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Universitas Indonesia

Fakultas Teknik Jurusan Teknik Mesin

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng

Introduction
Turbulent flow is actually more likely to occur than laminar
flow in practical situations
However, turbulent flow is a very complex process
Numerous persons have devoted considerable effort in
attempting to understand the variety of baffling aspects of
turbulence
Although a considerable amount of knowledge about the topic
has been developed, the field of turbulent flow still remains
the least understood area of fluid mechanics
In this chapter we will learn only some of the very basic ideas
concerning turbulence

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng

Transition From Laminar to Turbulent


Consider a long pipe that is initially filled with a fluid at rest
A typical trace of the axial component of velocity measured at
a given location in the flow, u = u(t), is shown in the figure

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng

Transition From Laminar to Turbulent


The Nature of Turbulence
Irregularity (random nature) is the distinguishing feature of
turbulent flow
The character of many of the important properties (pressure
drop, heat transfer, etc.) depends strongly on the existence
and nature of the turbulent fluctuations or randomness
Calculation of the heat transfer, pressure drop, and many
other parameters would not be possible without inclusion of
the seemingly small, but very important, effects associated
with the randomness of the flow
Mixing and heat and mass transfer processes are much
enhanced in turbulent flow compared to laminar flow

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng

Transition From Laminar to Turbulent


Turbulent Flow Regime and Inviscid Flow
In inviscid flow, the Reynolds number is infinite (because the
viscosity is zero), and the flow most surely would be turbulent
Reasonable results were obtained by using the inviscid
Bemoulli equation as the governing equation
The reason that inviscid analyses gave reasonable results is
that viscous effects were not very important and what is used
in the calculations was actually the time-averaged velocity

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng

Turbulent Shear Stress


Field Representation
Chaotic, random behavior of the various fluid parameters.
Such variations occur in the three components of variable that
has a field description:

Velocity
Pressure
vorticity
Temperature
Shear stress

Turbulent flows can be described in terms of their mean


values (denoted with an overbar) on which are superimposed
the fluctuations (denoted with a prime)
For velocity field:

u=
u ( x, y, z , t ) velocity component in x direction
v=
v( x, y, z , t ) velocity component in y direction
w=
w( x, y, z , t ) velocity component in z direction
Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng

Turbulent Shear Stress


Mean and Fluctuation
Mean (time average) value
of velocity (x-component)
Fluctuating part of
velocity (x-component)

u=

1
T

to + T

u ( x, y, z , t ) dt

u = u u

(Fluctuating part)

(Time average of Fluctuating part)

u =

1
T

to + T

( u u) dt=

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

1
T

to + T

1
udt u
T

to + T

1
dt=
(Tu Tu )= 0
T

Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng

Turbulent Shear Stress


Turbulent Parameter

Turbulent intensity
Reynolds shear Stress
Higher order turbulence
Time scale

Turbulent Intensity
One dimensional flow

=
TI

2
1

=
(u )
T

to + T

Two dimensional flow

( u ) + ( v )
TI =
2

1/ 2

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

1/ 2

( u ) dt

Turbulent intensity is often presented


as relative value to the reference
velocity, i.e mean velocity, freestream velocity, etc

Three dimensional flow

( u ) + ( v ) + ( w )
TI =
3

1/ 2

Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng

Turbulent Shear Stress


Turbulent Shear Stress
It is tempting to extend the concept of viscous shear stress
for laminar flow : = (du/dy), by replacing u with average
velocity
However numerous experimental and theoretical studies have
shown that such approach leads to completely incorrect
results, that is,
Different mechanism of shear stress production

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng

Turbulent Shear Stress


Turbulent Shear Stress
Total Shear Stress:
Laminar shear stress
Turbuent shear stress (Reynolds shear stress)

du
u v =
=
lam + turb
dy
The shear stress in turbulent flow is not merely proportional
to the gradient of the time-averaged velocity
It also contains a contribution due to the random fluctuations
of the x and y components of velocity
The density is involved because of the momentum transfer of
the fluid within the random eddies

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng

Turbulent Shear Stress


Structure of Turbulent Flow in A Pipe
Although the relative magnitude of lam compared to turb is a
complex function dependent on the specific flow involved,
typical measurements indicate the structure shown below

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng

Turbulent Shear Stress


Eddy Viscosity
An alternate form for the shear stress for turbulent flow is
given in terms of the eddy viscosity

du
=
dy
Although the concept of an eddy viscosity is intriguing, in
practice it is not an easy parameter to use
Unlike the absolute viscosity which is a known value for a
given fluid, the eddy viscosity is a function of both the fluid
and the flow conditions
That is, the eddy viscosity of water cannot be looked up in
handbooks-its value changes from one turbulent flow
condition to another and from one point in a turbulent flow to
another
Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng

Turbulent Shear Stress


Mixing Length Theory
The inability to accurately determine the Reynolds stress,
u'v', is equivalent to not knowing the eddy viscosity
Several semiempirical theories have been proposed to
determine approximate values of
L. Prandtl (1875 1953) proposed that the turbulent process
could be viewed as the random transport of bundles of fluid
particles over a certain distance, lm , the mixing length, from a
region of one velocity to another region of a different velocity
By the use of some assumptions and physical reasoning, it
was concluded that the eddy viscosity was given by
du
= l
dy
2
m

Hence:

2 du
= lm
dy

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng

Turbulent Velocity Profile


Considerable information concerning turbulent velocity
profiles has been obtained through:
the use of dimensional analysis
experimentation
semiempirical theoretical efforts

Within the viscous sublayer the viscous shear stress is


dominant compared with the turbulent stress, and the random,
eddying nature of the flow is essentially absent
In the outer turbulent layer the Reynolds stress is dominant,
and there is considerable mixing and randomness to the flow.
The character of the flow within these two regions is entirely
different
within the viscous sublayer the fluid viscosity is an important
parameter; the density is unimportant
In the outer layer the opposite is true

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng

Turbulent Velocity Profile


The turbulent velocity profile in a smooth pipe
Subviscous layer (law of the wall)

y= R r
u* = wall

u
yu *
=
u*

Overlap region

u
yu *
= 2,5ln
+ 5, 0
u*

Central region

(Vc u ) = 2,5ln R

u*

1/ n

u
r
= 1
Vc R
Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

Power law
velocity
Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng

Turbulent Velocity Profile


Power Law Velocity Profile
Exponen n for power law velocity
profile

Lab. Mekanika Fluida Teknik Mesin-FTUI

Typical laminar flow and


turbulent flow velocity profile

Dr.Ir. Harinaldi, M.Eng