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A PROJECT ON

Problems of Working Parents


In The Subject
Research Methodology
Submitted By
Isha Raina
29

Under The Guidance Of


Prof. Bharat Pithadia
To
University Of Mumbai
For
Master Of Commerce Programme (Semester - III)
In
Business Management
Year: 2016-17
SVKMS NARSEE MONJEE COLLEGE OF COMMERCE
& ECONOMICS, VILE PARLE (W), MUMBAI 400056.

DECLARATION BY THE STUDENT

I, Isha Raina student of M.Com. (Part II) In Business Management, Roll No.: 29, hereby
declare that the project titled Non-Monetary Motivational Factors for the subject submitted by
me for Semester III of the academic year 2016-17, is based on actual work carried out by me
under the guidance and supervision of Prof .Bharat Pithadia. I further state that this work is
original and not submitted anywhere else for any examination.

Place: Mumbai
Date:
Name & Signature of Student
Name: Isha Raina.

Signature: _________________

EVALUATION CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the undersigned have assessed and evaluated the project on Problems
of Working Parents submitted by Isha Raina student of M.Com. Part - II (Semester
III) In Business Management for the academic year 2016-17. This project is original to the
best of our knowledge and has been accepted for Internal Assessment.

Name & Signature of Internal Examiner

Name & Signature of External Examiner

Principal
Amee Vora

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Projects have always been fun Learning experience, but with growing age, at this Masters
Level, it surely demands Corporate and Depth Approach.
This project was a great learning experience and I take this opportunity to acknowledge all
those who gave me their invaluable guidance and inspiration provided to me during the
course of this project by my guide.
I would like to thank Prof. Bharat Pithadia of Research Methodology
I would also thank the M.Com Department of Narsee Monjee College of Commerce &
Economics who gave me this opportunity to work on this project which provided me with a
lot of insight and knowledge of my current curriculum and industry as well as practical
knowledge.
Would sincerely thank our coordinator Mr. Huzefa for constant guidance over the projects
and curriculums.
I would also like to thank the Library staff of Narsee Monjee College of Commerce &
Economics for equipping me with the books, journals and magazines for this project.
I would also like to thank my friends and fellow students who helped me in the cause of the
project.

CONTENT
Declaration by the Student

Evaluation Certificate

Acknowledgement

INDEX
Sr No,

Particulars

Pg No.

Introduction

Research Methodology

29

Bibliography

36

Questionnaire

37

CHAPTER 1- Introduction
A) Question & Answer
1. Define Research. What are the characteristics of research?
Research is a careful and detailed study into a specific problem, concern, or issue using the
scientific method. It's the adult form of the science fair projects back in elementary school,
where you try and learn something by performing an experiment. This is best accomplished
by turning the issue into a question, with the intent of the research to answer the question.
Research can be about anything, and we hear about all different types of research in the news.
Cancer research has 'Breakthrough Cancer-Killing Treatment Has No Side Effects in Mice,'
and 'Baby Born with HIV Cured.' Each of these began with an issue or a problem (such as
cancer or HIV), and they had a question, like 'Does medication X reduce cancerous tissue or
HIV infections?'
To begin researching something, you have to have a problem, concern, or issue that has
turned into a question. These can come from observing the world, prior research, professional
literature, or from peers. Research really begins with the right question, because your
question must be answerable. Questions like 'How can I cure cancer?' aren't really answerable
with a study. It's too vague and not testable.
Person who do research is a researcher. Qualities of a good researcher can be summarized
as

1. Method of approach The researcher should adopt correct procedure for identifying a
problem and then for working on it, to find a solution for that problem.
2. Knowledge The researcher should be well aware and should have complete knowledge
and information of the field of investigation so that he can go in for correct planning and then
implementation of the correct and effective methods for selection of the problem and then for
solving it.
3. Qualification The researcher should have a good back ground of study, which will enable
the researcher to have a better knowledge and understanding of the subject.
4. Attitude The researcher must have a vision of his own, an aim with some objectives to
achieve something.
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Characteristics of Research.
1. Empirical - based on observations and experimentation on theories.
2. Systematic - follows orderly and sequential procedure.
3. Controlled - all variables except those that are tested/experimented upon are kept
constant.
4. Employs hypothesis - guides the investigation process
5. Analytical - There is critical analysis of all data used so that there is no error in their
interpretation
6. Objective, Unbiased, & Logical - all findings are logically based on empirical
7. Employs quantitative or statistical methods - data are transformed into numerical
measures and are treated statistically
8. Original work
9. Done by an expert - the researcher uses valid and carefully designed procedures, valid
data gather for
10.Must be patient and unhurried activity - to ensure accuracy
11.Require effort-making capacity
12.Requires courage
13.Has logical roots that help to establish facts or principles
14.Answers all type of questions
15.Question sharing
16.problem set
17.thesis
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18.programs
19.java doc

2. Explain the need of Research in business and Social Sciences.


Business research helps business managers find new markets and make the most of
their resources. They are important for start-ups and investors. Established businesses often
use it to find new areas for growth.
Launching a business requires having a good idea, but it is also important to know if there is
a large enough customer base to support the idea. Market research is helpful. Examination of
both old and new survey data allows potential founders to explore whether or not a particular
idea is sustainable. Established businesses often focus on growth, and business research helps
managers find new areas to enter. While established businesses often risk a bit more than new
businesses, the cost of a failed product launch is potentially significant.
Market research also helps companies of all sizes evaluate the strength of their competition,
and it helps gauge the strength of a brand. Knowing whether a particular brand is effective
and when it needs to be replaced generally requires using surveys and other tools. In addition,
research helps attract investors. An investor needs to know how likely a company or product
is to succeed before risking money, and thorough business research may be enough to
convince a potential investor to take a chance. Some investors even perform their own
research.

