Abstract There has been a significant interest in Music Supervision due to music’s ability to sonically brand visual media

, resulting in a lucrative cross-marketing tool. The music supervisor acts as a liaison between the visual media’s creative team and the music industry. This influential role of consultant and tastemaker considers more than aesthetics of the scene as to include, legal, administrative, creative, interpersonal, and budgetary know-how.

Film scholars that specialize in film music primarily focus on the composition of a film’s score and less on the placement of pre-recorded music and it’s function as a narrative device and a marketing tool. The music industry is at a cross-road. Record sales are declining and musicians are bypassing the major record labels to self distribute. Music industry professionals are looking to license music catalogues as a new marketing tool and new source of revenue.

Currently three books have been published on the topic of Music Supervision; two of which approach music supervision from the perspective of the musician. There is yet to be any visual media that explores the process, politics, and prospect of this art form. Music Supervision: a thesis project is a video project compiled of interviews with entertainment professionals and artists. This project will provide the film and music communities an understanding of the evolution of the art form and the selection process.

Music Supervision: a thesis project

La Toia Janine Brown

Thesis submitted to the faculty of Columbia College Chicago In partial fulfillment of the requirements for Master of Arts Management

Arts, Entertainment, and Media Management May 25, 2010

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Preface Film has always been a passion, while music has been a hobby. I sought to merge the two disciplines, which lead me to launch a production company, Nerdy Media, in 2007 where I began producing music videos and music related documentaries. That same year I began graduate school and became interested in the relationship between the film and music industries and the common denominator between the two, music supervision.

From September 2009 to December 2009 I had the opportunity to intern with Kurtis Productions, a documentary production company and Music Dealers, a music licensing company. These experiences allowed me to gain a greater understanding of documentary filmmaking and music licensing. They have also inspired this thesis project by allowing me to observe and participate in the licensing and research processes pertaining to music supervision.

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Table of Contents
ABSTRACT ....................................................................................................................................................1 MUSIC SUPERVISION: A THESIS PROJECT........................................................................................ 2 PREFACE ...................................................................................................................................................... 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS ....................................................................................................................... 4

......................................................................................................................................................................... 6 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY............................................................................................................................ 7 CHAPTER 1 – PROJECT PROPOSAL.................................................................................................... 10 OBJECTIVE.................................................................................................................................................... 10 MAJOR STEPS OF THE PROJECT ...................................................................................................................... 10 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT .................................................................................................................................. 10 METHODOLOGY..............................................................................................................................................10 ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES................................................................................................................................ 11 PRIMARY DATA GATHERING ...........................................................................................................................11 TIMELINE...................................................................................................................................................... 11 CHAPTER 2 – RESEARCH........................................................................................................................12 THE CREATIVE TEAM.......................................................................................................................... 14 HISTORY OF THE MOVING IMAGE AND MUSIC ........................................................................... 15 SILENT AGE AND PUBLISHING........................................................................................................15 THE SOUND OF SYNERGY ............................................................................................................... 17 ANATOMY OF FILM SOUND............................................................................................................... 20 BUILDING A BRAND............................................................................................................................. 23 SONIC BRANDING.............................................................................................................................. 24 CONGLOMERATES ............................................................................................................................26 THE RECORD BUSINESS AND THE MUSIC INDUSTRY................................................................. 27 PUBLISHING IS PROFITABLE...........................................................................................................29 Media Permissions................................................................................................................................30 UNDER NEW MANAGEMENT............................................................................................................31 THE PROFIT........................................................................................................................................ 32 NEW MUSIC MARKETING ...................................................................................................................35 NAVIGATE THE NEW PARADIGM..................................................................................................... 36 RELIABLE TOOLS............................................................................................................................... 36 THE NEW TOOLS................................................................................................................................ 38 CHAPTER 3 – PROJECT DETAILS........................................................................................................44 TIME MANAGEMENT – PROCESS DATES OF EXECUTION.........................................................................................44 Research – September 2009 to January 2010...................................................................................... 44 Pre-production - January 2010 ........................................................................................................... 45 Production – February and March 2010.............................................................................................45 Post-Production – April 2010 ..............................................................................................................46 CONSTRAINTS ............................................................................................................................................... 46 RESULTS....................................................................................................................................................... 48 FUTURE PLANS.............................................................................................................................................. 48 RECOMMENDATIONS........................................................................................................................................48 CHAPTER 4 – CONCLUSION...................................................................................................................50

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BIBLIOGRAPHY.........................................................................................................................................52 ....................................................................................................................................................................... 53 APPENDIX I................................................................................................................................................. 54 THESIS PROPOSAL.......................................................................................................................................... 54 Introduction.......................................................................................................................................... 55 Research Objectives .............................................................................................................................55 Proposed Table of Contents..................................................................................................................56 Schedule................................................................................................................................................ 57 APPENDIX II................................................................................................................................................58 VLOG SITE OUTLINE...................................................................................................................................... 58 ........................................................................................................................................................................ 58 APPENDIX III.............................................................................................................................................. 59 AGREEMENTS.................................................................................................................................................59 Interviewee Release Form.................................................................................................................... 59 Location Release Form.........................................................................................................................60 THE LOCATION MAY FORM SOME OF THE BACKDROP OF THE ABOVE FILM............60 APPENDIX IV.............................................................................................................................................. 61 INTERVIEW QUESTIONS....................................................................................................................................61 MUSIC DEALERS – MUSIC LICENSING COMPANY........................................................................ 62 HOW DID MUSIC AND FILM CONVERGE.......................................................................................... 62 HOW DID MUSIC PLAY A ROLE IN THE SILENT AGE OF FILM................................................. 62 WHAT FUNCTION DOES MUSIC PLAY IN THE CINEMATIC EXPRIENCE .............................. 62 WHAT DID THE MUSICAL GENRE ADD TO FILM HISTORY....................................................... 62 WHAT IS A MUSICAL............................................................................................................................... 62 HOW DOES THE AUDIENCE RESPOND TO POPULAR MUSIC AND HOW DOES CINEMA GIVE NEW LIFE TO FORGOTTEN HITS............................................................................................. 62 HOW IS THE SOUNDTRACK USED AS A CROSS-PROMOTIONAL TOOL................................. 62 WHY/HOW DO FILMMAKERS USES MUSIC AS A NARRATIVE DEVICE..................................62 HOW IMPORTANT IS THE MUSIC SELECTION FOR OPENING AND CLOSING TOTLES ...63 WHEN SHOULD THE PRODUCER/FILMMAKER/DIRECTOR HIRE THE MUSIC SUPERVISOR...............................................................................................................................................63 WHAT SHOULD A FILMMAKER LOOK FOR IN A MUSIC SUPERVISOR.................................. 63 WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN A PRODUCER/FILMMAKER/DIRECTOR AND THE MUSIC SUPERVISOR.......................................................................................................................63 DO YOU FEEL THE MUSIC VIDEO HAS INFLUENCE CINEMA/MUSIC PLACEMENT...........63 APPENDIX V................................................................................................................................................64 BIOS............................................................................................................................................................ 64 APPENDIX VI.............................................................................................................................................. 66

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MARKETING DESIGNS..................................................................................................................................... 66 APPENDIX VII.............................................................................................................................................68 BUDGET........................................................................................................................................................68
Program: Music Supervision: a thesis project ............................................................................................. 68 Format: HDV................................................................................................................................................ 68

APPENDIX VIII........................................................................................................................................... 71 CUE SHEETS..................................................................................................................................................71

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Executive Summary

This paper seeks to understand how and why music is selected and placed in media. The project component of this thesis project will use online media, volg/podcasts, to explore and illustrate the history, role, and tools of the music supervisor as well as the branding potential of music licensing. This project will serve as a resource for the film and music communities.

A music supervisor mediates between the two worlds of visual, interactive media and music. The music supervisor is defined as a person who selects and licenses music and sound effects.1 The broad description entails but is not limited to music selection clearance, budgeting, scheduling, composer delivery, and negotiations.

Film, television, video games, and commercials are conceptualized and developed by creative teams. These creative teams are usually comprised of a person who manages the profitability of the production and those that manage spending and the integrity of the content. Secondary management team supervises the daily operations of the production. The music supervisor is a part of theis management team.

Although music placement is not exclusive to cinema, it is the cinema that has had the most influence on how the audience responds to music and the moving image. The silent age of film was never silent. Most films were accompanied by live music, typically of
1

Ramsay Adams, David Hnatiuk, David Weiss, Music Supervision: The Complete Guide to Selecting Music for Movies, TV, Games and New Media, (New York: Schirmer Books, 2005), 1.

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classical and popular music of the time, which provided an emotion to the scenes of actors unable to vocalize sorrow or bliss. These musicians were film’s first music supervisors. The music for these films was improvised, pre-composed, or original compositions.

After the synchronization of sound and film, studios exploited film scores for the added revenues from record sales and mechanical licenses. Essentially media would use soundtracks to reinforce brand identity also known as sonic branding.

