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Universitas Indonesia

Fakultas Teknik Jurusan Teknik Mesin

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng

Introduction
Encountered with the problem of:
flow of a fluid over an immersed object
the movement of a body in an expanse of a fluid

In either case, the problem reduces to the study of the


development of flow pattern when an object is placed in the
free-stream of a real fluid
Examples of such flows are:

the flow of water past a bridge pier


the flow of air past a structure
motion of aeroplanes, submarines, torpedoes etc.
the flow of fluids past blades in fans, blowers, compressors and
turbines

Attention will be focussed on the steady flow of a real fluid


past a cylinder, an aerofoil and a sphere
Development of flow and consequent fluid-dynamic forces
acting on bodie will be considered
Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng

Lift and Drag


Consider a body placed in the free stream of a real fluid
The fluid exerts a force F or the body

The component of the force acting in the direction of the free


stream is called drag force (D)

D = F cos

The component of the force acting in a direction at right


angles to the direction of the free stream is called lift force(L)

L = F sin

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng

Lift and Drag


If the body is moving at a constant velocity U, the situation is
equivalent to a body at rest in a free stream having a velocity
equal and opposite to the velocity of the body

The force that the body reacts on the fluid is called resistance
The resistance is equal and opposite to drag and acts to resist
the flow.
Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng

Lift and Drag


When a body has an axis of symmetry and the free stream
approaches the body along the axis, the force that acts on the
body is wholly along the free stream
The body is said to be subjected to drag in the absence of lift
The production of lift requires asymmetry of flow about the
direction of the free stream, whereas drag must be produced
under all circumstances
It is possibleto create drag without lift but it is not possible to
create lift without drag
The drag and lift forces are expressed in terms of coefficient
of drag and lift
The coefficients are defined as the ratios of corresponding
forces to the dynamic forces on the projected areas or the
plan form area whichever is more appropriate

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng

Lift and Drag


The coefficient of drag, CD and lift, CL are defined as:

D
L
CD =
CL =
2
1/ 2 U A
1/ 2 U 2 A

= fluid density

U = free stream velocity


A = projected area normal to free stream/
planform area of the body

For a circular cylinder of diameter d placed across a flow, the


area A equals d times the length of the cylinder
For a sphere of diameter d, the area A is d2/4
For an aerofoil of chord c and span s, the area A is s times c
For a flat plate of length I and width b, the area A is I times b
Ratio of lift to drag:

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

CL L
=
CD D

Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng

Zones of Flow Past a Body


When a fluid flows past a body immersed in it the following
phenomena come into play:

a)
b)
c)

d)

Divergence of streamlines, decrease in velociity, occurrence of a stagnation


point upstream of the body which divides the flow into two streams.
Boundary layer flow, laminar boundary layer until a certain distance and
turbulent boundary layer thereafter on the surfaces of the body
Separation of the boundary layers at one or more surfaces and/or rejoining
of the two streams at different velocities, resulting in a surface of
discontinuity which breaks up to form vortices.
Shedding of vortices behind the body to constitute the wake. The size of the
wake is large if the separation takes place early in the boundary layer flow
over the surfaces

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng

Classification of Drag
Drag
Profile Drag
Skin-friction Drag
(surface area, shear
stresses, velocity
gradient, viscosity,
surface roughness,
streamlined bodies

Form Drag
(volume, shape,
pressure distr.,
wake formation,
Re number, bluff
bodies)

Induced Drag
Lift-dependent (induced
velocity, vortex formation
span volume, lifting
surfaces)

Wave Drag
Free surface flow
(gravitational wave
phenomena and drag,
Floating bodies)
Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

Compressible flow
(shock interaction
phenomena and drag,
supersonic and
hypersonic flows

Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng

Streamlined and Bluff Bodies


A streamlined body has surfaces of the body which tend to
coincide with stream-surfaces
The streamlines conform with the boundaries of the body
High skin friction drag
Low form drag

