results are listed motor s made the results and Fig. therefore.49 [r/min [hpl 0 18. Table 15B and other characteristics the 5 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 N-m 1800 that this N-m X = 4210 22.05 0. 6900 V.9 3441 18.4 1614 1610 1120 360 10.0033 10. IWj [A] s T n [N-ml [r/min J Torque IkN-ml 0.5 1 0.7 1593 26. in Fig. the near-synchronous speed from no-load right up TORQUE-SPEED CHARACTERISTIC 1800 lists shows the torque-speed curve. 600 r/min.5 68. 60 Hz squirrel-cage induction motor /.2 0 | 240 1620 9.1 95.49 / p 4.03077 47.85 1753 0. 15.4 2 1 1.1 0.4 360 38. Figure 15.2 2577 598 85.98 17.3 per phase.4 33.4 = [A| [9*1 0 0.0067 19.09 1243 6. of calculations are motor. 96. 12.026 5. breakdown torque phase ) 440 329 363 . = 67 N-m. -377 -600 6.2 26.1 878 0.7 64.1 10114 570 51.2 23.6 36.788 The power to the rotor 2 P = = I r { R 2 ls = 2 26.8 at s ElTcy 500 3547 developed cos a 2.3 1080 0.18X0. 15 to the breakdown torque.8 95.1 10679 588 79.7 Torque-speed curve We can determine the complete torque-speed curve of hp motor by selecting various values of slip and solving the circuit of Fig.8 37.3 (per is The breakdown torque Tb 8.8 6095 540 30.70 2256 12.55 X 4210 W is r 200 0 800 600 400 The total is torque r/min SPEED the torque developed is. 15.02 43. and the curve in is The given 5 hp. A3 — = 2X6.14.0125 2.2 s Speed 4.55 P 9.39 0.1 The rated power of 5 hp Total power 0.3 14. Table 15 A. 440 V.6 40. These characteristics are typical for large squirrel-cage induction motors.4 198 7.EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF THE INDUCTION MOTOR - 7.026.29 1291 6.95 0.05 9.7 89.9 2150 11.1 A 2 I\ Z 6. as well as TABLE 15B TABLE 15A a 5 hp motor.

Note that a negative resis- tance SPEED Figure 15.16 Equivalent circuit of a 5 hp motor operating as an asynchronous generator.42.Ifr 2 = ]r = 6. R 2 ls = 1. Now power = V that a squirrel-cage induc- synchronous speed. other prop- is H is . The s = (/? s = (1800 - slip is = -1410 n)ln s - This negative power means that 1410 1845)/ 1800 flowing from the rotor .025) = -48 n W to the stator. which 4. = 1410 + = 1445 W 35. 15.88 . Referring to Fig. Let us connect the motor to a 440 V.5 ( - 46. that Current its = -46.025 5. 3-phase line and drive it at a speed of 1 845 r/min. The value of /? 2 Av in the equivalent circuit W is. Z = \Rl + asynchronous generator have already learned tion motor can act as a generator if lent circuit for the 5 hp motor. 2.5.(-48) { 45 r/min above synchronous speed. is reflected into the primary circuit.2 W The mechanical power equal to is losses in the rotor are fore.2 5.2/(. input to the shaft is plus the losses P-]r in the rotor: p = p + p.EIZ = 254/46. Net resistance of branch R n = -48 + of a 5000 hp motor.ELECTRICA L MA CHINES A ND TRA NSEORMERS 330 breakdown torque = 47 kN m (per phase) 254 V j110 Figure 15. it - it is driven above 3.88 /. Active power delivered to the rotor P = IcR 2 /s = is is 5. The negative resistance indicates that power is flowing from the rotor to the stator rather than from the stator to the rotor.-0.r 46.42 A erties as a generator.5) 2 + 6 2 0 branch 1-2-3-4 in we have the equivawe can calculate the can generate.16 make the following calculations: we 35.5 l is .42" P v X 1. together with -2-3-4 Impedance of branch 1-2-3-4 15-8 Properties of an We I. The 2 l R there- P .2 .15 Torque-speed curve 1 .0.

6. . The windage and iron plus mechanical input 9. hp The approximate values of Q = 14. at the . The 2 I R 2 F = l. R u between any is generator terminals A. = 176 var a- = 5.1% cos 0 losses in the stator are 16.3 6 Reactive power absorbed by the magnetizing B - is: 854 the equivalent circuit can be found + Qi = 176 + 586 = 15.P . . Assuming a wye connection. 15.895 is Pc = power delivered from ir 1445 power delivered active motor the 1294 W 71. total Measure the no- 3-phase active . The following calculations of total apparent power total reactive power Q N] are then made: S NL and 1502/254 factor at the generator terminals at line voltage. termined by measuring the voltage. 3 = phases 3 9.44. = S/E= = 5.ll no-load using rated line-to(Fig. this /X m = 254 at /110 power absorbed by the motor X nv R m The power p that the value of /. 5. 1 = P .5 W 1 = PJS = 1294/1502 0. js = = r.91 A in the no-load the circuit consists essentially of the power 762 vars 2 line current / and x two terminals. 44. as follows: Measure the stator resistance r. Their values can be de- no-load.42 2 X 1. 3 to drive the generator 15.9 Tests to determine 2. power P Nl p an induction motor runs exceedingly small.71.81 X 3 Reactive power absorbed by the leakage reac- Q2 = E 1 = = tance reactance 12.7 is Pc P power friction losses are P f + P v = E2 /R m = 254 2 /900 = 331 is ML . 5. The horsepower needed T= v 1294 8. 762 2 VA '"I Run the motor is £ NL load current / NI = RlA. X P 9. and so current Apparent power = N-m the equivalent circuit following is Total reactive S 22. current. means value of b. the VP 2 + Q 2 = V1294 + 1502 .P v = ]410 .7 = 7. and the 1 7).EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF THE INDUCTION MOTOR 7. and Qi / When is magnetizing branch var is The test load.P]S .42 2 X No-load 2 1 5. Referring to Fig. 1 minus losses v = 89.1 . at at no- R 2 /s is compared very togh to / 0 Thus. is negligible Xm R m .55 is 1445/746 Torque exerted by the driving motor X 1294 . 1 = n W (P c for the 10.861 = 86. by means of is a.5% 0. The efficiency of the asynchronous generator useful electric 8. the slip 2 r2 tests.55 = X 1 X 3 1445 2 = /.3882 W) is = 586 3. The to the line feeding rotor to stator 1 .

This means equal to r2 where r 2 . Hence. 60 Hz squirrel-cage induction motor yielded the following results: much neglect the magnetizing branch. 18). R and the . but the above-mentioned procedure gives adequate results that are Locked-rotor Under test motor the rotor of an induction current I almost is p Furthermore. is /WO 'ud ~ The magnetizing reactance ). Apply reduced 3-phase voltage that the stator current is to the stator so about equal to its rated Take readings of total E l R (line-to-line). the stator is times six its rated value.9. the voltage. the resistance per phase = Cir/3/ lr 3/T R (r. the stator resistance r h sistance R 2 /s = r 2 /\ mined by measuring — re- r2 Their values can be deter.17 A Figure 15. t The Rm resistance representing circuit of and iron losses friction. 3-phase. conducted at reduced volt- age. is the resistance of Because greater than the exciting current 70 . * ) From - 0. as follows: test.18 no-load test permits the calculation of Xm and tfm of the magnetizing branch. ] /. + r 2 = P LR r. the slip that r2 /s is s is locked. Locked-rotor current: JS' LR are then = F LR I 60 A 15. Example 15-1 A no-load test conducted on a 30 hp. Determine the equivalent The following calculations V W Locked-rotor power: 7200 value. the rotor reflected into the stator. made: Solution R [ \v J 3 Assuming the stator windings are connected wye. P + r /\ results xand the total resistance + r2 we can determine the equivalent the induction motor. equal to one. No-load voltage (line-to-line): No-load current: 14 440 V A No-load power: 1470 W Resistance measured between two terminals: 0. Locked-rotor voltage (line-to-line): 163 circuit of the motor. composed of the leakage reactance and the reflected rotor x. 3-phase power P K (Fig. in when rated line voltage. This leaves us with the circuit of Fig. A locked-rotor test permits the calculation of the total leakage reactance From these P + Pv windage. / is p we can 1 5.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 332 Figure 15. current. and most cases. elaborate tests are conducted on large ma- chines. b. gave the following results: a. 440 V.5 (2 power The locked-rotor under locked-rotor conditions. 835 r/min. More is: r.25 II in .5 the no-load test a/2 we = find is 0.

The equivalent W 1 R. 440 X 14V 3 333 Draw runs ) flux. 3-phase line under locked-rotor conditions.. R X 60V 163 = 60 A 2 .19 0.neutral 15-3 x leakage reactance following: Pl R = V16 939 333 var the 12. VA V10 669 2 .19.7 il and an the locked-rotor test 16 circuit meaning of 15-2 7200 r2 15. the equivalent circuit if the motor 950 r/min opposite to the revolving Does the machine operate as a genera- at tor? Calculate the torque.25 0.67 - The value of Z.42(2 2 Total resistance referred to stator + ^ = 346 reached 2 333 X 60 3 3/iLR is 5 12 and the line- is Fig. 15-5 440 18. 15. explain the the impedances. The resis- tance between two stator terminals is Figure 15. 15 and wye-connected squirrel-cage motor equivalent rotor resistance of 0. value of 1 Xm and Rm at per phase (see Fig. 15.1470 2 - R2 = (In a squirrel-cage motor.9) Total leakage reactance referred to stator — voltage to. 3-phase. 15. 1. Problem 15-2. r/3 V.25 = 0. draw the equivalent circuit if the motor runs at 950 r/min in is / 2 breakdown torque [N-m] ator? Calculate the torque of the machine. the In the same direction as the revolving flux.3 n From seeEq. is „= 7200/(3 X 60 2 .8 fl. 60 Hz squirrel-cage induction motor running no-load draws a current of 12 A and a total power of 1500 W.3 #n 146 f3 Q The motor rent of X 30 in Problem 15-4 draws A and when connected a power of 2. 1.EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OE THE INDUCTION MOTOR Rx = = ' 10 669 P m = 1470 2 5- 1 e Il /p nl = 440 = i46a 2 /(1470 ^lr'lr V3 /10 568 -3 X 14 2 X 0. having a synchronous speed of 900 r/min VA VS V °LR in Fig.) Questions and Problems 10 568 var x m = ^\[/Q\l = 440 = 18.67 (2 = 0.r 15 c. r { 1 0. - 0. Does the machine operate as a gener- b.42 5-4 n Q A 550 780 r/min.43 to a 90 a cur- kW V. 0. currents. a squirrel-cage the locked-rotor torque [N rated voltage.2). Calculate the V. m| at .25 H = 0.25) A we /.2. If find b. W 2 shown is Without referring total 939 because has a stator resistance of 0. Calculate the values of r h r 2 and Determining the equivalent x and induction motor (see . calculate the d. voltages in Fig. = to the text. circuit of Example 15-1).5 a. 15. and the angle a The speed when the breakdown torque is The current I \ at the breakdown torque (see The value of a.7200 _ G.