As the record business steadily declines, labels and musicians are looking towards music supervisors in hopes to licensing their music to media (film, television, video games, online media, etc) as a means to profit from and market their work. The music supervisor’s success depends on navigating these venues and seeking the most exciting music for placement. The three reliable sources to find music are the labels (major and independent), music libraries, and the wide pool of unsigned talent. Music libraries and record labels are becoming savvier in their approach to cater to the music needs of their clients, the music supervisors, by offering affordable, unique, and customizable music, thus creating easy access for music supervisors.

The vlog/podcast will be comprised of four segments featuring a film historian, a music supervisor, and a marketing expert who will inform filmmakers of the value of music supervision and musicians the new tools music supervisor’s are using to locate music. The project will be divided into three phases, pre-production, production, and post8

production.

The pre-production phase will require scheduling, pre-interviewing of subjects, acquiring equipment, crew, and drafting the website. The production phase will require developing the website, conducting interviews, and filming. The post-production phase will require editing, embedding, and sending copies to the interviewees.

This thesis project is a segment of an ongoing project that eventually will lead to the completion of a documentary that will be distributed online and theatrically.

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CHAPTER 1 – Project Proposal

Objective

To provide information and insights into the music supervisor’s role as being key to creative visual media teams, musicians, record labels, and the new profit possibilities that music licensing allows.

Major Steps of the Project

The major steps of this project are to research music supervision, manage the production of the vlog/podcast and the interviews.

Scope of the Project

To produce engaging and informative segments that will be used later as a marketing tool for the completed film. Four segments will be produced, filmed, and edited by a small creative team.

Methodology

1. Research topic by investigating new trends via work experience, articles, and interviews. 2. Pre-Production: schedule interviews, acquire equipment, assemble crew, and draft the website. 3. Production: develop the website and filming

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4. Post-Production: edit, embed videos, launch site and follow up with the interviewees.

Anticipated Outcomes

The anticipated outcomes are a series of quality video segments that will feature a film historian, a music supervisor, and a marketing expert, who will provide a better understanding of the music licensing process and benefits.

Primary Data Gathering • • Research: Books, articles, documentaries. Music Supervision Class: Hands-on experience to gain a greater understanding of the process from the creative team perspective. • Internships (Kurtis Productions and Music Dealers): Gain a better understanding of the documentary production process and music licensing from the music industry perspective.

Timeline

The project is divided into four phases, Research, Pre-Production, Production, and PostProduction.

1. Research - September 09 to January 10 2. Pre-Production – January 10 3. Production – February and March 10

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4. Post-Production and Delivery – April 10 CHAPTER 2 – Research On May 15th 2006, 22.50 million viewers tuned in to watch the second season finale of Grey’s Anatomy. For twenty-seven episodes the audience invested in the lives of the interns, residents, and their mentors in the fictional Seattle Grace Mercy West Hospital. As the season reached it’s climactic final moments, the audience, along with the interns, are shocked to find Izzie lying in bed clinging to former heart patient and beau, Denny's still form. Snow Patrol’s Chasing Cars begins to play softly and builds as the program reveals significant details of parallel plotlines.

The next day Chasing Cars became the No. 1 downloaded single on iTunes, eventually peaking at #5 on the Billboard Hot 100 in the US. After nine years this single became the band's first Top 10 hit in the US. It was the fourth best selling digital single of 2006 in the UK, totaling 190,000 legal downloads and the ninth most downloaded song in the country of all time. The person responsible for connecting the band to this television series was the owner of the music supervision company, Chop Shop, Alexandra Patsavas, also the show's music supervisor. She described her choice as "a beautiful and complex song [that] served as the perfect soundtrack to a series of very complex moments."2

Of all the other beautiful songs with complex lyrics, how did Patsavas find Snow Patrol and how was it decided upon that Chasing Cars was the most suitable song to be placed

2

Richard Harrington, “For Snow Patrol, Things Are Heating Up”, available from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content; Internet; accessed 13 December 2009

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in this highly anticipated moment?

Alexandra Patsavas is the CEO of the record label and music supervision service, Chop Shop Records. Chop Shop is an industry leader in licensing music for film and television. A music supervisor mediates between the two worlds of cinema and music. The music supervisor is defined as a person who selects and licenses music and sound effects.3 The broad description entails but is not limited to music selection, clearance, budgeting, scheduling, composer delivery, and negotiation. The music supervisor is a hard-working mediator who caters to the needs of directors, producers, and other creative people.4

The music supervisor with a diverse background in business/legal affairs and the music industry is an asset to the media team. There are two types of music supervisors. The first is the in-house supervisor of a large media conglomerate, benefiting from access to publishing, recording artists through subsidiary music ventures, in-house music editors, clearance and legal personnel, and the bargaining power the conglomerates possess. The second is the freelance supervisor who relies on networking and contacts from previous work experiences. Patsavas falls into the latter.

The music supervisor works as a musical casting director helping to shape the score and it’s promotional value and dramatic aptness. Developing the music budget, hiring the
3 4

Ramsay, Hnatiuk, Weiss, 2005, 1. Brooke Wentz, Hey, That’s My Music: Music Supervision, Licensing and Content Acquisition. (New York: Hal Leonard Books, 2007), 45

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composer and other music personnel, negotiating and licensing agreements are additional responsibilities. However, it is the media’s creative team (i.e. producer, director, creative director, etc) that both hires the music supervisor and determines if the suggested song will be placed in the film and video.

THE CREATIVE TEAM

Film, television, video games, and commercials are conceptualized and developed by management and creative teams. The management team oversees the production to make sure the production runs on schedule and budget. The creative team supervises the creative vision to ensure the artistic integrity. In film there is the producer and director; in television there is the executive producer and showrunner. Producer David Puttnam states, “ a fundamental task of a producer is to make the project as risk-averse as possible. My advice is to bring in bargains, relatively inexpensive pictures on or under budget, since you can’t mandate the success of a movie.”5 When the primary creative team prepares for production, they take into consideration cost and creativity. Director Sydney Pollack states, “Not only do their various creative and mechanical abilities contribute to the final film, but every moment they save is an extra moment that can be spent creatively. Every director researches the background of proposed crewmembers religiously. What pictures have they done? What are their personalities? How fast are

5

Jason E. Squire. “The Movie Business Book”. 3rd Edition. (New York: Fireside, 2004) 17

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they? Do they get on well with other crew members?”6

HISTORY OF THE MOVING IMAGE AND MUSIC Ancient societies have used music as a way to preserve myths and legacies through folksong and performance. The member of society that was designated to preserve and manage the proper execution of the musical aspect of these performances and rituals were the first music supervisors.

Although music placement is not exclusive to cinema, it is the cinema that has had the most influence on how the audience responds to music and the moving image.

SILENT AGE AND PUBLISHING The silent age of film was never silent; most films were accompanied by live music typically of classical and popular music of the time, which provided an emotion to the scenes where actors were unable to vocalize sorrow or bliss. These musicians were film’s first music supervisors; they scored films with improvised, compiled, and original music. The Edison Company’s Frankenstein (1910) was important in creating a valuable marketing tool for the film and music industry, by hiring Sam Fox Music and Academic Music Publishing to produce a cue sheet to accompany the theatrical reel. The cue sheets were generally three to four pages of listings of photoplay music, classical or popular standards from their library, often with list the title and author of a song, when to play it,
6

ibid, 30

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roughly how long to play it, and the publisher of the piece. Quite often, further notes were given of sound effects, tempo, and so on, so that every important factor of the film could be supervised. The musical director of a theater then went through the theater's music collection (generally listed by tempo) and picked out the appropriate cue. If the cues were not available, the musicians would replace it with another suitable piece, or order it through the company that created the cue sheet. Some conductors compiled their own scores rather than use cue sheets; others followed the cue sheet, but used their own choices of music.

The popularity of cinema and its use of the musical score lead to a relationship between the film and music industries. Sales of all sheet music exploded between 1910 and 1918.7 In 1885 a concentration of music publishers settled in the Manhattan section of West 28th street between 5th and 6th Avenue, which has been respectably labeled Tin Pan Alley. These music publishers issued sheet music. Ten years later in 1895 the Music Publisher’s Association was formed to foster a community among publishers, dealers, music educators and all ultimate users of music. 8

Following the arrival of sound and the syncing of film and music, the performance right organizations began to take shape. The American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers (ASCAP) was established in 1914 to assure that music creators are fairly compensated for the public performance of their works, and that their rights were
Jeff Smith, The Sounds of Commerce (New York: Columbia University Press, 1998), 28 8 MPA.org, “About the MPA” Available from http://mpa.org/about/; Internet; accessed. 1, February, 2010.
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properly protected.9 Following ASCAP, Society of European Stage Authors & Composers (SESAC) was founded in 1930, Broadcast Music, Inc. (BMI) was founded in 1939, and SoundExchange was founded in 1995. These organizations were formed to collect royalties and distribute and lobby for reality rights on behalf of the copyright holder.

