COPPER

FOR-

BUSBARS

CDA : Copper Development Association Inc.

The opper Development Association Inc., CDA, is the market development, engineering and information services urm of the copper industry, chartered to enhance and expand markets for copper and its alloys in North America.

DA was established in 1962 by the major U.S. producers and soon embraced the brass mill members of the Copper and Brass Research Association, which had been fanned in 1921 following WWl. The association has a rich history of serving the industry, i s member companies, their customers and all end users of copper and copper alloy products. Though the International Copper Association CDA is affiliated with 28 similar organizations ar und the world.

REFERENCE C.O.A., UK PUBLICATION#22,"COPPER FOR BUSBARS"

______ PAGE

1. Current-carrying Capacity of Busbars

2. Alternating Current Effects in Busbars _

__8 13

3.

Jointing of Copper Busbars.,

Appendices

1. Summary of methods

of busbar rating

2. Tables of properties

of He copper conductors _ 35

32

Current-carrying Capacity of Busbars

Design requirements _

he current-carrying capacity of a busbar is usually determined by the maximum temperature at which the bar is permitted to operate, as defined by national and internnti nal standards such as British Standard BS 159, Am rican Standard ANSI C37.20, etc. These standards give maximum temperature rises as well as maximum arnbi nt temperatures

BS 159 stipul ates a maximum temperature rise of 50° above a 24 hour mean ambient temperature of up to 35"C. and a peak ambient temperature of 40"C.

ANSI C37.20 alternatively permits a temperature rise of 65"C above a maximum ambient of 40"C. provided that silver-plated (or acceptable alternative) bolted terminations are used. If not, a temperature rise of 30°C is allowed.

These upper temperature limits have been chosen b cause at higher maximum operating temperatures the rat of surface oxidation in air of conductor materia1s

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increases rapidly and may give rise in the long term to excessive local heating at joints and contacts. This temperature limit is much more important for aluminium than copper because it oxidises very much more readily than copper. In practise these limitations on temperature rise may be relaxed for copper busbars if suitable insulation material s are used. A nominal rise of 60°C or more above an ambient of 40°C is allowed by BS 5486 provided that suitable precautions are taken. Part 1 ofBS 5486 (equivalent to mc 439) states that the temperature rise of bus bars and conductors is limited by the mechanical strength of tbe busbar material, the effect on adjacent equipment the penni ssible temperature rise of insulating materials in contact with the bars, and the effect on apparatus connected to the busbars.

The rating of a busbar must also take account of the mechanical stresses set up due to expansion, short-circuit currents and associated inter-phase forces. In some busbar systems consideration must also be given to the capitalised cost of the heat generated by tbe effective ohmic resistance and current (PR) which leads to an optimised design using Kelvin's Law of Maximum Economy. This law states that 'the cost of lost energy plus that of interest and amortisation on initial cost of the busbars (less allowance for scrap) should not be allowed to exceed a minimum value.' Wber'e the interest, amortisatien and scrap values are not known, an alternative method is to minimise the total manufacturing costs plus the cost of lost energy.

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Calculation of

current-carrying capacity _

A very approximate method of estimating the currentcarrying capacity of a copper busbar is to assume a CUfrent density of 2 A1mm2 (1250 A1in2) in still air. This method should only be used to estimate a likely size of busbar, the final size being chosen after consideration has been given to the calculation methods.

Heat generated

by a conductor _

The rate at which heat is generated per unit length of a conductor carrying a direct current is the product FR watts, where I is the current flowing in the conductor and R its resistance per unit length. The value for the resistance can in the case of d.c. bus bar systems be calculated directly from the resistivity of the copper or copper alloy. Where an a.c. busbar system is concerned, the resistance is increased due to the tendency of the current to flow in the outer surface of the conductor. The ratio between the a,c. value of resistance and its corresponding d.c. value is called the skin effect ratio. This value is unity for a d,c. system but increases with the frequency and the physical size of the conductor for an a.c. current.

Rate of Heat loss from Conductor, W Imm = PR S

o

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Where 1 = current in conductor, A P = perimeter of conductor, mm
R = d.c. resistance per unit length, Q/rum 8 = temperature difference between conductor and the
°
S = skin effect ratio ambient air, °C
Rf ex = resistance temperature coefficient of copper at
also S =
R the ambient temperature, fOe
°
where Rf :=;; effective a.c. resistance of conductor, Q p = resistivity of copper at the ambient tempera-,
(see above) ture,)..lQ em Approximate d.c. current ratings for flat and round bars -----

The following equations can be used to obtain the approximate d.c. current rating for single flat and round copper busbars carrying a direct current. The equations assume a naturally bright copper finish where emissivity is 0.1 and where ratings can be improved substantially by coating with a matt black or similar surface. The equations are also approximately true for a,c, current provided that the skin effect and prnximity ratios-stay close to 1.0, as is true for many low current applications. Methods of calculation for other configurations and conditions can be found in subsequent sections.

(c) Solid round bars :

(b) Hollow round bars:

I = 1.13 A OnSp 0.36 8 0.61 [(1 + et8 )p] 0.3

(2

(3

I = 1.78 AO.68 610.61

[(1+ (8)p] 0.5

If the temperature rise of the conductor is 50°C above an ambient of 400C and the resistivity of the copper at 200e is 1. 724 )..lQ em, then the above formulae borne:

(i) Flat bars:

I :::::: 7.73Ao5po.39

(4

(a) Flat bars on edge :

A05 p 0.3gB 061 = 1. 02 [(1+ ae )p] 0.5

Hollow round bars :

(ii)

(I

I = 8.63 A 05 pO.36

(5

where

1 = current A

A = cross-sectional area, mrn?

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(iii) Solid round bars:

T] =
T2 =
a20 = working temperature for current 1, °C working temperature for current 2, °C temperature coefficient of resistance at 20°C (= 0.00393)

(9

I = 13.6 A 0_68

(6

For high conductivity copper tubes where diameter and mass per unit length (see Table 6) are known,

If the working temperature of the bus bar system is the same in each case (,i.e., T[ = T2), for example when I' -rating for a change in ambient temperature in a hotter climate, this formula becomes

(7

where m

mass per unit length of tube, kg/rn outside diameter of tube, mm

=

d

=

Re-rating for different current or

temperature rise conditions _

inated bars _

Wh n a number of conductors are used in parallel, the IOlal current capacity is less than the rating for a single bar ti mes the number of bars used. This is due to the

b, true ion to convection and radiation losses from the inner conductors. To facilitate the making of interleaved joints, the spacing between laminated bars is often made

q ual to the bar thickness. For 6.3 mm thick bars up to 1 0 mm wide, mounted on edge with 6.3 rom spacings between laminations, the isolated bar d.c. rating may be multiplied by the following factors to obtain the totalrating.

Where a busbar system is to be used under new current or temperature rise conditions, the following formula can be used to find the corresponding new temperature rise or current:

I 8 )0.61 ( 1 +a (T -20)) 0.5

_! = (_1 x2U 2

i, 82 1 +a2o(Tl-20)

where

(8

current 1, A

= current 2, A

B) = temperature rise for current 1, °C

82 = temperature rise for current 2, °C

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No. of laminations 2

3

4

5

6

8

10

Multiplying factor 1.8

2.5

3.2

3.9

4.4

5.5

6.5

Alternating Current Effects in Busbars

Skineffect __

The apparent resistance of a conductor is always higher for a.c. than for d.c. The alternating magnetic flux created by an alternating current interacts with the conductor, generating a back e.m.f. which tends to reduce the current in the conductor. The centre portions of the conductor are affected by the greatest number of Jines of force, the number of line linkages decreasing as the edges are approached. The electromotive force produced in this way by self-inductance varies both in magnitude and phase through the cross-section of the conductor, being larger in the centre and smaller towards the outside. The CUfrent therefore tends to crowd into those parts of the conductor in which the opposing e.m.f. is a minimum; that is, into the skin of a circular conductor or tbe edges of a flat strip, producing what is known as 'skin' or 'edge'

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"

effect. The resulting non-uniform current density has the effect of increasing the apparent resistance of the conductor and gives rise to increased losses.