hp motor represented by the equiva- lent circuit 503 it Hz same magnetizing current and of Fig.15 the dropped new breakdown to / nd us trio I 15-9 torque and starting 5-7 Consider the 5 hp motor whose equivalent circuit torque. calculate the line voltage for the Fig.334 1 5-6 ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS If motor in 6200 V. . 15.5 ft with each 15-10 The 5 V line-to-neutral voltage with the voltage at 60 Hz.12. starting torque and the breakdown torque reactor Calculate the 50 to obtain the calculate the value of the starting torque is Determine the values of the leakage reacat a frequency of 50 Hz.5 fl resis- with each Problem 15-7 calculate the is connected in series line. = r is Calculate the values of the inductances (in millihenries) of the leakage and magnetiz- 800 r/min squirrel-cage 1 application if a 4. and the breakdown torque tor in Fig. 3-phase.2 il c. Calculate the value of the torque [N-m] and power [hp] developed by the motor. at 2340 r/min. motor runs b. 1 a. connected in series if a 4. b. a.5 fi x r2 shown ing reactances. Determine the equivalent circuit when the line. 3-phase. tance and the magnetizing reactance 1. motor has the following characteristics: If the = 1 x = 6 . n 15-8 In compare magnetizing branch can be neglected. 15. A 440 V. The stator and rotor resistances are assumed to remain the same. 1 2 is connected (line-to-line). 1 5. to a 80 Hz source.

may wish rotates. generators insulate the windings because they are not sub- stationary stator also makes jected to centrifugal forces. revolving-field synchronous generator has a stationary armature called a stator. which is usually The armature possesses a 3-phase winding whose terminals are connected to three slip-rings mounted on the shaft. mounted on the same shaft. Fig. cheaper. unreliable slip-rings and 16. in powers ranging up will study the construction In this chapter we and characteristics of these are based upon large. 16. Stationary-field generators are 1500 to As induced. with- out going through large. They convert mechanical energy MW. are the the electrical energy largest energy con- into electrical energy. modern in view this materia] upon the dc exciting The frequency of the speed and the number of used when the power output However. and the reader ered it poles on the field. same outward appearance 1 it to 335 . A set of volving armature. sometimes called an either a stationary or a rotating dc magnetic field. Note that the brushes on the commutator have to be connected to cut by a re- another set of brushes riding on slip-rings to feed as a dc generator. or pends upon the speed of rotation and the frequency be connected The armature a schematic alternator.0 Introduction other source of motive power. Commercial synchronous generators are built with The The field is excited by a dc generator. The number of poles on a synchronous generator de- driven by a gasoline engine. sliding on the slip-rings. 16. They upon we is A to re- to is less than 5 employ a revolving dc tor field. A stationary -field synchronous generator has the salient poles create the dc field. and more practical the elementary principles cov- Section 8. the dc current I x into the revolving field. safer. generators.2 brushes.6. These machines are the verters in the world. before proceeding further. is easier to diagram of such a generator.Chapter 1 Synchronous Generators some 16. is it winding is The 3-phase sta- directly connected to the load.1 A Commercial synchronous brushes. 3-phase voltage Three-phase synchronous primary source of all generators consume. kVA. whose value depends current in the stationary poles. enables the armature to is Number of poles an external 3-phase load. a the speed of rotation and voltage depends upon the for greater outputs.

. we have of the machine. the power output Solution Eq. amount of We can 58% of This means that stator is only conductor 58% of the therefore reduce the insulation in the slots which.3 Main features of the stator where /= 1 a cylindrical laminated core containing a set of slots pn f= 36 poles. that the alternator is true for every we can therefore de- frequency is given by From an (. or induced when the S pole speeds by. 60 Hz Figure 16. A larger conductor permits us to in- crease the current and. for conductor that is p = example. If is con- the induced how many poles in 16.ELECTRICA L MA CHINES A ND TRA NSEORMERS 3 36 ils pilot exciter 25 kW 3-phase alternator 500 MW. in turn. hence. a stator successively swept by the N and S 120. the highest voltage hydraulic turbine turning It is preferred to a delta connection because 1 Example 16-1 From S poles identical to that of a 3-phase induction motor (Section 13. 16. wye and the A wye connection is only 1/V3 or lines. 16.2. 17). enables us to increase the cross section of the conductors. every lime a complete pair of poles duce = 1 . 12 kV.1 Schematic diagram and cross-section view of a typical 500 synchronous generator and its 2400 kW dc exciter. The winding p = number of poles on the rotor n = speed of the rotor [r/min] does the rotor have? N and electrical standpoint. ground. The dc control current lc from the pilot exciter permits variable field control of the main exciter. controls /x MW . in turn. The dc exciting current lx (6000 A) flows through the commutator and two slip-rings. which.//// = 20 X 60/200 1 poles of the rotor. we wish to produce. The voltage per phase is between the the voltage 200 r/min nected to a synchronous generator.6I) 120 is frequency of the induced voltage [Hz] that carry a is is always connected connected to . voltage has a frequency of 60 Hz. the stator of a syn- chronous generator neutral A 8 pairs of 16.3). when an N ilar If a positive voltage is induced pole sweeps across the conductor. Consider. and the grounded stator core at composed of 3-phase lap winding (Figs. Thus. a sim- negative voltage is crosses the conductor. between a line voltage. the induced voltage goes through a complete cycle. The same other conductor on the stator.

they produce a third-harmonic circulating current. 0. 200 r/min generator. 15 2350 mm. Unfortunate! v. slots. R line voltage of a upon power the I the increased slot insulation at the expense of the copper . when all load a delta connec- tion is used. 500 MVA. With a wye connection. kVA synchronous gen- rating. In general. the line voltages remain sinusoidal under conditions.95 power factor. exceeds 25 its losses. 60 Hz.SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS 337 Figure 16. the rating. The mainly due to an undesired third harmonic voltage whose frequency that is three times of the fundamental frequency. the distorting line-to-neutral harmonics do not appear between the lines because they effectively cancel each other. the higher the voltage. Because the delta is do not cancel.2a Stator of a 3-phase. When a synchronous generator voltage induced in and the waveform distortion is is under load. Consequently. the harmonic voltages but add up. 378 effective axial length of iron stacking: kV. the each phase becomes distorted. closed on itself. which increases the The nominal erator depends greater the However. nominal line-to-line voltage seldom kV because takes up valuable space conductors. is no longer sinusoidal. Internal diameter: 9250 mm. (Courtesy of Marine Industrie) 2.

The salient poles of the much thicker (2 mm) thick).2b The copper bars connecting successive 19 250 A per phase. . stator poles are designed to carry a current of 3200 A.5 an insulating varnish. The mm slots are 22.Figure 16. the The width of the poles from tip to tip is 600 mm and gap length is 33 mm.2c The stator is built up from toothed segments silicon-iron steel laminations (0.3 mm deep. The total output is (Courtesy of Marine Industrie) Figure 16. are not insulated because the dc flux they carry does not vary. of high-quality covered with mm wide and 169 composed of These laminations rotor are iron laminations. The 8 round holes in the face air of the salient pole carry the bars of 338 a squirrel-cage winding.

60 Hz steam-turbine generator during the construction phase. 722 339 .3 MVA. 3600 r/min. The housing contains hydrogen under pressure to further improve the cooling. The stator will eventually be completely enclosed in a metal housing (see background).Figure 16. 19 kV. {Courtesy of ABB) Stator of a 3-phase. The windings are water-cooled.

ELECTRICA L MA CHINES A ND ERA NS FORMERS 340 16.4 Main features of the rotor made ing. the squirrel -cage winding To ensure good cool- current reacts with the producing forces which is sometimes called a damper winding. cylindrical Salient-pole rotors are usually driven by have to turn at Most hydraulic rotors. connected maximum power from the waterwheel. For this reason.5). with adjacent poles having opposite polarities. turbines dc field winding. However. 1 6. in series. this winding does not carry any current because the rotor turns at generator changes suddenly. t. Because the rotor Hz The low speeds (between 50 and 300 r/min) in order to extract the or 60 6. Salient-pole 1 In addition to the low-speed hydraulic turbines.6). and cylindrical rotors /. Low-speed rotors always pos- current to flow therein. (Fig. Figure 16. a large number of poles to fluctuate. embedded 1 6. (Fig.2. the oscillation of the rotor. a squirrel-cage winding. electronic rectifier.4). is mounted on a dampen fixed to a revolv- The field of the stator. the field coils are of bare copper bars. sess a large diameter to provide the necessary space magnetic for the poles. moment The 2400 A dc of inertia: 41 40 exciting current tm 2 . are driven by high-speed steam turbines. with the turns insulated from each other by strips of Synchronous generators are rotors: salient-pole rotors rotors. Under normal we in the often add pole-faces conditions. Other details are: mass: 600 (Courtesy of Marine Industrie) in Fig. built with two types of mica and smooth. the rotor speed begins is directly coupled to required. causing a large quired on the rotor. 50 Hz producing momentary speed variations above and below synchronous speed. and because a frequency of is coils are synchronous speed. The large circular steel salient poles are frame which ing vertical shaft (Fig. air gap: 33 is supplied by mm. when the load on the a waterfall.4 This 36-pole rotor is being lowered into the stator shown a 330 V. This induces a are re- voltage in the squirrel-cage winding. 16. .