THE SOUND OF SYNERGY 1927 was ground breaking for film. When the adapted play The Jazz Singer (1927) made its debut, it was the first film to sync sound and film. The musical film became prominent during the 1920s to late 1940s. The musical film is a genre where the characters sing or act out songs that are interwoven into the narrative. These songs advance the plot or develop the film's characters.10 There were a number of groundbreaking movies that revolutionized film. The Broadway Melody (1929), considered one of the earliest examples of a musical, is notable for the song You Were Meant For Me written by Arthur Freed and Nacio Herb Brown. Alam Ara (1931) defined the Hindi musical cinema genre termed Bollywood. Although not a musical, Casablanca (1942) is notable because it wove placement of popular music into the narrative. Most of the lyrics and melody were previously composed, the music was reconfigured by composer Max Steiner. Titles such as As Time Goes By and It Had to Be You were synced to memorable moments causing the viewers to attach a new meaning to the music. The Walt Disney classic Fantasia
9

ASCAP.com, “ASCAP History” Available from http://www.ascap.com/about/history/; Internet; accessed. 1, January, 2010. 10 Wikipedia.org, “Musical film”, Available from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Musical_film; Internet; Accessed 1, January, 2010.

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(1940) is an extreme case of a film supported mainly by notable classical music.

The 1950s brought a wealth of technological advancements in film as it competed with television. Recording practices became increasingly sophisticated with the development of multi-track techniques that offered control over sound quality. Stereo recording was introduced in 1957 and became a standard in the 1960s. 1969 presented the possibility of recording on four channels (Quadraphonic). With technological advancements movie scores and soundtracks became layered and even more prominent in the narrative.

In 1956 Alfred Hitchcock place the song Que Sera, Sera (Whatever Will Be, Will Be) in the film The Man Who Knew Too Much (1956) as a narrative device and was awarded the 1956 Best Song Oscar. Murray Pomerance, in the book Soundtrack Available, describes the song as the heart of the film, “ As we give serious consideration to both the song and the singing.” Pomerance also points out the layering of sound as a communicative device “Because the focus of the scene is acoustic, the actual dance routine is carefully arranged to be visually interesting without disturbing the continuity of the sung lyric or the harmonic development. Thus, when the duet is abruptly interrupted by an invisible rap at the door, heard from off-scene, we experience a purely acoustical override of an acoustical development.” 11

The technological boom became a presence in the home with the affordable turntable and

11

Pamela Robertson Wojcik, Arthur Knight, Soundtrack Available: Essays on Film and Popular Music, (North Carolina: Duke University Press, 2002), 32

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popularity of vinyl. The Beatles capitalized on this opportunity with A Hard Day's Night (1964) and Help! (1965). Both films were accompanied by influential soundtracks that supported the launch of new songs to a wide audience, and, conversely, these popular songs helped to sell the films. The James Bond franchise managed to maintain a perfect balance between associating the successful film with the singles conveniently named after the colorful title series installment such as Shirley Bassey’s Goldfinger and Diamonds Are Forever. In the 1970s popular recording artists were commissioned to construct soundtracks that connected the film to a distinctive sound. Saturday Night Fever (1977) capitalized on the star appeal of the Bee Gees. Superfly (1972), scored by Curtis Mayfield, created a look and sound of an underrepresented class. The lyrics explored themes of poverty and drug abuse. A Clockwork Orange (1971) was groundbreaking as it was the first film to utilize Dolby sound that reduces noise on all pre-mixes and masters. The film also contained a unique mixture of popular classical music and synthpop in its music scoring such as Pomp and Circumstance March No. 1 and original music from electronic musician Wendy Carlos .

Films of the 1980s and 1990s were designed to speak to a generation that grew-up on pop culture references, and the soundtracks reflected this by consisting largely of popular singles. Prince built a franchise on the film Purple Rain (1984) by producing the soundtrack by the same title. John Hughes’ influential teen franchise, Sixteen Candles (1984), Breakfast Club (1985), Pretty in Pink (1986) and Ferris Bueller's Day Off (1986) was carefully scored with music pop songs. Songs such as Don't You (Forget About Me) by Simple Minds from Breakfast Club (1985) and Oh Yeah by Yello that reflected the 19

emotions and lifestyles of the characters.

The 1990s ushered in films that consisted largely of popular (or sometimes forgotten) singles such as Kool & The Gang’s Jungle Boogie in Pulp Fiction (1994) and Iggy Pop’s Lust for Life in Trainspotting (1996). These soundtracks reflected the filmmakers’ sensibility and in some cases help to re-launch the popularity of these songs.

The film industry utilized music to add conceptual and marketability value to the cinematic experience, making the music supervisor an added value to the production.

ANATOMY OF FILM SOUND

In Ways of Listening, Eric F. Clarke writes “Perception and meaning are closely related. When people perceive what is happening around them, they are trying to understand and adapt to, what is going on. In this sense they are engaged with the meaning of the events in their environment.”12

Sound is as much of a narrative force as the image. There are three vital layers to the media soundtrack: dialogue, sound effects, and music. These elements are mixed to balance and enhance the narrative.

12

Eric F. Clarke, Ways of Listening: An Ecological Approach to the Perception of Music Meaning. (New York: Oxford University Press, Inc., 2005). 6

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Claudia Gorbamn in her book Unheard Melodies: Narrative Film Music defines seven principles of music in film:

I.

Invisibility -- the technical apparatus that produces non-diegetic film music must remain invisible

II.

Inaudibility -- music must not be heard consciously, and should submit to dialogue, the visuals etc.

III.

Signifier of emotion -- music can suggest moods and emotions, but is first and foremost a signifier of 'emotion' per se

IV.

Narrative cueing -- music should work a) 'referentially'/'narratively'--indicate point-of-view and character/setting, and b) 'connotatively'--interpret and illustrate narrative events

V.

Continuity -- music should fill "gaps"; contribute formal and rhythmic continuity

VI. VII.

Unity -- achieved through variation and repetition of musical material One might break with any of the above rules within the boundaries of reason between shots in transitions between scenes, by filling “gaps” 13

A given film score may violate any of the principles above, providing that violation is at the service of the other principles.

13

Claudia Gorbman, Unheard Melodies: Narrative Film Music. (Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1987). 72

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BUILDING A BRAND

When “Chasing Cars” reached it’s tipping point, both the label and the show worked quickly to capitalize on its popularity. Although the song had a video, the video was reedited to include clips from the show. The video still failed to catch on, so a third version was filmed to correspond with the edited single version of the song. On September 13, 2006, the song soared in the digital music charts to become the most-downloaded song in the U.S. iTunes Store, just one day after the DVD release of the second season of Grey's Anatomy. On September 12, 2006, the song was included in a compilation of music from the show.

The placement of music in media is a strategic marketing move for both music and media. Carefully coordinated sales campaigns, media, and record labels attempted to work together to exploit the earning possibility of a media project by cross-marketing through radio airplay, television performances, and record-release patterns. This inexpensive advertising stimulates interest in both the film and the artist. The music video joined radio as a cross promotional tool.

In the words of Henry Mancini, “The minute you put a song over the titles or in any part of the picture, you’re unconsciously trying to play on the viewer’s pocketbook – you’re trying to get him to listen, to go out and buy.”14

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iBid, 288

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SONIC BRANDING

Studios exploit film scores for the added revenues from record sales and mechanical licenses.

According to Daniel Jackson, author of Sonic Branding: An Introduction, Sonic branding (a.k.a. audio branding, acoustic branding or sonic mnemonics) is a term most commonly used in the advertising world, and is defined as the use of sound to reinforce brand identity. Criterion of sonic branding is recognizable and memorable, even after a very short period of time. The core of sonic branding is the sonic branding engine that acts as the foundation of the strategic approach. The engine acts as a think tank that analyzes the life cycle of sonic branding. Stage one verbally defines the brand in an effort to generate consistency. Stage two is creative learning, during which audits, group discussions and moodboards are used to determine how the brand will express itself through sound. Stage three uses the information collected in the previous stage to build a system of sonic branding that will be capable of generating the distinct, memorable, flexible and honest identifiers that a brand needs to generate belief among stakeholders. The fourth and final stage is the experience by utilizing touch points to strategically positioning the brand to maximize its exposure to the end user. 15

Sonic touch points define the fourteen possible situations where sonic branding is a factor

15

Daniel Jackson, Sonic Branding: An Introduction. (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004), 123

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in the nature of the branding experience.16 These locations include the telephone hold, radio, television, IVR, cinema, retail, parties, desktop, conferences, offices, web, cd-rom, events, and corporate film.

