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and Bidirectional DCDC Converter

Chen Xiao-li

College of Urban Railway Transportation, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai,

201620, China

chenxiao7723@hotmail.com

Keywords: Urban railway transportation; regeneration braking; super-capacitor; Bidirectional

DC/DC converter; line voltage.

Abstract. In this paper, a line voltage stabilization method using super-capacitor and Bidirectional

DC/DC converter was presented. The method using super-capacitor and the conventional braking

resistance constitute a new braking unit to realize the regenerative energy recovery. During the

braking, braking energy will be stored in the super-capacitor by Bidirectional DC/DC converter

which works as a Buck topology. During start-up or acceleration, the super-capacitor discharge by

the same Bidirectional DC/DC converter which works as a Boost topology. The conventional braking

resistance will still keep in system to ensure the security. In order to validate the design and do further

research, the paper presents a mathematical model of the whole system, which include power supply

unit, traction motor unit, driven control unit, super-capacitor unit and Bidirectional DC/DC converter

unit etc.. The Bidirectional DC/DC converter is designed as half bridge configuration. The simulation

is done, the results of simulation is consistent with the experimental data. Based on the mathematical

model and simulation model, the further research such as energy efficiency analysis and advanced

control method study can be done.

1.

Introduction

Because of urban rail transportation vehicles frequent start-up, braking process, braking energy is

considerable. The improvement of traction electrical energy efficiency for urban rail vehicles has

been one of the primarily objective in recent years[1-2]. Statistics show that apart from certain

percentage energy (usually 20% ~30%) being absorbed by other adjacent train, the rest braking

energy is mainly consumed by braking resistance, which leads to both massive energy waste and

temperature increment in tunnel and platform[3].

Nowadays, the energy-saving technology for urban rail transportation is mainly focused on how to

carry out the regeneration braking energy recycling. A variety of methods have been proposed, such

as the use of inverter technology and the use of various energy storage devices (batteries,

super-capacitors[5-8], fly-wheel[4], hydraulic devices and so on). Considering the suburban application

conditions (starts and braking have duration of several seconds and require high electrical power),

super-capacitors are more suitable devices for the application on rail vehicles.

Although different technical solutions are proposed and substantial research has been done, there

are still many important problems that need to be addressed further. In this paper, a scheme of line

voltage stabilization was proposed which is based on the super-capacitor to save the braking energy.

The specialized Bidirectional DC/DC converter is used to realize the charge and discharge of

super-capacitor. As we known, when beginning to braking, kinetic energy will be feedback to

overhead line which will lead to too high voltage. During start-up or accelerations, greater currents

drawn by trains and imply greater voltage drops on the overhead line. Using the super-capacitor and

978-1-61275-005-7/10/$25.00 2012 IERI

197

ICFEPES2012

Bidirectional DC/DC converter, the braking energy will be saved in the ultra capacitor during barking

process and will be discharged during the start-up or accelerations process. In order to validate the

design and do further research, based on the Matlab/Simulink software, the paper established the

dynamic model of the whole traction and braking system.

This paper is organized as follows. In Section II, the design of the ultra capacitor braking energy

recovery system is described. In Section III presents the key components mathematical model. In

Section IV, the simulation analysis is given.

2.

As show in fig.1, based on the existing AC motor traction system, a set of super-capacitor array is

added in. the super-capacitor unit parallel to the conventional braking resistor, two power switches is

used to realize the switch between the super-capacitor and the braking resistor.

Bidirectional

DC/DC

When beginning to braking, the train stops the power supply from the overhead line. The motors

work as generators, converting the kinetic energy to electrical energy, resulting in brake

electromagnetic torque, slowing the train and energy feedback to the overhead line system at the

same time. The overhead line voltage will be too high if there is no other vehicle between two traction

substations. In conventional traction control system, resistance braking is necessary and braking

energy is consumed at the braking resistances by means of heat, the regenerative braking will not be

achieved. In the ultra capacitor braking energy recovery system, the braking energy is saved in the

ultra capacitor by a Bidirectional DC/DC converter which works as a Buck circuit. The energy flows

from the DC Bus to super-capacitor. When the capacity of stored energy components is less than the

rated capacity, the energy storage components will not stop being charged through the charging

circuit until they reach the rated capacity. The function of TCU is detect the state of super-capacitor,

when the super-capacitor can not accept energy any more for some reason, the TCU will switch the

braking energy recovery system to the braking resistance system to avoid regeneration failure. The

charge and discharge of super-capacitor are control by the auxiliary Control Unit (ACU).

