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CONTENTS
This year’s edition is divided into 13 chapters, covering a vast spectrum of topics
from the exploration of our universe to the latest sporting achievements. In between,
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that you could try for yourself at home – and another chapter
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Stunning photographs: Our picture team has
been travelling the world to snap the most
visually striking record holders. Every edition of
GWR features more than 1,000 photos – many
unique to us and seen for the first time.

EDITOR’S LETTER
GWR DAY
FOREWORD: DR BUZZ ALDRIN
INTERVIEW: CHRIS HADFIELD

4
8
10
12

SPACE

14

FACTOGRAPHIC: THE MOON
EXTRASOLAR PLANETS
PLUTO
SPACEWALKS
VOYAGER
BLACK HOLES

16
18
20
22
24
26

EARTH
FACTOGRAPHIC: EARTH
WILD WEATHER
CLOUDS
BIZARRE GEOLOGY
REEFS
RAINFORESTS
KILLER PLANTS

ANIMALS
FACTOGRAPHIC: ANIMALS
ANTS
OCTOPUSES
BIG CATS
CROCODILES
OWLS

2 Contents

28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42

44
46
48
50
52
54
56

Gallery:
This photo-led feature
offers a change of pace
and gives you the chance
to explore record-breaking
in picture form.

MONKEYS
SPIDERS
DINOSAURS
CATS & DOGS
FANTASTIC BEASTS

HUMANS

Dateline:
Running through the
book, at the foot of
the page, you’ll find
a chronological history
of the universe… in
200 records!

58
60
62
64
66

68

FACTOGRAPHIC: BODY PARTS 70
BODY MODIFIERS
72
MEDICAL MIRACLES
74
OLDEST...
76
FAMILY VALUES
78
BODY EXTREMES
80

RECORDOLOGY

82

FACTOGRAPHIC: PICTURE THIS! 84
FOOD
86
GARDEN GIANTS
88
CHOCOLATE
90
COLLECTIONS
92
MASS PARTICIPATION
94
COSPLAY
96
BIG STUFF
98
SMALLTOWN BIG STUFF
100
BALL SKILLS
102

Fun and informative:
Our records are a unique
mix of quirky facts and
extraordinary stats that you
won’t find anywhere else.

JOURNEYS

104

FACTOGRAPHIC: EVEREST
EXPLORATION 1500–1970
EXPLORATION 1971–1995
EXPLORATION 1996–2005
EXPLORATION 2006–2009
EXPLORATION 2010–2015

106
108
110
112
114
116

DO TRY
THIS AT HOME…

118

IN YOUR KITCHEN
IN YOUR BACKYARD
IN YOUR BEDROOM
IN YOUR GYM

DON’T TRY
THIS AT HOME…
VEHICLES
FIRE
WATER
PERFORMERS

120
122
124
126

128
130
132
134
136

Annotated images:
We’ve added notes to some of the
more complex imagery in the book,
so that you can grasp the details
of what you’re seeing.

TOYS & GAMES
FACTOGRAPHIC: LEGO-OLOGY
TOYS & BOARD GAMES
CHESS
CHAIN REACTIONS
ACTION FIGURES & DOLLS
PUZZLES
CONSTRUCTION TOYS
VIDEOGAMES

ENGINEERING &
ARCHITECTURE
FACTOGRAPHIC:
ENGINEERING
DOMES
WALLS
MAZES
WATER PARKS
EPIC ENGINEERING

ARTS & MEDIA
FACTOGRAPHIC:
MOVIE MONEY
ART SALES
SHAKESPEARE

138
140
142
144
146
148
150
152
154

156

158
160
162
164
166
168

170
172
174
176

FAST FACTS
The GWR book was the result of a question: “Which is the fastest game bird in
Europe?” (The answer: the red-breasted merganser and the eider) • The first
edition went on sale in 1955 • It’s the world’s biggest-selling annual book

Factographics:
Each chapter kicks off with a special new feature
that explores a topic visually. Facts and figures are
given context with the help of spectacular
photography and helpful infographics.

Fast Facts:
Bite-sized info that relates to
the pages you’re on at the time.

Tape measure: Wherever you see this
icon, you’re looking at a record holder
shown at its actual size or scaled up.

100%

MUSIC
MOVIES
DISNEY
TV
VIDEO

SCIENCE &
TECHNOLOGY
FACTOGRAPHIC:
SCI-FI VS SCIENCE
3D PRINTING
CONSUMER TECH
ROBOTS
SMALL STUFF
LASERS
CUTTING-EDGE SCIENCE

SPORTS
FACTOGRAPHIC:
SPORT’S BIG HITTERS
AMERICAN FOOTBALL /
BASEBALL
BASKETBALL / ICE HOCKEY
BOXING / MARTIAL ARTS
CRICKET / GOLF
EXTREME SPORTS /
STREET SPORTS

178
182
184
186
188

190

192
194
196
198
200
202
204

206
208
210
212
214
216
218

Do Try
This At Home:
Don’t just read
about records,
break them! This
interactive chapter
offers up dozens
of record ideas you
can try from the
comfort  of your
bedroom, kitchen,
garden or gym. Go
on, have a go!