In the traditional cinematic experience the possible situations where music is a factor are the overture, main title and opening credits, first part of the film, intermission, entr’acte, second part of the film, and closing credits.17 The contemporary overture is the montage, which is a stylized break from the dialogue. The music framework of the opening and end are significant to the branding of the film. In accompanying the main title and the opening credits, music can fill a variety of functions: altering the audience, introducing the dominant musical theme, presenting several musical themes that will be heard in the film, establishing the mood of the film as a whole, and foreshadowing significant aspects of the story. Music for the closing credits may similarly reflect the mood at the end of a film or simply create a cheerful ambiance for the exiting audience. Frequently, the closing credits reprise a number of important musical ideas from the film. It is also common in recent filmmaking for the closing credits to include a new song, which could lead to a possible Oscar nomination for Best Song and boost potential sales of a soundtrack recording.18

Sonic language works to build the brand’s identity by assembling the sound identity

16 17

ibid, 5 Roger Hickman, Reel Music: Exploring 100 years of Film Music. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2006), 36 18 ibid, 36

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during the creative process and expressing this in a clear understandable way.

CONGLOMERATES Many film studios have become conglomerates by creating subsidiaries or acquiring other media companies (television, music, videogames, and books). Sony is an eminent example of both vertical and horizontal integration. It is a top manufacturer of audio and video hardware, a music distributor, and a film studio that has resulted in an efficient management of resources that reduces overhead and pre-unit production cost, scale of economies.

The structural interaction of film and music divisions allow for more efficient management of various kinds of human resources, such as legal staff, marketing departments, management teams, and in-house music supervisors. The film score functions within the film and outside of it. This synergy creates many commodities out of one intellectual property that could then be produced and cross–promoted by the conglomerate’s various divisions. The film American Gangster (2007) is an example of the benefits of vertical integration and cross promotion. The music supervisor on the Universal Pictures’ film was Kathy Nelson. Nelson was appointed President of Film Music for Universal Music Group and Universal Pictures on December 4th 2004. The position was created to maximize opportunities between music and film. Nelson oversees the development and production of all soundtrack albums for the company’s U.S. labels, including those associated with Universal Pictures’ releases as well as other film 26

companies. For Universal Pictures, she manages all aspects of development and production of feature film music.19

By creating multiple profit centers for a single property, synergy spreads risk among several different costs of an unsuccessful film and vice versa; synergy fails if it produces only a hit film or a hit record is to somewhat simplistically elevate one economic goal over another. 20

THE RECORD BUSINESS AND THE MUSIC INDUSTRY “Technology brings about massive industry discontinuities, when industries are forced to face extremely painful and sometimes counterintuitive changes, established companies often wither away leaving room for more agile entrepreneurs.”21 David Kusek, The Future of Music: Manifesto for the Digital Music Revolution

The record business and the music industry are not the same. The record industry is in the business of selling albums and album sales are down. However, more music is being consumed. The birth of the MP3 has breathed new life into the music industry, and record labels neglected the opportunity to exploit the new technology. A 2007 Rolling Stone article addressed the decline of the record industry by pinpointing its missed opportunity. According to Jeff Kwatinetz, CEO of management company The Firm, “Among the
19

new.umusic.com, “Kathy Nelson Named President, Film Music For Universal Music Group And Universal Pictures”, Available from http://new.umusic.com; Internet; accessed 17, January, 2010. 20 Smith, 1998, 188 21 David Kusek, Gerd Leonhard. The Future of Music: Manifesto for the Digital Music Revolution. (Massachusetts: Berklee Press, 2005), 8

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biggest, was the label’s failure to address online piracy at the beginning by making peace with the first file-sharing service, Napster. They left billions and billions of dollars on the table by suing Napster -- that was the moment that the labels killed themselves. The record business had an unbelievable opportunity there. They were all using the same service. It was as if everybody was listening to the same radio station. Then Napster shut down, and all those 30 or 40 million people went to other [file-sharing services].”22

The relationship and dynamics between the primary parties in the music industry has shifted. For a long time the musician’s objective was to sign with a major label. It was believed that labels would propel every artist signed to stardom. The reality of this myth is that record labels are corporations with the objective of making a profit not developing careers. This hierarchy and structure limits the creative vision. The contracts that musicians are required to sign are exclusive and limits the control they have over their own careers. The labels control the way their albums are produced and marketed. The record label specializes in recording, manufacturing, distributing and promoting audio and video recordings,23 all at the expense of the recording artist. Million dollar advances that record labels give to newly signed artists are nothing more than dangling carrots. It is the recording artist who pays for the record, producer, rehearsal time, musicians, video, tour support etc. This usually results in the artist owing the label money even if the album sells hundreds of thousands of copies.
22

Brian Hiatt, Evan Serpick, “The Record Industry's Decline”, Available from http://www.rollingstone.com/news/; Accessed, 21, September, 2009. 23 Brian Wesley Peters. Music Business 101:For Aspiring Producers, Writers, Musicians, Singers, And Future Record Moguls. (California: Swerve Publishing, 2005). 27

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PUBLISHING IS PROFITABLE Publishing has always been a profitable business and is also the essence of a record label. The income generated from publishing is valuable and reliable and record labels have known this for decades. Record companies work with artists and numerous other support people such as record producers, musicians, and video producers. Each of these people invariably license or assign the ownership rights in their work to the record company so that the record company becomes the copyright holder.24 The valuation of the 2004 acquisition of Warner Music Group by Bain Capital and Providence Equity Partners, valued the publishing company at $2 billion, compared with the $1.5 billion given for the recorded music operation.25

To understand how publishing works it is necessary to be familiar with copyright. Copyright is defined as a form of protection provided by the laws of the United States (title 17, U. S. Code) to the authors of “original works of authorship,” including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works.26

There are two types of copyright. The publisher owns the words and music and the master is the specific recording of the song. Recording artists, by record labels “copyright control” is used to designate a song that is controlled by the writer.

24 25

Richard Jay. How to Get Your Music In Film & TV. (United Kingdom: Schirmer Books, 2005), 6 Leonhard Kusek, The Future of Music: Manifesto for the Digital Music Revolution, 57, 25 26 Copyright.gov, “Copyright Basics” available from http://www.copyright.gov/; Internet; Accessed 1, January, 2010.

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Shares indicate ownership of a song. The publisher buys or leases the publisher’s share of the copyright, eventually building a catalog of music to be licensed and sold within the term of the publishing deal. Writer’s Share is the portion of the song owned by the composer. The Publisher’s Share is the other percentage of the copyright. The composer has the option to sell any percentage up to one hundred percent of the publisher’s share, either to a publisher or other entity like a manager. In some cases, publishers have bargaining power. If they believe that the project is unsuitable or the music is undervalued they can hold up its licensing.

The following is a chart of a variety of licenses that are needed for acquisition when music is used in various media.27

Media Permissions Media Film

Licenses to be secured Synchronization License Master License

Television

Synchronization License Master License

Internet (streaming)

Performance License

Source Publisher Writer Record label Master owner Artist Publisher Writer Record label Master owner Artist Performance Rights Society

27

Wentz, 2007, 62

30

Internet (download) DVD

Master License Master License Synchronization License Master License

VOD (Video on Demand)

Synchronization License Master License

SoundExchange Master owner Publisher Writer Record label Master owner Artist Publisher Writer Record label Master owner Artist

UNDER NEW MANAGEMENT In the late 1940’s musician William James (Willie) Dixon signed a suspicious record deal with Chess Records. This artist is considered one of the key figures in the creation of Chicago Blues and went on to write some legendary blues songs that later became rock anthems. He saw little return from his music. That suspicious record deal gave Chess Records ownership of the songs Dixon created and recorded. Willie Dixon is just one example of how record labels have been taking advantage of artists for decades. Fastforward to 1994 when a young entrepreneur, Percy Miller, started a record label out of his mother’s home in Richmond, California that later moved to New Orleans. No Limit Records proved to be an example of the new model of the music industry. Percy Miller, also know as rapper Master P, owned his own masters and copyrights and personally financed the recording, marketing, and local distribution of his music.

Many artists are now seeking 50/50 deals where net revenue is split between the artist and the label, resulting in shared responsibility. Established artists such as Prince,

31

Radiohead, and Nine Inch Nails have abandoned the major-label system to market and distribute their music independently and retain ownership of their master recordings. 28

Musicians are wise to the pitfalls of the record labels and the advantages of new technology. Technological advancements have made recording, mixing, distributing, and marketing new music easier and cheaper. Today it is possible for a musician to write, arrange, record, and master an album in a $5,000 home studio. The barriers of entry into the music business have been lowered resulting in major labels competing with 16 yearolds with bedroom studios. According to David Kusek, writer of The Future of Music, the result of a democratized music industry has “injected a good deal of Darwinism into the business. The more people record, produce, and publish their works, the more new releases will vie for our attention. And today, getting attention is the name of the game.”29

THE PROFIT When the music supervisor requests licenses, the publisher and owner of the masters consider the format in which the song will appear. The formats that are currently negotiated are theatrical, television, DVD, and downloads. The fees that are negotiated are flat-fee or unit based. Flat-fees are negotiated for theatrical, television, internet streaming, in-flight and corporate exhibition. Unit-based fees negotiated for media that is sold as an individual product or downloads which are typically used for DVD, VHS and

28 29

Bud Scoppa, “Getting Paid”, Mix Magazine. 1 May 2009, 36. Leonhard Kusek. 2005, 38

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Internet downloads.