5 tor is made width of 89 Figure 16. 1500 r/min. 27 kV.Figure 16..7a Rotor of a 3-phase steam-turbine generator rated 1530 MVA. cage winding. Figure 16. 50 Hz. West Mis. They will carry the dc winding. Effective axial magnetic length: 7490 mm.6 a 250 MVA salient-pole generaof 18 turns of bare copper bars having a This rotor winding mm for and a thickness of 9 Salient-pole of a 250 MVA generator showing 12 slots t0 carry the squirre |. (Courtesy of Allis-Chalmers Power Systems Inc. mm. Wisconsin) 34 . The 40 longitudinal slots are being milled out of the solid steel mass. diameter: 1800 mm.

diameter of the at rotor. rotor of a turbine-generator The dc is cylinder which contains a series of longitudinal slots milled out of the cylindrical mass (Fig. the limit on the case of a rotor turning elastic limit of the steel requires the manufacturer to limit the diameter to a maxi- mum of erful m. The same is that high- true of high- speed synchronous generators. speed steam turbines are smaller and more efficient ate the required 2 and retained by high-strength end-rings.7b Rotor with rent of 1 1 its . these steam-turbine generators possess either 2 or The of the rotors has to be large. solid steel Concentric field coils. use less than to and S poles. 2. See Fig. In the 3600 r/min. The next lower It follows that 1800 r/min.. The dc exciting cur- shaft. The high speed of rotation produces strong cenwhich impose an upper trifugal forces. its overall design. . wedged field excitation and exciters of a large synchronous a long. high-speed rotors have to be very long. corresponding to a 4-pole ma- chine. ume On high-power.5 Field excitation into the slots generator is * 1. and this fixes the highest possible speed. Total mass: 204 kA is supplied by a 600 V dc Inc. It is well known than low-speed turbines. to generfrequency we cannot air gap: 120 of the N main mm. 1 an important part of 28 (Chapter II). to build the MVA to 1500 MVA pow- generators the vol- 2 poles. .2 4-pole dc winding. * serve create the due to unbal- the line currents are unequal 85 t-m the end of inertia: West Allis.7). However. Consequently. even anced load conditions. Wisconsin) also tends to maintain bal- anced 3-phase voltages between the when moment brushless exciter bolted to (Courtesy of Allis-Chalmers Power Systems The damper winding t. firmly 16.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 342 Figure 16. . lines. I6.2 l 1000 On the other hand. 4 poles. Cylindrical rotors. a 60 Hz system speed is it is 3600 r/min.

1 ). rectifier) is replaced The result is that the brushes and slip-rings are no longer needed. regulated It is pilot exciter (Fig. In order to attain it. brushless excitation The power rating of the main exciter depends upon the capacity of the synchronous generator. Static exciters that way Under normal conditions between 125 V and 600 V.8 Typical brushless exciter system. In comparing the excitation system of Fig.8). a must also respond one of the is voltage may have as as little 300 to to rise to twice normal value its 400 milliseconds. pilot exciter as in the case of . The dc control current /c from the regulates the main exciter output /v .5% of its rating). (which is really a by an electronic In other slip- words. but to sudden load changes tem order to maintain sys- in Quickness of response stability. 500 Under normal conditions the excitation is varied MW automatically. the commutator mechanical rectifier. is to brush have tems. repair.6 Brushless excitation For example. The dc fed directly into the field is of the synchronous generator (Fig.SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS stationary field —o A rrrr air 3-phase alternator -OB -oC gap 343 terminals pole bridge rectifier / pilot exciter ^. we can see they are 1 6. whereas a 2500 kW exciter suffices for an alternator of (only 0. It responds to the load changes so as to maintain a constant ac line voltage or to control the active power delivered re- to the electric utility system. The reason is must ensure not only that the field stable ac terminal voltage. voltage lies main ex- at all are also involve employed. The exciter must then react very quickly to keep the ac voltage from falling. 3-phase rectifier replaces the commutator. and brushes. 1. 1 6. To eliminate the problem. Typically.8 with that of Fig.5% of its 1 6. exciter feeds the exciting current to the of the synchronous generator by field and are used: a exciter. The armature of the ac exciter and the are mounted on the main shaft and turn rectifiers together with the synchronous generator. This in represents a very quick response. two dc generators and a pilot citer no rotating parts The main slip-rings. we constantly and replace brushes. produced by the 1000 kVA kW alternator exciter needed (2. a 25 Due the exciter manually or automatically by control signals that vary the current 16. rings. the exciter sists of a 3-phase stationary-field generator whose ac output is rectified by a group of output from the rectifiers rectifiers. considering that the power of the exciter may be several thousand kilowatts. except that the identical. Such a system con- to excite a rating) to clean. wear and carbon dust.exciting coil 3\ 3-phase rotor 3-phase stator winding r—T main exciter y alternator Figure 16. slip-rings. of brushes /c . and commutators on conventional dc excitation sys- systems have been developed. serious disturbance on the system may produce a A sud- den voltage drop across the terminals of the alternator. 16. important features of the field excitation.

the rea- Figure 16. if a l 20 kg (yielding 1000W/20 kg 90%. 16. l() a larger. main exciter is the generally two to three limes the syn- chronous generator frequency (60 Hz).ELECTRICA /. but similar model having a capacity of MW inevitably has an This improvement in efficiency of about efficiency with size why synchronous is MW and 000 up possess efficiencies of the order of 99%. Wisconsin) The frequency of a conventional dc exciter. 1 it 000 MW generating represents extra rev- enues of several thousand dollars per day. is housed in the circular rings mounted on the shaft. corresponding respectively to the posiand negative terminals. The two round conductors protruding tive from the center of the shaft (foreground) lead the exciting current to the 1530 MVA generator. are water-cooled. as seen in the center of the photograph. a 7000 Each set.9 This brushless exciter provides the dc current for the rotor of 4 1 is* shown in Fig. a lOMW and the use 50 Hz. For example.10 Partial view of 87 MVA. station if the efficiency of a improves by only 1 %.7 Factors affecting the size of synchronous generators The prodigious amount of energy generated by elecutility companies has made them very con- trical scious about the efficiency of their generators. the size of the generator tant because as the power its is In this re- particularly impor- efficiency automatically improves increases.9 the rotating portion of a typical brushless exciter. Another advantage of large machines is son generators of 1 power output per kilogram increases increases. gard. that the as the power kW generator weighs = 50 W/kg). if a small l kilowatt synchronous generator has an efficiency of 50%. {Courtesy of ABB) and stator pure water enables the contact with the live . The ac exciter is seen to the right. 1 shows 6. For example. (Courtesy of Allis-Chalmers Power Systems Inc. are also 16. Sialic exciters that involve no rotating parts at all employed. MA CHINES A ND ERA NS FORMERS 344 Figure 16.7. The crease in frequency is in- obtained by using more poles on the exciter than on the synchronous generator. Fig.. Both the The high rotor resistivity of of insulating plastic tubing water to be brought into direct parts of the machine. For example. West All is. 428 a 3-phase. The exciter consists kVA generator and two sets of diodes. salient-pole generator rated r/min.

5 kg. weigh relatively less than small machines. they are cheaper. exceeds the savings made elsewhere. 16. 12). as they increase MW. we run into seri- ous cooling problems. completed with a heat exchanger. the large. From a power Other technological breakthroughs. The generator hydraulic fluid streaming from the hydraulic motor itself weighs only 54. consequently. we have hydrogen cooling. produces the flux in the air gap. low-speed generators are al- power.8 No-load saturation curve Fig. a good air-cooling system. For example. 16. systems that ever more elaborate as the power increases. therefore. usually suffices. and a variable exciting current /x up. favors the large machines. consequently. As regards speed. they tend to overheat. in size. N. The then recycled.24 why at the end of this chapter explains Everything. To prevent an unacceptable temperature must design efficient cooling we become rise. B. The leads from the 3-phase. 50 and this fixes size. Each generator enormous power developed by used to cool the generator and (Courtesy of Air France) is is aircraft is supplied by four 3-phase generators rated 60 kVA. thus yielding 500 W/kg. which absorbs a small portion of the turboreactor engines. driven by a hydraulic motor. Very big generators to resort to in 1 ways bigger than high-speed machines of equal However. wye-connected stator are brought out to terminals A. For ex- ample.10 20 000 kg. Ultimately. C. 200 r/min in a typical 1 to plant whereas the much smaller high-speed MVA. adequate to whose rating is below and 300 MW. slow-speed 500 generators installed are air-cooled 500 MVA. large machines materials. . energy needed on board the Concord 12 000 r/min. a circulating cold-air system cool synchronous generators but between 50 the 1000 hollow.11 The electrical- 200/1 15 the is V. such as better standpoint. 16. Slow-speed bigness simplifies the cooling problem. the evolution of big alternators has mainly been determined by the evolution of sophis- 1 operating at no-load. Section 16. 400 Hz. 3a shows a 2-pole synchronous generator It is driven at constant speed by a turbine (not shown). 16. Let us gradually increase the exciting current while observing the ac voltage £ 0 between terminal Figure 16. In effect. 16. 800 r/min units installed have synchronous hydropower in a steam plant be hydrogen-cooled. large machines herently produce high power in- losses per unit surface area (W/m~). and novel windings have also played a major part the efficiency and output per kilogram increase with size.S YNCHRONO US GENERA TORS 345 generator of similar construction will weigh only ticated cooling techniques (Figs. point MW is MW range have to be equipped with water-cooled conductors. and upper limit to the a reached where the increased cost of cooling is To sum 1). in modifying the design of early ma- chines (Fig.

the voltage increases in Up put of 12 kV. 13). as the iron begins to saturate. an exciting current of C The generator to doubled. the volt- its is excited by a dc current Ix . produces about 140 W/kg and occupies only one-third the A. If we much less for the plot the curve of £u same increase versus the no-load saturation curve of the generator.346 ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS Figure 16. but if 1 age rises only to 15 kV. 16.12 was This rotating-field generator system. Thus. 13c ator ing current. and N2 tential are not connected. Fig. but then the iron begins to saturate. they are at the because the load is same po- balanced. The ma- ing the circuit of Fig. Consequently. A modern generator of equal speed and power installed driven by an 11 00 in North America r/min quency of 1 10 Hz.13b curve of a 36 shows the actual no-load saturation Consider a 3-phase synchronous generator having MW. nominal voltage of 12 kV (line to neutral). say. is driven by a turbine (not proportion to shown). 14). and the neutral N. Although neutrals N. 16.15. . the current. Fig. 16. 16. yield- 00 A produces an out- the current feeding a balanced 3-phase load (Fig. The alternator was first in 1888. It weighed 2320 kg. For small values of / x the . However. 30 A at a frewhich represents 26 W/kg. It /x .9 synchronous Synchronous reactance equivalent circuit of an ac generator similar to that of a dc generator is is showing voltage increases in direct proportion to the excit- (Section 4. in obtain 16. and is chine and load are both connected in wye. we a schematic diagram of the gener- the revolving rotor and the three stator. about 9 kV. 3-phase generator having a terminals A. B. floor space. It was used in a 1000-lamp street lighting steam engine and had a rated output of 2000 V. phases on the the voltage rises /x .

SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS \ I. No-load saturation curve 3-phase generator.13a.13c Electric circuit representing the generator of Fig. is an alternating-current machine. 21 kV. The impedance is there. 16. the two other phases Fig. As the duces in the stator three field revolves. neglect the resistance. impedance. we if we neglect the resis- obtain the very simple fore be represented by an equivalent of an induced voltage E0 in circuit O which induces composed series with a reactance In this circuit the exciting current / x flux cir- A synchronous generator can thereX s . b. but it can neither be seen nor touched.13 Generator operating a. stator. except that short dash line) without affecting the behavior of the their respective voltages (and currents) are out of voltages or currents in the circuit. the flux in- equal voltages Eu that are 120° out of phase (Fig.16). B : • I i 347 | C i i ! i Figure 16. per phase [H] generator frequency [Hz] apparent inductance of the stator winding. consequently.16 by showing only one phase of the we could connect them together (as indicated by the fect. the inductance X manifests itself as a reactance X = s . cuit of Fig. of a 36 MVA. produces the the internal voltage E<r For a . In ef- are identical. per phase HJ [ The synchronous reactance of ternal Figure 16. just like its a generator is an in- internal resistance R. The value of X s is typically 10 to 100 times greater than R. Because this 1 20°. phase by The field carries an exciting current which pro- duces a flux O. We can simplify the schematic diagram of 16. 1 6. given by 277/L s where X = s = E — /' synchronous reactance. Each phase of the stator winding possesses a resistance R and a certain inductance E. unless we we can always are interested in efficiency or heating effects. 1 7. tance of the windings. at no-load. 16. Furthermore.

15 at and the corre- and line-to-neutral volt- then reduced to zero and the three stator terminals are short-circuited together. Figure 16. the the line current. the its original . generator speed and the exciting current the rated line-to-line voltage Electric circuit representing the installation of Fig. behavior.16 Voltages and impedances its connected load. following open-circuit and short-circuit Figure 16. The excitation age is / xn is is driven raised until The attained. E given synchronous reactance.14. resulting short-circuit current / sc in the sta- windings is measured and X s is calculated by us- ing the expression X = £ n // s (16. It X is h corresponds widely used to the direct-axis to describe synchronous synchronous machine .348 ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS / A \ B load C load alternator Figure 16.14 Generator connected to a load. the voltage E0 terminals of the generator depends upon E0 load Z. :. per phase En — rated open-circuit line-to-neutral voltage s [11]* LV| Figure 16. is s s test.: in a 3-phase generator and This value of reactance.2) Sc where X = synchronous reactance.10 Determining the value of X We can determine the unsaturated value of X by the During the open-circuit at rated test the sponding exciting current En are recorded. showing one phase. With the generator again running exciting current value / xn The tor is at rated gradually raised to speed. 16.17 Equivalent only circuit of a 3-phase generator. Note that ages and / is E and are line-to-neutral volt- 16.

The ac terminals = are then short-circuited. 16.: Figure 16. is there- il.SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS / sc = When short-circuit current. Base impedance.18b helps us viin the actual circuit.EJ1 = . Calculate the terminal voltage The resistors are connected if wye in current / three 12 il across the = EJZ= minals. \ 2 + 5 (2. This yields the base impedance.V3 E = V3 X 3696 .11 We is happening Fig. Calculate the synchronous reactance per phase. the value of X s may the iron be only half unsaturated value. the only impedance limiting was [A] to the the current flow X . phase circuit per shown is in Fig. Actual line voltages and currents.* lows that the base impedance Z B is given by the rated 1 line voltage = = we In the use the rated line-to-neutral voltage as the base voltage t s the per-unit system and a base power. b. same value Z n for the . a. and the three line currents are be 800 A. X ^ It and fol- (16.5n is its heavily saturated. The equivalent b. In many power studies the base power is selected to be equal power of the generator and the base voltage is to the rated the linc-to-linc voltage. b.18 a. Despite this broad range usually take the unsaturated value for due that 4000/800 s When is synchronous reactance. 349 X s The synchronous reactance per phase we because fore 5 it yields sufficient accuracy in most cases of interest. recall that first select when using a base voltage per-unit we EH power per phase as the base power. The line-to-neutral induced voltage The line voltage under load E.3696 V Solution a. not constant. The impedance of the Example 16-2 A 3-phase synchronous generator produces an open-circuit line voltage of citing current is 6928 50 A. Z.18a.3) 6394 V alternator :.6402 V The schematic diagram of x s = 5 is is sualize a what 16. 16. case of a synchronous generator. E= 1 X.4) = 4000 V . per phase. E0 = E L /V3 = 6928/V3 (8.12) 2 n 3 is The voltage across ter- 2 \ 12 = found to \R Z V when the dc ex- circuit is 1R = 4000/13 = A 308 the load resistor X 308 1 2 is . but is varies with the degree of saturation. using the same exciting current En required to produce The synchronous reactance / Xll that the terminals are short-circuited. See Example 16-2. Consequently.

/V3 = = 8660 V The base power the short-circuit ratio to the field current I x2 short-circuit ratio (7 X The base voltage . and 0. for other may X s (pu) lies between Note P = nous reactance of 60 Hz ac generator has a synchro1 .2. ZB = impedance values that all P(pu) impedances a per-unit value of ZB In general.5 ft The synchronous reactance is X = X (pu) X ZB = 1.2 X = 9(2 s The resistance per phase 7. 2. if X as defined in s X s is l . The base voltage. S B — base power per phase VA] The base impedance = losses for 0. . X 0. Thus.6 MW kW pu. 000/V3 15 = 30MVA/3 = = 10 7 VA 10 is 1 6. c.12 Short-circuit ratio Calculate a. to generate rated open-circuit rated current / B Solution It is R(pu) X ZB Equivalent circuit of a generator under load.2 or 0. base power and base imped- Instead of expressing the synchronous reactance as ance of the generator a per-unit value of ZB The The The sometimes used.19 R = The short-circuit.02 S B 600 = all 0.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 350 where ZB = base impedance (line-to-neutral) of the generator [ft] EB = Note base voltage (line-to-neutral) fV] [ The d.15 ft used as a basis of comparison is Thus. d.833. = be expressed as = of I is 1 The copper 1 7.5 is Figure 16. the ratio of the field current / x! actual value of the synchronous reactance actual needed winding resistance.13 Synchronous generator under load MVA Z = E H 2 /S H . on a sustained short-circuit ratio is The base impedance b.2ZB = 1. . the synchronous reactance 0. per phase age copper losses total full-load EH a.3) types of loads. exactly equal to the the per-unit value of is volt- produce The behavior of a synchronous generator depends upon the type of load it has to supply.2 from are 2 / line to (pu) R(pu) pu and a resistance of 0. armature needed reciprocal of the per-unit value of E B = £.5 per-unit copper losses at full-load are = depending upon the design of the machine. There are ti s |// X 2) to is 16. A 30 MVA. is many = (16.8660 2 /10 7 c.8 0. the 1/1.02 3 phases are X 30 = 0.02 = neutral.02 2 l X = 0.02 0.02 that at full-load the per-unit value equal to Example 16-3 5 kV. .2. is SH Eq. 16.02 that the generator possesses. b. but they can all be reduced to two basic categories: 7.

16. a very high ter- . The no-load saturation curve giving the En tionship between If the excitation is age remains fixed and / x is given rela- in Fig. consequently. Resistive load of 36 c. Fig. produced by the dc exciting cur- Example 16-4 .21 Phasor diagram for a leading power factor load. Although If the ing current. voltage does not yield any load is entirely capacitive. E = £ = tl 12 kV in the syn- . calculate the exciting draw the phasor diagram for the following conditions: Figure 16. EK Voltage the phasor 5.20. the higher terminal more power. In Consider a 3-phase generator that supplies power to a load having a lagging power some cases the load is somewhat that current / leads the terminal voltage factor. No-load b. the inductive reac- across the synchronous reactance leads current sion factor of the load. Figure 16. a.21. Capacitive load of 12 MW Mvar Solution We / shall immediately simplify the circuit to show only one phase. 3-phase alternator has a syn- chronous reactance of 9 1 Cl and a nominal current of kA. 16. / .8 kV. the terminal voltage is now greater than the induced voltage £0 which is a sor angle 0.SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS 1 . capacitive. the internally-generated voltage We we 35 . 2. However. voltage EK to the pha- sum of £ and Ex However. itive are getting . E0 in Fig. 20.13b. adjusted so that the terminal voltat current required and 21 kV. leaving greater than the terminal voltage. A 36 MVA. Cosine 6 Voltage = power Ex 4. der to construct the phasor diagram for this circuit. we would expect.8/V3 At no-load there is = 12 kV no voltage drop chronous reactance. . 90° ahead of is still £0 is again equal the current. The Isolated loads. across the synchronous reactance the following facts: list Current / lags behind terminal voltage E by 0. in later that such under-excitation be measured directly. supplied by a single generator The infinite bus diagram resulting phasor Note 16. Both the £0 by 90°. 6. an is have on the phasor diagram? this found is Fig.jIX s E0 very surprising result. 2. we will see undesirable. In effect. as the discussion of the infinite bus to Section 16. E that t) given is E leads by 5 begin our study with isolated loads. 20.20 Phasor diagram for a lagging power factor load. 16. 19 represents the equivalent circuit for one phase. minal voltage can be produced with a small excitare voltages that exist inside synchronous generator windings and cannot Flux X reactance of the load. In or- What effect The answer does . 1 in degrees. generated by the flux and tance is chapters. 3. It is given by the expres- sum of £ Ex plus £x O is equal to <I) rent / x is that s enters into partial resonance with the capacit may appear we something for nothing. Furthermore. The line-to-neutral terminal voltage for all cases is fixed at E= E a. so by an angle The 16. Furthermore.