AUTO SPORTS / CYCLING
RUGBY / TENNIS
CLUB SOCCER /
INTERNATIONAL SOCCER
TRACK / FIELD
SWIMMING / WATER SPORTS
SPORTS ROUND-UP
ATHLETICS: TRACK / ULTRA
ATHLETICS / CYCLING
DIVING / ICE SKATING
SWIMMING
WEIGHTLIFTING / SPORTS
MARATHONS / WATERSKIING

220
222
224
226
228
230
232
234
236
238
240

X GAMES
125TH ANNIVERSARY
OF BASKETBALL
INDEX
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS,
PICTURE CREDITS &
COUNTRY CODES
CONTRIBUTORS
STOP PRESS

242
244
246

250
252
254

guinnessworldrecords.com 3

204). contin records.EDITOR’S LETTER C ompiling the world’s best-selling annual book is made all the more challenging by having to decide what to leave out. Once again. extraordinary images from the New Horizons ͥ\E\RI3OXWR SS̰ KNOW? DID YOmUGlo betrotters d The Harle for the thir with GWR s es nn ui partnered G e at 15 to celebr time in 20 e revered Th . In Guinness World Records 2017. you’ll ͤQGDVSHFLDOHPSKDVLV on space exploration and astronaut pioneers. :H̵YHVHHQFRQͤUPDWLRQ of gravitational waves (see p.000 people a week make claims…and although only a small percentage of these applicants make it through to becoming QHƒEKCN)WKPPGUU9QTNF4GEQTFUVKVNGJQNFGTUVJGTGCTGUVKNNVQQOCP[PGYTGEQTFUVQNKUVKPVJGDQQMБ This year. over the past year we’ve seen about 1. so it seemed an obvious choice of theme. The news has lately been awash with remarkable stories about space and physics. e pl ti ul m achieving DQGSS̰. the decision of what to include was made a little easier by focusing on one particular aspect of record-breaking. ay D s rd World Reco e seven team mad basketball pts on the m te record at successful adition of tr uing their day.

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 BLINDFOLDED SPORTS STARS DATELINE On 5 Nov 2015 in Phoenix. scored the farthest American football field goal blindfolded: 40 yd (36. Indianapolis Colts punter and part-time comedian Pat McAfee (below).18 m). the temperature is around 1032 kelvin – the highest temperature ever. with Nate Boyer (both USA) holding the ball. It is the source of all matter and energy in the universe.5 in (15.5 m). On 5 Feb 2016. . and of time itself. Thunder Law (USA. “Big Easy” Lofton (USA) performed the farthest basketball hook shot blindfolded: 50 ft 3.32 m). left) of the Harlem Globetrotters celebrated GWR Day by achieving the longest basketball shot blindfolded: 69 ft 6 in (21. Cody Jones and Garrett Hilbert of Dude Perfect (USA) – see p. Both records were later broken by. One second after this event. GWR’s Alex Angert presented Pat with his certificate on camera. respectively.7. At the same event. Arizona.700 MYA 4 Editor’s Letter Largest explosion ever The Big Bang occurs. This record was coordinated by NFL Network on the Friday before Super Bowl 50. declaring him “Officially Amazing!” 13.