Below are rough figures of fees of commercial songs placed in independent films:

Film Festival: $200-$1,000/side to $400-$2,000/song; rarely do we see prices higher than a $1,000/ side

Cable Television: $750-$2,000/ side depending on the term and what network is airing the show.

Art House Theatrical: $500-$2,500/side; these days films aren't in the theater long due to home video, so if you keep the term short like 6 months, the fee will be less costly.

Theatrical: $1,250-$2,500/side per step. (see step deal details below)

Home Video: $0.08-$0.15/side per unit fee with an advance on anywhere from 1,000 units to 10,000 units; if you are pressing more than 10,000 units we suggest doing a buyout. Buyouts can range from $1,000-$5,000+/side

Network TV: Generally covered by the networks' performance rights blanket licenses, but if a show is going to re-air somewhere else, then the production company needs to secure a synch and master license. 33

New Shows: A one-time airing is generally permitted, just as it is with public television, but if a show is going to re-air somewhere else, then the production company needs to secure a synch and master license. 30

Every contract consists of clauses and deals that are negotiated to either benefit the music providers or the media production. The Most Favored Nations (MFN) clause puts the publisher and master owner (record company) in competition for the highest fee. The MFN clause means that, regardless of what fee was actually quoted, the copyright holder or holders insisting on the clause get the same fee as either: the other "side" of the same song; or the other co-publisher; sometimes, the other songs in the production. If one of the songwriter or the co-publisher quote a lower fee, it means that all the copyright holders to a particular song will be entitled to the highest fee paid to any one of them, no matter what they all originally quoted.31

The step deal is a license grant, most often for theatrical distribution of films, where the licensee must pay additional fees when it earns certain amounts of box-office revenue.

To keep track of which music is used, the music supervisor has the important task of compiling a cue sheet. Media productions must report the music used in their productions to the appropriate rights organizations. Each type of media must acknowledge the set of
30

Brooke Wentz. Hey, That’s My Music: Music Supervision, Licensing and Content Acquisition. (New York: Hal Leonard Books, 2007). 77-78 31 ibid, 79

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requirements specific to that media. Music publishers must make sure that compositions have been filed with he U.S. Copyright Office and with a performance rights organization. When a production reports music usage, the performance rights organization is able to collect royalties and distribute them accordingly. The music supervisor is responsible for compiling cue sheets for tracking song usage in a production. A cue sheet is a list of all the music heard in a production in the order that it appears in the media. The cue sheet includes the exact timings and all the precise writer and publisher information. 32

NEW MUSIC MARKETING Music marketing is distribution. Consumers have a plethora of choices to discover new music. For years consumers relied on traditional means such as terrestrial and satellite radio or music stores (those that still remain) to discover new music. Today consumers are experiencing new music in non-traditional ways such as social networking sites, blogs, mixtapes, television, internet programming, commercials, films, and video games. However, most consumers want and need tastemakers, which are credible personalities and proven entities that package programs and expose us to new music.33 Even music supervisors rely on tastmakers such as college and independent radio DJ’s, music and culture blogs, and music journalist.

32

ibid, 97 Kusek. 2005, 57

33Leonhard

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Both unsigned artists and small labels are in competition with major labels to gain the attention of the music supervisors to market their music. Kevin Weaver of the Atlantic Records Group believes, "there are tremendous opportunities in the film, TV and videogame landscape.”34

As the music industry has become more reliant on music placement and licensing, online distribution has resulted in an oversaturated music marketplace. How does the music supervisor navigate this new paradigm?

NAVIGATE THE NEW PARADIGM Just as the consumer has several outlets to find new music, the music supervisor is aware of even more music options. Their success depends on navigating these venues and seeking out the most exciting music for placement. There are three reliable sources to find music: the labels (major and independent), music libraries, and the wide pool of unsigned talent.

RELIABLE TOOLS The Labels Record labels, both independent and major, court music supervisors or associates of creative teams. Their objective is to license their artist’s music to media creatives. Their artists earn a substantial fee and the company receives effective marketing at no cost to

34

Christopher Morris, “Music exec looks to film”, Available from http://www.variety.com/article; Internet; accessed 15, August, 2009.

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them. This type of music is known as commercial music. These are typically recognizable songs and/or artist’s who already have a fan base and this could prove useful for the music supervisor. However, the cost of licensing such songs can range from about $15,000 to $40,000. Hits or semi-hits from more established artists will command $500,000 to $1,000,000.35

Music Libraries Available online or in CD collections ranging in size from miniscule to massive, these tracks are usually very well-recorded and are set up to be used fast and licensed with extreme ease. They can also be generic, boring, the exact same sounds that all your peers are using. Nonetheless, in a time crunch, library music can be your best friend.36

Unsigned Talent When music of a lesser-known artist is placed in media and that song evolves from obscurity to a must-have, this is what is considered “breaking-a-band.” The unsigned musician(s) can be found the old fashion way through attending shows, on a street mixtapes, college radio, or searching the blogs such as brooklynvegan.com or onsmash.com. When an original song from the score of a movie or TV series receives mainstream exposure, it's likely that it will end up being licensed from a compilation album or DJ album. This is a perfect way to further the incoming revenue generated from the TV or film project's original budget, and it is a prospect that would be of interest
35

Ramsay Adams, David Hnatiuk, David Weiss, Music Supervision: The Complete Guide to Selecting Music for Movies, TV, Games and New Media, (New York: Schirmer Books, 2005), 22 36 ibid, 22

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to an industry executive.37

THE NEW TOOLS The new hybrid services that cater to both the artists and the music supervisors are known as music licensing companies. Many of these companies are formed by music and media professionals who provide insight into the needs of both the musicians and creative teams. As a result, these companies provide an array of one-stop-shop services, such as publishing, recording, and management to the musicians and convenient search options, licensing packages, and custom made to order music for the music supervisor.

MusicDealers.com is a full-service global music licensing website that connects independent artists and music producers to big name clients and brands. Eric Sheinkop, a University of Wisconsin graduate that furthered his education with both business and music programs in Argentina, Ecuador, Honduras, Milan, Cuba, Austria, and Barcelona founded the company. Eric earned a degree from the prestigious Full Sail music entertainment and production school in Florida. John Williamson is the company’s VP and Director of Operations. Prior to Music Dealers, John attended Columbia College, Chicago and founded his own successful and critically acclaimed record label.

This web-based company provides artists and media creatives the tools to connect with each other. Artists have the ability to upload and manage their music. Media creatives
37

ibid, 120

38

have the ability to quickly and efficiently find the perfect track for their project. MusicDealers.com uses a non-exclusive 50-50 split contract with the artist.

Former Viacom editor Jared Gutstadt and Dan Demole founded the New York based company Jingle Punks in 2008. The company's focus is to provide its clients with dynamic indie acts at a price point that appeals to network executives and to provide custom sonic branding that clients will own. The leadership team also includes music manager Anthony Martini who is a partner and Ethan Goldman who is the Senior Vice President of Current Series & Development of Ish Entertainment who acts as a consultant. This team has provided music for CBS, Food Network, A&E, History Channel, IFC, Bravo, Animal Planet, TV Land, E!, Stars, CBS, and film projects. The company tries not to go beyond 10-12 projects per quarter so they can provide all their clients with personal music supervision and the ability to create music for specific projects in a timely manner. The Jingle Punks' library is web-based and allows the client to search music, which is mapped in relation to existing bands, moods, emotions, scenes, and cultural reference. Music can also be searched by traditional headings such as genre, subgenre, and tempo. When the creative team decides on a song, there are three licensing options to choose from: a one-year blanket deal, a one-series blanket deal or a one-track purchase. The process for a musician to become a part of this music licensing company giant starts with the approval process. Once approved a non-exclusive 50-50 split with the artist’s contact is given to the musician.