The ratio of the apparent d.c. and a.c. resistances is known as the skin effect ratio:

s

=

Wh rc R,.

R

o

S

=

a.c, resistance of conductor d.c. resistance of conductor skin effect ratio

The magnitude and importance of the effect In'I" as s with the frequency, and the size, shape and thick- 11 s f conductor, but is independent of the magnitude of tb urrent flowing.

It shouJd be noted that as the conductor temperatur increases the skin effect decreases giving rise to a low r than expected a.c. resistance at elevated temperalures. This effect is more marked for a copper conductor than an aluminium conductor of equal cross-sectional area be au e of its lower resistivity. The difference is particularly noticeable in large busbar sections.

Copperrods _

The skin effect ratio of solid copper rods can be calculated from the formulae derived by Maxwell, Rayleigh and others (Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards, 1912) :

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Coppertubes __

Skin effect in tubular copper conductors is a function of the thickness of the wall of the tube and the ratio of that thickness to the tube diameter, and for a given cross-secti nal area it can be reduced by increasing the tube diameter and reducing the wall thickness ..

Figs. 2-3, which have been drawn from formulae d rived by Dwight (1922) andArnold (1936), can be used to 'find the value of skin effect for various conductor sections.

~ X4
S = ( 1+ 48) + 1 (when x-c =3)
2
S = x_ + 0.26 (when x > =3)
2'" 2
where S skin effect ratio
x = It d ~ ( 2f7lO-)

d = diameter of rod, mm
f = frequency, Hz
p resistivity, J..lQ em
J..l = permeability of copper (=1) For a gi ven cross-sectional area the skin effect ratio for a thin copper tube is appreciably lower than that for uny other form of conductor. Copper tubes, therefore, II ve a maximum efficiency as conductors of alternating currents, particularly those of high magnitude or high fre-

III ny.

For HC copper at 20°C ,p = 1.724 J..lO ern, hence

x = 1. 069 x 1O-2d-vf

x = 1. 207 X 1O-2W

where A = cross-sectional area of the conductor, mrrf

lat copper bars __

The skin effect in flat copper bars is a function of its thickn s. and width. With the larger sizes of conductor, for a given cross-sectional area of copper, the skin effect in a thin bar or strip is usually less than in a circular copper rod but greater than in a thin tube. It is dependent on the ratio of the width to the thickness of the bar and increases a the thickness of the bar increases. A thin copper strip, therefore, is more efficient than a thick one as an alternating current conductor. Fig. 3 can be used to find the skin effect value for flat bars.

Fig. 1. Skin effect ill He copper rod, at 2()''C. Relation between diameter and x, and between "Rf I R, al1d II where x = i. 207 x I tp,r;:f

(Note: For values of II less than 2, use inset scale for R, I R)

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Jointing of Copper Busbars

Busbar jointing methods _

It is necessary that a conductor joint shall be mechanically nang and have a relatively low resistance which n1U t remain substantially constant throughout the life of th joint.

Efficient joints in copper busbar conductors can h made very simply by bolting, clamping, riveting, sol(j 'ring or welding, the first two- being used extensively, though copper welding is now more generally available thr ugh improvements in welding technology.

'.8

Fig. 2 Skin effect ratio for rods and rubes

Welded joints in copper busbars have the advantage that the current carrying capacity is unimpaired, as thejointis eff ctively a continuous copper conductor.

L

Of--- c-----J. I I I I I
~ !if ~ I
N[]te:~ for it; > 100 lIIiI5I! ~n,L1!i
f--- ~I ~-I---.m"\,hlllinear!VIXlf.PQbtm L
1/ / ~/.
/ V ~.
; ~/ / ~ 0:
, 1/,
I ~ ~ /"
a /; ri} ~ V
/'
~ -: V

, ~v
/' ,;/
0 UI

11;

Bolted joints are compact, reliable and versatile but have th disadvantage that they necessitate the drilling or punchi.ng of holes through the conductors with the bo1t holes causing some distortion of the li nes of current flow. This joint type also has a somewhat more uneven contact pressure than one using clamp plates.

.~ I,

~1,

,-,

1.3

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t.

Clamped joints are easy to make with the full cross-section being unimpaired. The extra mass at the joint and hence cooling area helps to give a cooler running joint

u 1D 20 30 "'0 60 BO 70 Be '510 100 JflRD1.tlOOm

Fig. 3 Skin effect ratio for rectangular conductors

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and with a well-designed clamp, gives a very even contact pressure. The further added advantage is that of easy erection during installation. A disadvantage is the much higher costs of the clamps and associated fixings.

taken into account.

Before considering the effect of the above factors on the efficiency of a joint, it is important to realise the nature of the two contact surfaces. No matter how well a

ntact urface is polished, the surface is really made up of a large number of peaks and troughs which are readily vi ible under a microscope. When two surfaces are br ught together contact is only made at the peaks, which ar subjected to much higher contact pressures than the uv rage joint contact pressure, and hence deform during the [ointing process. The actual contact area in the campi ,t ed joint is much smaller than the total surface area of til ~ joint. It has been shown that in a typical busbar joint surface the effective contact area is caromed to the re'i n in which the pressure is applied i.e., near the bolts in th case of a lapped joint.

Riveted joints are efficient if well made, but have the disadvantage that they cannot easily be undone or tightened in service and that they are not so convenient to make from an instaUation point of view.

Soldered or brazed joints are rarely used for busbars unless they are reinforced with bolts or clamps since heating under short-circuit conditions can make them both mechanically and electrically unsound.

Joint resistance _

The resistance of a joint is affected mainly by two factors :

(a) Streamline effect or spreading resistance R" the

diversion of the current flow through ajoint.

Ltrearnlineeffect _

(b)

TIle contact resistance or interface resistance of

h di tortion of the lines of current flow at an overlapping joint between two conductors affects the resistance f the joint. This effect must also occur when the current Ilow from peak to peak from surface to surface though th overall effect is that through the joint.

In the case of an overlapping joint between two flat copper bars, the streamline effect is dependent only m the ratio of the length of the overlap to the thickness of the bars and not on the width, provided that this dimension is the same for both bars. It has been shown both mathematically and experi mentally that even ina perfectly

the joint R,

The total joint resistance R=R +R.

J s I

The above is specifically for a d.c. current. Where a.c. currents are flowing, the changes in resistance due to skin and proximity effects in the joint zone must also be

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From the graph it can be seen then that the effect falls very rapidly for ratios up to two and then very much more slowly for values up to seven. This means that in most cases the streamline effect has very little effect as the overlap is of necessity much greater than seven.

made overlapping joint between two relatively thin flat conductors having a uniform contact resistance, the distribution of current over the contact area is not uniform. Practically all of the current flowing across the contact surfaces is concentrated towards the extremities of the joint and the contact density at the ends of the overlapping conductors may be many times that at the centre of the joint.

It is evident from the above that the efficiency of an overlapping joint does not increase as the length ofthe overlap increases and that from a purely electrical point of view no advantage is to be gained by employing an unduly long overlap.

The relation between the resistance due to streamline effect of an overlapping joint between two flat copper conductors and the ratio of the length of the overlap to the thickness is shown in FigA. It has also been found that the distortion effect in a 'l-joint is about the same as a straight joint.

The resistance ratio e in Fig. 4 overleaf is the ratio of the resistance of a joint due to streamline effect RSI to the resistance of an equal length of single conductor Rb, i.e. :

2·0

I I
b---.J.- r-Q1
T ,-

\

\
'\ <, " 1·6 o

~1'4 a::

"

.~ :::

~ 0:::

0·8

2 3 4 5 6 7 a 9 10

~=~

Fig. 4 Stream I ine effect in overlapping joints

e '"

R, _ ab R

~ - pe s

breadth of bar, rnm thickness of bar, mm length of overlap, mm

Contact resistance _

The contact interface between the two faces of a busbar joint consists of a large number of separate point contacts, the area of which increases as more pressure is applied and the peaks are crushed.

where a = b

£

p = resistivity of the conductor, ~n em

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There are two main factors which therefore affect the actual interface resistance of the surfaces.

higher resistivity.

The negative temperature coefficient of resistance of copper oxide means that the joint conducti v ity tends to increase wi th temperatu re. This does not, of course, mean that a joint can be made without cleaning just prior to joi nting to ensure that the oxide layer is thin enough to be

easily broken as the contact surface peaks deform when th contact pressure is applied.

(a) The condition of the surfaces. (b) The total applied pressure.

The type of coating applied to the contact surfaces to prevent or delay the onset of oxidation when operating at elevated temperatures or in a hostile environment is also important particularly in the long term.

Preparation of surfaces

ontact surfaces should be flattened by machining if 1\ C S ary and thoroughly cleaned. A ground or sandroughened surface is preferable to a smooth one.

It is important to prevent the re-oxidation of the

joint in service and it is therefore recommended that the x ntact faces should be covered with a thin layer of petroleurn jelly immediately after cleaning the contact surfaces. The joint surfaces should then be bolted tozether

o ,

th e ce s petroleum jelly being pressed out as the conta t pres ure is applied. The remaining jelly will help to protect the joint from deterioration.

It should be noted that in cases where join.ts have to p rform reliably in higher than normal ambient temperature conditions, it may be advisable to use a high melting point jelly to prevent it from flowing out of the joint, leaving it liable to attack by oxidation and the environment.

The following sections describe the use of coating on conductor contact surfaces. It should be noted

Condition of

contact surfaces _

The condition of the contact surfaces of a joint has an important bearing on its efficiency. The surfaces of the copper should be flat and clean but need not be polished. Machining is not usually required. Perfectly flat joint faces are not necessary since very good results can inmost cases be obtained merely by ensuring that the joint is tight and clean. This is particularly the case where extruded copper bars are used. Where cast copper bars are used however, machining may be necessary ifthe joints are to obtain a sufficiently flat contact surface.

Oxides, sulphides and other surface contaminants have, of course, a higher resistance than the base metal. Copper, like all other common metals,' readily develops a very thin surface oxide film even at ordinary temperatures when freely exposed to air, although aluminium oxidises much more rapidly, and its oxide has a much

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that recent tests carried out to investigate the'performance of bolted joints under cyclic heating with wide temperature variations indicate that joints without coatings give the most reliable long-term performance (Jackson 1982). The reason for this is that most coatings are of soft materials which when subjected to continuous pressures and raised temperatures tend to flow. This has the effect of reducing the number of high pressure contact points formed when the joint is newly bolted together.

together resulting in premature failure due to overheatmg.

ilver or nickel plating. This type of plating is being u ed increasingly, particularly where equipment is manufactured to American standards w hich require plated joi 'lts for high temperature operation. Nickel-plating provides a harder surface than silver and may therefore be preferable, These platings are expensive to apply and must be protected prior to the final jointing process as they are til ways very thin coatings and can therefore be easily dam": u . d. There is also some doubt as to the stability of these .1 ints under prolonged high temperature cycling. Very hi h contact resistances can be developed some time af- 1 r j inting. It is therefore suggested that natural metal joint. are in most cases preferable.

Tinning. The tinning of the contact surfaces of a bolted or clamped joint with pure tin or a lead-tin alloy is normally unnecessary, although advantages can be gained in certain circumstances.

If the joint faces are very rough, tinning may result in some improvement in efficiency. In most cases, however, its chief virtue lies in the fact that it tends to prevent oxidation and hence subsequent joint deterioration. It may therefore be recommended in cases where the joints operate at unusually high temperatures or current densities or when subjected to corrosive atmospheres.

For the best results the surfaces should be ti nned or re-tinned immediately prior to the fmal joint clamping. It should be noted that both. the electrical conductivity and the oxidation protecti ve action decrease as the lead content of the solder increases. Lead also has the effect of reducing the surface hardness of the coati ng and a high lead content in the tinning material should be avoided as this can cause the plating to creep once the joint is bolted

Effect of pressure

on contact resistance ------

II has been shown above that the contact resistance is dependent more on the total applied pressure than on the ar a of contact. If the total applied pressure remains con-

tant and the contact area is varied, as is the case in a switch blade moving between spring loaded contacts, the total contact resistance remains practically constant.

Tbis can be expressed by an equation of the form

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where

R

I

resistance of the contact total contact pressure exponent between 0.4 and 1

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p

As a bar heats up under load the contact pressure in a joint made with steel bolts tends to increase because of the difference in expansion coefficients between copper and the steel. It is therefore essential that the initial contact pressure is kept to a such a level that the contact pressure is not excessive when at operating temperaturfi.. If the elastic limit of the bar is exceeded the joint will have a reduced contact pressure when it returns to its cold state due to the joint materials having deformed or

tretched.

To avoid this, it is helpful to use disc spring wash-

r whose spring rating is chosen to maintain a substantially constant contact pressure under cold and hot working conditions. This type of joint deterioration is very much more likely to happen with soft materials, such as

IE aluminium, where the material elastic limit is low c mpared with that of high conductivity copper.

n

=

C ;:;; a constant

The greater the applied total pressure the lower will be the joint resistance and therefore for high efficiency joints high pressure is usually necessary. This has the advantage that the high pressure helps to prevent deterioration of the joint. Fig. 5 shows the effect of pr .sure on joint resistance.

5000

\
\
\
I~
<, I'---
...

'E 4000 E

c:

:t. 3000

",' t> c:

~ 2000 '$

a: 1000

o

10

20 30 40

pressure. N Imml

Joint efficiency --------

The efficiency of a joint may be measured in terms of the ratio of the resistance of the portion of the conductor comprising the joint and that of an equal length of straight conductor.

The resistance of a joint, as already mentioned, is made up of two parts, one due to the distortion of lines of current flow and the other to contact resistance, The resistance due to the streamline effect at an overlap joint is given by:

50

60

Fig. 5 The effect of pressure 00 the contact resistance of a joint between rwu

copper conductors

Joint resistance falls rapidly with increasing pressure, but above a pressure of about 15 N/mm2 there is little further improvement. Certain precautions must be observed to ensure that the contact pressure is not unduly high, since it is important that the proof stress of the conductor material or its bolts and clamps is not exceeded.

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R = ~

s ab

Bolting arrangements _

In deciding the number, size and distribution of bolts required to produce the necessary contact pressure to give h igb joint efficiency, both electrical and mechanical considerations have to be taken into account. The methods

,used to determine these requirements have been given in previous sections.

where for a given j oi nt a, band e are the width, th i c kness and overlap length, these all being constant, and contact

overlap is often made equal to the width of the bar, though with thick and narrow bars the overlap can be increased to improve the overall joint performance.

Owing to the larger surface area from which heat may be dissipated, efficient joints between single copper conductors usually have a lower temp erature rise than the

, l

conductors themselves. It is important, in general, to en-

sure that all joints have a reasonable mar-gin of safety. This is particularly so where multi-conductors join at one jointand/or the conductors are normally running dose to til specified maximum temperature rises.

resistance of the joint is ; y a2

R =

I

where Y = contact resistance per unit area.

The total joint resistance is :

and the efficiency of the joint is :

B-j e + X,b

Rb e~p

The resistance of an equal length of straight conductor is given by;

R., =

£!.

ab

The resistance ratio e is obtained from Fig. 4

In most cases it is inadvisable to use contact pressures of less than 7 Nfmm2, 10 N/I111U2 being preferred. The contact pTessure chosen is influenced by the size and number of bo Its or damps, the latter gi v ing a more even contact pressure. For the sake of symmetry the length of

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Table I Typical busbar hoi: i ng arrangements I single fact> ove rI up )

Bar Jotnt .Ioint umber Metric Bolt Hole Washer Washer
Width overlap area ofbolts* bolt torque size diameter thick-
mm mm mm! size Nm mm rum ness
(coarse OIm
thread)
16 32 512 2 M6 7,2 7 14 1.8
20 40 800 2 M6 7,2 7 14 1.8
25 60 1500 2 Mil 17 10 21 '2
30 60 1800 '2 M8 17 10 21 '2
40 70 1800 2 MIO 28 !l.5 24 2.2
50 70 3500 2 MI2 45 14 28 2.7
60 60 3600 4 MIO 28 11.5 24 2.2
IlO 80 6400 4 MI2 45 14 28 2.7
100 100 1(]{j00 5 M12 45 15 2H 2.7
120 120 14400 5 MI2 4S 15 28 2.7
160 160 25600 6 MI6 91 20 211 2.7
200 200 4(H)()O 8 MI6 91 20 211 2.7 bronze (CA 104) fasteners with unlubricared threads of normal surface finish. In the case of stainless steel bolts these torque settings may be used, but the tbreads must be lubricated prior to use.

In addition to the proof or yield stress of the bolt material and the thread characteristics, the correct tight-

~

cuing torque depends on the differential expansion be-

tween the bolt and conductor materials. Steel bolts are normally used but brass or bronze bolts have been used I ause their coefficients of expansion closely match the co p r conductor and hence the contact pressure does not vary widely with operating temperature. Copper alloy t (lit also have the advantage that the possibility of dis-

imilar metal corrosion is avoided. Because these alloys d n l have an easily discernible yield stress, however, c r has to be taken not to exceed the correct tightening

torqu '.

Because of their non-magnetic properties, copper

alloy" may also be preferred to mild or high-tensile steel wh src high magnetic fields are expected. Alternatively, a non-magnetic stainless steel may be used. In most cases how vel', high-tensile steel is used for its very high yield

[I' s.

'" high-tensile steel or aluminium bronze CA 104

A joint normally decreases in resistance with till increase in the size and number of bolts used. Boll sit!.:N usually vary from M6 to M20 with between four anti ~l being used in each joint with a preference for four btlll in narrow conductors and six in large conductors. Th~ torque chosen for each bolt size is dependent 011 the holt material and the maximum operating temperature 'x peeted. Because of the strength of copper, deformation oftbe conductor under the pressure of the joint is not nor mally a consideration.

Table 1 shows typical bolting ~arrangement Ior various busbar sizes. The recommended torque setting.'! are applicable to high-tensile steel (8.8) or aluminium

Jarnps -----------

'I'll' choice of clamp material and method of manufacture depends on the a.c, or d.c. current requirements, and on the number of clamps of a given size requi red. The manuIacturing methods used include machining from plate

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sand Of die casting, or stamping from plate. In the case of low current a.c. (less than 3000 A) and d.c, systems the clamps should be made from a high-strength material compatible with the required contact pressure. They can therefore be made. from steel in cast, forged or stamped form. Where a,c, currents in excess of 3000 A are concerned, the choice of material is between the low or nonmagnetic steels or a brass or bronze. Steel clamps are generally uns-uitable because of the hysteresis losses induced in them.

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Welded joints _

The inert gas shielded arc processes, tungsten inert gas (TIG) and metal inert gas (MIG) are the preferred welding methods for high conductivity coppers and are capable of producing excellent busbar joints. The welding data given in Table 2 are provided as a guide to good practice, but the actual welding conditions that will give the best results for a particular joint must be determined from experience. Certain physical and metallurgical properties of copper must, however, be taken account of when welding. The high thermal diffusivity of copper - four or five times that of mild steel- opposes the formation of an adequate weld pool necessary for good fusion and deoxidation which can give rise to lack of fusion defects and porosity .. The rapid heat sink effect, which is particularly pronounced in thicker sections, must therefore be overcome. Preheating of the copper before welding is neces-

sary for thickness above about 3mm as indicated in Table 2.

The tough pi tcb grades of copper, C 1 0 1 and C l02, contain particles of cuprous oxide which are normally in a form which has a minimal effect on electrical and mechanical properties. Prolonged heating of the copper however. allows the oxide particles to diffuse to grain boundaries where they can seriously affect the properties. This diffusion effect is both time and temperature dependent and is minimised by performing the welding operation as quickly as possible and by restricting the overall heating of the component as far as possible consistent with adequate fusion and a satisfactory weld profile .. This consideration obviously does not apply to oxygen-free coppers (such as C.I03) which do not contain the oxide particles ..

Thermal expansion should be allowed for during welding as this leads to the dosing of root gaps as the temperature of the metal rises, The root gaps indicated in Table 3 should therefore be allowed

Oxy-acetylene and oxy-propane welding methods can be used with oxygen-free copper but they are not recommended for welding tough pitch coppers as the reducing atmosphere produced in the flame can react with the eu prous oxide particles to produce steam inside the metal. This gives rise to porosity and is known as ' hydrogen embrittlement', .

HIGH CONDUCTIVITY COPPER

Table 3 Recommended edge preparations for TIG

and MIG butt welds

Table2 welding data for He copper

R. L 1111111, Ildul ii' l..!l • It hI", -'1.11 f I j II ~ I '- Il\ \' 1\, IIII Illll \ l I( I ,I L IIIIII\.' ~ oj lur h , I 111dul [l \ ,t\ lllpp-'_'!
TIG MIG
Designation Grade Argon or Nitrogen Argon or Nitrogen
BS 2870-2875)* helium helium
CIOl Electrolytic tough pi tch !
NO! C7,C8, Not
high conductivity C7,C21 cn recommended
CI02 Fire-refined tough pi tch recnmmendcd
high conducti vity
CI03 Oxygen-free high e7,C21 Not e7,e21 Not
conductivity recommended recommended 'I hickne" , "lllllhH

~ Inn11 Ed1!l'I)rt'llur';;lll'II' of runs

1-5

Close square butt

Flange butt

+British Standard specifications forwroughl copper and mpper alloys

3

~~ Square hutf Root gap 0-1_5 mm

( h) Typical operating data for TlG butt welds in high conductivity copper. (Direct current: eiectrode negative 'argon and helium shieding}

6

,
~lootrQde Filler rod Gas Shielding gas
Preheat nozzle Argon Helium
Thickness
tempera- diameter diameter diameter pas now Weld Gus no",
(mm) Weld
wre*("C (mm) (mm) (mill) urro_nl(A) (l/min) currunt(A) (l/minl
--- - 80-130 4-6 70-YO 6-10
1.5 None 1.6-2.4 1.6 9,5
3 None 2.4-3.2- 1.6 9.5-12 120-240 4-6 180-220 -10
6 up 10 40( 3.2-4.8 3,2 12-18 220-350 6-8 200-240 10-15
12- 400-600 4.8 3.2-4.8 12-18 330-42-0 8-10 260-280 IO-I~
>12 500-700 4.8 3.2-4.8 12-18 >400 8-10 280-320 12-20 Single V butt Root gap 0-1.5 mm

Single V butt RoO! gap 0-1. 5 ll1lll root face 15=

5'-15"

~?!-u:,:"1

12

Single V butt Single U butt.