ŬUCYFCKN[NKXGCEVKQPHTQO 4QEMGHGNNGT2NC\CKP0GY.. among them Buzz Aldrin.CVGTKPVJG[GCT)94CPFTODAYVGCOGFWRHQTCPGXGPVFWDDGF 4QMGTVJQP1PG[GCTCHVGTIKXKPIVJGlongest uninterrupted live weather report ǡJT TODAYYGCVJGTOCP#N4QMGTCEJKGXGFC PGYTGEQTF DGNQY CTTKXKPIJQOGKPVTKWORJVQ0GY. nearly 16 years of continuous habitation aboard the International Space Station. you’ll find words of wisdom from some superlative astronauts. We were also honoured to hear from NASA Administrator – and former astronaut – Charlie Bolden: “At NASA. Throughout this year’s book. not just to visit but to stay.com 5 DATELINE QNCWPEJGuinness World Records 2016YGRCTVPGTGFYKVJ0$%ŨU TODAYHQTCYGGMQHTGEQTFDTGCMKPI $GIKPPKPIQPǡ5GRū$TGCM+V 61&#. Indeed. to the first reusable spacecraft.300 MYA guinnessworldrecords. and we’re developing cutting-edge new technologies as we learn to live and work in orbit and travel farther. 1 2 3 Charles Bolden.WUVKP $KGDGTTGVWTPGFVQTODAYŤUKZ[GCTUCHVGTJKU OQTPKPIVGNGXKUKQPFGDWVQPVJGUJQYŤCU VJGƒPCNKPUVCNOGPVQHVJGKT5WOOGT%QPEGTV 5GTKGU+PVJGUCOGYGGMVJGUKPIGTJCF CEJKGXGFVJGTGEQTFHQTVJGyoungest male solo artist to debut at No. GWR Editor-in-Chief Craig Glenday poses for selfies with Moon pioneer Buzz Aldrin… Space travel is a relatively new venture for us homo sapiens – it was only in 1961 that Yuri Gagarin became the first human in space – and records are being broken all the time. Now we’re on a human journey to Mars and astronauts continue to break their own records for time spent in space.WNVJGlongest inflatable water slideEQOOKUUKQPGFD[VJG EJCTKV[.ŬYGGM%CPCFKCPRQRUWRGTUVCT. we’ve been leading the world in historic firsts. NASA Administrator Justin Bieber 6 JUMPING AND DUNKING 1Pǡ5GRƒXGI[OPCUVUHTQO 6GCO6WTDQ&WPM 75# CEJKGXGF VJGmost basketball slam dunks by a team using a trampoline in one minute HIGH JUMP 1P5GR/KEJCGN/GPC 75#  XGVGTCPQHGZVTGOGRQIQGZRNQKVU DGCVJKUQYPTGEQTFHQTVJG highest forward flip pogo stick jumpǡHVǡKP ǡO  %QKPEKFGPVCNN[QPǡ5GRFWTKPIū$TGCM+V 61&#.1 on the Billboard Hot 100 ǡ[GCTUǡFC[U YKVJJKUū9JCV &Q. to the first humans to land and walk on the Moon.” 2. almost-impossible targets is an inherent part of being a space pioneer.KXG/QTG#YGUQOG 0<  OGCUWTGFǡHV ǡO  Oldest known galaxy Galaxy GN-z11 has formed. It will be discovered in Mar 2016 by astronomers using the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope.QW/GCP!ŬUKPING5QVJGTGEQTFDTGCMKPI YGGMYCUECRRGFQHHYKVJCUWTRTKUG)94 RTGUGPVCVKQPVQVJGUVCTQPVJGUJQY DANCIN’ IN THE STREET 0GY. ROKERTHON 2 1Pǡ0QXTODAY ŨU#N4QMGT 75# CEJKGXGFVJGfastest time to report a weather forecast from CNNǡ75UVCVGUCPFVJG&KUVTKEV QH%QNWODKCǡFC[UǡOKP 13. at 13. setting ambitious.QTM%KV[ . and recordshattering science missions with incredible space observatories that peer into other galaxies and spacecraft that travel to the farthest reaches of the Solar System..QTM%KV[ŨU2/6&CPEGǡ5VWFKQ URGPVƒXGFC[UEJQTGQITCRJKPI CPKPETGFKDNGǡRGQRNGHQTVJG largest streetdance performance KPVJG4QEMGHGNNGT2NC\CQPǡ5GR WATERSLIDING (GCVWTGFQPVJGTODAYUJQYQP ǡ. Chris Hadfield and Al Worden (all pictured right).4 billion light years EXPLORING SPACE 1.09.and Chris Hadfield 3. GWR science consultant David Hawksett presents two certificates to Apollo 15’s Al Worden.QTM%KV[*QUVU0CVCNKG/QTCNGUCPF 9KNNKG)GKUVUJQYGFVTWGTGEQTFDTGCMKPIURKTKVKPCVVGORVKPI VJGmost water balloons caught and held in one minuteŤYKVJ GPVGTVCKPKPITGUWNVUБ5GGVJTGGQHVJGTGEQTFUDTQMGPDGNQY . from the first nation to successfully land on the Red Planet.FAST FACTS The first ever record listed in The Guinness Book of Records (1955) was the remotest known bodies: extra-galactic nebulae 1 billion light years away • The current record is now 13 times farther away. . Its redshift – which is used to measure the distance to galaxies – is 11. so any hopeful record holder would do well to hear what these iconic figures have to say.

her interest by ed ir sp with in ed at in sc fa s “I was alway planet f ar dw a use it is ght it Pluto beca ou th I e p.” to be unique BKFK winner Enrique Iglesias Marc Anthony ū$CKNCPFQŬD['PTKSWG +INGUKCU '52CDQXGNGHV  &GUEGOGT$WGPQCPFǡ)GPVG FG<QPC DQVJ%7$ JCFVJG longest stay at No. and I w with rhym .QTM%KV[)94ŨU#OCPFC/QEJCP RTGUGPVGF/CTE#PVJQP[ 75# YKVJCEGTVKƒECVGHQTCEJKGXKPI VJGOQUV[GCTGPFDGUVUGNNKPICNDWOUQPVJG756TQRKECN Albums chart by a solo artist  ŤHQTDesde un Principio: (TQOǡVJG$GIKPPKPI  Libre  CPF3. I chos Pl to go to ol me up would be co co to ve lo I e a rap becaus anted es.1 songs on the 75*QV.CVKP5QPIUEJCTV: ǡYGGMUHTQOǡ/C[ VQǡ(GD +INGUKCUJCUCNUQCEJKGXGF VJGmost No.21].1 on the 75*QV.EDITOR’S LETTER ? U KNOwW DID YOea ) was (see belo id Rebecca’s in space.CVKP5QPIUEJCTV: /QUVTGEGPVN[ū&WGNGGN %QTC\ȕPŬCFWGVYKVJ9KUKP 24+ VQRRGFVJGEJCTVQP ǡ/C[ 1Pǡ(GDKP0GY.0   WHAT’S NEW? New chapters this year include Do Try This at +RPH S. So e [or is it? Se uto.

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And there’s a special history of -RXUQH\V S. eating. among other things. growing giant vegetables and building big things.ZKLFK focuses on the classic GWR pastimes of. collecting.

which runs along the foot of most pages. Another new feature is Dateline. We’ve got galleries covering topics from Videogames SS̰.̵PVXUH you might disagree with some choices.$NGIGPF&CXG2CTMGTYJQEQWPVGFFQYPVJGCVVGORVTGEGKXGF VJG)94EGTVKƒECVGKPEQPƒTOCVKQPQHVJGCEJKGXGOGPV6JGGXGPVRTGUGPVGFD[%JGXTQNGVYCURCTVQH/. so this is our review of history as seen through the lens of the superlative.$ŨU2NC[$CNNKPKVKCVKXG VQǡGPICIG[QWPIRGQRNGYKVJDCUGDCNNCPFNCWPEJGFVJG#NN5VCTYGGM$QVJRTQHGUUKQPCNRNC[GTUCPFJWPFTGFUQH[QWPI HCPUHTQOGKIJVVQ[GCTUQNFRCTVKEKRCVGF 13.WN/.GCIWG$CUGDCNN /.000 MYA 6 Editor’s Letter +PHCNN)WKPPGUU9QTNF 4GEQTFURCTVPGTGFYKVJ $[-KFU(QT-KFU $-(-  VQETGCVGVJGū4GEQTFU QHVJG(WVWTGŬEJCNNGPIG 6QVCMGRCTVMKFUJCFVQ ETGCVGCUQPIRQGOUJQTV GUUC[TCRRQUVGTQTXKFGQ CDQWVCTGEQTFVJG[YQWNF NKMGVQUGVQTDTGCMKPVJG PGZVǡ[GCTU6JGYKPPGT YCU[GCTQNF4GDGEEC 6JQTPVQP CDQXG HTQO 9KUEQPUKPHQTJGTTCRCDQWV DGEQOKPIVJGyoungest person to visit Pluto of the universe condensed into just 200 records. Gallery pages this year JLYHRXU3LFWXUH(GLWRUVWKH chance to showcase some of the best photography.ZKLFK takes a chronological look at the story of humanity’s need to explore the planet DQGEH\RQGIURP(DUWK̵V deepest point to our nearest Solar System neighbours. It’s no easy task to sum up the VWRU\RIWKHSDVWELOOLRQ years in 200 entries. but we hope this feature will stimulate discussion and get you thinking about history.QWVJ#ECFGO[KP%KPEKPPCVK1JKQQPǡ. This is effectively a history Largest game of catch (baseball/softball) DATELINE /CLQT.$ CPFVJG%KPEKPPCVK4GFURNC[GFCICOGQHECVEJEQPUKUVKPIQHǡRCKTUCVVJG2)%KPEKPPCVK /.$ǡ7TDCP. from the ODUJHVWH[SORVLRQ ̰WKH%LJ%DQJ̰WR the aforementioned ̨UVWFRQ̨UPDWLRQRI JUDYLWDWLRQDOZDYHV LQ.

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600 light years from Earth. and its discovery will be announced in Jul 2003. . who’ve toured the world to illustrate our remarkable record holders.7KH book is peppered with awesome images from our roving photographers. Oldest planet An extrasolar planet in the globular cluster M4 forms some 5. It is more than twice as old as the Solar System.

If it’s classic sporting superlatives you’re after. which lists absolute records across many different sports.+8'БGXGPVUCTGCNUQJGNFYQTNFYKFGGXGT[[GCT1Pǡ. purchased from Russia in 1867 for $7.QWECPDTGCMCTGEQTFQPVJGURQVCV)94. The last new feature to mention is Factographics.000.+8'БRGTOCPGPVN[ NQECVGFCVVJG)WKPPGUU9QTNF4GEQTFUCVVTCEVKQPKP*QNN[YQQF %CNKHQTPKC1Pǡ5GR-ƒTCPF. using photography and graphics to tell the story behind the records.FAST FACTS The USA is the third largest country by size (after Russia and Canada) and population (more than 323. Among the topics covered are the Moon SS̰.000. We’ve decided to focus exclusively on all the PRVWUHFHQWDQGVLJQLͤFDQW achievements from a range of events. behind China and India) • Alaska is the largest state.2 m Guinness World Records LIVE! . A spread at the start of each chapter explores one aspect of record-breaking in more detail.CMG'FYCTFU 7-CDQXGTKIJVKPDNWG DWKNVVJGmost sandcastles in three minutes on Minecraft: Pocket Edition Sports fans will notice a new approach to the ͤQDOFKDSWHURIWKHERRN this year. presented as a series of single-page features. just turn to the back for Sports Reference.WN CV/KPGEQPKPHTQPVQHCPKPVGTPCVKQPCNCWFKGPEGQHMinecraft HCPU.QUUK5COCPC DQVJ+54 CDQXGNGHV FKFLWUVVJCVYKVJVJGfastest time to bounce a ping RQPIDCNNKPVQƒXGRKPVINCUUGU VGCOQHVYQ ǡUGE )94.

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A big thank-you to all
our consultants who’ve
contributed to this year’s
book, especially those
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cruciverbalists Will Shortz
and John Henderson,
Shakespeare expert Stuart
Hampton-Reeves, chess
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cyberneticist Rohan Mehra.
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thousands of claimants who
applied this year. I hope you
agree that it all makes for
the most fascinating read…

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Longest career as a sports
broadcaster for a single team
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DUDE PERFECT
On 30–31 Mar 2016, Dude Perfect had 10 basketball records
filmed for their YouTube channel, with GWR’s Michael
Empric adjudicating. These included the longest basketball
shot blindfolded (71 ft; 21.64 m), by Cody Jones; farthest
basketball hook shot blindfolded (55 ft; 16.7 m), by Garrett
Hilbert; longest trampoline basketball shot performing
a forward flip (72 ft; 21.9 m), by Tyler Toney; and farthest
basketball bounce shot (91 ft 2 in; 27.7 m), by Cory Cotton.