During start-up or accelerations, greater currents drawn by trains and imply greater voltage drops

on the overhead line. If the super-capacitor full of energy, then the super-capacitor can supply some

currents that will stabilize the voltage of DC-line and reduce the peak power. The ACU detect the

capacity of the super-capacitor and determine whether the power has reached the threshold value. If

the capacity of the super-capacitor is enough, the super-capacitor will supply the power for inverter

by the Bidirectional DC/DC converter which works as a Boost circuit. The super-capacitor can

198

supply the power to the AC consumers and DC consumers (air-conditioning and lighting etc) through

a DC/DC converter and a DC/AC converter which control by ACU also.

3.

Mathematical model

The whole traction system for urban railway transportation contained these key components (as show

in fig.1): power supply unit, traction motor, driven control unit, super-capacitor unit and Bidirectional

DC/DC converter unit etc..

A. Power supply model

The traction power supply system in general supplied by the city power grid to track traffic through

multi-level substation and rectifier devices, converts high-voltage AC to 1500V DC, which is used to

feed the inverter to drive AC traction motor.

B. Traction Motor model

AC induction motor is a multivariable, nonlinear, inter-dependent system. The stator has three

windings and the rotor can be equivalent to three windings too. The motor can be described with the

equations of voltage, the equations of torque and equations of movement.

Equation of voltage:

(1)

Where,

Rabc = diag[Rs Rs Rs Rr Rr Rr ]

winding resistance

abc = [ sa sb sc ra rb rc ]

differential operator

Equation of torque:

Te = np Lm[(isaira +isbirb +iscirc )sin + (isairb +isbirc +iscira )sin( +1200 ) + (isairc +isbira +iscirb )sin( 1200 )]

(2)

Equation of movement:

J d

D

K

(3)

+

+

n p dt

np

np

Where, Te is the electromagnetic torque, TL is the load torque, J is moment of inertia, D is damp

coefficient, K is the torsion elasticity coefficient, is the rotor angular speed, np is number of pair of

poles, as for constant load, there is D=K=0

The model describe above is the physical model of the ac induction motor which represents the

relationship between the structure and parameters. Since the nonlinear and strong coupling, it is quite

difficult to solve these nonlinear equations, need the linear coordinate transform to decouple the angle

position relationship between stator and rotor.

Te = TL +

Vector control is design the control law for the simplified model which is obtained by linear

coordinate transform, then by the reverse transform, the real control variable (current and voltage)

were got. According to the public oriented coordinate, vector control is divided into: rotor flux

oriented, stator flux oriented and gas flux orient, in this paper, the rotor flux oriented vector control is

selected.

199

If using the stator currents components isd and isq to express the orientation flux and the equation of

the stator voltage, the voltage equation based on the rotor flux orientation coordinate system can be

expressed:

Lm

u sd = Rs (1 + Ts p)i sd + L p rd 1 Ls i sq

r

L

u sq = Rs (1 + Ts p)i sq + m 1 rd + 1 Ls i sd

Lr

constant of rotor is Tr =

(4)

Ls

L2m

, time constant of stator is Ts =

, time

R

Ls L r

s

Lr

, is the electrical angular speed of oriented flux r is the rotor

Rr

Rotor flux and torque components of stator current can be expressed as:

1

i sq =

Tr rd s

Lm

Lm

rd =

isd

Tr p + 1

Equation of torque:

3L

3

Tem = m Pp rd i sq =

Pp rd2 s

2 Lr

2 Rr

Equations of movement:

J

Tem TL =

P r + D r

Pp

1 = r + s

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

If the n is the speed of motor(r/min) J and GD is the moment of inertia of the vehicles which

were converted into the motor(kgm2)then the kinetic energy of the motor and the vehicles is:

1

1

1 2n 2

(10)

) =

W = J 2 = J (

GD n 2

730

60

2

2

During the braking, speed decrease from n1 to n2 and released the kinetic energy

1

(11)

W=

G D (n12 - n22 )

730

If supposed that all the kinetic energy of the mechanical system were convert into regenerative

energy of the DC side of the inverter, then:

1

1

1 2n 2

(12)

) =

WK = WE = J 2 = J (

GD n 2

730

60

2

2

For the urban railway vehicles, if the maximal DC-line voltage marked as Umax,, and the normal

voltage marked as Unom, the braking energy should be absorbed by braking unit expressed as

WS = W B =

1

1

1

2

2

2

2

G D n 2 C DC line (U max

U min

) = C sup C (U max

U min

)

730

2

2

(13)

Where, Ws is the braking energy saved by super-capacitor, WB is the energy need to be absorbed by

braking unit, CDC-line is the filter capacitor of the DC-line, Csup-C is the capacity of the super-capacitor.