Social sciences refer to business, commerce, demography, psychology, sociology, etc. Social
sciences directly involve people. Research in social sciences arena deals with
the behavior of people in their different roles, such consumers, competitors, producers,
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executives, salespersons, leaders, workers, followers, teachers, students, opinion-makers,


etc. Research in social sciences deals with the systematic method of discovering new facts or
of verifying old facts, their sequence, inter-relationship, casual explanations and the natural
laws which cover them.
The importance that social science research wields today is immeasurable and enlarging. As
social, business and economic problems abound, the significance of social research gets
enhanced as it provides workable solutions. The following points bring out the significance
of research in social sciences.

Problems solving is the thrust of most researches. Social problems are felt directly by
people and that research by offering solutions to such problems ameliorates the conditions
of people at large. Hence the significance of social research.

Social research thrusts on societal behavior which is studied, analysed and steps
needed to modify the same to achieve certain broad goals. All our social problems could
be attributed to certain societal behavior. So, by modifying the same in the right lines,
social good is achieved.

Development of methodology to deal with social issues is one of the contributions of


social research. Executive stress, worker ethics, leadership style, child labor women
illiteracy, drug addiction, labor absenteeism, etc are social issues related to organisations,
labor units, and, such other social groups. To deal with these issues appropriate
methodology is needed. Social research provides the same.

3: Discuss in detail different types of research


The types of Research are:
Basic Research
This research is conducted largely for the enhancement of knowledge, and is research which
does not have immediate commercial potential. The research which is done for human
welfare, animal welfare and plant kingdom welfare. It is called basic, pure,fundamental
research. The main motivation is to expand man's knowledge, not to create or invent
something.According to Travers, Basic Research is designed to add to an organized body of
scientific knowledge and does not necessarily produce results of immediate practical value.
Such a research is time and cost intensive.

Applied Research
Applied research is designed to solve practical problem of the modern world, rather than to
acquire knowledge for knowledges sake. The goal of applied research is to improve the
human condition. It focus on analysis and solving social and real life problems. This research
is generally conducted on large scale basis, it is expensive. As such, it often conducted with
the support of some financing agency like government , public corporation , world bank,
UNICEF, UGC,Etc,.
Problem oriented research
Research is done by industry apex body for sorting out problems faced by all the companies.
Eg:- WTO does problem oriented research for developing countries, in india agriculture and
processed food export development authority (APEDA) conduct regular research for the
benefit of agri-industry.
As the name indicates, Problem identifying researches are undertaken to know the exact
nature of problem that is required to be solved.
Here, one clarification is needed when we use the term Problem, it is not a problem in true
sense. It is usually a decision making dilemma or it is a need to tackle a particular business
situation.
Problem solving
This type of research is done by an individual company for the problem faced by it.
Marketing research and market research are the applied research. For eg:- videocon
international conducts research to study customer satisfaction level, it will be problem
solving research. In short, the main aim of applied research is to discover some solution for
some pressing practical problem.
Quantitative Research
This research is based on numeric figures or numbers. Quantitative research aim to measure
the quantity or amount and compares it with past records and tries to project for future period.
In social sciences, quantitative research refers to the systematic empirical investigation of
quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships. The objective of quantitative

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research is to develop and employ mathematical models, theories or hypothesis pertaining to


phenomena.
The process of measurement is central to quantitative research because it provides
fundamental connection between empirical observation and mathematical expression of
quantitative relationships.
Qualitative Research
Qualitative research presents non-quantitative type of analysis. Qualitative research is
collecting, analyzing and interpreting data by observing what people do and say. Qualitative
research refers to the meanings, definitions, characteristics, symbols, metaphors, and
description of things. Qualitative research is much more subjective and uses very different
methods of collecting information,mainly individual, in-depth interviews and focus groups.
The nature of this type of research is exploratory and open ended. Small number of people
are interviewed in depth and or a relatively small number of focus groups are conducted.
Qualitative research can be further classified in the following type.
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.

Phenomenology,
Ethnography,
Case study,
Grounded theory,
Historical research

Pure research:
a. Also called as the fundamental or the theoretical research.
b. Is basic and original.
c. Can lead to the discovery of a new theory.
d. Can result in the development or refinement of a theory that already exists.
e. Helps in getting knowledge without thinking formally of implementing it in practice based
on the honesty, love and integrity of the researcher for discovering the truth.
Applied research
a. Based on the concept of the pure research.
b. Is problem oriented.
c. Helps in finding results or solutions for real life problems.
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d. Provides evidence of usefulness to society.


e. Helps in testing empirical content of a theory.
f. Utilizes and helps in developing the techniques that can be used for basic research.
g. Helps in testing the validity of a theory but under some conditions.
h. Provides data that can lead to the acceleration of the process of generalization.
Exploratory research
a. Involves exploring a general aspect.
b. Includes studying of a problem, about which nothing or a very little is known.
c. Follows a very formal approach of research.
d. Helps in exploring new ideas.
e. Helps in gathering information to study a specific problem very minutely.
f. Helps in knowing the feasibility in attempting a study.
Descriptive research
a. Simplest form of research.
b. More specific in nature and working than exploratory research.
c. It involves a mutual effort.
d. Helps in identifying various features of a problem.
e. Restricted to the problems that are describable and not arguable and the problems in which
valid standards can be developed for standards.
f. Existing theories can be easily put under test by empirical observations.
g. Underlines factors that may lead to experimental research.
h. It consumes a lot of time.
i. It is not directed by hypothesis.
Diagnostic study
a. Quite similar to the descriptive research.
b. Identifies the causes of the problems and then solutions for these problems.
c. Related to causal relations.
d. It is directed by hypothesis.
e. Can be done only where knowledge is advanced.
Evaluation study
a. Form of applied research.
b. Studies the development project.
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c. Gives access to social or economical programmes.


d. Studies the quality and also the quantity of an activity.
Action research
a.Type of evaluation study.
b. Is a concurrent evaluation study.