Longest career as a TV judge
(court room)

Greatest impact on Earth
A planet the size of Mars collides with the young Earth. Some of the debris from this cataclysm
goes into orbit around Earth and collects together under its own gravity to form the Moon.

4,500 MYA
guinnessworldrecords.com 7

DATELINE

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GWR DAY
You could say that every day is Guinness World Records Day, with records
being attempted and achieved by someone, somewhere, at any moment.
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Most pine boards
broken in one minute
(female)
GWR Day in Australia was featured
live on the Today show, and Summerly
Denny (AUS) rose to the occasion,
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the record in order to raise awareness
of cancer research; her father Glenn
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for the most pine boards broken in one
minute (male) – had recently undergone
treatment for stage-four cancer.

Farthest basketball
hook shot blindfolded
In one of seven records broken by the Harlem Globetrotters
(USA) on GWR Day 2015 (see Ball Skills), “Big Easy” Lofton
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the longest underhand basketball shotǡHVǡKP 
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Most people sport stacking
in multiple venues
The 10th annual World
Sport Stacking Association
STACK UP! proved, once
again, to be the most
attended Guinness World
Records Day attempt. A
total of 618,394 stackers
– representing 2,691
schools and organizations

LONGEST HUMAN TUNNEL
SKATEBOARDED BY A DOG
Otto the skateboarding dog has perfected the art of
whizzing through an arch of human legs, tilting and
weaving to avoid mishaps. No surprise, then, that
the English bulldog wowed fans in Lima, Peru, by
skimming through a tunnel of 30 people for GWR
Day. Otto’s proud owners, Luciana Viale and Robert
Rickards, were inspired to choose a bulldog after
watching videos of former record star Tillman, another
skateboarding bulldog. Otto is also a talented surfer.

8 GWR Day

from 31 countries – took
part in the record, which
challenges as many people
as possible to participate
in sport stacking. This
relatively new sport requires
people to stack and destack specially designed
plastic cups. Attendance
numbers varied, from the
USA’s 547,777 participants
to the Philippines’ 35, but
everyone was a winner!
Fastest 100 m running
on all fours
GWR Day clearly motivated
Kenichi Ito (JPN) to regain
a record that he had held
until 2013. After studying
the locomotion of patas
monkeys, Ito worked out
how best to run 100 m
on all fours in the fastest
possible way, clocking a
new time of 15.71 sec in
Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan.
Fastest tennis ball caught
Anthony Kelly (AUS) –
a martial artist and
Australia’s most decorated
Guinness World Records
title holder – demonstrated
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the Today show for GWR
Day. At the Olympic Park
in Sydney, Anthony caught
DWHQQLVEDOOͤUHGIURP
a machine at a distance
of 6 m (19 ft 8 in). It was
travelling at a scorching
119.86 mph (192.9 km/h)
– a painful but impressive
feat that brought his record
total to 41.

Here are some of the group effort records that were set for GWR Day in the past (some have since been broken): PEOPLE RECORD COUNTRY/YEAR  Most people sport stacking – OWNVKǡXGPWG USA. 2014  Most children reading with an adult UAE.FAST FACTS YouTube rap star Dan Bull wrote an inspirational GWR song to encourage everyone attempting records on the day • Sport stacking is the most popular GWR Day activity: to date. 2012  Largest gathering of ABBA DCPFU impersonators Fastest time to type a text message (SMS) on a mobile phone while performing head spins He may have several breakdance records to his name. 2006 1.7 million people have taken part MASS PARTICIPATION GWR Day is the day to gather friends.554 Largest wheelbarrow race #WUVTCNKC  Largest game of leapfrog 0GY<GCNCPF 882 Largest sports lesson 0+TGNCPF7-  Largest gathering of people wearing bobble hats 0+TGNCPF7-  Most people flapping simultaneously USA. 2015  Largest line dance – multi venue China. 2008  Largest computer class – multi venue India. family. but it was by WH[WLQJWKDW%HQHGLNW Mordstein (DEU) secured his latest world record. more than 3. colleagues or classmates to try for a listing in our book. While maintaining a head spin. Mordstein typed out DVHYHQZRUGWH[W̰WKH German proverb “Ein EOLQGHV+XKQͤQGHWDXFK ein Korn” (“Even a blind hen VRPHWLPHVͤQGVWKHFRUQ̹.