333 A / at no-load. 6. These curves were derived using the method of Example 16-4.22c). 12 + (-3) 70 A is (see Fig. E 1 1 Figure 16. regula- tion curve. 16./ This voltage The voltage £ generated by () phasor sum of sor diagram. 1 6. 3 X K/712 000 = 12 1 As before £x MW 12 full-load line current = PIE = X £x = JIX. / x is equal to the . is The voltage across The exciting current /x b.23 shows the regulation curves for the 36 21 kV.9 power factor lagging* and 0.13b) The phasor diagram is given in Fig. £o = \ E and £ x its value . Regulation curves are plotted with the field excitation fixed and for a given load Fig.22c Phasor diagram with a capacitive E0 generated £ The voltage £<.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 352 Q= E. kV/!90 o The corresponding exciting current given by 15 x = £ + £x = = 9kV Referring to the pha- T~£. 9 00Q (333 A is The current is in phase with The voltage across Xs is S s ( leads / by 90° (Fig. 16. 16. 1 power factor. 1000 A is equal to the / x is kV Figure 16.9 power factor leading. = Vl2 2 + 9 2 = 3 » kV^90° 9 - E0 9 kV phasor sum of £ and = 9 i 90° ahead of/. 16. MVA. With a resistive load of 36 MW: The power per phase is P = 4 (see Fig. 16. I6. respectively.13b) again less than the terminal volt- age £. we voltage The synchronous generator feeds a variable are interested in £ changes relationship knowing how the terminal as a function of the load current between £ and / is called the /. 0.22b Phasor diagram with a kA unity 12 power kV factor load. 3-phase generator discussed in Example 16-4.E 0 1 2/3 - 4 Mvar X 10 712 ^12kV The Figure 16.14 Regulation curves When a single load.=j333 X is The phasor diagram is given in Fig.l3b) £ x =JIX = 1000 X . /x kV by E » Note that £0 is = kV 12 load. = The / 36/3 100 - (see Fig. is is Ex the terminal voltage. 6. The required exciting current is The phasor diagram = 200 A /x c.22b. With a capacitive load of 12 Mvar: The reactive power per phase is given for this capacitive load is in Fig. They are given for loads having unity power factor.22a. .22c.22a Phasor diagram line current = Q/E = .

regulation 353 is = X 100 rated load 10 Lr\/ mnn a / y lea dine (\5- = 12) X 100 .23 We often Regulation curves of a synchronous generator at three different load power E 0 was kept fixed instead of E. The generator voltage is equal to the system voltage. The generator voltage is in phase with the sys- tem voltage. terminal voltage 000 A). it A generator meets all is it bus must be said to be synchro- the following conditions: The generator frequency is equal to the system frequency. Synchronous generators are therefore regularly being connected and disconnected from a large grid in response to En " regulation many X 100 power customer demand. 750 500 250 Load current 1250 1000 16. is we proceed as the follows: . load. the except that have parallel to supply a it is contains so generators essentially connected in parallel that neither the voltage nor the frequency of the grid can be altered. To synchronize an alternator. Example 16-5 power factor curve in Fig.9 lacigincJ % . 16. as erators are temporarily disconnected tem 1 in common build up during the day. selected gen- from the sys- until the power again builds up the following day. the value of E0 to.15 Synchronization of a generator / Figure 16. Solution The rated line-to-neutral voltage at full-load is 3. Such a grid said to be an infinite bus because equation % in For example. no-load voltage VJ [ synchronized. EB = 12 kV 4. In each power requirements of connected starting point for all the curves Later. much is The reason is greater than that of a dc gen- the high impedance of the syn- chronous reactance.25% 12 I We note that the percent regulation of a synchro- nous generator erator. Calculate the percent regulation corresponding to the unity when infinite 2.SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS povver factor "-^ The percent regulation x 0. rated voltage [VI nized 1. power demand falls.neutral connect two or more generators to factors. where Before connecting a generator to an = EH = (or in parallel with another generator). The change rent load ( ( was set so that the was the rated line2 kV) at rated line cur- 1 is voltage between no-load and full- expressed as a percent of the rated terminal voltage. The percent regulation is given by the a large utility system to the when system to provide the extra power. The no-load terminal voltage 15 is kV The phase sequence of the generator same as that of the system. generators are successively of the three cases.23.

ment has frequency. closed. indicating that the generator has a tendency to lead the system frequency. If the generator frequency is slightly higher than the system frequency.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 1 . 900 all the motors on generated and distributed. the pointer rotates slowly as it tracks the phase angle between the alternator and system voltages. if the generator frequency is slightly low.25 This floating r/min. oil derrick provides 60 Hz supply all its own energy needs. The made to see that the alternator voltage equal to the system voltage. so breaker is at the marker . Although the degrees are not shown. Then. from zero to 360 degrees. covering Adjust the excitation so that the generator volt- age Observe the phase angle between means of a synchroscope close to the system the entire range equal to the system voltage E. bine speed regulator is The A fi- that the pointer barely creeps across the dial. the pointer rotates counterclockwise. En is E0 and E (Fig. (Courtesy of Siemens) diesel-driven generators rated the electrical energy. In practice.Volt) Figure 16. nal check is still 4. is the pointer crosses the zero line circuit tur- fine-tuned accordingly. {Courtesy of Lab. 440 V. 2. Although ac power is 1200 kVA. the pointer rotates clockwise. the dial has a when the voltages are in when we synchronize an alter- zero marker to indicate phase. Four board are thyristor-controlled dc motors. Conversely. . moment Figure 16.24). 16. connecting the generator to the system. nator.24 Synchroscope. by This instru- a pointer that continually indicates the phase angle between the two voltages. Adjust the speed regulator of the turbine so that the generator frequency is 3. ~ .

synchronization usually done automatically. There is no difference of potential across the synchronous reactance and.25). the phase angle produces a difference . E0 will atmaximum value a little sooner than before. the E0 and E being equal steam valve of the tur- bine driving the generator. is impossible to make a it tor deliver active now Let us power by raising its ques- and the can vary only two genera- excitation. tion.26c). 1 is The 6.17 Infinite bus effect of varying the exciting current Let us return to the situation with the synchronous generator floating on the connect is equal it after we synchronize to an infinite bus.27a). 6.26b). is 1 therefore 90° behind E. connected to the system. = (E0 - E)/X s Because the synchronous reactance £x the current lags 90° behind (Fig. the remain- supplied by exciting current is — 16. The machine delivers? To answer we must remember means that that both the value we were an induc- it we Consequently. the immediate result an increase in mechanical torque (Fig. Immediately /x / is zero. when tive reactance.26a). to the infinite bus. The it over-excite power power increases as supplies reactive reactive we raise the dc exciting current. determines the particular generator. to specify the nature of the load (large or small. As mentioned previously. The exciting current magnetic /x The mechanical torque exerted by Let us see fects the how der the turbine field required by the machine. said to float on the line.16 we now Ea will age 355 it draws reactive power from the system.SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS In is modern generating stations. which means it that the alternator sees the system as if were a capacitor. when we under- excite an alternator. infinite imposes to / current to / will s much more common bus) that already has (infinite current s X given by given by connect a generator to a large power system connected E experience a difference of potential A connect only two generators to increase the exciting current. If will We seldom have except parallel in isolated locations (Fig. If we open line. tain its Phasor a phase angle 8. £0 will slip ahead of phasor E. and E of the system in a generator and induced voltage £ () phase with. machine parameters: what to 1 this frequency of the terminal voltage across the generator are fixed. As always. Contrary we might expect. resistive or capacitive) connected to the terminals of this What. to it is in 16. a synchro- the therefore circulate in the circuit the generator sees the system as voltage and frequency upon any apparatus connected to power E £o it. consequently. Once con- nous generator becomes part of a network comprising hundreds of other generators that deliver thousands of loads. consequently. 1 6. the to. this puts / 90° ahead of E. An bus own its many alternators is system so powerful a that its terminals. decrease the exciting current so that Ea becomes smaller than E. same it Although both voltages have the value. then. This reactive power produces part of the 1 . Although it delivers and in phase. a synchronous generator. x S . leading by rotor will accelerate and. It is power impossible. the load current the generator no power. the volt- increase and the synchronous reactance = Synchronous generator on an infinite bus 16. 2. current / = EJX lags 90° behind E x However. if it nected to a large system (infinite bus). a change in these parameters af- performance of the machine. Consequently. it is is . As a result.18 Infinite bus effect of varying the mechanical torque — 16. phasor E = £0 — £" becomes negative and therefore points to the left (Fig. 6. therefore. the terminal voltage (Fig. which is inductive. Consequently.

turbine Figure 16.26c Under-excited generator on an infinite bus. 356 . Figure 16.26b Over-excited generator on an infinite bus.Figure 16.26a Generator floating on an infinite bus. Figure 16.27 a. b. Turbine driving the generator. Phasor diagram showing the torque angle 5.

SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS E = £ — E across the of potential x () synchronous re- actance (Fig. and the Torque at Ea and £ will remain constant. But a larger current means that the active may be set up be- the generator floats on the line. zero and so no forces are de- is flux that created is induces the voltage If a 6. The only 16. In a synchrothis field rotates at the same speed same direction as the rotor. The respective nous generator and in the has the as the electrical it equal to the mechanical fields bine. However.27b shows that when Depending on hand and the rotor poles on the other hand. the increases and. therefore. as soon electrical will gradually build power delivered to the system is power supplied by the turwill cease to accelerate. the angle 8 will con- tinue to diverge.28a The N poles of the of the stator. 16. important to understand that a difference of potential is created when two equal voltages are out of phase. the ro- currents flow in the stator of a generator. Furthermore. although both produced by the rotor and When tween them. the stator current / veloped. rotor are ahead of the S poles of .28b). let us tor will continue to accelerate. To understand the physical meaning of the diagram. 6. in Fig. 1 by the rotor. same number of poles. they produce a rotating magnetic field identical to that in an induction motor. the relative position of the stator poles on the one voltages have a value of 12 kV. system the and the power delivered to up.19 Physical interpretation of alternator behavior ator (by admitting it the phase angle between value of E x E0 and E increases. the value of / in- creases. fluxes.28b The N poles of the the stator. Whenever 3-phase lows that the generator feeds active power into the system. Thus. Under the driving force of the turbine. compared sition (Fig. 16.28a). The generator examine the and position of the currents. The stator currents create a revolving field I: I / Figure 16. owing to the electrical 5 between induced voltage E 0 and phase angle terminal volt- age E. rotor are lined up with the S poles Figure 16. but this time it is almost in phase with E. hence. poles inside the machine. a potential difference of 4 kV exists between Ea and E. Stator currents immediately to flow. powerful forces of attraction and repulsion and 1 stator are.27. 357 £ mechanical torque () is (Fig.27b). again run will angle 8 between It is synchronous speed. applied to the gener- more steam to the turbine). It fol- power delivered by the generator also increases. The phasor diagram of Fig. the rotor stationary with respect to each other. the rotor accelerates and gradually advances by a mechanical angle a. A current / will flow (again lagging 90° behind £J. begin 1 to its original po- 6.