4. What is research methodology? What are the requisite of good scientific methods ?
Research Methodology is a way to find out the result of a given problem on a specific
matter or problem that is also referred as research problem. In Methodology, researcher uses
different criteria for solving/searching the given research problem. Different sources use
different type of methods for solving the problem. If we think about the word
Methodology, it is the way of searching or solving the research problem.
In Research Methodology, researcher always tries to search the given question systematically
in our own way and find out all the answers till conclusion. If research does not work
systematically on problem, there would be less possibility to find out the final result. For
finding or exploring research questions, a researcher faces lot of problems that can be
effectively resolved with using correct research methodology
In simple terms, methodology can be defined as, giving a clear cut idea on what methods or
process the researcher is going to use in his or her research to achieve research objectives. In
order to plan for the whole research process at a right point of time and to advance
the research work in the right direction, carefully chosen research methodology is very
critical. In other words; what is Research methodology can be answered as it maps out the
whole research work and gives credibility to whole effort of the researcher.
Requisite for good scientific methods:
The scientific method is a process for creating models of the natural world that can be
verified experimentally. The scientific method requires making observations, recording data,
and analyzing data in a form that can be duplicated by other scientists.
Target your goals.

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Solving the right problem is the most important aspect of problem solving. Frequently, we
make assumptions that lead us away from the correct solution. For example, an elementary
school problem describes people getting in and out of an elevator. First, two men and one
woman go into an empty elevator. At the next stop, one man gets out and three women go in.
At the next floor, two men get in, and a woman and a man go out. We cannot solve a problem
until we know what the problem is. This problem intentionally mentions men and women to
direct your attention to the occupants of the elevator and then surprises you with a question
that you might not have expected. How many stops did the elevator make? In our eagerness
to show how smart we are, we typically start focusing on the details and do not wait to find
out what the real problem is.
It is also important to determine if the problem has a solution. Has somebody else solved this
problem before? If so, how? If not, do you have a workable plan for solving it? Do you have
the qualifications, experience, and education required to solve it? Are you willing to work
toward fulfillment of the solution? No one can solve problems that have no solution and no
one can solve any problems without spending some effort.
Make full use of your senses.
Making use of your senses is the subjective part of the Methodology. This is the stage where
your special sensory skills can be put to use. If you have extraordinary hearing, use it. If you
have a photographic memory make sure that it gets used for most of your problem solving.
Nobody else has your specific impressions of your environment. Your point of view and your
observations are unique. Part of using your senses may involve using instrumentation or
interaction with others. Lucky charms, divining rods, and other magical devices that do not
have reproducible and verifiable functionality do not count as "instrumentation". If you don't
have perfect eyesight and you need to see something clearly, use your glasses. Make
observations from several points of view to get good depth perception and to confirm
impressions. Take photographs if you need to remember something in great detail. Use a tape
recorder or a notepad to record your observations for later review. Make sure that your senses
are at their best by avoiding intoxicants that affect your perceptions. "Interaction with others"
may involve using another being (not necessarily human) to make the observations for you.
For example, a blind person may use a seeing-eye dog to get around, a truck driver may use
directions from someone else when backing up into a tight spot, a hunter may use a dog's
sense of smell for tracking game, or a miner may use a canary to warn him of pockets of
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unbreathable odorless gases. Whenever you trust someone else's perception more than your
own you may find that the conclusions that you reach are unsatisfactory. How many hunters
have been led astray by dogs that followed a rabbit's trail rather than the fox's? And how
many truck drivers have crashed while backing up because they misinterpreted their helper's
signals? Reliance on your own senses is the only way to avoid such problems, but you don't
always have this choice.
Apply your mind.
The application of your mind is the creative aspect of problem solving. In this step you want
to grasp the whole problem and look at it from different perspectives without selecting a
solution. This is an unstructured process of contemplating and writing down all ideas
regardless of how sensible they are. You can stretch your imagination to the limit and use
brainstorming techniques. Assimilate facts, enumerate impressions, explore your feelings. If
some solution gives you a bad feeling, write down what that feeling is for further evaluation
later.

Evaluate solutions.
Evaluation of solutions is the analytical aspect of the reasoning process. This is the stage
where the relative merits of every solution are calculated. You will need to use your past
experience and logic. Some solutions may have some serious drawbacks or may not be
ethical or legal. Other solutions may not take into account all the factors and may be
incomplete. Incomplete solutions may be evaluated to see if they can be extended to fit the
problem. Illegal solutions need to be examined to see if there are legal loopholes or whether
the laws can be amended to make the solutions legal. Many successful solutions are
sometimes found outside the framework of conventional thinking. The application of the
mind without restrictions and the subsequent evaluation and adaptation of the solutions is a
powerful method of problem solving.
Draw conclusions.
The final stage of the Methodology is choosing a solution. This is the deductive portion of the
reasoning process. We have listed possible solutions, we have evaluated them and ranked
them, and now we make the final choice. For some problems we have the opportunity to go
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back and try other solutions. Time also becomes a factor in selecting a solution. Our lifetimes
are finite. If we want to accomplish something, the solution should not require more time
than our expected life span. Lack of action, sometimes unwittingly, becomes another choice.
Critical Thinking
The scientific method relies on critical thinking, which is the process of questioning common
beliefs and explanations to distinguish those beliefs that are reasonable and logical from those
which lack adequate evidence or rational foundation.
Arguments consists of one or more premises and one conclusion. A premise is a statement
that is offered in support of a claim being made. Premises and claims can be either true or
false. In deductive arguments the premises provide complete support for the conclusion. If the
premises provide the required degree of support for the conclusion then the argument is valid,
and if all its premises are true, then the conclusion must be true. In inductive arguments the
premises provide some degree of support for the conclusion. When the premises of inductive
arguments are true, their conclusion is likely to be true. Arguments that have one or more
false premises are unsound.
Fallacies
Arguments are subject to a variety of fallacies. A fallacy is an error in reasoning in which the
premises given for the conclusion do not provide the needed degree of support. A deductive
fallacy is a deductive argument where the premises are all true but reach a false conclusion.
An inductive fallacy consist of arguments where the premises do not provide enough support
for the conclusion. In such cases, even if the premises are true, the conclusion is not likely to
be true.
Common fallacies are categorized by their type, such as Ad Hominem (personal attack), and
appeals to authority, belief, fear, ridicule, tradition, etc.
Evidence
Evidence

is

something

that

provides

proof

concerning

matter

in

question.

Direct or Experimental evidence. The scientific methods relies on direct evidence, i.e.,
evidence that can be directly observed and tested. Scientific experiments are designed to be
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repeated by other scientists and to demonstrate unequivocably the point that they are trying to
prove by controlling all the factors that could influence the results. A scientist conducts an
experiment by varying a single factor and observing the results.
5. Explain the steps or process in scientific research?

6. Write a note on review of literature.


The aim of a literature review is to show your reader that you have read, and have a good
grasp of, the main published work concerning a particular topic or question in your field. This
work may be in any format, including online sources. It may be a separate assignment, or one
of the introductory sections of a report, dissertation or thesis. In the latter cases in particular,
the review will be guided by your research objective or by the issue or thesis you are arguing
and will provide the framework for your further work. The format of a review of literature
may vary from discipline to discipline and from assignment to assignment.
A review may be a self-contained unit -- an end in itself -- or a preface to and rationale for
engaging in primary research. A review is a required part of grant and research proposals and
often a chapter in theses and dissertations.

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Generally, the purpose of a review is to analyze critically a segment of a published body of


knowledge through summary, classification, and comparison of prior research studies,
reviews of literature, and theoretical articles.
Writing the introduction
In the introduction, you should:

Define or identify the general topic, issue, or area of concern, thus providing an
appropriate context for reviewing the literature.

Point out overall trends in what has been published about the topic; or conflicts in
theory, methodology, evidence, and conclusions; or gaps in research and scholarship;
or a single problem or new perspective of immediate interest.

Writing the body

Group research studies and other types of literature (reviews, theoretical articles, case
studies, etc.) according to common denominators such as qualitative versus
quantitative approaches, conclusions of authors, specific purpose or objective,
chronology, etc.

Summarize individual studies or articles with as much or as little detail as each merits
according to its comparative importance in the literature, remembering that space
(length) denotes significance.

Writing the conclusion


Summarize major contributions of significant studies and articles to the body of knowledge
under review, maintaining the focus established in the introduction.

Evaluate the current "state of the art" for the body of knowledge reviewed, pointing
out major methodological flaws or gaps in research, inconsistencies in theory and
findings, and areas or issues pertinent to future study.

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Conclude by providing some insight into the relationship between the central topic of
the literature review and a larger area of study such as a discipline, a scientific
endeavor, or a profession.

the literature review should:


compare and contrast different authors' views on an issue
group authors who draw similar conclusions
criticise aspects of methodology
note areas in which authors are in disagreement
The purposes of the review are:
to define and limit the problem you are working on
to place your study in an historical perspective
to avoid unnecessary duplication
to evaluate promising research methods
to relate your findings to previous knowledge and suggest further research

7. What is research design and explain it essential.


Research design is a blueprint for conducting a study with maximum control over factors
that may interfere with the validity of the findings
Research design carries an important influence on the reliability of the results attained. It
therefore provides a solid base for the whole research. It is needed due to the fact that it
allows for the smooth working of the many research operations. This makes the research as
effective as possible by providing maximum information with minimum spending of effort,
money and time. For building of a car, we must have a suitable blueprint made by an expert
designer. The importance of research design in research methodology is due to the
following:

It may result in the preferred kind of study with helpful conclusion.

It cuts down on inaccuracy.


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Allows you get optimum efficiency and reliability.

Reduce wastage of time.

Reduce uncertainty, confusion and practical haphazard related to any research


problem.

Of great help for collection of research material and testing of hypothesis.

It is a guide for giving research the right path.

Gets rid of bias and marginal errors.

Provides an idea concerning the type of resources needed in terms of money, effort,
time, and manpower.

Smooth & efficient sailing (sets boundaries & helps prevent blind search)

Maximizes reliability of results.

Provides firm foundation to the endeavor.

Averts misleading conclusions & thoughtless useless exercise.

Provides opportunity to anticipate flaws & inadequacies (anticipates problems).

Incorporates by learning from other peoples critical comments & evaluations.

8. Explain different types of research design.


Answer:

Quantitative Research Designs

Descriptive

Describe phenomena as they exist. Descriptive studies


generally take raw data and summarize it in a useable form.