A bluff body requires the flow to turn suddenly, subdivides it


by separation at or near the leading edge
Low skin friction drag
High form drag

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng

Flow Around a Circular Cylinder


the flow is wholly laminar
the flow pattern is symmetrical about
the x and y axes
the drag is due to the viscous shearing
at the surface
no form drag
flow separates and two eddies are
formed which rotate in oppositely
length of the wake is limited to a narrow
and short region
the eddies elongate and eventually
break off from each side of the cylinder
alternately
periodic oscillation of the wake is
observed
alternate breaking and washing away
of eddies
Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng

Karman Vortex Street


For flow over a range of Reynolds number in excess of 90,
eddies are shed alternately from the two sides of the cylinder
Two rows of vortices rotating in opposite directions which are
formed in the wake is called a Karman Vortex Street
Critical:

h
= 0, 281
l

The vortices are shed alternately from the upper and lower
sides causing a dynamic lateral force to act on the cylinder
The frequency with which the vortices are shed is given by the
Strouhal number S
nD n = shedding frequency

S=

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

D = diameter of the cylinder


U = the free-stream velocity

Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng

Karman Vortex Street


The Strouhal number varies with the Reynolds number
S varies between 0.20 and 0.23 over the Reynolds number
ranging from a few hundred to 1 X 107
The following relationship provides the value of S with a fair
degree of accuracy for the range 250 < Re< 1 x 107

nD
20
=
S = 0, 2 1 +

U
Re
At Reynolds numbers higher than 1 x 107:
the vortices formed downstream the cylinder are
disintegrated into random turbulent motion
the Karman vortex street is not observed

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng

Separation Delay

separation at points S1 S2 short


distance downstream of the
leading point 0
the wake behind the cylinder is
large and wide
The form drag is larger
The total drag in larger

separation at points S1 S2 further


downstream the leading point
the wake behind the cylinder is
short and narrow
The skin friction drag is larger
The total drag in smaller

Method of delaying separation:

increasing the Reynolds number of flow


increasing the initial level of turbulence in the free stream
roughening a part of the leading face of the cylinder or
providing a tip-wire ring in the laminar boundary layer region

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng

Magnus Effect and Lift Force


If a symmetrical body is placed in a flow along the axis of symmetry,
the body experiences a drag in the direction of the flow since the
pressure distribution is symmetrical about the axis of symmetry
If the object is not symmetrical about the direction of flow or if a
symmetrical object is rotated in a flow, the pressure distribution
results in a a lift force
The phenomenon of lift production by a rotating object placed in a
free stream is known as the Magnus effect.

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng

Magnus Effect and Lift Force


Computation of the lift force
The velocity at any point on the surface of a cylinder placed in a free stream
with circulation associated with its rotation is:

2U sin +
u =
0
; ur =
2 R

Assuming no energy loss between the free stream and a point of interest;
applying the Bernoulli equation:
2

1
1
1

2
2
2
po + U = p + u p = po + U 2U sin +

2
2
2
2

Lift Force:

L=

pR sin d
0

Substituing the expression for p and integrating :

=
L U
Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

(per unit span)


Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng

Drag On Cylinder
The drag on a cylinder may be evaluated either by integrating the
pressure over their the total area of the cylinder or by employing
integral momentum balance
Drag Coefficient for 2-D bodies

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng

Flow Around an Aerofoil


An aerofoil is a streamlined body designed to produce a streamlined
flow pattern when placed in a free stream
Aerofoils may be symmetrical or unsymmetrical about the chord line
1-2 drawn from the leading edge to the trailing edge
The camber line is straight and coincides with the chord line for a
symmetrical aerofoil whereas it is curved for an unsymmetrical
aerofoil
The width of the aerofoil normal
to the plane of the crosssectional view is called the span
The ratio of the span S to the
chord C of the aerofoil is called
its aspect ratio (AR)
The flow over an aerofoil is two
dimensional if its aspect ratio is
infinite