and the active of the torque an- steam. [W] induced voltage. The torque angle 8 b. suppose a generator infinite generator is bus having a voltage E. .4) [ V ] terminal voltage.23) that the active power delivered by a synchronous generator given by the equation is Figure 16.29. kept constant so that The term E0 E/X S is then power which the alternator the generator mechanical angle between the centers vary directly with sin of the stator and rotor poles [mechanical its connected to an Furthermore. power increases almost linearly with the torque angle.29 Graph showing the relationship between the active power delivered by a synchronous generator and the torque angle.20 Active power delivered by the generator We can prove (see Section 16. delivers to the bus will 8. Calculate the torque angle between a. The relatwo is shown graphically in Note that between zero and 30° the tionship between the Example 16-6 The rotor poles shift by 1 . per phase There is a direct relationship a and chanical angle between the me- the torque angle 8. Fig.5) tween the stator poles and rotor poles. will the active is constant. suppose that the dc excitation of the [electrical degrees) p — number of poles on a ~ is degrees] we admit more Thus. as and so. Rated power is typically attained at an an- E0 and the E at full-load. ways leads E0 al- E.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 358 and a corresponding set of N and S poles. £0 fixed. Forces P = of attraction and repulsion are developed be- - sin 8 (16. voltage. the mechanical angle will no longer increase but will remain at a constant active power. per phase torque angle between En This equation can be used under tions. given b = pa/2 by (16. where To understand 8 = torque angle between the terminal voltage E0 E and the excitation voltage meaning. too. E or £u is leading? terminal voltage Which b. 16. . including the case when and all E [il] [°] load condi- the generator is con- nected to an infinite bus. the When the electromagnetic torque is equal to the mechanical torque. Solution a. per phase [V] synchronous reactance per phase s value a. 16. of an 8-pole synchronous generator 0 mechanical degrees from no-load to full- load. the sine gle. 8 will increase power output. and these magnetic forces produce a torque that opposes where P — En = E= X = 8 = mechanical torque exerted by the turbine. gle of 30°. When is: = pa/2 = = 40° 8 X 10/2 a generator delivers active power.

.01%. Because the steam valves are kV/V3 = 10 kV attain a 30° onds. We resynchronize the generator before liver the alternator therefore. In is some- such cases the simple . when 8 = 90°. there is an upper limit to the active power the generator can deliver.21 Control of active large. the rotor will accelerate 13. rents will MW The peak power output of (such as by admitting more steam to the turbine). At the . pulsating cur- never reached because the circuit breakers power is.20 all three phases is burners must be shut MW sin 90 10/9) X same is attained time.22 Transient reactance synchronous generator connected to a system subject to unpredictable load changes that 1 in the steam boilers must be relieved and the fuel A X may to 5 sec- must immediately be closed off during such emer- (E0 EIX S ) (12 4 0.3 kV (line-to-line). the pressure build-up off. In practice. should suddenly become disconnected from the Ea = E= 8 = kV 12 17. communicate with each other modify the power delivered by each In addition. and lose synchronism with rotating field of the stator.SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS = However. The active power delivered P = (E„EIXS) = The total 6. power a big utility network. each generator depends upon a program established to a.3) = 4()MW the stator. Solution a. 1800 r/min.67 X 10/9) X grid is X centrifugal forces at synchronous speed any excess speed can quickly create a very situation. (12 sin power to the still open.3 system. The peak power output is then P m AX — E„E/X . the respond to a large speed change. In the entire stations. per phase. The tion is trip as flow in try to exceed and X (3 13.3 359 it then have to can again de- When synchronous generator a system. before We network have is is done as more elaborate systems under the control of a computer. speed its is connected to a kept constant by an extremely is sensitive governor. This limit is reached when 8 is 90°. and the system voltage 17. steam valves gencies.5 The maximum power. 16. so 8 power delivered by (3 b. 3-phase generator On connected to a power grid has a synchronous reactance of 9 (1 per phase. 21 kV. This device can detect speed changes as small as 0. P = = The in wide are already close to the limit the materials can with- dangerous MW 6. Consequently. calculate the following: 12 is in b. the generator will rapidly accelerate and times occur very quickly. S If we the infinite bus. station operators the generation of step (loses synchronism) falls out it power delivered by advance between the various generating The The active power which the machine delivers when the torque angle 8 is 30° (electrical) The peak power that the generator can deliver output. this limit rotor will turn faster than the is lost.67) speed 50 percent above normal stand. power An automatic control such small speed changes im- to mediately modifies the valve (or gate) opening of Example 16-7 the turbine so as to maintain a constant speed and A constant 36 MVA. this condi- soon as synchronism 16. system sensitive to the grid. for if station so that and transmission of energy efficiently as possible. one reason or another. If the exciting voltage is kV (line-to-neutral). individual overspeed detectors are always ready to particularly a generator.

which helps •V'd - / Raising the excitation increases E0 . First the drop due ternal voltage -short-circuit- load would be ing. For machines the circuit breakers should fail to a.23 pu. tance X' X s X f varies when a generator is suddenly short-circuited. because they must short-circuit a interrupt cycles. 16. does not 16. the synchronous reactance Calculate is 1 5 percent of the Consequently. In effect. the reactance time interval The induced voltage E0 prior to the short-circuit The initial value of the short-circuit current The final value of the short-circuit current if varies as a function of time. line.5 = 4il The reactance X' d of the alternator. 3-phase steam-turbine gener- ator has a synchronous reactance of 1. time 25 kV. It is may called the transient reactance be as low as synchronous reactance. the low transient reactance simplifies the voltage regulation problem when the load on the generator increases rapidly. but for MVA range the generator at as 10 seconds. For sudden load current changes. must be replaced by another reac- whose value Fig. b. load On the other hand. shows how ately falls to a c. circuit power factor of suddenly occurs on the It delivers 100%. This circuit only valid under steady-state conditions or is when the load changes gradually. if to X' ci the synchronous reactance X Second.6 X ZB 2. This has a The rated load current per phase is is .5 fl nchronous reactance X 10 6 ) is may last as X =X s = long s (pu) 1. it three in to six follows that they have to interrupt a very normal high current. s much lower value X' d creases gradually until upon 100 T. A its short- close to the generating station. • Example 16-8 A 250 MVA. 17 re- behavior of the machine.4 kV than that corre- synchronous reactance JVS .ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 360 X' short- direct bearing circuit at the on the capacity of the circuit breakers generator output. The base impedance of then in- X interval s after a depends it The sy 2 = 25 000 /(250 = 2. sponding open Solution immedi- the instant of short-circuit. equivalent circuit flect the shown in Fig. much higher the The initial rated line-to. it is kVA it only in lasts a fraction the 1000 It . Variation of generator reactance following a short- rated output at a circuit. Prior to the short-circuit.6 pu and a Figure 16.30 a. short-circuit current to the is machines below of a second. the synchronous reactance is X simply However. f in- smaller than is X s were below stays at a value far X it act- for a s sufficiently long time to quickly raise the exciting current /x .neutral voltage per phase E = 25/\3 = 14. to stabilize the terminal voltage.30 transient reactance X' d of 0. again equal to The duration of the the size of the generator.

1 s after the short-circuit occurs. two sources 23. 27.47. 16. they have to The current is in phase with E because power factor of the load is unity. the current E that / lags leads ] E2 behind £\ by an arbitrary by an angle phasor diagram shown (Fig.2/4 only 1. refer- E0 is 16.32 internal voltage £x = = 1 1 1 4 25 000) = 5774 A The when a the terminals of a generator. certainly trip within 0.33a is particularly important in the study of generators. 6) .32 5780 A / 1 1 0 4 We assume to. synchronous motors. are often interested in the active power transmitted from a source A to a source B vice versa.3 -i Change Figure 16. leads / 1 <X we obtain the 6.1 T of terval = 5774 X IX S = EJX. 16.SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS 36 rated —-load —I— short-circuit kA . and transmission is we such circuits = 1 encountered X In lines. = = 6. Consequently.2/0.1 transient reactance circuit of Fig. The active power absorbed by B is will eventually level off at a steady-state value: P = E2 I cos (16. If is 8. Applying Kirchhoff s voltage law to this is = EJX = 27.5 < = The 0.33b).73 which 5 6 s short-circuit occurs across See Example drop Ex shows and during the is 23. The magnitude of voltages £. Phasor IX by 90°. Thus.2 b.23 6.23 Power transfer between E = i} \ E2 + E\ 2 V14. 47 kA.8 kA 16-8.31).31 See Example 16-8. because it is 0. we obtain the equation l1 = 47.575 initial short-circuit n or as well as the phase angle between them.3 If kA we assume angle 6 and which c.2 times rated current. and E 2 2. are quite ar- current bitrary. / = 1 2 3 * time 1 Figure 16. Note that in practice the cir- would cuit breakers kV the generator current prior short-circuit. interrupt a current of about the ring to the phasor diagram (Fig. a time in- 5 seconds. is Fig. the short-circuit tion is is sustained and the excita- unchanged.2 times rated current.575 circuit.4 + The 2 The kV 27. current in 5/V3 E 6 = 250 X X 10 /(1.

sin o 20 kV X (16.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 362 The active power alway s flows from the lagging voltage.6. leads E2 . we have 20 000 /X/sin 8 E. Solution The phase angle between the two sources is 42° — 5° = 37°./sin = £. The voltage of source B leads that of source A because its phase angle is more positive.602 = kW power output I rated voltage 120 V. = MW electrical P = 000 B where The 15 14 £.7) in Eq. . The active power is given by: E. source age age A generates a volt- E = 20 kV Z 5° and source B generates a E 2 — 15 kV Z 42°.8) kV 15 sin 37° 14 From the sine law for triangles. The following its why efficiency. Substituting ( / cos 0 = P = i\f + 9) 12. these characteristics are ] Let us consider a small ac generator having the equal to that : determined by the angle 6 be- to be specified. and size of tive and 10 the one having the higher voltage (20 kV). relaand temperature rise. . The transmission line volt- { con- necting them has an inductive reactance of 14 11. 16.8 rated speed 1 A 800 r/min .33 Power flow between two voltage sources. because the reactance consumes no tween that.33a. following characteristics: power P received by B between it size of an electrical found effect upon analysis reveals / 6 16.E2 X Figure 16. Consequently. X 0.9 1 X voltage of source active power. power flows ( 15 kV) to cost.9 Note we E = E2 = ] 8 = X= active active (16. Calculate the active power that flows over the line and specify which source is actually a load. find delivered by A.24 Efficiency. 3 phase rated current 4./sin(90 = EJcos Consequently. 1 6. power. it hence power flows from is the leading to obvious that E { left to right.33.7) E2 - sin 8 (16. In Fig. Example 16-9 Referring to Fig. strange as from the source having the lower voltage voltage of source 2 [V] the phase angle X 12. inti- mately related. 16. sin h/X 16.8) power transmitted [W] 1 The physical [VJ phase angle between E and x E2 f°l reactance connecting the sources may seem. [11 The magnitude off E x and does not have is is E2 machines machine has a pro- power output. power Hows from B to A and so A is actually a load.