He continued the “mouth” theme with the most toothpicks rotated in the mouth simultaneously (49). and she spent two months developing the 3.65 sec in Freising. Agnè was sponsored by wtc more (HKG) to make a Christmas sculpture for Alastair (rig for the orld record absolute w He slid . UK. the most matchsticks extinguished with the tongue in one minute (30). Most hula-hoops spun %UHH. ? U KNOW DID YOht the ) also holds Australia.95 in) w rnational te In port at the Autos . Most lit candles held in the mouth In honour of GWR Day 2015.LUN%XUQQDQG $86. rk pa l ralle tightest pa rking pa a 0c into his Fiat 50 ere 7. Agnè Kišonaitè (LTU) revealed her glamorous Lipstick Tower. 2011 Largest lipstick sculpture On 10 Nov 2015.862 pull-ups in New York. 20 n   Ja  8 on Largest gathering of people dressed as penguins 5OCUJKPIVJGKTRTGXKQWUTGEQTFQH4KEJCTF*QWUG%JKNFTGPŨU*QURKEG 7- ICVJGTGF RCTVKEKRCPVUHQTVJGKT2GPIWKP9CFFNGGXGPV6JG[UGEWTGFVJGVKVNGKPCUWPMGP CORJKVJGCVTGŤVJG5EQQRCV/QTG.03-m-tall (9-ft 11-in) tower.801 pull-ups with a nail-biting 12 min to go.QPFQPŨU5QWVJ$CPM5VCHH HTQOVJGJQURKEGKPKVKCVGFVJGGXGPVVQRWDNKEK\GCPFTCKUGHWPFUHQTVJGKTEJCTKV[YJKEJ RTQXKFGUENKPKECNCPFTGUKFGPVKCNECTGHQT[QWPIRCVKGPVUCPFUWRRQTVHQTVJGKTHCOKNKGU their shopping mall.QPFQPCTVUXGPWGQP. and the most grapes stuffed in the mouth (88). live on television in honour of both Guinness World Records Day and Veterans Day (11 Nov). – doing so in just 56.399 lipsticks. USA. built from 18.5 cm m a as w space that e car itself ider than th (2. 7KHͤWQHVVHQWKXVLDVW surpassed the previous record of 5. Most pull-ups in 24 hours Marine Corps veteran Guy Valentino (USA) completed 5. Dinesh Shivnath Upadhyaya (IND) beat his own personal EHVWE\VWXͦQJEXUQLQJ candles into his mouth. Germany. gh rmin am show in Bi 15.

Australia. in one seamless OCPQGWXTGUNKFKPIDGVYGGPVYQRCTMGF/KPKU6JGURCEGJG UNQVVGFǡKPVQYCUCOGTGǡHVǡKP ǡEO NQPIGTVJCPVJGECT JGǡYCUFTKXKPIDTGCMKPIVJGGZKUVKPIYQTNFTGEQTF $TQQMNCPFUVJGDKTVJRNCEGQH$TKVKUJOQVQTURQTVQRGPGF KPǡCPFYCUVJGƒTUVRWTRQUGDWKNVOQVQTTCEKPIEKTEWKV. She held the record for 10 days before it was reclaimed by previous holder Marawa Ibrahim (AUS). guinnessworldrecords.com 9 . whirled into the record books by keeping 181 hulahoops spinning in Perth. with 200 hoops! Tightest parallel park in reverse $TKVKUJUVWPVFTKXGTCPFOWNVKRNGTGEQTFJQNFGT#NCUVCKT/QHHCVV YCUQPRGCMHQTOCV$TQQMNCPFUKP9G[DTKFIG5WTTG[7-YJGP JGCVVGORVGFCRCTCNNGNRCTMŲKPTGXGTUG&TKXKPICENCUUKE/KPK JGCEEGNGTCVGFDCEMYCTFUVQǡORJ ǡMOJ VJGPRWNNGFQHH CJCPFDTCMGVWTPURKPPKPICHWNN° and.

And there is no one alive on (DUWKWRGD\PRUHTXDOLͤHG to introduce these concepts than Dr Buzz Aldrin. Buzz occupies the space where these two worlds collide. He continues to advocate space travel. holding records for. During a trip to London to launch his book – Welcome to Mars: Making a Home on the Red Planet (2015) – Dr Aldrin met with GWR to receive his world record FHUWLͤFDWHV.FOREWORD: DR BUZZ ALDRIN The children born between the years 2000 and 2010 will be the ones making the first landings on Mars. in orbital dynamics – and his pioneering research and techniques on docking spacecraft in orbit are still employed today. He was the first of the NASA astronauts to have a doctorate – in Buzz’s case. taking the ƒTUV UGNƒGKPQRGPURCEG and. Buzz talked about his superlative achievements and his determination for humanity to reach our planetary neighbour. for his central role in the ƒTUVOCPPGFNCPFKPI QPǡVJGǡ/QQP.QDQH[FOXVLYH interview with Editor-inChief Craig Glenday. lunar explorer and space pioneer This edition of Guinness World Records takes as its inspiration two major themes of record-breaking: the conquest of space and pioneering adventures. +HLVWKHYHU\GHͤQLWLRQRI a space pioneer. And it’s those kids that we would like to ensure are enthusiastic about the future… Dr Buzz Aldrin. Buzz was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom and. While /KEJCGN%QNNKPUQTDKVGFKPVJG%QOOCPF/QFWNG0GKNCPF$W\\ DGECOGVJGƒTUVJWOCPUVQUGVHQQVQPVJG/QQPŨUUWTHCEGŤ 0GKNǡCV76%QP. of course. astronaut and educator.WNHQNNQYGFD[$W\\CV . “DR RENDEZVOUS” Colonel Buzz Aldrin – born Edwin Eugene Aldrin Jr – was known to his NASA colleagues as “Dr Rendezvous”. 10 Foreword (KTUVOCPPGFNWPCTNCPFKPI Apollo 11 saw Buzz (Lunar Module Pilot) and Neil Armstrong %QOOCPFGT OCMGVJGƒTUVJWOCPNCPFKPIQPVJGUWTHCEGQH the Moon – in the Eagle – at 20:18 UTC on 20 Jul 1969. the Congressional Gold Medal. Upon his return from the Moon. he also championed underwater training techniques to simulate the zerogravity environment encountered during spacewalks. among other things. and inspires a new generation of astronauts with his best-selling books and his commitment to education. A keen scuba diver. A space scientist. in 2011.

. it was a PDJQLͤFHQWDFKLHYHPHQW for people to be out of their element and to land [on the Moon]. maybe even TXLFNHUEXW. Arts. This is two decades from the celebratory date of 20 Jul 2019 – 50 years from reaching the Moon. Very clear.ZDVUHDGLQJWKH other day that people think we could get there in 30 days.WKLQNDWDURXQG 2040.QWFGUETKDGFKV KP[QWTCWVQDKQITCRJ[CU ūOCIPKƒEGPVFGUQNCVKQPŬŲ $W\\That was an overall impression of the entire progression of information. just like Guinness World Records wants to keep up with the latest records that are being set. (KTUVUGNƒGKPQRGPURCEG 1P0QXFWTKPIVJG)GOKPKOKUUKQP$W\\UVCTVGF VJGUGEQPFQHJKUVJTGGURCEGYCNMU&WTKPIVJGJTOKP VGVJGTGFYCNMKPQRGPURCEGJGVQQMRJQVQUQHVJGXKUKDNGUVCT ƒGNFUDWVCNUQVWTPGFVJGECOGTCQPJKOUGNHVQVCMGVJGƒTUV UGNHRQTVTCKVKPQRGPURCEG ū+LWUVQRGPGFVJGJCVEJCPFNQQMGFCTQWPFŬUCKF$W\\ ūLWUVǡNKMGCUKIJVUGGKPIVQWTKUVYQWNF+UCYVJGECOGTCCPF VJQWIJVŧ+YQPFGTYJCVYQWNFJCRRGPKH+VQQMCRKEVWTGQHOGŨ not knowing whether it would turn out at all! The lighting was PQVVQQYGNNUGNGEVGFDWV[QWEQWNFVGNNYJQKVYCUŬ %TCKI9J[FKF[QWEJQQUG VQYTKVGCDQQMCDQWV/CTU! $W\\. you say. Mars is our IXWXUH̰DOWKRXJK. But NASA wasn’t LQWHUHVWHGLQWKDW6R. who mis-pronounced “brother” as “buzzer” • He changed his name legally to Buzz in 1988 • His mother’s maiden name was Marion Moon • MTV named their Video Music Award statue “Buzzy” after him and computers.FAST FACTS Buzz got his name from his sister. “Oh yeah! That’s the Earth up there!” %TCKI9JCVYCUKVNKMG UGGKPI'CTVJHTQOVJGǡ/QQP! $W\\. %TCKI. Technology.KDG been working on was LQWHUHVWLQJIRUH[SORUHUV Or for adventure-travel tourism. that’s a contrast. And when you’re out there on the surface and look up. %TCKI*QYNQPIYQWNF VJGǡLQWTPG[VQ/CTUDG! $W\\ . %[ENKPIVQ/CTU $W\\KURCUUKQPCVGCDQWVVJGRNCPGV/CTUCPFJCUFGXQVGF OWEJQHJKUVKOGUKPEGJKUJKUVQTKE/QQPNCPFKPIVT[KPIVQ GPEQWTCIGJWOCPKV[VQUGVVJGKTUKIJVUQPQWT5QNCT5[UVGO PGKIJDQWTCUJWOCPKV[ŨUPGZVHTQPVKGT ū+HYGVQQMCNNVJGYCUVGFGHHQTVVJCVTGUWNVUKPVJGFKUEQTF QPǡVJG'CTVJCPFRWVKVKPVQUQOGVJKPIRQUKVKXGKVYQWNFDG CǡIQQFVWTPCTQWPFQHGHHQTVŬ$W\\VQNF)94ū6JGJKUVQTKECN UKIPKƒECPEGQHRGQRNGHTQOVJG'CTVJDGIKPPKPIVQRQRWNCVG CPQVJGTRNCPGVŲ+FQPŨVVJKPMRGQRNGJCXGCP[KFGCQHJQY KORQTVCPVVJCVEQWNFDGŬ +PJKUNCVGUVDQQMWelcome to Mars$W\\GZRNQTGUVJG XCTKQWUQRVKQPUYGJCXGHQTŤVQSWQVGVJGUWDVKVNGŤūOCMKPI CǡJQOGQPVJG4GF2NCPGVŬū/[YC[VQIGVHTQO'CTVJVQ/CTU KPXQNXGUŧE[ENKPIŨ+VYCUFKUEQXGTGFKPCPFKUUVKNNVJGDGUV YC[QHIGVVKPIHTQO'CTVJVQ/CTUŬ$[ūE[ENKPIŬ$W\\OGCPU GORNQ[KPICHNGGVQHURCEGETCHV ūE[ENGTUŬCTVKUVŨUKORTGUUKQP CDQXG VJCVYQWNFWUGVJGITCXKV[QH/CTUCPF'CTVJVQNQQR DGVYGGPVJGVYQRNCPGVUYKVJXKTVWCNN[PQHWGNEQPUWORVKQPŤ CPFRQVGPVKCNN[EQPVKPWGVQFQUQKPFGƒPKVGN[/WEJQHJKUVKOG KUPQYFGXQVGFVQUGEWTKPIVJGUWRRQTVCPFHWPFUPGGFGFHQT VJKUCODKVKQWU/CTVKCPFTGCO $W\\EQPVKPWGUū'ORKTGUTKUGCPFGORKTGUHCNN$WV+YQWNF PQVNKMGVQDGTGOGODGTGFCUDGKPICNKXGCVCVKOGYJGPYG YGTGQPVJGYC[FQYP9GEGTVCKPN[PGGFVJGRWDNKEDGJKPFWUŬ You are the future. And it’s those kids that we would like to ensure are enthusiastic about the future.WKLQNWKHLGHDRID transportation system between the Earth and WKH0RRQWKDW. That’s a record! For more on the Moon landings.ZRQ̵W be around long enough to see it all happening! %TCKI9JGPYKNNYGDGCDNG VQNCPFǡCJWOCPQP/CTU! $W\\ . No atmosphere.com 11 .A.” education: Science. the sunlit terrain.ZURWHLWEHFDXVH .QWŨTGRCUUKQPCVG CDQWVEQOOWPKECVKPI UEKGPEGCPFCUVTQPQO[ VQǡMKFU*QYKORQTVCPV KUǡVJCVVQ[QW! $W\\The children born between the years 2000 and 2010 will be the ones PDNLQJWKHͤUVWODQGLQJV on Mars. Engineering. Earth isn’t the only world for us any more. so a number of us are calling [for] “S. No life. or dead – is on the Earth H[FHSWWKHWKUHHSHRSOHXS there at the Moon. shifted my attention to a unique transportation system between Earth and Mars. You don’t want an education programme just for “geeks” – you know. and go to places that no one has ever gone. We want to keep up with things. You are going to achieve super things that are out of this world and that no one else has done before. guinnessworldrecords. what we were looking at hadn’t changed in thousands of years.16–17.QWHOOHFWXDOO\UHDOL]LQJ that everyone else – living.. There isn’t any place like that on the Earth.E. people who only know math %TCKI6CNMKPIQHTGEQTFU VGNNWUCDQWV[QWT GZRGTKGPEGQPVJG/QQP 9JCVIQGUVJTQWIJ[QWT JGCFYJGP[QWƒTUVUVGR QHHǡVJCVNCFFGT! $W\\One step at a time! And go down backwards. But looking around. Mathematics. You need the arts involved. RIGLVFRYHU\RIH[SORUDWLRQ̿ Compared to the history of humans. it is a desolate place we were YLVLWLQJEXWDPDJQLͤFHQW achievement [to reach it].M.WKLQNWKDW̵V quite a bit in the future.T. So. see pp. And up here. so that you can watch as you go down and not miss a step! %TCKI. nothing could have been more desolate than what we saw: the black sky.