E. Super-capacitor model

200

The selection of super-capacitor is decided by the charging and discharging time, braking period

and output power. The super-capacitor unit is made of many cells and these cells are assembled by

series and parallel connection. Let me supposed that a branch were composed of Nseries cells

connected in series, and Nparallel branches connected in parallel to form a set of super-capacitor unit.

The capacity of the super-capacitor unit described as:

C sup C =

C cell N parallel

(14)

N series

Rsup C =

Rcell N series

N parallel

(15)

Where, Ccell is capacity of the cell, Rcell is resistance of the cell, Csup-C is capacity of the

super-capacitor unit, Rsup-C is resistance of the super-capacitor unit

According to the characteristic of the super-capacitor, the energy saved can be expressed as:

1

1

(16)

E = CsupC (U12 U 22 ) = CsupC (U12 (U1 ) 2 )

2

2

Where, U1 is the final charging voltage, U2 is the final discharging voltage, is discharging depth.

According to the braking energy which needed to be absorbed by braking unit, the capacity of

super-capacitor can be ascertain, and the number and connection mode of cells also can be

determined.

F. Bidirectional DC/DC Converter Model

The Bidirectional DC/DC converter is designed as high power half bridge configuration which is

formed by a buck and a boost circuit in anti-parallel connection, the main circuit topology shown in

Fig.2. The operation of the DC-DC converter can be divided into two modes, charging mode, and

discharging mode.

+

D1

S1

L

iL

+

Connect to

super-capacitor C1

S2

C2

Connect to

DC BUS

D2

Bidirectional DC/DC converter

charging mode

discharging mode

The DC bus is high voltage end and the super-capacitor is the low voltage end. During the

charging mode, the Bidirectional DC/DC converter is operated as a buck converter and the power

flows from the DC bus to super-capacitor. While charging the power switch S1 and the freewheeling

diode D2 are at work, as shown in Fig.3. During the discharging mode, the Bidirectional DC/DC

converter is operated as a boost converter and the power flows from the super-capacitor to DC bus.

While discharging the power switch S2 and the freewheeling diode D1 are at work, as shown in Fig.4.

The voltage of high voltage end is determined by DC bus voltage, and the voltage of low voltage

end is determined by the connection structure of super-capacitor cells as it is mentioned before. Gate

control signals of power switch S1 and S2 are generated by the controller of bidirectional DC/DC.

4.

201

In accordance with the models built in above chapters, a simulation model was set up by using

Matlab/Simulink software. The operation accords with the general running speed curve including

accelerations, coasting and braking. Simulation results as show in Fig.5-Fig.6.

Fig.5 shows 3-phase AC Input voltage, current, speed and electromagnetic torque of traction

motor including five starts and stop processes. Fig.6 shows the voltage of DC bus and the charging

and discharging process of super-capacitor. From these simulation results, it can be summarized as

follows:

1.

The scheme proposed in this paper is reasonable.

2.

Mathematical and simulation model is correct.

Fig.6 the voltage of DC bus and the charging and discharging of super-capacitor

References

[1] W. Gunselmann, Technologies for increased energy efficiency in railway systems, in Proc. EPE,

Dresden, Germany, Sep. 2005.

[2] Bocharnikov, Y. V., Tobias, A. M., Roberts, C., etc.. Optimal driving strategy for traction energy

saving on DC suburban railways, 2007 IET Electric Power Applications. 2007, 1(5):675-682.

[3] Steiner M, Scholten J. Energy storage on board of DC railway vehicles, Proceedings of the 35th

Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference on the Power Electronics and

Applications. 2004: 666-671.

[4] Richardson,M.B.. Flywheel energy storage system for traction applications, 2002 IEE Int.

Conference Power Electronics, Machines and Drives. 2002:.275-279.

[5] Diego Iannuzzi. Improvement of the Energy Recovery of Traction Electrical Drives using

Supercapacitors, 2008 13th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference.

2008:1469-1472.

202

[6] Iannuzzi D., Tricoli P. Optimal Control Strategy of Onboard Supercapacitor Storage System for

Light Railway Vehicles, 2010 IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE

2010). 2010:20-285.

[7] Kyoungmin Son, Sejin Noh, Kyoungmin Kwon, etc.. Line voltage regulation of urban transit

systems using super-capacitors, 2009 IEEE 6th International Power Electronics and Motion

Control Conference . 2009:933-938.

[8] Allegre Anne-Laure, Bouscayrol Alain, Delarue Philippe, etc.. Energy Storage System With

Super-capacitor for an Innovative Subway, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL

ELECTRONICS, 2010, 57(12):4001-4012.

203

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