Consequently. and losses also increase the We 43. The new efficiency = is 81 kW + 10 kW = therefore: in the 71 = ° vol- 81 friction 91 its X 100 eq. In this larger generator 27. will a result.15 mass 20 kg mass power output/mass 50 W/kg Using we can The mass of the bigger machine will therefore be 27 X 20 kg = 540 kg. too. The power input needed to drive the ac generathat the 1 tor is P.0075 kg*m inertia Under these conditions.37 PR losses in the and eddy-current losses the hysteresis and the windage and windings. 3. crease by a factor of 3 P" = - X calculate the losses 100 kW x 73 eq. 3. the Furthermore. Let us increase the size of the machine a = a factor of determined by equation (2. the voltage and current both increase by a factor of 9. means same X creases by a factor of 9. Let's assume 4. the voltage generated per conductor also in- machine. while keeping materials throughout. iron lamination type is used was used in the larger of insulation is if such in dimensions are raised linear its the the same keep the same current densities (A/itT) as in the original machine.6 P.SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS efficiency 73% input torque 7.37 1 . the genera- X produce a voltage of 9 tor will 120 V = 1080 V.2 A. external length 0. power output has increased 73% to The reason 89% is that 81 times. including the bearings. This power output increases 9X9 = 81 times. and the iron everywhere the same as that the A= times because the diameter of the rotor has tripled. same tripled. by tripling the linear dimensions. We as also used.0 losses comprise the kW that kW 0. - losses 1. As a result. it recall machine length the / is the has it. and 2 I It losses per cm 3 B is flux density in the larger windage and assume unchanged.89 100 .27 morhent of 0. The losses will rise to 27 X 0. number of slots.).37 kW is kW - 1. Thus. Because the larger generator nuts and bolts.6 100 liver a current As power input = P. stator teeth. while the . etc. The slots are 3 times wider and 3 times deeper.25) tor The by the losses. las) in the flux densities (tes- various parts of the magnetic circuit (core. As a result. 1 sions are tripled.8 regards the generated voltage per conductor. before. conductors and interconnections remain the same as before and that the speed of rotation 800 r/min) is further the flux density. we can N-m of the generator as erties 2 its size For example. the peripheral speed v has increased 3 friction losses. 91 iron losses will increase in proportion to ume. will of 9 same magnifying everything. = kW x kW 0. in the iron way that actly the same proportion. the losses per cm 3 R will be original machine.89% that the ( left the speed at We Blv. As has the same number of conductors and be- as before cause they are connected the same way. The larger machine can therefore de- this information. the length of the conduc- / is The is E = which the flux cuts across v follows that the copper losses same way. Thus. : = 81 kW + losses kW. The same type we 27 and ex- in a particular type of in the stator. air gap.37 kW = lOkW. suppose that m m 80 predict the prop- is increased. The power output of the new generator is therefore 81 X kW = 81 kW. the cross section of the conductors is 9 times greater which means they can carry 9 times more current. However. thereby duplicating and will also maintain the so. dimen- the linear all The volume 363 external diameter 0. of the machine: r\ will increase 3 will therefore in- 1 The which the efficiency has increased from is a dramatic improvement.

Consequently. perature rise has to be limited to a 6-7 craft generator 1 unless 6-6 When tripled. 16. 16. maximum at the air1 generates a no-load voltage of 9 kV. when linear dimensions are = nir — 243. the larger machine found close to tor in Fig. all than before. 6-5 540 kg big problem site. How fected to its if 200 r/min will the terminal voltage be af- terminals? Resistive load tem- b.8 rated speed external diameter For a given power output. at ator can be connected to a 3-phase surface area of the machine increases 9 times but Consequently. interest.54 is having a lagging power factor of 0. its increase by a factor of J 16-2 generator. the bound to ciency of the machine was effi- increase with size. rated voltage 43.0075 kg-nr is ators. characteristics of the larger generator are summarized below. The proof. is The original machine produced an output of 50 W/kg. The larger machine has a mass of 540 kg and produces 81 kW. They synchronous generators? in large the stator always connected in these machines = of the larger machine 0. the general principles covered here temperature rise and so forth. Consequently. What armature . must the exci- 1 mass power output/mass the larger? tation be increased or decreased in order 483 0. 3 times greater is In conclusion. apply to machines. X 20 therefore is relatively Questions and Problems and cheaper than the smaller machine. 16-4 kW main differences between steam- that the turbines b. Practical level generators were used to combined mass would be 81 This generating center would 1 6- 1 Why obviously be more costly and take up more floor space than the single 81 As another matter of moment of mass and inertia . The number of poles on The exaci turbine speed An the rotor isolated 3-phase generator produces a a load If is cooling hound maintain the same line voltage? What conditions must be met before a gener- Calculate the number of poles on system? the genera- means to the insulating materials. Hence. the 3.2 rated current 3 A 1800r/min 89% moment of inertia Nm 1.8 kgm 2 16-3 is the original 1 kW 1080 V. As lighter = kg kW 1 their 1620 kg. 60 To to be hotter.2 kV. 150W/ks is is it 350 r/min. Capacitive load of 1 1 the following loads are connected a. kW/540 kg = 150 W/kg which including ac and dc motors and transformers.12 using the information given. Inductive load c. the power dis- sipated per square meter increases by a factor of better prevent damage is directly-coupled genera- If the must generate a frequency of 60 Hz. are Calculate the number of poles on shown in Fig.8 kg-nr external length 0. 6-8 A 3-phase generator turning Hz. about 20()°C. Consequently. phase efficiency input torque In a. efficiency. which of no-load line voltage of 13. the losses increase 27 times. it produces 81 regarding physical size./ kW of a rotor the square of we is proportional to Hence.45 1 m m linear dimensions are temperature rise.ELECTRICA L MA CHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 364 losses increased only 27 times. its will are the advantages of using a stationary turbine generators and salient-pole gener- recall that the radius (see Table 3A). should turn to 1 The one analyzing a hydropower connected to the machine. the heat-dissipating used. generator larger if eighty-one produce 81 kW. 81 wye? calculate the following: are in striking contrast to machine. power output. The moment of therefore 243 The X inertia tripled. X 27 2 3 J = 3 5 = 1. power output State the tors . the cooling of large machines a very important matter.

power P per phase b. total reactance of the circuit. 365 The c. with the armature short-circuited the resulting ac line current is 21 in Fig. nous reactance of 6 voltage KVA. is 3 kV connected to an Q and the excitation per phase to load having a lagging 1 6. 12. 16-12 h. 16.2 yields the following results: maximum? ternal displacement angle A test taken 1.13.SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS 16-9 In Problem 16-8. equivalent circuit of a generator and explain the g. phase 5 r/min. power to generate a no- load line voltage of b. In Problem 16-13. per phase c. 16. factor of 0. 16. 000 A. 900 r/min. Fig. Using the same dc current.1 A 3-phase £0 16-18 Ev kV 16 generator possesses a synchro- is 100 (1. c. b. M VA alternator of Fig.8. calculate the exciting current 16-13 The phase angle between E0 and f. Draw to this the curve of E versus value of load resistance a is P. is the volt- age across the load Referring to Fig. stator. age is adjusted to 1 . The line current The line-to-neutral voltage across the load The line voltage across the load The power of the turbine driving the alter- d. calculate the length of one pole-pitch measured along the 16-16 on the 500 [in]. c. if the field current Calculate is kept constant.4 H. 16-15 The torque angle 8 when the generator delivers 420 The mechanical displacement angle a The linear pole shift (measured along the MW ver- circumference of the in- 2. 60 Hz delivers power excited.0 ohms. per s lOOOr/min a. 14 pu. per phase Intermediate level 16-10 What meant by the synchronous is tance of a 3-phase generator? 16-11 reac- Draw nator meaning of all the parameters. The 3-phase generator shown Open-circuit line voltage is 15 kV for a dc exciting current of 1400 A. A 3-phase 20 kV. the For what power output 16-19 Referring to Fig. the tion systems over conventional systems. calculate the value of per phase. and the excitation volt- (ref. 16.16 has the following characteristics: Calculate E0 = 2440 V X = s R = load impedance Z= a. 16. 16-14 a. the speed if is The synchronous impedance Z per phase The total resistance of the circuit. age and frequency b. The generator in Fig. calculate the no-load volt- a. in inside stator circumference) corresponding each case. draw the curve of E for the following resistive loads: infin- sus / ity. Calculate the active b. 24. 6. 144(1 17 12 175 (2 (resistive) The base impedance of the generator.19). 24. e.7 16-17 show needed a a. short-circuit ratio .2 has a synchro- nous reactance of 0. State the advantages of brushless excita- Using a schematic how circuit diagram. per phase.2 12. 1 6. the rotor in Fig. Calculate the line-to-neutral volt- age E for a resistive load of 8 (2 and draw Calculate the phasor diagram. The value of the synchronous reactance The per-unit value of X s d. a. If the synchronous re- actance kV kV generator rated 3000 2400 KVA. The b. . 3.2. It is bus having a infinite line voltage of 14 kV.