S
AR =
C

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng

Flow Around an Aerofoil


The flow and pressure distribution around an aerofoil placed in the
free stream of a real fluid varies with the angle of attack, i.e., the,
angle between the free stream and the chord
At a certain angle of attack, i.e., zero for a symmetrical aerofoil and
negative for an asymmetrical aerofoil the pressure distribution is
such that the total lift is zero
The angle of attack at which the lift is maximum is called the critical
angle denoted by c
For angles less than that,
the lift is linearly related
with the angle of attack
and for an angle slightly
in excess of that, the lift
drops suddenly

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng

Flow Around an Aerofoil


Typical flow patterns and
pressure distribution for ac
more than ac
moderately less than ac
greater than ac

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

Variations of the coefficients of


lift and drag, CL, and CD with
the angle of attack

The critical angle of attack is


also known as the stalling
angle or stalling incidence
because the aerofoil is said to
be stalled at that orientation

Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng

Flow Around a Sphere


For laminar flow over the sphere
pressure distribution over the surface of the sphere is :
x = the distance of the point along the x-axis
3
x
p po =
U 2
R = radius of the sphere
2
R
the pressure at the trailing
stagnation point ( x = R)

the pressure at the leading


stagnation point ( x = - R)

3 U
p po =
2 R

3 U
p po =

2 R

Drag Force around a sphere is (Stokes law):


Coefficient of Drag:

CD
=

Experimental
suggestion:
Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

D = 3Ud

3Ud
24
D
=
=
2
1
1
Re
2
2 d
U A
U
2
2
4

Re < 0,5

24
3

1
+
Re

Re 16

Re < 2

=
CD

Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng

Flow Around a Sphere


For turbulent flow over the
sphere
At higher Re number, the flow
is such that the boundary layer
grows and separates sooner or
later depending upon whether
it is laminar or turbulent
The later the separation, the
smaller the size of the wake
and hence total drag on the
sphere is smaller

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng

Integral Momentum Equation


The force exerted by a fluid flowing over a body may be
determined by considering a suitable control volume and by
applying the integral momentum equation to it
By the integral momentum equation:
Force on the control volume = Rate of efflux of momentum
from the control volume
The boundaries of the control volume should be selected
such that the inflow and outflow are either normal to or along
the control surfaces in order to simplify the analysis
The body should be excluded from the control volume

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng

Integral Momentum Equation


Free body diagram to determine the drag

Net force perunit width of the body:

p1.2h p2 .2h + R

Net rate of efflux momentum over


the entire control surface

+h

u (u U )dy

Integral Momentum Equation

+R
p1.2h p2 .2h =

+h

u (u U )dy

Reaction by the body on CV =


- Drag exerted by the fluid to the
body
Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

+h

D = R = u (U u ) dy + ( p1 p2 ) 2h
h

Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng

Integral Momentum Equation


Lift
If the body is not symmetrically placed about the axis of the
free stream, there must be a change of momentum in the ydirection resulting in a force across the flow
In that case, the lift L may be determined by applying the
integral momentum equation in the y-direction
Because the inflow has nomentum in the determined by
applying the integral momentum equation in the y-direction
Because the inflow has nomentum in the y-direction and the
outflow (udy ) through an elementry height of dy leaves with
the component velocity v, then
+h

L = uvdy
h

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng

Terminal Velocity
When a body is allowed to drop freely in a
fluid, it acquires a velocity U such that it
remains constant thereafter
For example, If a body is dropped freely in
atmosfer, the body will experience a drag
force which tends to oppose its motion
At the terminal or equilibrium state, the
upward drag force would just balance the
downward weight force (net force is zero)
Under this state of no external force acting
on the body, the body has no acceleration
and hence it attains a constant velocity
calledthe terminal velocity
The terminal velocity is low for high-drag
bodies and high for low-drag bodies
Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng