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Introduction

Encountered with the problem of:

flow of a fluid over an immersed object

the movement of a body in an expanse of a fluid

development of flow pattern when an object is placed in the

free-stream of a real fluid

Examples of such flows are:

the flow of air past a structure

motion of aeroplanes, submarines, torpedoes etc.

the flow of fluids past blades in fans, blowers, compressors and

turbines

past a cylinder, an aerofoil and a sphere

Development of flow and consequent fluid-dynamic forces

acting on bodie will be considered

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

Consider a body placed in the free stream of a real fluid

The fluid exerts a force F or the body

stream is called drag force (D)

D = F cos

angles to the direction of the free stream is called lift force(L)

L = F sin

If the body is moving at a constant velocity U, the situation is

equivalent to a body at rest in a free stream having a velocity

equal and opposite to the velocity of the body

The force that the body reacts on the fluid is called resistance

The resistance is equal and opposite to drag and acts to resist

the flow.

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

When a body has an axis of symmetry and the free stream

approaches the body along the axis, the force that acts on the

body is wholly along the free stream

The body is said to be subjected to drag in the absence of lift

The production of lift requires asymmetry of flow about the

direction of the free stream, whereas drag must be produced

under all circumstances

It is possibleto create drag without lift but it is not possible to

create lift without drag

The drag and lift forces are expressed in terms of coefficient

of drag and lift

The coefficients are defined as the ratios of corresponding

forces to the dynamic forces on the projected areas or the

plan form area whichever is more appropriate

The coefficient of drag, CD and lift, CL are defined as:

D

L

CD =

CL =

2

1/ 2 U A

1/ 2 U 2 A

= fluid density

A = projected area normal to free stream/

planform area of the body

area A equals d times the length of the cylinder

For a sphere of diameter d, the area A is d2/4

For an aerofoil of chord c and span s, the area A is s times c

For a flat plate of length I and width b, the area A is I times b

Ratio of lift to drag:

CL L

=

CD D

When a fluid flows past a body immersed in it the following

phenomena come into play:

a)

b)

c)

d)

point upstream of the body which divides the flow into two streams.

Boundary layer flow, laminar boundary layer until a certain distance and

turbulent boundary layer thereafter on the surfaces of the body

Separation of the boundary layers at one or more surfaces and/or rejoining

of the two streams at different velocities, resulting in a surface of

discontinuity which breaks up to form vortices.

Shedding of vortices behind the body to constitute the wake. The size of the

wake is large if the separation takes place early in the boundary layer flow

over the surfaces

Classification of Drag

Drag

Profile Drag

Skin-friction Drag

(surface area, shear

stresses, velocity

gradient, viscosity,

surface roughness,

streamlined bodies

Form Drag

(volume, shape,

pressure distr.,

wake formation,

Re number, bluff

bodies)

Induced Drag

Lift-dependent (induced

velocity, vortex formation

span volume, lifting

surfaces)

Wave Drag

Free surface flow

(gravitational wave

phenomena and drag,

Floating bodies)

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

Compressible flow

(shock interaction

phenomena and drag,

supersonic and

hypersonic flows

A streamlined body has surfaces of the body which tend to

coincide with stream-surfaces

The streamlines conform with the boundaries of the body

High skin friction drag

Low form drag

by separation at or near the leading edge

Low skin friction drag

High form drag

the flow is wholly laminar

the flow pattern is symmetrical about

the x and y axes

the drag is due to the viscous shearing

at the surface

no form drag

flow separates and two eddies are

formed which rotate in oppositely

length of the wake is limited to a narrow

and short region

the eddies elongate and eventually

break off from each side of the cylinder

alternately

periodic oscillation of the wake is

observed

alternate breaking and washing away

of eddies

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

For flow over a range of Reynolds number in excess of 90,

eddies are shed alternately from the two sides of the cylinder

Two rows of vortices rotating in opposite directions which are

formed in the wake is called a Karman Vortex Street

Critical:

h

= 0, 281

l

The vortices are shed alternately from the upper and lower

sides causing a dynamic lateral force to act on the cylinder

The frequency with which the vortices are shed is given by the

Strouhal number S

nD n = shedding frequency

S=

U = the free-stream velocity

The Strouhal number varies with the Reynolds number

S varies between 0.20 and 0.23 over the Reynolds number

ranging from a few hundred to 1 X 107

The following relationship provides the value of S with a fair

degree of accuracy for the range 250 < Re< 1 x 107

nD

20

=

S = 0, 2 1 +

U

Re

At Reynolds numbers higher than 1 x 107:

the vortices formed downstream the cylinder are

disintegrated into random turbulent motion

the Karman vortex street is not observed

Separation Delay

distance downstream of the

leading point 0

the wake behind the cylinder is

large and wide

The form drag is larger

The total drag in larger

downstream the leading point

the wake behind the cylinder is

short and narrow

The skin friction drag is larger

The total drag in smaller

increasing the initial level of turbulence in the free stream

roughening a part of the leading face of the cylinder or

providing a tip-wire ring in the laminar boundary layer region

If a symmetrical body is placed in a flow along the axis of symmetry,

the body experiences a drag in the direction of the flow since the

pressure distribution is symmetrical about the axis of symmetry

If the object is not symmetrical about the direction of flow or if a

symmetrical object is rotated in a flow, the pressure distribution

results in a a lift force

The phenomenon of lift production by a rotating object placed in a

free stream is known as the Magnus effect.