calculate the following: 1 is A at inter- axial designated 1 1 5 V. 16. 1200 r/mim 3-phase. each coil on the rotor has 21 . 80 percent power factor (Fig. 480 operate at a bus of 19 kV. in- Calculate formation is given about a generator: c. if the air flow air is of 500 A. calculate the active power output of the generator if the steam valves are closed. 1 6-23 b. synchronous reactance of 1 . 16. d. calculate the following: a. driven emergency alternator one phase In Problem 16-23. Neglect the at lb kg nr. The maximum allowable temperature of windings.2 has an efficiency of 98. the following the -second interval? position) during the stator possesses quired for the iron portion of the magnetic circuit.2 connected to an hid List rial a pplica tion A 33. If the torque angle 5 16-24 active b. 16. using the resistance method the . Problem 16-20 in a hydraulic turbine inertia is The total losses in the machine The copper losses in the rotor a.14 a. the phasor diagram for one phase. 1 . 16-21 The generator by The synchronous generator in Fig.3 has a The excitation voltage pu and the machine is E0 is 16-27 in Fig. measured along the circumference of the stator by 30° Calculate the total active power output of The tor resistance of the dc winding on the ro- and the power needed to excite it the generator. is of 4.34a). The a.3 b. the stator s Ea leads a E e.366 ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS Advanced 16-20 16-25 level b. tween going incoming the cool air. be- 280 nrVs 16-26 gap (See Section 16-22 2. assum- By how many mechanical degrees do 1 how many degrees? A 400 Hz electrical By alternator has a 2-hour rating of nal diameter of mmf re- length of 9.5 80 1 V. Draw is given: 83.5 turns. The gap length no-load. If X 54 bine and alternator) The torque developed by the turbine The average difference in temperature c. The is power output The factor of diesel- designed to infi- 20°. ft B Calculate a. The line current c. length of one pole pitch.8 kVA. and has an slots 22 inches and an in. for 80 percent.4% Weight: 730 Wk 2 lb (moment of Insulation: class the phasor diagram. power 60 Hz is following additional information Efficiency: nite V. 3-phase. adjusted to 1. 450 inches. The number of poles on the rotor The number of coils on the stator The number of coils per phase group on d. 16. Draw c. calculate the flux density in the air 6 poles advance (with respect to their normal and warm out- that the air 10 10 culate the speed of the generating unit (tur- and carries a dc current Knowing X 6 driven is whose moment of 2 ft The rotor has a J ing that the wicket gates remain wide open.4% when it delivers an output of 500 MW. Calculate the power factor of the load. cal- second 1 later.3 pu. Knowing that the dc exciting current is 2400 A at a dc voltage of 300 V. a. Does the alternator receive or deliver reactive power and how much? inertia) : 15. The minimum horsepower rating of the diesel engine to drive the generator b.17. . Ea = E= 12 kV 14 kV x = 2 b. 7). The rotor for a field current of 3 Referring to Fig. 75 kVA.7 2 lb. The steam-turbine generator shown 16.4. 1 the line circuit breakers suddenly trip. Referring to Fig.

27 pu Runaway speed 158 2 mass of rotor: Static excitation t current 270 in generator mode: 890 r/min metric ton) Total factor: Transient reactance: 0. 500 0. V. t Figure 16. 1200 r/min.37 pu F of inertia: 525 t*m power 98.95% synchro- has the following properties: Moment at full-load. The alternator is Figure 16. factor. 3-phase.8 kV. (Courtesy of Electro-Mecanik) equipped with a squirrel stator is mounted on a bedplate that also cage winding to permit starting as an in- . The Hz synchronous motor. 13. 450 driven by a 100 hp. 1200 r/min synchronous motor. Insulation class: mass of Total (t = stator: Unsaturated synchronous reactance: 1. 400 Hz alternator for shipboard use. 60 serves as a base for the alternator. unity 367 is is used and the excitation 2980 A under an excitation volt- age of 258 V.34a Rotor and stator of a 75 kVA. The rotor is duction motor. water-turbine 50 Hz. 1200 r/min.SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS 16-28 A 220 MVA.9 power r/min. manufactured by Siemens.34b Stator and rotor of the 100 hp. Efficiency nous generator.

9 lagging at power factor b. per The time to reach the runaway speed event that a short-circuit occurs 5. hollow current-carrying conductors. The rated reactive power output. Given the above information.9 second and through the rotor at liters runs when kinetic energy of the rotor its maximum it allowable runaway is speed The pure water Hows at it speed reaches water rating of the generator d. ate as a motor. The The is treated so that less than 5 (JiS/cm. Knowing water flow and that the is inlet the rate of temperature 26°C. calculate the temperature of the water flowing out of the rotor windings. 16-30 In Problem 16-28 calculate the power dis- sipated in the rotor windings and the power loss per pole. ing that the water continues to flow unchecked make through the turbine (gates wide open) a. in MW factor and at 0. d. Both the stator and rotor are water- at rated cooled by passing the water through the c. minimum the total losses of the generator at full load What and unity power factor the circulating water? is the resistivity (H-m) of . the following calculations: The rated active unity power power output. a. when it runs as a pump motor The kinetic energy of the rotor when develops an output of 145 the motor MW.368 ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS The generator also designed to oper- is 16-29 In industry application Problem 16-28. c. The horsepower b. driving the turbine as a calculate the following: pump. through the stator its conductivity a rate of 8. in Mvar The short circuit ratio The value of the line-to-neutral synchronous reactance. Under these conditions.9 liters erator is delivering its when rated load. per phase e. in the the gen- and assum- per second.

irrespective fixed.1 Three-phase. 1 these machines are mainly used in heavy industry Figure 17. which is V mounted on the shaft the bearing pedestal and the main {Courtesy of General 369 is alternator/recti- Electric) between rotor. line. synchronous motors.Chapter 17 Synchronous Motors 17. 60 Hz driving a compressor used in a pumping station on the Trans- Canada pipeline. 327 r/min.0 Introduction motor speed stays constant. When they run operating as motors (by con- field. As the name implies. The speed of Most synchronous motors synchronism with the revolving rotation is 150 therefore tied to the frequency of the source. Brushless excitation provided by a 21 kW. . unity power factor synchro- nous motor rated 3000 hp (2200 kW). synchronous motors are used not so much because kW (200 hp) and speeds ranging from is 1 15 are rated between MW (20 000 hp) and turn at 50 to 800 r/min. Because the frequency constant speed but because they possess We will study these features in this chapter. 250 fier. the of the load or voltage of the 3-phase The synchronous generators described in the previous chapter can operate either as generators or as motors. they are called nous motors run However. 4000 V. synchroin at other unique electrical properties. Consequently. necting them to a 3-phase source).

called fier are mounted at dc current / x from the salient-pole exciter. find tiny single-phase synchronous motors used They control devices and electric clocks. Fig. a relatively small 3-phase generator. the winding is also identical to that of a 3-phase induction motor. At the other end of the power spectrum. and a 3-phase one end of the motor rectifier windings.2). coils are and the dc cur- used in brush- synchronous generators. 1 ).3. 17. 50 Hz. The 4-pole rotor at the left is associated with a single-phase alternator rated 7000 kVA. we in 1 7. 1 6 2/3 Hz. PF 85%. The rotor has by a dc current connected a set of salient poles that are excited (Fig. The rotor on the right is for a 6900 kVA. The current can be varied by controlling the small exciting current Ic that flows in the stationary field winding of the exciter. Referring to Fig. Both rotors are equipped with squirrel-cage windings. damper winding serves to start the motor. motor synchronous motor It is similar to that of a syn- . 90% PF synchronous motor which drives the single-phase alternator. similar to that Synchronous motors are identical in construction to salient-pole ac generators. The fed directly into the without going through brushes and slip-rings. cussed 17. (Courtesy of ABB) Figure 17. is recti- shaft. which carries a 3-phase lap winding.4 Figure 17. in series to the circumference of the salient poles.3 Diagram showing the main components chronous generator. Consequently.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 370 (Fig. Slots are also punched out along ing similar to that in a 3-phase induction motor. Modern synchronous motors often employ Construction less excitation. 17.2 Rotor of a 50 Hz to 1 6 2/3 Hz frequency converter used to power an electric railway. two The exciting slip-rings. of a brushless exciter for 1 - dc control source 2 - stationary exciter poles 3 - alternator (3-phase exciter) 4 - 3-phase connection 5 - bridge rectifier 6 - dc 7 - rotor of synchronous 8 - stator of 9 - 3-phase input to stator line a synchronous motor.1 in Chapter are dis- rent is fed into the winding from an external exciter. This 18. They carry a squirrel-cage wind- 17. The stator is composed of a slotted magnetic core.

250 (Courtesy of General V. speed of the motor: // 37 The rotor possesses 1 (120 X 60)//? 36 poles 8 north poles and 1 8 south poles.9 kV. 200 r/min. where = motor at The motor operates - s J case of an induction motor. 60 Hz. in a and kW synchronous salient poles are motor. 80% power factor designed to drive an ore crusher. Solution 120 / P = 120. rectifier. 17.4a Synchronous motor rated 4000 hp (3000 kW).1) /z /= 60 Hz and runs consequently. showing the armature winding and 5 of the 6 diodes used to rectify the (Courtesy of General ac current.4a. Electric) Figure 17. Figure 17. (17. 6. the 3000 As number of in the same num- poles determines the synchronous Example 17-1 Calculate the number of salient poles on the rotor of the synchronous motor shown in Fig. Electric) .SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS shows how mounted The the exciter.///? frequency of the source [HzJ poles s 200 = p = speed fr/min] p — number of at 200 r/min. The brushless exciter (alternamounted on the overhung tor/rectifier) is shaft and is rated 50 kW. rotor and stator always have the ber of poles.4b Close-up of the 50 kW exciter.

5). synchronous motor powerful. the rotor is When slightly is can it the stator start of stator conse- up as an induction connected is motor accelerates line. The mutual attraction locks the rotor and stator poles together. The dc excitation suppressed during While this starting period.4 Motor under load general description When a synchronous motor runs at no-load. As in the the supply line is lim- reduced voltage to apply case of induction motors. ply a mechanical load. starters for synchro- an induction motor. a high voltage is rotor winding when it turns at low a relatively large induced in the speeds. yanked the circuit ment when excitation should be applied. no in the squirrel-cage winding and so current.5). Consequently. and decreases as the rotor accelerates. in motor may be brought up to big instal- pull-in torque of a right moment. Basically.2 Starting a A synchronous motor cannot quently. and the rotor is literally field. MW and some Finally. However. 7. 1 7. For example. eventually it becoming negligible when synchronous speed.ELECTRICAL MACHINES AND TRANSFORMERS 372 synchronous motor 17. we use either autotransformers or series reactors to Chapter 20). the rotor poles if we ap- fall slightly . the behavior of a is entirely different from that of into step with the revolving The torque developed because of the magnetic attraction between the poles of the rotor and the opposite poles of the To reverse the direction of rotation. the resulting synchronous motor as the it pulsion produces a violent mechanical shock. simply stator. At no-load the axes of the poles coincide. If the The im- to at this propriately called the pull-in torque.