Root gap 0-1.5 mm : root face 1.5-3 mm

*May be reduced significantly in helium shielding

L8

(c) Typical operating datil for MIG butt welds in nigh conductivity copper. (I 6 mm diameter filler Wire 'argon shielding)

Single V butt

Single U butt

Preheat Welding ATC Wire feed Gas flow
Thickness temperature current voltage rate nne
(nun) (Oe) (A) (V) (m/min) ClImin)
-- 240·320 25-28 6.5-8.0 10-15
6 NOlle
12- up to 500 320-380 26-3'0 5.5-6.5 10-15
18 up to SOD 340-400 28-32 5,5-6.5 12-17
24 np-to700 340-420 28-32 5,5-6.5 14-20 J
>24 up to 700 340-460 2R-32 5.5-6,5 14.20 RoO! gap 0-1.5 Il1lll : root face 1.5-3 lIllJl

Double U burt

Double V butt

Root gap 0·1.5 mm : foot face 1.$-3 mm

H1GH CONDUCTIVITY COPPER

ORIENTAL COPPER CO., LTD.

1

1-2

2-4

4-8

10

or more

each side

Case 3. d.c., laminated bars in still air.

(i) Apply formula 4, or read direct from Table 4,for one bar.

(ii) Multiply by appropriate factor,(see laminated bars)

Example:-

4 copper bars 100 mm X 6.3mm with 6.3 mm spacing

I =1570 A per bar

Multiplying factor for 4 bars= 3.20 Hence I = 3.2 X 1570

= 5020A

Appendices

1. Summary of methods of bus bar rating

The following examples summarise the rating methods detailed in section 1 and 2 for typical cases. Unless otherwise stated, a temperature rise of 50 DC above an ambient of 30 °C and a frequency of 50 Hz have been assumed. The ratings may be increased by blackening th busbar surfaces

Case 1. d.c., single rectangular-section bar on edge in still air.

Apply formula 4 (section 1 ) or read dir ct from Table 4, for standard sizes. Example:-

Copper bar] 00 mm x 6.3mm (A = 630mm2, p = 212. 6mm) 1=7 . 73(630)°5 (212 . 6)°39

=1570A (or read direct from Table 4)

1 'n 4 '" C ingle rectangular section bar, in still air.

(l.h ..... ,

Divide d.c. rating by appropriate value of . fD7D as obtained from Fig. 3.

",1"-[, ,1"-0

Case 2. dc., single circular-section bar (solid or hollow) in still ulr~ Apply formula 6 (section 1) or read dire 'l from Table 8, for standard size.

o

Example:-

(5_0 rum diameter copper rod

A - n: x 502 _ 1964mm2, p = rt 50 = I 57Jl1ll1) 4 -

I = 8 . 63( 1964 )0.5 (157)0.36 = 2360A

(or read direct form Table 8).

HIGH CONDUCTIVITY COPPER

Example=

Copper bar 100 rom x 6.3mm (aIb= 100/6.3= 16).

d.c rating = 1570A(case 1) R / R = 1.12 from Fig. 3.

f 0

-/Rf fRo = 1. 058

Hence J = 1570/1.058 = 1480A

ORIENTAL COPPER CO., LTD.

Case 5. a.c., single circular section bar, in still air.

O Divide d.c. rating by appropriate value of ;j R/Ro as obtained from Fig.J,

(Solid rods or tubes)

Example:-

SOrum diameter copper rod. d.c. rating = 2360A(case 2) x ::;: 1.207x 1 0-2 -JAf

::;: L207xlO-2 .J1964xSO ::;: 3.782

Hence R/Ro ::;: 1.61, from Fig.l Hence I = 2360

,j1.61

= 1860A

Case 6. a.c., laminated bars, in still air.

(i) Determine rating of one bar as for

(ii) Multiply by appropriate factor,(TabJ 5. 1.)

Example=

4 copper bars 100 mm x6.3mm with 6.3 I11Ill spacing

d.c. rating per bar ::;: 1.570 A (as Cas I).

o IENTAL COPPER CO., LTD

2.Tables of properties of He copper conductors

~~ \~ """''''~o. OC.,..,OCO OO'lf"; !("I""';; V') Cl.f"1o,f'j I,of'lO 0. V".O'O'r.oV'l U ti -~~.~~~~~8~_N~~-~-~~~~~O.~~O~~

~ ~ - __ NN~-~ N~~~~~NM~v~~~~~N~~~~

l fi< 19 If'! \1"\ If"'!, In VI I/"'; :- V1 0 v-; ~>'"t 0- 0 <0 II:,l V) '" 0' '1'0 00 I;r"; 0 e 0< 0' Irl IiO 0 '0 ~ N~.~~-.~-~~_~U~~.~~NO~_N~_S~~

~ - N"_--N~~M-_-NN~.n~--NN~m.n

. ~~~-------------------------------~------~

l~~, ~ ~ ~ t:! ~ ~ g:; ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ &; ~ ~ &; ;:; ~ tQ ~ ~ ~ ;! ~ 8 G! ~ ~ ,:; ~ ~

~J9 b~~v."I'o;I"MQQ..oV1-VI""fNN.e;.,.,."<tf"')('tN~-~\f"!""TMc-:.N- ...... ~

1L!_~- ~

a.~. rating per bar = 1480A (as Case 4). Multiplying factor

for 4 bars = 2.3 (Table 5.1) Hence r = 2.3 X 1480

= 3404 A

HIGH CONDUCTIVITY COPPER

ORIENTAL COPPER CO., LTD

HIGH CONDUCTIVITY COPPER

IN

COPPER CO., LTD.

Table 5 a.c, current ratings of laminated bars

Number
and size Total Current for staled temperature rise
orban; Section above 20"C ambient
mm 1I1IIl' 20DC 30°C 40°C 50°C
2-2Ox.5 200 430 540 640 720
2-25xS 2:50 500 640 750 855
2-3.0,,5 300 590 no 88.0 1000
3-30,,5 450 800 1020 1200 1360
4-30,,5 600 1030 1300 1530 J740
2-4{)xS 400 750 950 1120 1270
3-40):;5 600 1030 1300 1530 1740
4-40x5 800 1260 ]600 1890 2140
2·S0x5 500 880 1120 1320 ISOO
·50.\5 750 1200 1520 1790 2030
.1.S0"S 1000 1500 1900 2240 2540
2 Ci()~5 600 1030 1300 153.0 1740
.1·60,,5 900 1380 17St) 2060 2340
00,,5 1200 ]700 2150 2.'i40 2880
2. 80.~5 800 1260 1600 1&9Q 2140
·80~5 1200 1700 2150 2540 2R80
'I·SOxS 1600 201m 2630 3100 3520
.
2 100,,5 1(01) I
1460 1850 2180 2470
\·100,,5 1500 1~90 2520 2970 3370
4.IOOxS 2000 2420 30W 3610 409Q
4 ~O"II) '2000 2330 2950 3480 395Q
I (,0.10 2400 2580 3260 3850 4360
80,10 3200 2970 3760 4440 5030
-
1 IOO~IO 3000 2880 3650 4300 4880
~ IOOxl() 4000 3240 4100 4S4U 5480 Noll', "

II ~1111l'~ ure I1llr~ arranged on edge and spacing equal to the bar thickness, All bars In n· IIII' 1111« puinted black.

Vl\llJr~ ur 'll"C rise based on test results, values for 20, 40 and 50"C rise based on lWr' 11 'I V tlucs and assume temperature rise proportional to 1.75 power of 1.

! '4 lit '~~y til It ermill Switchgear Ltd.

[lIbl ~,I Multiplying factors for laminated bars

'Nl11}) jl.lr t luminations Width of lamination
It 1 nun I lick. with
r.:.J1 JJ!J.!ll '~J~l\ci ne: 50= 75mm 100mm
1 1.00 LOll 1.00
Z 1.74 1.70 1.66
~ 2.30 2.20 2.0\l
4 - 2.45 ~.3U HIGH CONDUCTIVITY COPPER

Table 6 Current ratings, moments of inertia and section modul i-tubes

I NIAL COPPER CO., LID.