Can also be qualitative in nature if the sample size is small


and data are collected from questionnaires, interviews or
observations.

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Experimental

The art of planning and implementing an experiment in


which the research has control over some of the conditions
where the study takes place and control over some aspects of
the independent variable(s) (presumed cause or variable used
to predict another variable)

Quasi-experimental

A form of experimental research. One in which the


researcher cannot control at least one of the three elements
of an experimental design:

Environment

Intervention (program or practice)

Assignment to experimental and control groups

Qualitative Research Designs


Historical

Collection and evaluation of data related to past events that


are used to describe causes, effects and trends that may
explain present or future events. Data are often archival.

Ethnographic

Data includes interviews.

The collection of extensive narrative data over an extended


period of time in natural settings to gain insights about other
types of research.

Data are collected through observations at particular points


of time over a sustained period.

Data include observations, records and interpretations of


what is seen.

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Case Studies

An in-depth study of an individual group, institution,


organization or program.

Data include interviews, field notes of observations, archival


data and biographical data

9. What is sampling? Explain essentials of good sampling?


Sampling is a method of studying from a few selected items,instead of the entire big number
of units. The small selection is called sample. The large number of items of units of particular
characteristic is called population. Example: We check a sample of rice to see whether the
rice well boiled or not. We check a small sample of solution to decide how much a given
solution is concentrated. Thus with the sample we infer about a population. Some of the types
of sampling are (1) simple random sampling. Mostly used for the type of population which is
homogeneous.(2) Stratified sampling. Stratas help us classify the population when the
population is heterogeneous and take simple random samples from each classes. (3)
Sequential sampling is done by selection of the samples sequentially at regular intervals. The
purpose of all the sampling techniques is to give the equal chance of any item to be selected
without bias.
Essentials of good sampling:
1. Representative: The sample should truly represent the characteristics of the verse. For this
investigator should be free from bias and the method of collection should be appropriate.
2. Adequacy: The size of the sample should be adequate i.e., neither too large nor small but
commensurate with the size of the population.
3. Homogeneity: There should be homogeneity in the nature of all the units selected for the
sample. If the units of the sample are of heterogeneous character it will impossible to make a
comparative study with them.
4. Independent ability: The method of selection of the sample should be such that the items
of the sample are selected in an independent manner. This means that lection of one item

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should not influence the selection of another item in any manner d that each item should be
selected on the basis of its own merit.

10. Explain different methods or techniques of sampling.


The different techniques of Sampling are:
1. Random Sampling
Random samples require a way of naming or numbering the target population and then using
some type of raffle method to choose those to make up the sample. Random samples are the
best method of selecting your sample from the population of interest.
The advantages are that your sample should represent the target population and eliminate
sampling bias, but the disadvantage is that it is very difficult to achieve (i.e. time, effort and
money).
2. Stratified Sampling
The researcher identifies the different types of people that make up the target population and
works out the proportions needed for the sample to be representative.
A list is made of each variable (e.g. IQ, sex etc.) which might have an effect on the research.
For example, if we are interested in the money spent on books by undergraduates, then the
main subject studied may be an important variable.
For example, students studying English Literature may spend more money on books than
engineering students so if we use a very large percentage of English students or engineering
students then our results will not be accurate.
Gathering such a sample would be extremely time consuming and difficult to do
(disadvantage). This method is rarely used in Psychology. However, the advantage is that
the sample should be highly representative of the target population and therefore we can
generalize from the results obtained.
3. Opportunity Sampling
Uses people from target population available at the time and willing to take part. It is based
on convenience.

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An opportunity sample is obtained by asking members of the population of interest if they


would take part in your research. An example would be selecting a sample of students from
those coming out of the library.
This is a quick way and easy of choosing participants (advantage), but may not provide a
representative sample, and could be biased (disadvantage).
4. Systematic Sampling
Chooses subjects in a systematic (i.e. orderly / logical) way from the target population, like
every nth participant on a list of names.
To take a systematic sample, you list all the members of the population, and then decided
upon a sample you would like. By dividing the number of people in the population by the
number of people you want in your sample, you get a number we will call. The advantage to
this method is that is should provide a representative sample, but the disadvantage is that it
is very difficult to achieve (i.e. time, effort and money).

11. What is secondary data and explain its limitations.


Secondary data refers to data that was collected by someone other than the user.Common
sources of secondary data for social science include censuses, information collected by
government departments, organisational records and data that was originally collected for
other research purposes.[2] Primary data, by contrast, are collected by the investigator
conducting the research.
Secondary data analysis can save time that would otherwise be spent collecting data and,
particularly

in

the

case

of quantitative

data,

can

provide

larger

and

higher-

qualitydatabases that would be unfeasible for any individual researcher to collect on their
own. In addition, analysts of social and economic change consider secondary data essential,
since it is impossible to conduct a new survey that can adequately capture past change and/or
developments. However, secondary data analysis can be less useful in marketing research, as
data may be outdated or inaccurate.
Limitations:
1. Inappropriateness of the data. Data collected by oneself (primary data) is collected with
a concrete idea in mind. Usually to answer a research question or just meet certain objectives.
24

In this sense, secondary data sources may provide you with vast amount of information, but
quantity is not synonymous of appropriateness. This is simply because it has been collected
to answer a different research question or objectives. The inappropriateness may be, for
instance, because of the data was collected many years ago. There are two possible ways to
be taken when SD is not appropriate: 1) answering your research question partially with the
subsequent lack of validity; 2) you need to find an alternative technique of data collection,
such as survey or interviews.
2. Lack of control over data quality: Government and other official institutions are often a
guarantee of quality data, but it is not always the case. For this reason, quality issues must be
verified.