Sir Groovy is also a music licensing company with a well-connected leadership team. 39

Vic Sarjoo, a seasoned investment banker, founded this New York based company. The leadership team includes, David Leibowitz, who was former EVP & General Counsel of the RIAA, Lee Rudnickiand, former CEO of Broken Ocean Entertainment, Contract attorney for DreamWorks and General Counsel for Eleven Arts, Inc. The advisory board includes Rupert Perry, former European President of EMI and Emily Kaye, former VP of Music at Sony Pictures. The company's client list includes Fox Searchlight Pictures, Discovery Channel, MTV Networks, ESPN, and CBS. The search technology uses Music DNA™ software which analyzes the sound file itself for certain characteristics in 13 categories. For example, tempo and mood and encodes these characteristics as XML and is stored with the file. Their database includes 10,000 pre-cleared tunes from 50 countries for instant licensing.38

Rumblefish is a sonic branding and music licensing company. Based in Portland, Oregon, the company's leadership team is comprised of professionals from music, advertising, and technology industries. CEO Paul Anthony resumé includes music producer, film composer, and music commentator. The team also includes Creative Director, Brian Rupp of ID Branding; Brad Miele, Director of Technology of HarvardNet; and Justyn Baker, of Liquid Audio. The company's clients include YouTube, 48 Hour Film Project, Pabst Brewing Blue Ribbon, NBC-Universal, HBO, Nike, The North Face, Adidas, MTV, and Mitsubishi.

38

Christopher Morris, “Licensing gets Groovy on the Web”, Available from http://www.variety.com/article; Internet; accessed 15, February, 2010.

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Pump Audio is a music licensing agent that connects independent musicians and labels with media teams. The technology is the company's main focus. Pump Audio is know for its product, The PumpBox, which is a portable music delivery service and is available as webware and hardware. The service provides comprehensive search capabilities for finding music in their catalog. The music is searchable by genre, mood, instrument, and tempo. The music is then instantly available for use. Pump Audio's client list includes MTV, VH1, Comedy Central, the History Channel and a host of top ad agencies. The company has partnered with Creative Commons and allows the public to license independent musicians for non-commercial use. The process for submission is based on each song and once accepted, each CD sent is treated separately and requires a separate contract. Pump Audio's contract is split 65/35.

It's no mistake that licensing companies have one foot in the music industry and one foot in the visual media industry. Recognizing the priorities of the music supervisor allows these companies to tailor their product to satisfy the music supervisors creative and administrative needs. The music licensing companies that lack the help (i.e. consultant, board member, staff) from established industry professionals find new angles to appeal to their clients by providing technological services such as Pump Audio’s PumpBox.

Music plays a major role in the overall production of film, television, video games, and online media. Music acts as a narrative device to make a moment memorable by sonically branding a moment. By sonically branding the brand’s identity is reinforced through sound recognition. Consumers look to all sources of media to experience new music. In 41

return, this makes the music supervisor a tastemaker and musicians, labels, music licensing companies are aware of the profit and marketing potential that placement generates. With the abundance of music from major labels, independent artists, and music libraries, music supervisors are left to navigate a plethora of music to find the most suitable track.

The marriage between Snow Patrol's Chasing Cars and Grey's Anatomy was not a mistake. It was a strategic move to give the band exposure and increase the brand’s equity of the ABC brand. This makes the music supervisor's job one that teeters on the edge of creativity and politics. Music Supervisor Alexandra Patsavas had worked with Snow Patrol on a previous show, The OC. Prior to the band’s music appearing on Grey's Anatomy, they were known in Europe, but had a small following in the US. Music placement has become the new tool to market music. The popularity of the music video in the 80’s illustrated the effects of coupling music with the moving image, and music placement is a touch point for consumers to become aware of new music and to revive old classics.

Music Supervisor Alexandra Patsavas has built a strong networking relationship with musicians, labels and creatives. Her partnership with TV producer Josh Schwartz has proved invaluable. He hired Patsavas as a music supervisor on many of his productions. For the musicians and libraries, the music is only as good as the industry connections. It’s important to build relationships with creatives, but it is also important to provide innovative music. Music supervisors also need to stay current with music and media as 42

well as music industry trends in business and technology.

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Chapter 3 – Project Details Time Management – Process dates of execution The project is divided into four phases, Research, Pre-Production, Production, and PostProduction.

1. Research: September 2009 to January 2010 2. Pre-Production: January 2010 3. Production: February and March 2010 4. Post-Production and Delivery: April 2010

Research – September 2009 to January 2010

Research for this project began in September 2009 after working with thesis committee to form a thesis statement for the project. The research consisted of understanding the history, psychology, marketing and opportunities, of music placement; the objectives of the music supervisor; working relationships between the music and visual media industries; and the evolving tools that the music supervisor uses to find cost-effective and innovative music. Interning with Warner Music and Music Dealers was influential in developing this thesis project, observing the licensing process, and understanding the current tools the music supervisor employs.

Additional research includes investigating documentary filmmaking. The enhancement in video technology has allowed documentary filmmakers to inexpensively produce high quality video documentaries. My research efforts have led me to identify equipment that

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is both portable and can deliver high quality results. This research was compiled through online sites visiting stores, speaking with other filmmakers, and screen tests. Watching at least one documentary a day helped to develop visual ideas of how to construct a visually interesting documentary. Reading books on video production provided insight into how to manage time and operations of the production. Interning at Kurtis Productions in fall 2009 allowed me to observe the production process of investigative documentaries and the framework of story structure along with research and interview techniques that will be essential to the production segment of this project.

Pre-production - January 2010

Pre-Production consists of: • • Generating a script to illustrate the structure of each segment Compiling a list of professionals to interview, interview questions, pre-interview and create agreements. • • Scheduling the interviews and crewing the production takes place. Preliminary site design and logo is created that is aligned with my established site (nerdymedia.com). This design gives the site developer an idea of the completed project.

Production – February and March 2010

Production consists of: • Working with a site developer to further design the vlog site and securing the

45

URL. • Filming primary (a-roll) and secondary (b-roll) footage.

Post-Production – April 2010 Post-production consists of: • • • Editing the video footage Embedding the footage Launching the site and reflecting on the project. Web launch will include establishing Facebook, Twitter accounts to promote the site through these social networks.

Resource Management – People /Tools

The production crew consisted of a union grip for television and film and myself. I built a working relationship with Mike Lust and Music Dealers previous to starting the project. The aesthetic of the videos were inspired by other podcasts, specifically CoolHunting, a podcast that focuses on the creative process. I admired the flow and aesthetic of the podcast and aimed to input my own style to the videos for this project.

Constraints

The most difficult function of this production was finding professionals to interview. After contacting over 70 people in Chicago, New York, and Los Angeles, many people didn’t have the time or were not interested in participating in this project. A reference by

46

a friend or colleague would have increased the chance of securing the interviews.

47

Results

With planning and execution of the project, accomplishing the goal of shooting, editing, and posting four interviews with music and media professionals. Established a working relationship with these professionals was an added benefit to the project. The interviews reflected their views on the field, the music licensing process on the music and film industries.

Their interviews are the foundation from which future videos may be shot to further explore the process, potential, and politics of music supervision.

Future Plans

This project is a segment of a larger documentary on music supervision. Most of the interviews will take place during the production phase. Four of those interviews will be used for this project. After the completion of this thesis project production will continue. It will focus on the actual music selection process from the point-of-view of the management team, the music supervisor, and the musician. This thesis project will be used as a marketing tool for the completed documentary.

Recommendations

As the videos are posted on the nerdymedia.com website and iTunes, the project will be advertised via social networking sites along with posters and stickers (Appendix VI) in venues such as bars, stores, music and video stores, and restaurants in Chicago, New 48

York, and Los Angeles. This gorilla marketing campaign is designed to make the music and media communities aware of the project. It also makes and serves as an introduction to other music and media professionals which should allow further interviews as awareness of this project matures and the possibility to set up more interviews with the increased awareness of the project.

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CHAPTER 4 – Conclusion

Music licensing is lucrative for the music and media industries. Music supervisors are being presented with a variety of music sources. This project explores how music is licensed through music licensing companies as the means by which music supervisors find new talent and bring fresh sound to media. Music licensing companies have become a one-stop shop solution for music supervisors. These companies work as mediators between the music and media companies by finding new music and negotiating deals for the unsigned artist. Many music licensing companies are founded by professionals from the music and media industries, this allows them to tailor their services to the needs of major networks such as NBC-Universal, HBO and ESPN.

Music licensing is a topic that appeals to both the media and music communities. Media creatives unaware of the legalities, marketing, and resources will find this project useful in exploring and noting companies and professionals that share their experience and knowledge. The music community can also benefit from this project, as it brings awareness to the earning potential that music licensing offers and the process of music supervision.

This project was a learning experience on both the topic and video production process. Prior to embarking on this journey, my only experience and knowledge about music supervision was what I learned from Kate McComb and Chuck Bein’s music supervision class. The research process opened a door to the history, marketing potential, and

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innovation of music licensing. The music industry is evolving and looking to music licensing as a lucrative profit stream. Media producers are also realizing the impact of fresh and exciting music has on their viewers and cross-marketing potential.

This thesis project has allowed the opportunity to apply the knowledge and skills from my undergraduate and graduate studies. This project focuses on a topic that is relevant to arts management and utilizes video production to produce segments that are distributed online via nerdymedia.com.

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Bibliography Adams, Ramsay, Hnatiuk, David, Weiss, David. Music Supervision: The Complete Guide to Selecting Music for Movies, TV, Games and New Media, New York: Schirmer Books, 2005. Clarke, Eric F. Ways of Listening: An Ecological Approach to the Perception of Music Meaning. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc., 2005. Conrich, Ian, Ticknell, Estella. Film's Musical Moments (Music & the Moving Image). United Kingdom: Edinburgh University Press, 2007. Gorbman, Claudia. Unheard Melodies: Narrative Film Music. Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1987. Hickman, Roger. Reel Music: Exploring 100 Years of Film Music. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2005. Jackson, Daniel. Sonic Branding: An Introduction. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. Jay, Richard. How to Get Your Music In Film & TV. United Kingdom: Schirmer Books, 2005. Kompanek, Sonny. From Score To Screen: Sequencers, Scores And Second ThoughtsThe New Film Scoring Process. New York: Music Sales Corporation, 2004. Kusek, David, Leonhard, Gerd. The Future of Music: Manifesto for the Digital Music Revolution. Massachusetts: Berklee Press, 2005. Lathrop, Tad. This Business of Music Marketing and Promotion. New York: Billboard Books, 2003. Marich, Robert. Marketing to Moviegoers: A Handbook of Strategies and Tactics. 2nd Edition. Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press. 2009. Mundy, John. Popular Music On Screen: From Hollywood Musical to Music Video. United Kingdom: Manchester University Press, 1999. Peters, Brian Wesley. Music Business 101:For Aspiring Producers, Writers, Musicians, Singers, And Future Record Moguls. California: Swerve Publishing, 2005. Scheurer, Timothy E. Music and Mythmaking in Film: Genre and the Role of the Composer. North Carolina: McFarland, 2007. 52

Smith, Jeff. The Sounds of Commerce. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998. Squire, Jason E. The Movie Business Book. 3rd Edition. New York: Fireside, 2004. Wentz Brooke. Hey, That’s My Music: Music Supervision, Licensing and Content Acquisition. New York: Hal Leonard Books, 2007. Wojcik, Pamela Robertson, Knight, Arthur. Soundtrack Available: Essays on Film and Popular Music. North Carolina: Duke University Press, 2002. Wolff, Robert. How to Make It in the New Music Business: Lessons, Tips and Inspiration from Music's Biggest and Best. New York: Billboard Books. 2004.

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APPENDIX I Thesis Proposal Title: Music Supervision Abstract: There has been a significance interest in Music Supervision due to music’s ability to sonically brand visual media and as a result has become a lucrative cross marketing tool. The Music Supervisor acts as a liaison between the visual media creative team and the music industry. This influential role of consultant and tastemaker considers more than aesthetics of the scene, the responsibilities extend into legal know-how, administrative, creative, interpersonal, and budgetary.

Film scholars that specialize in film music focus mainly on the composition of a film and less on the placement of pre-recorded music and it’s function as a narrative device and a marketing tool. The music industry is at a cross road where musicians are bypassing the major record labels to self distribute and record sales are declining. Music industry professionals are in search of innovative means of marketing and new sources of revenue.

Currently three books have been published on the topic of Music Supervision, two of which approach music supervision from the perspective of the musician. Music supervision is a marriage of music to the visual art form, there is yet to be a documentary on the topic that explores and illustrates its function.

Music Supervision will attempt to illustrate the process, politics, and prospect of this art

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form, through a mixed approach of examples of music placement, cinéma vérité and interviews with professionals, artist, filmmakers, and scholars to provide a deeper understanding of how, why, and the current tools used to seek music for licensing in visual media. The goal of this project is to provide information regarding music licensing to filmmakers and musicians.

Introduction

The fundamental role of the Music Supervisor is finding, selecting, and acquire musical materials for media and environment use. Just as the consumer has several outlets to find new music, the music supervisor are aware of even more and their success depends on navigating these venues and seeking out the most exciting music for placement.

Music Supervision seeks to analyze the significance of the music supervision from the perspective of visual media and the music industry and the tools the music supervisor employs.

Research Objectives

Research design, Literature (books and articles) and interviews. Areas of research are to include:

History (pre-recorded music and film, music publishing, soundtrack) Role of the Music Supervisor (production and relationships)

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Process (creative, technical, interpersonal, administrative) Branding (franchising) Tools (traditional and new tools)

Music Supervision: The complete guide to selecting Music for Movies, TV, Games, & New Media, offers concise insight to the profession of music. Sonic Branding explores the emotive power of music from a branding perspective. The work includes a chapter on film music and branding by surveying how image and sound can create a music event. Soundtrack Available: Essays on Film and Popular Music. examines popular pre-recorded music in film and how this music along with moments creates a lasting impression and lucrative franchising.

Proposed Table of Contents

Executive Summary Chapter 1 - Project Proposal Chapter 2 – Research Chapter 3 – Analysis Chapter 4 – Project Details Chapter 5 – Conclusion Bibliography Appendix

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Schedule

Research - September 09 to January 10 Pre-Production – January 10 Production – February and March 10 Post-Production and Delivery – April 10

Adamsn, Ramsay, Hnatiuk, David, Weiss, David. (2005). Music Supervision: Selecting Music for Movies, TV, Games and New Media: Schirmer Trade Books. Jackson, Daniel M. (2003). Sonic Branding. Great Britain. Palgrave Macmillan. Wojcik, P.R. & Knight, A. (2001). Soundtrack Available: Essays on Film and Popular Music. North Carolina: Duke University Press.

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APPENDIX II Vlog Site Outline

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APPENDIX III Agreements Interviewee Release Form I_____________________________________, hereby release my image, likeness and the sound of my voice, as recorded for use in a video documentary. I agree that the footage may be edited and used, in whole or in part, in all media, including, but not limited to, audio and video cassettes, CD-ROM, DVD, Internet, television, radio, and cable broadcast, and for all other purposes in perpetuity throughout the world. I consent to the use of my name, likeness, voice and biographical information in connection with the distribution and promotion of the video documentary. I expressly release Nerdy Media, from any defamation and other claims I may have arising out of the above-described materials and hereby waive all rights to inspect and approve the finished product or its use. I acknowledge this release is firm and final and I sign this document to signify my agreement.

Name (PRINT): ____________________________________

Signature: ________________________________________

Date:_________________

Phone ___________________________________ E-mail ___________________________________

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Location Release Form Agreement Date: ................................................

Name of Authorized Person: ......................................................................... Address (“the Location”): Phone No: ................................................................... Email: ......................................................................... I, the manager of the location to be filmed/recorded for a documentary/segment (“Thesis: Music Licensing”) I understanding that: The location may form some of the backdrop of the above film. • The producer/director may edit the film entirely at her/his sole discretion, and that the footage of the Location will be edited and may be juxtaposed with other parts of the program mentioned above. All copyright and any other rights (including moral rights) associated with the location are assigned to and shall be the property of the organizers of Nerdy Media in perpetuity throughout the entire universe. The producer/director may reproduce the Location in its various versions and associated promotional material, or any other film, and the finished material may be distributed throughout the world by any means and shown on any available format. The producer/director shall not be obliged to use the Location in any form. All information regarding the film must remain strictly confidential.

• •

I understand that in agreeing to allow the producer/director to use the location I will not later change my mind. Signed by The Location Manager ................................................................................................. Producer/Director: La Toia Janine Cell: 323.309.8257 60

NerdyMedia.com info@nerdymedia.com

APPENDIX IV Interview Questions Gabe McDonough - Senior Producer, Music and Integration, DDB Chicago what is music's function in advertising music can be altered in meaning depending on its context Name, Title, Company Project's you've scored what are you currently working on what lead you to DDB What is your creative process, does it all happen within DDB

Are the six categories that David Huron considered and discussed by the creative team during the music selection process? (Entertainment, Structure and Continuity, Memorability, Lyrical Language, Targeting, and Authority Establishment) Why do advertisers use music as a communication device How do you decide the music styles that are most appropriate for a campaign? (pre-recorded or custom composition) what do you look for in prerecorded music?

is cross branding (musician and product) a concern for advertisers seeing that object is to sell the product and not the music? where do you find new music, what resources and tools are used? In your opinion, what are the elements of a well-scored campaign?