(b) Sizes based on imperial dimensions

(a) Metric sizes

Ouuide Wall Approx. Approx, Moment Modulus of Approx. Approximate
Diameter Thick- sectional weight of inertia section resistance current rating (d.c.)'
ness area x 10' xlOJ per m at2O'C A
mm kg/m
nun mm' !IlIlJ' mm' liD. Indoor Outdoor
12.5 1.22 43.9 038, 0.733 0.115 400.2 2().'j 285
12,5 2.6S Kl.9 0.7<14 1.14 o,m 210.0 285 390
19 1.21 68.4 Q.6IQ 2.15 1I.2~6 257.0 100 400
19 2,65 1>6 0.218 4.74 0.494 129.0 4211 560
19 S.I 22) 1.984 (;2(1 OJj46 71!.')] 540 71_,
2:i l.22 92.9 0.819 6.&4 0.534 1~9.2 390 5()5
2s 1.63 liS 1,063 869 0,679 148.7 440 570
15 2J)4 149 '.3U" lO.} fI.8~ 118.1 490 640
2:i 2.65 I~') 1.684 12,5 0.976 92.95 ",5 no
25 4,07 271 2.431 16.2. l26 64,52 665 865
2.~ 6;36 380 ,.38 t9.3 UI 4'.Yl 785 1020
32 1.63 1'\4 1.378 17.6 1.10 114,8 :Wl 695
~2 3.26 291 259 311.1 1.89 60,14 745 955
1Z 6.36 506 4.'1 43.8 2·74 35.1X) 985 12(iO
38 1.63 IKh HiS 31.3 1.63 94,37 635 838
~~ 3.26 356 3.17& 54.~ 2.86 49.43 380 11:)8
J~ 7.M 730 ".49$ 00,7 4.73 24.()6 lZ60 16W
44 1.63 2F' 1.9S-S 50~ 226 8048 no 935
44 3.26 4~1 3.74 '111.6 4.04 41.77 1020 1300
44 1.64 ' &82 I 7.M 157 UII 19.~11 1~70 1880
so 1.1,3 J50 2.227 76,6 2 .. 99 70.42 820 1050
)1J 2.04 312 2:775 9:JA 3.65 56.41 9J5 11711
0 4.07 '197 ~_:m 165 6.46 29.52 1270 1620
~a ~.87 702 6.25 I}!'[) 739 25,04 13KII lI(iO
'11 MI an 7.93 Z17 8.g:; 19.oB 1560 1980
~0 10,2 1300 1l..5 2&7 11.2 13.56 . 1370 2390
M 2,04 392 3.48 187 5.85 44.83 1110 1420
M 4.Cl7 759 6.89 33~ 10.6 .23.18 1550 1980
1,1 10.2 1700 1'.1 632 19.8 ]0.33 2310 2960
71 1.63 380 3.40 2(,7 6.95 46,26 1]70 1500
'I~ 2.0-1 472 4.21 ]~ 8.55 17.29 1300 1670
7\ 2.~~ 610 5.43 417 lIJ.9 28.87 1490 1900
7! 4,07 911 s.u &/6 IS.S 19.25 1830 2320
1~ 4,89 1000 9,{;9 104 18.J 16.1 H 2000 2.13l}
1J ~.~II 1200 10.78 76] rss 14.65 20%0 2660
7~ 10.2 2110 18.7 1190 30,9 8311 27(.1 3530
K~ 1.65 716 ~J7 (iT! 15.11 24_611 1700 "2170
K~ '-40 14'10 12M 1250 27.8 12.47 2400 3050
~IJ 11,' 3040 27.05 229U 51.0 5,785 ):lIMI 4470
!(IU "2~ 1000 8.93 1210 2.1.9 17.50 2100 2f1l1n
I(~j ~,'II 1910 17.0 2200 42.9 9.196 2910 3710
I(WI 12.7 3550 3U 3(iM) 70.4 4.954 ]960 5050
111 16 1130 10.1 1760 30.6 15.53 2330 2970
III ~41 2170 193 3200 55.5 8.103 3110 4090
II! 127 40,10 36,0 51,U 92.9 4.341 4400 5610
W ·1 ()7 1570 14.0 2990 46g 11.15 zsso 3(iW
W 7,M 2860 25,4 5150 80.5 s.iss 3H,;(] 4850
11/ I~,'? 4S60 JO,S 7GOO 119 3.860 4870 6no
1.11 .j ~~ :Wu,s 18.4 4740 fi7.J g.5U 3J4{) 4lllO
11111 ~,~(, 3530 32.3 7K711 112 4.B44 4430 ~60()
1111 19,t '1220 641 1-3600 IY3 '.43H 6240 7900
I'll ~,QO 2710 24.1 7)50 95,6 6,484 41"1 4930
Ilil IIU 4~n 40.4 11(,011 I~ I ],871 5180 6370
1.\1 IV,I 7980 71.0 18200 2l~ 2.21l'i 6850 &45U Outside Wall Cm5S Approx, Moment of Modulus Approx. Approx, d.c,
Diameter Thick- sectional weight inertia of ofsection resistance current rating 1
ness area kglm section mm' per ill 31 2O"C A
mOl
mm lllIlJ' mm' !ill Indoor Outdoor
12 1.0 34.56 0.307 527.0 87.83 502 185 250
12 1.5 49.48 I 0.440 695.8 116.0 351 220 300
12 2.0 62.83 0.559 816.8 136.1 276 250 340
15 1.0 43.98 0.391 J083 144.4 394 225 30n
15 1.5 63.62 0.566 1467 195.6 273 275 360
15 2.0 81.68 0.726 1766 235.5 212 310 4()O
ill 1.0 53.40 0,475 1936 215.1 325 265 50
18 1.5 77,75 0.691 2668 296.4 223 320 420
18 2.0 100.50 0.894 3267 363.0 172 365 480
18 2.5 121.70 1.08 3751 416.8 143 405 ~O
22 U) 65.98 0.587 3645 331.4 263 320 410
22 L5 96.61 0.859 5102 463,8 179 385 ~OO
22 2.0 12'i.70 1,]2 6346 576.9 J38 440 570
22 2.5 154.10 1.37 7399 672.7 112 490 630
22 ],[J 179.JO l.59 8282 752.9 97.0 525 680
28 1.5 124.9.0 1.11 11000 785.5 139 480 620
28 2.0 163.40 1,45 13890 991.8 106.3 550 700
28 2.5 200.30 1.78 16440 1174 86.7 60S 7110
28 3 . .0 235.60 2.10 18670 1334 73.7 660 RS()
35 1.5 157.90 lAO 22190 1268 no 585 75()
35 2.0 un .40 1.84 28330 1619 83.7 670 850
35 2.5 255.30 2.27 33900 1937 68.0 740 950
35 3.0 301.60 2.68 38940 2225 57.5 805 1030
54 1.5 247.40 2.20 85300 3160 70.2 855 1090
54 2.0 326.70 2.91 IJU600 4(J96 53.1 980 1250
54 2.5 404.50 3.6B 134400 497H 42.9 1090 1390
54 3.0 480.10 • 4.27 156800 S8()~ 36.1 1190 1520 I
76.1 2.0 465.60 4.14 319800 8404 37.3 1330 1690
76.1 2,5 578.10 5.14 392000 10300 30.0 1480 1880
76,t 3.0 689.00 6,13 461000 12110 25.2 16]0 2050
76.1 3.5 79iU() 7.10 527200 13850 21.7 1740 22]0
108 2.5 828.60 7.37 1.1 53xlO' 11360 20,9 20ID 2550
108 3.0 989.60 8.80 1.365xl0" 25280 17.5 2190 2790
108 3.5 1149 ]0.2 1.570)[10" 29080 15.1 2360 3010
133 3.0 1e25 JO.9 2.590xI0' 38940 14.1 2630 3350
133 3.5 1424 11.7 2.987x10" 44920 1'2. I 2830 3610
159 3.0 1470 l3.1 4,474x10' 56280 11.8 3070 2910
159 .3.5 1710 15.2 5. 171x 10' 65040 to. I 3310 4420 , Current ratings are for 50"C temperature rise and 40"C ambient

HiGH CONDUCTIVITY COPPER

I .ll'tl'Jll rllllil N IIrI: for 50°C temperature rise and 40°C ambient

~ ~8888~~~818~~8~ §§8~~~~ ~
"" "., l:l U
..J 5 ~ ~~-oo~ N~OOM~ _
.::: '" ~~~~~~~~~oo~~~~~~~~ •• ~1 ~ = ~-
PJ "e :3<C 0 '" '" 0 0 0: 0 0 0 on 0 0 g 0 0 m
Z; K5~ '" ~ \0 "'" \0 .... 0:. '" c- '" '" r--
U 0 c t:.;:;< N r<1 V on e-. 0 N ~ 00 N ~ \0
Z U ~ N N N
~ ci U ~ ~ee
u '" 888ocooao88§88~ 08~~~~ -c
c - ",.,.,,,,,i'l~§~8:i:cfll'- "'<:>- ~iQ",' '"'
0 ... ~
?> g:~<c NMN~M v~~~~~~oo_ N~~~ i
I- < d
..s;:~ 0 '" on 0 0 0 0 0 0 '" 0 a '" 0 or> ""
" :3 "" \0 V \0 a- .... ~ r- on \0 \0 or, <') 00 ""
~ ~.~« '" '" v "-' .... 0 v 00 <') .... N .,., 0
'" <> U ;::; occ-,Ir.~-..;to~~~~;:~~C5~ N N e-, rn '<t
c 0 ab- ... ::l 0.
a~;;;Na .....;w;;fO\O\"OM.....:.c'~"'Ov-i0'¢~~ g:u oj
~ .~~:::l ('Ii.M----- « u
~
og", M§ 1.O>:.O.::Qf"-o.C"':IO ~;n::;I;;~i;; E
§1S8~~8~~:!f1~~;~~ t; 0 0 ....; .... N
:88iB8l-.., ..< c..u \0 .,., vo, Sl 0 N v 00 0 M ;t 0
~;:.." ~ 000.0, 0.0 0, 0 6 6 0 d d de oodcidd e ~~~ I- a or, '<t .,., I- <'1 0 a- -e- I- q '" a-
I;t'J ~ Q,!=i", 0; tr) 0; N ...: ...: on cri 00 r-. <:-i co e- vi ..,f M
""' ~Sti a -e- N '" 0\ \0 .... r'l '"
0 \0 <'1
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~§ r'ii1.f1~..arnQ._M""''''''''''' o~
'" .3 r"1..o OOrf)(f"'.["-::1'.Oo..lI"1l..Ooooor--"
">< ---;---: ,~~~~r-:~"'"":",,:-.:if:;~~
c:: '6~ 00.000,:=0000- - ~ C"3 NIL"i ~ '"
0 ~
"a ~ ...... l ] .<=
'"
o >< ~~
O.l ~ E N M '" \0 ~- \0 '" ""
'" N 0 00 0\ N '" .". ....
..J ",11 ;PRga~88~p~~~~~PJ~~~8~~~~ ~ '" "" \0 '" I- ",. M or, ~ c-: 0- V .,., r-- N
~o~ \fu IS >< E 0 0 q __, <'1 "l q "l ....; N N ~ .,., 00 "l;
~ ~o~ v}'.c:oq~"":~~Ir:r.:~~~~~~dO--f'I"I'l'"It cr-Ij~ ..... N ...j r-. N .... ...j ci
~-& ~ e ] N ...., ~
z I '.c:;
;;; ::r::~ >< < l!!
I:l u~ 8000 ~N_~ E "
I:l ~c: E I ]~
og ...:l'" ~ e- ~ ~ ~ "=l': ~ ~ .~ 0 ~ "if. q f"'l 111 """: 1'1 1"'1 I ~ '" 0\
"E ~ E ri~~~~~~~~~=~~~~~MG~~~~~~ '" 0 0>0 '" e-t
tl --<:b ~~ ~ "" 0' q 00 "" ~ r- r- \0
~S ........ - - r-I "Id" <'! "l; ..;- Ie .... 00 co ~
r/l 0_
<IJ -;:; I~ N '" 0; ci c<i N ,,; N '" 0 n
'" til !;; 1 ,., .... <n 0 00 r- '" on
§ ~ ,., v .... :3 ~
x>l- NI.r"j,'..DMII"'.ir-O'I-.;;t-OOf""-r1')~r-ot'- I"""If)OONO\r'1 -r- I
e:g,.g :;~~~~~~~~~~~~~ :~;;;;g~:!:!~ I ::0
o<J
°e c..."", ,bIj
0..11).>(
O.l «;t
0:: J 13 0\ 0- ""
4- B 'iiJ, vi ,..:. '" 00 '" r-. 0- .... '" .,.. ",. '" ...., '" 00 '"'"
~~~~~g~~~~23~~~ ~-co=~~~~ ~ 0\ g r-. '" 00 r- OC t- v '" ..". r- '" \0 "E:
0 '" -c N§ ..;;t r----b~ I I ... N '" '" '" 0'1 '"" ..;- ." r'l .... ~ r-- 0'1 n
'" er '\rj:..o~oc 8 "1""1" OOC9I.1) ....... ·"'OON- Il'1 r",c 0- (,-1 f""I r .~ ... ...... '" m v '" eo N .... r- N '" "
p ;... ------1,.....-jNt"'JN""1'~l£"'. - ____ f" N 0'1 ... :0
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@ '" ~~N~::~g:.oOt!2~~~o;~ ~~~~~~~~;; :1 u
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'" ~ .... t- V "Cl
bJ) " N ~ "" t- .,.., ~ ~ a
.=: fS '! ..; 0, ..; M 0 ...j ci 0 on N '" e-r "" 0- N 00
"" '" r- r- ~ 00 '" \0 00 >0 \0 '" :j0 .,
f9 1 C"') .... 'IoC' '" '" 0- ... on '"
'" ... 0'1 -c
..... mff"lm'!r1·II')V",I.D.oC'li('i"';rnOOO ~~~~g::::!;~~
15 o <.J ~mm-.i~.<:fV'iIl"i,x:;oeoO"":"":_;·n II)
-5 ~'+< EO ~~~~~~:~~ ....
('!!tt)('I";-=;to:j-'Vlf11T1~\O'oOCOOOOO;: .'3
g "Cl '" E ~~~O";o__'-~~'n ~
's= m\D-.o,;)O--~-- J
::J '..0 L- c- -x: ,.... 0-
U ~ \0 00 0 N '" co N In 00 In N 0 '" M 00 '" E
"... N N N M ..;- '" '" '" ,\0 I- s
e- .g, e « '" '" "" ~ U
<U o.Do...D..o N N r-I [,-I"'-- ~ MNooooC""l:)O .a:; 00 00..,0 "0::1" ("'-.1 ("'-.3 o....c 0
0o;..c:: E r--r--r-OOONNI..f1!r,V"Jr-r--OM ooOON'Ctr",c'CJX-
:g :c ,..---.,.......-------M('l ~ ........ ___ .... _t"'>I '"
Fi

HIGH CONDUCTIVITY COPPER ORI N'I'AL COPPER CO., LTD. Table 9. Comparison of nat bar d.c, current ratings for di fferent ambient and working temperatures. I

1111111111111111111111111111111111

(a) Ambient temp == 30"(:

(IJ) Ambient temp == 40"C

Temp. coeff, of resistance.c.ar 40"C ,,3.644 x [(F" Temp. coeff, of resisdviry.B ,aI40"C == 3.656 x l(]"J Resisti vity, p ,at 4D"C " 1.833

J'

Temp. coeff. or resistance,« .at 30"C = 3.781 X lO-' Temp. coeff, of resistiviry.B .at 3O"C = 3.794 x 10-' Resistivity, p .at 3O"C " 1.772

Temp rise(OC)
Size to 20 30 40 50 60
12.5 Z.~ 65 95 120 14(] 160 175
x
Ib 2.5 80 115 145 175 195 215
2" 2.5 95 14lJ ISO 210 23S 26Q
~ 2.5 115 170 215 ~50 2&5 ~15
31.S 2.5 140 210 200 ~O5 .34~ 3SQ
4 2.5 110 255 320 380 425 410
~o 1_j 205 310 390 41\(1 515 5711
~ 2.5 2')5 380 4g0 560 635 695
16 4 100 155 190 22,. 255 280
111 4 120 IS; 230 270 305 335
lS 4 14S 220 80 325 365 4lJ5
31.~ 4 180 170 335 395 445 490
0 4' '220 330 4·15 485 ~45 600
~O 4 265 ' 395 5(~J 585 660 730
61 ~ 325 485 610 715 810 8.90
so 4 400 595 750 8MO 990 10'l5
)rlll 4 485 725 9.15 1070 1210 1330
23 6.3 190 2K; 360 420 475 5'15
11.' 0.:1 2:10 MS 435 510 575 63Q
~(I 6.3 200 420 .1)0(1 620 71XI 170
~O 6.J 340 505 640 7j{) 845 9}1)
bl 63 4H1 615 775 910 1030 1130
11 6.3 00;; 755 955 1HZ I2liQ 1390
Inn 6.3 610 92U 1J55 1.355 1530 1~~5
I~' 6 . .3 74-5 IllS 1405 1645 1855 2M5
Inn 6.3 ~1u 1385 17411 2040 2305 2535
~u III 435 655 825 %5 1090 120ll
f •. l 10 530 795 1000 1170 1310 1455
"0 10 645 970 1220 1430 1"15 1780
1M 10 780 1170 • 1475 17JO 1955 21.10
1'1 10 945 '1420 1790 2095 2:165 2.605
'N) 10 1170 115, 2.215 2595 2\13D 3225
llMl l() 1420 21lS Z685 3150 3555 3915
l,l1 10 1730 2595 32(i; 3830 4320 4755
1111 16 1010 1)1.1 1905 22:35 2520 2775
U· 16 1210 1825 2..>1)0 2700 3045 3350
I"" 16 ISOO 2255 2840 3330 3755 4130
IllI) 16 1820 '2130 3435 4{)JO 4545 5005
~'n 16 22()S 3'310 4165 488..1 5:\111 6070
1I! I~ 1695 4()4S Stl9S 5975 6740 741~ Temp rise{uC)
Size [0 20 30 4D 50 60
12.5 x 2.3 65 ~5 120 145 160 175
16 25 80 no 150 175 200 21S
20 2j 95 145 180 210 240 ?60
25 2.5 liS 173 220 255 290 )IS
31.5 Z.5 140 210 265 310 350 3RS
40 2.5 175 ?60 325 3R5 430 47~
50 z.s 210 315 39;; ¢65 525 Si$
63 2.5 25.5 385 4R5 570 64() 71ll
16 4 105 155 195 no 260 2H~
20 4 125 185 23S 275 )W .140
2.5 4 150 22.5 280 330 370 ·HlI
JI"' 4 1811 270 340 41Xl 450 ~1~1
40 4 220 33.) 420 490 5:;5 ~1lI
50 4 . 270 405 510 595 670 7 II
63 4 J30 495 620 725 820 'IIXI
80 4 405 (~IS 765 895 1010 II HI
100 4 "90 735 92.,} lOSS 122.~ 1.1~U
'Jj 6.3 195- 2.90 365 42.1 480 S~I
31.5 G·J B5 1511 440 5[5 58U Mll
40 6.3 285 42.5 535 630 710 7KlI
50 63 345 515 650 7~O 855 9411
.63 65 42D 62.'i 190 925 liMO 1145
80 63 515 710 97{1 ID~ 1180 140~
100 6.3 620 930 117S 1375 155{) 1750
125 6 . .> 755 1130 142.5 1670 1885 2070
tOO 6.3 935 1405 1770 Z070 2335 2570
50 10 44.1 665 835 1)80 1105 1215
63 10 535 80S HilS 1190 1340 147S
80 10 055 985 1240 14~5 1640 1&00
1110 10 7~.5 1190 1500 1755 1980 2180
125 lU %0 1440 IX15 2125 2400 2M()
1;;0 !O 1190 1785 2245 26J5 2970 3266
200 JO 1445 2165 2125 3195 J(,(15 3965
2.50 III 1755 2635 1315 J~85 4380 4820
100 15 1025 1535 1935 21711 2555 2815
125 16 1235 1855 2335 2735 3085 3395
160 16 1525 2290 2g80 J37~ 3805 4185
20G 16 IR50 2710 349Q 4lJ90 4610 5070
'250 16 2240 3360 42:10 4955 5590 ~I.>O
315 16 2740 '1105 5170 611fo11 6830 7515 'Calculated from formula 1. section

AI COPPER CO., LTD.

HIGH CONDUCTIVITY COPPER

(e) Ambient temp" 50''C

Temp. coeff, of resistance, Ct •. at 5O"C ,,3..516 x 10" Temp. coeff, of resistivity, /3 ,at 50"C ,,3.527 x 10-' Resist! vi ty. p,at SO"C " 1. 8 8 8

Temp rise(°C)
Size 10 .20 30 40 50 60
u.s k 2.5 tiS ,95 t20 140 15S 173
[6 2.5 75 liS 14, PO 195 210
20 2Y 95 140 175 205 230 ~s
:15 2.~ 110 170 210 250 2SO 310
~l_S a.s J;lS 20S 260 305 34ll 37.S
40 2,5 170 zsu 31o!0 375 420 4~
so 2.5 205 305 385 4,5 510 5~
(i~ as 2.'iO 3;:7, 470 5::;5 625 690
[6 4 100 15(1 [90 220 250 l1~
20 4 f20 1M :<;JO 265 300 310
~ 4 145 215 275 32<l 365 4{){l
3!.5 4 ]75 265 3J:'i 390 «ll 4~'
40 4 21S 325 410 4g{j 540 !9S
50 4 260 390 495 500 M~ 710
m 4 no 4~Q 6Q5 705 800 aBO
80 4 390 590 740 870 980 I()j!Q
.JIlO 4 475 715 900 1060 119!i 131el
25 63 1~5 281) J~:5 415 470 515
Jl.5 6,3 'Z25 '!40 430 5(IQ 56S 625
40 6,J 215 415 520 610 690 76(1
50 6.3 315 51)0 630 740 ~35 92{l
63 6.3 405 61Q 765 900 IOI~ 1120
'W 63 500 745 94{) 1105 1245 1~70
1.00 6.3 '605 905 I!<!(I 1340 ISIO 166~
125 e.s 730 UOO [3&5 1625 1835 21lW
160 (iJ 910 1365 1720 2015 227.1 2'Ol
50 10 430 645 ~15 955 lQ7S 118S
6S5 IU '20 780 985 1155 I JUS 143$
BQ to G~:; 955, 1205 1415 IS95 ms
tOO to 770 Jt'55' i455 1710 193.0 2125
125 to 935 1400 1765 2070 2:335 257~
[50 10 115S 173, 2l8$ 2565 2&90 318S
Xi!J 10 140lJ 2103 2ti50 3110 3,10 3865
250 10 1105 2.'i5,. 3,220 3180 4265 4700
100 16 995 14% 1~3B 221Q 2490 2145
ns 16 rzoo l800 2270 2665 31lO.5 3310
100 16 1<1110 ;0210- 2800 3285 3710 40llS
200 16 1795 2690 3390 I )980 4490 4945
250 16 2115 :3265 4110 4825 5445 5995
315 16 2660 3'19(1 502.0 5900 6655 7330 HIGH CONDUCTIVITY COPPER

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