Computation of the lift force

The velocity at any point on the surface of a cylinder placed in a free stream

with circulation associated with its rotation is:

2U sin +

u =

0

; ur =

2 R

Assuming no energy loss between the free stream and a point of interest;

applying the Bernoulli equation:

2

1

1

1

2

2

2

po + U = p + u p = po + U 2U sin +

2

2

2

2

Lift Force:

L=

pR sin d

0

=

L U

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng

Drag On Cylinder

The drag on a cylinder may be evaluated either by integrating the

pressure over their the total area of the cylinder or by employing

integral momentum balance

Drag Coefficient for 2-D bodies

An aerofoil is a streamlined body designed to produce a streamlined

flow pattern when placed in a free stream

Aerofoils may be symmetrical or unsymmetrical about the chord line

1-2 drawn from the leading edge to the trailing edge

The camber line is straight and coincides with the chord line for a

symmetrical aerofoil whereas it is curved for an unsymmetrical

aerofoil

The width of the aerofoil normal

to the plane of the crosssectional view is called the span

The ratio of the span S to the

chord C of the aerofoil is called

its aspect ratio (AR)

The flow over an aerofoil is two

dimensional if its aspect ratio is

infinite

S

AR =

C

The flow and pressure distribution around an aerofoil placed in the

free stream of a real fluid varies with the angle of attack, i.e., the,

angle between the free stream and the chord

At a certain angle of attack, i.e., zero for a symmetrical aerofoil and

negative for an asymmetrical aerofoil the pressure distribution is

such that the total lift is zero

The angle of attack at which the lift is maximum is called the critical

angle denoted by c

For angles less than that,

the lift is linearly related

with the angle of attack

and for an angle slightly

in excess of that, the lift

drops suddenly

Typical flow patterns and

pressure distribution for ac

more than ac

moderately less than ac

greater than ac

lift and drag, CL, and CD with

the angle of attack

also known as the stalling

angle or stalling incidence

because the aerofoil is said to

be stalled at that orientation

For laminar flow over the sphere

pressure distribution over the surface of the sphere is :

x = the distance of the point along the x-axis

3

x

p po =

U 2

R = radius of the sphere

2

R

the pressure at the trailing

stagnation point ( x = R)

stagnation point ( x = - R)

3 U

p po =

2 R

3 U

p po =

2 R

Coefficient of Drag:

CD

=

Experimental

suggestion:

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

D = 3Ud

3Ud

24

D

=

=

2

1

1

Re

2

2 d

U A

U

2

2

4

Re < 0,5

24

3

1

+

Re

Re 16

Re < 2

=

CD

For turbulent flow over the

sphere

At higher Re number, the flow

is such that the boundary layer

grows and separates sooner or

later depending upon whether

it is laminar or turbulent

The later the separation, the

smaller the size of the wake

and hence total drag on the

sphere is smaller

The force exerted by a fluid flowing over a body may be

determined by considering a suitable control volume and by

applying the integral momentum equation to it

By the integral momentum equation:

Force on the control volume = Rate of efflux of momentum

from the control volume

The boundaries of the control volume should be selected

such that the inflow and outflow are either normal to or along

the control surfaces in order to simplify the analysis

The body should be excluded from the control volume

Free body diagram to determine the drag

p1.2h p2 .2h + R

the entire control surface

+h

u (u U )dy

+R

p1.2h p2 .2h =

+h

u (u U )dy

- Drag exerted by the fluid to the

body

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

+h

D = R = u (U u ) dy + ( p1 p2 ) 2h

h

Lift

If the body is not symmetrically placed about the axis of the

free stream, there must be a change of momentum in the ydirection resulting in a force across the flow

In that case, the lift L may be determined by applying the

integral momentum equation in the y-direction

Because the inflow has nomentum in the determined by

applying the integral momentum equation in the y-direction

Because the inflow has nomentum in the y-direction and the

outflow (udy ) through an elementry height of dy leaves with

the component velocity v, then

+h

L = uvdy

h

Terminal Velocity

When a body is allowed to drop freely in a

fluid, it acquires a velocity U such that it

remains constant thereafter

For example, If a body is dropped freely in

atmosfer, the body will experience a drag

force which tends to oppose its motion

At the terminal or equilibrium state, the

upward drag force would just balance the

downward weight force (net force is zero)

Under this state of no external force acting

on the body, the body has no acceleration

and hence it attains a constant velocity

calledthe terminal velocity

The terminal velocity is low for high-drag

bodies and high for low-drag bodies

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

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