12. Explain different methods of collecting primary method.


The different methods of collecting primary data are:
i. Observation Method
In observation method, the information is sought by way of investigators own direct
observation without asking from the respondent. The main advantage of this method is that it
is free from subjective biasness, as it is free from respondents willingness. It is, however, an
expensive and time consuming method. Moreover, the information provided by this method
is very limited and some of the more busy people like executives may not be accessible to
direct observation.
ii. Interview Method:
Primary data may be collected either through personal interviews or through telephonic
interviews:
(a) In the personal interviews the interviewer asks questions generally in a face to face
contact. Through interview method more and reliable information may be obtained. Personal
information can be obtained easily under this method. It is, however, a very expensive and
time consuming method, especially when large and widely spread geographical sample is
taken. Certain types of respondents, such as officials, executives or people of high income
groups, may not be easily accessible.
25

(b) In telephonic interviews contact is made with the respondents through telephone.
The main merits of telephonic interviews are:

It is more flexible and faster than other methods.

It is cheaper and less time consuming.

This method also has several weaknesses. For example, the surveys are restricted to
respondents who have telephonic facilities and little time is given to respondents for
considered answers. It is not suitable for intensive surveys where comprehensive answers are
required for various questions.
iii. Questionnaire Method:
In this method a questionnaire is mailed to the person concerned with a request to answer the
questions and return the questionnaire. This method is most extensively applied in various
researches of human and economic geography.
The merits of this method are given below:

There is low cost even when the universe is large and is widespread geographically.

It is free from bias of interviewer as answers are respondents own words.

The demerits of this method are:

Low rate of return of the duly filled questionnaires.

It can be used only when the respondents are educated and cooperative.

iv. Schedule Method:


This method of data collection is very much like the collection of data through
questionnaires, with little difference that lies in the fact that schedules (proforma containing a
set of questions) are being filled in by the enumerators who are specially appointed for this
purpose. Enumerators explain the aims and objects of the investigation and also remove the
difficulties which any respondent may feel in understanding the implications of a particular
question. It is, however, very expensive.

26

B) Introduction to Problems of Working Parents


Good, honest, hard-headed character is a function of a home. If the proper seed is sown
there and properly nourished for a few years, it will not be easy for that plant to be uprooted.
George. A. Dorsey.
Family life is changing, and so, too, is the role mothers and fathers play at work and at home.
In economic terms, families with two full-time working parents are better off than other
families.

27

We work in a pressurised, deadline-driven and exhilarating industry where responding to the


needs of clients, colleagues and teams can take a lot of juggling and energy. When the patter
of tiny feet comes along, it adds to the balancing act and can make life feel even more
complex. We work hard to get where we want to be within our careers and we all strive to be
the best parent we can possibly be, whether we are new to parenting or an experienced pro.
So when it comes to juggling both our day job and being a parent, the task can often seem an
exciting, yet daunting one.
In light of the fact that the majority of two parent families in the 1990's have also become
dual wage earning families, it is important to examine the effects of such a phenomenon on
society in general and on child rearing in particular. Children acquire their goals, values and
norms based on the way that they view or identify with their parents as well as from the
quality and amount of care, love and guidance given to them by their parents. Parents who
work present a different image to their children than parents who do not work. In addition,
wage earners, including parents, must (in most cases), be absent from the home during the
day. When considering these modifications to the family dynamics, there is considerable
basis for proof that the positive effects outweigh the negative effects experienced by offspring
in families were both parents are employed. The working parent occupies an important
exemplary role within the family. Working parents often command considerable respect from
their children, because they demonstrate the worthy characteristics of industriousness, social
compatibility, self-reliance, maturity, intelligence and responsibility. Because children
identify with their parents, the feedback from such positive influences tends to be positive as
well because many of these positive characteristics are imparted upon them. A child who
observes the competent coping abilities of a working parent learns in turn, how to cope with
life's problems. At first this may translate into an improved sense of self-reliance and
independence for the child as well as an improvement in the ability to be socially compatible.
As the child grows, it can further render a child more emotionally mature and hence more
competent in dealing with responsibility and task completion such as is needed for school
work and extracurricular activities. A study by Hoffman in 1974 corroborates these
observations and therefore one can conclude that, in general, the working parent provides a
very positive role model for the child in a family where both parents are employed. Attitudes
of working parents pertaining to achievement, responsibility and independence affect both
male and female offspring. There seems to be more beneficial effects felt by daughters of
working women than by sons; however, this neither implies nor concludes that males do not
28

receive some positive effects due to maternal employment. Hoffman has concluded that
daughters of employed mothers tend to be more independent. This tendency may result from
the fact that in the mother's absence, a daughter is often left to cope with caring for her: This
promotes her independence and self-reliance. At the same time, the daughter may also be left
with the job of looking after a younger sibling, helping to promote her sense of responsibility.
Significant too, is the fact that daughters of working mother's tend to be more decisive about
their futures than sons. Further studies have demonstrated that a mother's employment status
and occupation tends to be a good predictor of the outcome of the working mother's daughter,
since daughters tend to follow in their mother's footsteps. Typically, working mothers held
higher educational aspirations for their children and furthermore, most daughters tend to
achieve higher grades in school. Boys with working mothers showed better social and
personal skills than boys of non-working mothers. On a negative note, middle-class boys tend
to do worse in school when their mothers worked. As well, boys whose mothers work tend to
have strained relationships with their fathers due to their perceptive devaluation of their
father's worth as an adequate bread-winner. One can conclude that males may be negatively
affected when their mothers work, but males and, to a greater degree, females are affected in
many positive ways with regards to achievement in independence and responsibility.
Adequate child care is a necessity for parents who both work. It is often complicated to
balance both the parent's and child's needs when using child care. However, it may be
possible to satisfy the demands of both if forethought and prudence are applied.

Chapter 2: Research Methodology


A. Research Methodology
Research Methodology The study of conducting research is Research Methodology.
Research: The word research is composed of two syllables Re and Search. Re is the
prefix meaning Again or over again or a new and Search is the latter meaning to examine
closely and carefully or to test and try. Together they form, a careful, systematic, patient
29

study and investigation in some field of knowledge undertaken to establish principles /


policies. Research can also be defined as
1. Search for knowledge
2. Systematic and scientific search for getting relevant answers on any taken up specific
topic.
3. Scientific enquiry into a subject.
4. Research is a movement from the unknown to the known.
5. It is the voyage of discovery
Research Methodology is a way to find out the result of a given problem on a specific matter
or problem that is also referred as research problem. In Methodology, researcher uses
different criteria for solving/searching the given research problem. Different sources use
different type of methods for solving the problem. If we think about the word
Methodology, it is the way of searching or solving the research problem. (Industrial
Research Institute, 2010).
Research methodology has many dimensions and research methods do constitute a part of the
research methodology. The scope of research methodology is wider than that of research
methods. Thus, when we talk of research methodology we not only talk of the research
methods but also consider the logic behind the methods we use in the context of our research
study and explain why we are using a particular method or technique and why we are not
using others so that research results are capable of being evaluated either by the researcher
himself or by others.

B. Types of Research
Research can be classified in many different ways on the basis of the methodology of
research, the knowledge it creates, the user group, the research problem it investigates etc.
Researchers have many ways of examining and relating their study. Quantitative, qualitative,
and mixed measures are all differentiated by the question, 'How is the researcher explaining
his or her findings?' If the researcher uses numbers, they are using a quantitative measure; if
30

they use a descriptive style, it is qualitative measure; and if they are somewhere in between, it
is a mixed method.
The basic types of research are as follows:
(i)

Surveys:

Surveys involve collecting information, usually from fairly large groups of people, by means
of questionnaires but other techniques such as interviews or telephoning may also be used.
There are different types of survey. The most straightforward type (the one shot survey) is
administered to a sample of people at a set point in time. Another type is the before and after
survey which people complete before a major event or experience and then again afterwards.
(ii)

Questionnaires

Questionnaires are a good way to obtain information from a large number of people and/or
people who may not have the time to attend an interview or take part in experiments. They
enable people to take their time, think about it and come back to the questionnaire later.
Participants can state their views or feelings privately without worrying about the possible
reaction of the researcher. Unfortunately, some people may still be inclined to try to give
socially acceptable answers. People should be encouraged to answer the questions as honestly
as possible so as to avoid the researchers drawing false conclusions from their study.

The Research which Ive undertaken is survey done by me. Through the survey study Ive
made series of questions.

C. Objective of Research
The main objective of the study was to assess the extent to which working parents effects
people and society as whole. The specific objectives of the study include:
-

To understand the problem of working parents.

31

To understand its impact on family members health.

To understand its effect on childs development.

To understand its impact on marital relationship.

To understand its effect on personal growth.

D. Hypothesis
A hypothesis is a specific statement of prediction. It describes in concrete terms what you
expect will happen in your study. A hypothesis is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.
The following hypotheses are formulated to address some of the research questions:
-

Most of the working parents find it difficult to maintain balance between work life and
family.

The health of family members gets compromised a lot.

The children of working parents turn out to be difficult.

Behaviour problems arise in both parents as well as children.

E. Data Sources
There are two sources of data collection techniques. Primary and Secondary data collection
techniques, Primary data collection uses surveys, experiments or direct observations.
Secondary data collection may be conducted by collecting information from a diverse source
of documents or electronically stored information, census and market studies are examples of
a common sources of secondary data. This is also referred to as "data mining."
For my research Ive done primary data collection as well as secondary data collection. For
primary data collection Ive circulated questionnaire. And as a secondary data collection Ive
gathered articles and abstracts from Newspaper, Books and Internet.

F. Sample Size

32

The sample size of a statistical sample is the number of observations that constitute it. The
sample size is typically denoted by n and it is always a positive integer. The sample size is an
important feature of any empirical study in which the goal is to make inferences about a
population from a sample.
The sample size Ive taken for this study is 40.

G. Limitation of study
The research work cannot be conducted without being confounded with one
problem or the other; this forms the basis of limitation. Another limitation was
lack of knowledge on the subject.
To carry out the research study the following specific limitations were expected
and faced during the research study:
- As sample size is small general applicability of this research is limited.
- As there was limited time to conduct this research the data is uncertain.
- As the sensitivity of the topic there was confidentiality problem.
- As it was not done thoroughly the quality of data could not be verified.
- As this study is specified towards problems of working parents and their
family general relevancy is limited.

However, to overcome the limitations and maintain the effectiveness of


research work sincere efforts were put.

33

H. Review of Literature
1) Two incomes, no time: The struggle is real for many working parents
http://www.ocregister.com/articles/time-691063-work-working.html
Nov. 7, 2015 | TIM LUDWIG
A new report from Pew Research Centre on the lives of working parents offers a statistical
snapshot of the ways so-called traditional families get by and the ways they sometimes
don't in modern, post-recession.
Time vs. money. Spouse vs. spouse. Work vs. ... well, everything.
Working mothers and working fathers both struggle, but in different ways.
For women, the struggle centres on time. For many full-time working moms, feeling rushed
is an almost constant reality, and 4 in 10 working moms say they always feel rushed,
according to the report.
I went grocery shopping at lunch because I knew I wouldnt have time later, said Janie
Best, a mother of two teenage sons who commutes daily from her home in Mission Viejo to
her job running the non-profit WHW.
It is also found a stubborn gender divide for double-income parents child care.
Though men and women say they increasingly split many household chores and some
elements of parenting, such as discipline and activities, women told researchers they do the
lions share of the most time-intensive elements of parenting scheduling, homework help
and staying home when a child is sick.
Some local working fathers agree with that assessment. My wife is spot on, said Ryan
Tamura of Rancho Santa Margarita. We could have eight soccer games on a weekend, and
she just tells me where to go.

34

While mothers feel crunched for time, fathers often say work keeps them from spending time
with their kids. Half of working fathers told Pew they spend too little time with their kids,
while just 39 per cent of working mothers reported feeling that way.
Some fathers also see how the work and family divide falls hardest on mothers.

2) Stressed, Tired, Rushed: A Portrait of the Modern Family


http://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/05/upshot/stressed-tired-rushed-a-portrait-of-the-modernfamily.html?_r=0
NOV 4, 2015 | Claire Cain Miller
The data are the latest to show that while family structure seems to have permanently
changed, public policy, workplace structure and mores have not seemed to adjust to a norm in
which both parents work.
This is not an individual problem, it is a social problem, said Mary Blair-Loy, a sociologist
and the founding director of the Center for Research on Gender in the Professions at the
University of California, San Diego. This is creating a stress for working parents that is
affecting life at home and for children, and we need a societal-wide response.
She said policies like paid family leave and after-school child care would significantly ease
parents stress. Yet today, families mostly figure out the juggle on their own.
In most cases, that means women still do the majority of the child care and housework
particularly managing the mental checklists of childrens schedules and needs even when
both parents work full time, according to the Pew survey and other research. Just dont tell
fathers that. They are much more likely than mothers to say they share responsibilities
equally.
The tension is affecting family life, Pew found. Fifty-six per cent of all working parents say
the balancing act is difficult, and those who do are more likely to say that parenting is tiring
and stressful, and less likely to find it always enjoyable and rewarding.

35

3) Many working parents too busy to spend quality time with children
http://www.breakingnews.ie/ireland/report-claims-many-working-parents-too-busy-to-spendquality-time-with-children-753008.html
05/09/2016
A new report claims working parents are damaging their children by not spending quality
time with them.
The study by UCC researchers for the Department of Children, suggests that busy mothers
and fathers do not have the time to get to know their offspring.
The study which was set up to find ways to improve children's health will feed into the
National Obesity Plan.
One in four children in this country is currently overweight or obese.
The report also looks at the stigma attached to eating disorders and the "forced"
competitiveness of school PE classes.
Sheila Geraghty, the Academic coordinator with the Child and Family Research Centre in
NUIG, she says it is quality not quantity that matters when it comes to family time.
Ms Geraghty said: "It's that time that you have with your children, how you make the most of
it. If you are driving in the car to an after-school activity, it's having the radio off and having a
conversation.
"It's when you are with the children in the playground, not being on your phone. So there are
lots of ways you can make your time with your children of really good quality."

36

Bibliography
To prepare this survey Ive gathered data from following sources:
-

http://www.limat.org/data/research/Research%20Methodology.pdf

http://www.workingmomsbreak.com/2011/06/20/survey-working-parents-healthproblems/

http://www.shebyshe.com/press-releases/2014/7/20/top-ten-challenges-for-todays-parents

http://national.deseretnews.com/article/6620/survey-nearly-half-of-parents-both-workand-most-find-work-life-balance-difficult.html

37

Questionnaire
Survey On Problems on Working Parents
1. Name (Optional):
2. Gender:
Female

Male

18 - 25

26 - 35

36 - 45

46 - 55

56 - 65

Above 65

3. Age:

4. Educational Qualification:
Under Graduate

Graduate

Post Graduate

Other

5. Occupation:
Service

Business

Other

6. Income:
1 To 5 Lakh

5 To 10 Lakh

Above 10 Lakh

7. Working Person:
Father

Mother

Both

8. Number of children:
1

More than 3

9. Total weekly working hours:


20 - 30

31 - 40

41 50

More than 50
38

Instruction:Given below are several statements indicates the degree to which you agree or disagree with
each statements by placing (

) in the appropriate column. Please note that there is no Right

or Wrong answer.
SD- Strongly Disagree; D- Disagree; N- Neutral; A- Agree; SA- Strongly Agree

No
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
22
23
24
25

Statements
Two working parents face more problems than
single working parent.
It is hard to maintain proper balance between work
and family life.
Working parents face more mental issues like stress,
hypertension, anxiety, insomnia etc
Working parents face more physical health issues
like burn out, fatigue, daily headache etc.
The children fall frequently ill.
The other family members health gets compromised
There are frequent fight/ argument between other
family member and working parents
There are problems between family members due to
late working hours.
There is enough time to communicate with child.
There is enough time to spend time with your child
to play/ do homework
There is active participation of both parents in
childs school function.
The child is given proper attention and guidance/
help by both the parents.
There is enough time to spend with spouse.
Work life often cause argument/ fight with spouse.
There is enough Me time.
There is enough scope of growth at work place.
The behavior pattern of parents change sometimes
due to work pressure.

26

The child becomes difficult to handle on late stage


as a result of lack of presence of parents at home.

27

The childs behavior also changes due to lack of


observation by parents.

SD

SA

39

28. Give your suggestions.

40