Mike Lust – Musician Name Name of band Previous Bands label why are you not on a label/who owns your masters 61

how do you market tight phantomz and/or your music how did your first licensing opportunity occur where has your music appeared how do you seek new opportunities (partnership with music licensing companies, networking, solicit, etc.) Do you find yourself making music with licensing in mind/what is your creative process Who's your publisher/why Is licensing more as a revenue stream or is it also a marketing tool or both what type of deals do you negotiate how do you make your music stand apart from everything that's out since having your music placed on television/film have you noticed in increase in your fan base what projects are you currently working on Music Dealers – Music Licensing Company Name Title What is music Dealers (how does it work) What is the difference between music libraries and music licensing companies who are your clients who is your competition what deals are made with the artist Explain non exclusive how do you find musicians what kind of licenses are negotiated with the media teams what do you look for in an arts before signin Peter Hawley – Chairman, Film & Broadcast at Tribeca Flashpoint Media Arts Academy How did music and film converge How did music play a role in the silent age of film What function does music play in the cinematic exprience What did the musical genre add to film history What is a musical How does the audience respond to popular music and how does cinema give new life to forgotten hits. How is the soundtrack used as a cross-promotional tool Why/How do filmmakers uses music as a narrative device

62

How important is the music selection for opening and closing totles When should the producer/filmmaker/director hire the music supervisor What should a filmmaker look for in a music supervisor What is the relationship between a producer/filmmaker/director and the music supervisor Do you feel the music video has influence cinema/music placement

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APPENDIX V Bios Gabe McDonough - Senior Producer, Music and Integration, DDB Chicago Gabe McDonough joined DDB in 2004 as a Print Project Manager, but parlayed his love and deep knowledge of music into a post working with DDB's creative teams across the agency to mine rare music tracks and create many of the award-winning sounds for which DDB Chicago and its clients are best known. In 2009, his placement of Os Mutantes "A Minha Menina" in the McDonald's "Victory" commercial earned recognition from Billboard Magazine as one of the 5 best ad songs of all time. Formerly the Promotions Director for Chicago's legendary live music venue, the Empty Bottle, as well as an employee of Thrill Jockey Records, McDonough's collaborative style and strong artist-producer relationships have established him in both the advertising agency and independent music communities at the national level. He continues to work as a DJ, play bass for bands in the US, Canada and UK, record music podcasts showcasing the Chicago music scene and contributes frequently to Time Out Chicago magazine. McDonough is also known as the bassman for the Boas, a band that opened for Wilco during their critically-acclaimed Yankee Hotel Foxtrot tour. A graduate of Wilfrid Laurier University in Waterloo, Ontario, McDonough resides in Chicago with his wife, Rebecca Anderson and daughter, Evelyn.39

Mike Lust – Musician Mike Lust is a Chicago based musician, producer, and recording engineer responsible for over 150 records in the last 8 years. In his owned and operated Phantom Manor studio, and elsewhere, he has recorded and worked with a wide range of artists including William Elliot Whitmore, Chinup Chinup,Ten Grand, Sweep the Leg Johnny, Wilco, Mike Leonard (Today Show),Picture Show Films, Sybris, Bible of the Devil, Narrator, and Catfish Haven, whom he tours with as a second guitarist. As a member of Lustre King, he wrote and produced the critically acclaimed Shoot the Messenger and contributed music to Transworld Skateboards, the ABC Family Network, and MTV's Real World and Road Rules. As the frontman of Chicago's Tight Phantomz, he's recorded two albums and toured the country numerous times, as well as contributing music to Lensmoto Motocross and Brendan Canty's (Fugazi) Burn To Shine DVD series. in 2004 the band won Best Rock Entertainer at the 23rd Annual Chicago Music Awards. He was also the voice of McDonalds I'm Lovin' It campaign for Tony Hawk. He lives and works in Chicago.40
39

“The Idea Conference”, Available from http://idea2009.com/GabeMcDonough.php ; Internet; accessed 18, February 2010 40“Audio Arts & Music Industry Expert Mike Lust”, Available from Audio Arts & Music Industry Expert Mike Lust http://cms.colum.edu/portfolio/ internet; accessed 20, March 2010

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Peter Hawley – Chairman, Film & Broadcast at Tribeca Flashpoint Media Arts Academy Peter is an award-winning film writer and director working in feature film, documentary, television and TV Commercials. He has been teaching film at the college level for a dozen years.

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APPENDIX VI Marketing Designs The following are two designs for posters and stickers that will be distributed to stores, restaurants, and bars in Chicago, New York, Los Angeles, and San Francisco during the spring and summer of 2010.

66

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APPENDIX VII Budget
Program: Music Supervision: a thesis project Format: HDV
Producer/Director: La Toia Janine Locations: Chicago, Il Budget date: 5/30/2010 Research: Prep: Shoot: Wrap: Post: TOTAL: 2 2 4 4 12 weeks weeks days (over 3 mo.) weeks weeks weeks

ABOVE-THE-LINE: Pre-Production and Development
1000 RESEARCH 1010 Books, research materials, add screenings of related films 1030 Meetings (advisors, staff, etc.) 1099 Misc research # UNIT PRICE TOTAL $ COST

1

Day Day Day

0

0 0 0 0 0

1

0

TOTAL

Producing Staff
2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 PRODUCER, DIRECTOR, PHOTOGRAPHER, SOUND Producer web developer Camera Photographer Sound

#

UNIT

PRICE

TOTAL $ COST 600

1

Flat Day Day Day

In-Kind In-Kind

0 600 0 0 600

TOTAL

Rights, Music & Talent

#

UNIT

PRICE

TOTAL $ COST

3100 3130 3150 3160 3170

ARCHIVAL PHOTOGRAPHS, STILLS, FILMS Research fees Stills duplication costs Stills licensing Film licensing

20 0 Day Photo Still Min. 0 0 0 0

68

3190 3400 3420 3430

Miscellaneous MUSIC/COMPOSER Music Supervisor Add'l Music Rights (songs, etc.)

1

Day

20

20 0 0 0 20

0 01

Flat Selection

0 0

TOTAL

TOTAL ABOVE THE LINE

620

Production Expenses
5000 5010 5020 5030 5099 5100 5110 5120 5140 5199 5200 5210 5220 5300 5310 5320 5310 5600 5610 5800 5810 5820 5830 5899 CAMERA Canon EOS Rebel T2i Tripod (but/sell) Add'l "B" camera pkg rentals Misc camera accessories SOUND Sound equipment rentals Sound equipment purchases Batteries, Expendables, etc. Misc accessories LIGHTING & GRIP Lighting & grip package rental Expendables PHOTOGRAPHY SD Card Processing/CD Misc accessories PRODUCTION FILM & LAB SD Card LOCAL EXPENSES Gas/Mileage Parking lots & fees Meals (Dir/Prod, DP, PA) Miscellaneous

#

UNIT

PRICE

TOTAL $ COST 1,310 1,135 79 96 685 0 675 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 140 140 420 25 75 270 50

1 1 1

Flat Flat Day Flat

1135.23 79 96.13

1 1 1

Day Flat Flat Flat

675 10 0

Day Flat

20

0

Roll Roll Flat

0

2 50 5 9 1

32gb Miles Flat Meals Flat

69.99 0.5 15 30 50

TOTAL Post-production
# UNIT PRICE

2,555 TOTAL $ COST

69

7000 7010 7020 7030 7090 7100 7140 7200 7210 7220 7500 7510

EDITORIAL EQUIPMENT & FACILITY Editor Editing Facility/Suite External Hard Drive Miscellaneous EDITORIAL SUPPLIES Tape stock & blank media GRAPHICS & MOTION CONTROL Graphics & Titles Designer Motion Control (still photographs) POST SOUND Sound design, edit, and mix (combined pkg)

95 Hour Hour Flat Flat 0 0 95 0 0 0 0 Hour Hours 0 0 0 0

1

94.99

Tape

Hour

TOTAL

95

TOTAL BELOW THE LINE

2,650

TOTAL ABOVE THE LINE TOTAL BELOW THE LINE SUBTOTAL CONTINGENCY 10.0
% 3270

620 2,650 3,270 327 $3,597.36

GRAND TOTAL

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APPENDIX VIII Cue Sheets Series/Film Name: AKA: Episode Name: AKA: Prod. #: Episode #: Show Duration: Original Airdate: Total Music Length: Production Co./Contact Name: La Toia Janine B. Nerdy Media info@nerdymedia.com 323.309.8257 BI: Background Instrumental VI: Visual Instrumental EE: Logo BV: Background Vocal VV: Visual Vocal TO: Theme Open TC: Theme Close Music Supervision: a thesis project Finding New Music 1 001 2:41 0:45

Cue# Title% Society Usage Timing Composer Publisher

001 Bud Light Lime – Fine Tune, Creator, BV :45 W Alexander Mcfadyen Darin (PRS) W Santi White (ASCAP) P DLJ Songs, Downtown Music Publishing LLC P Little Jerk

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Series/Film Name: AKA: Episode Name: AKA: Prod. #: Episode #: Show Duration: Original Airdate: Total Music Length: Production Co./Contact Name: La Toia Janine B. Nerdy Media info@nerdymedia.com 323.309.8257 BI: Background Instrumental VI: Visual Instrumental EE: Logo BV: Background Vocal VV: Visual Vocal TO: Theme Open TC: Theme Close

Music Supervision: a thesis project Creative Process 1 005 1:51 1:08

Cue# Title% Society Usage Timing Composer Publisher

001 McDonalds Commercial – Victory, A Minha Menina, BV 1:08 W Ben Jorge, SACEM (ASCAP/BMI) P Warner-Tamerlane Publishing Corp (ASCAP/BMI)

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