He also learned Russian. Chris has written three books: An Astronaut’s Guide to Life on Earth (2013). he talks rded Life on Eart co re e h ow dh of music an ns: io ss Se Space his album Can. which it did when he visited the Mir space station and flew on Space Shuttle and Soyuz missions. n Ti a om Songs fr If we earthlings had to identify a planetary ambassador – a truly H[FHSWLRQDOͤJXUHWR represent our race – then we would do well to choose the Canadian astronaut &KULV+DGͤHOG$QHQJLQHHU WHVWSLORW6SDFH6KXWWOH FUHZPHPEHUFRPPDQGHU of the International Space Station and record-breaking PXVLFLDQ&KULVHPERGLHV the very best of what it PHDQVWREHKXPDQ+LV incredible resumé has given him a unique perspective RQOLIHDQGZKHQLWFDPH WRͤQGLQJLQVSLUDWLRQDO ͤJXUHVWRLQWURGXFHWKLV year’s edition of Guinness World Records&KULVZDV DQREYLRXVFKRLFH 6KRUWO\EHIRUHZHZHQW WRSUHVV*:5(GLWRULQ &KLHI&UDLJ*OHQGD\VSRNH with Chris about the need to set goals and aim to be the record-breaking best in the ZRUOGQRPDWWHUZKDWWKH DFWLYLW\RUVXEMHFWPDWWHU Craig: How important is VJGǡPGGFVQKFGPVKH[CPF DTGCMYQTNFTGEQTFU! Chris:. In Mar 2013.FRXOGOLIWWKDWURFN. As an astronaut. it means that you’ve done something that’s right on the edge of the human experience. which Chris commanded FWTKPI'ZRGFKVKQPKPKUǡO ǡHV NQPI CPFǡO ǡHV YKFG9KVJCXQNWOGQHǡO3 ǡEWǡHV CPFYGKIJKPIǡMI ǡND Ť CDQWVǡVJGUK\GQHCǡ$QGKPIŤKVŨUVJGDKIIGUVJCDKVCDNG CTVKƒEKCNUCVGNNKVG+VǡQTDKVUEǡMO ǡOK CDQXG'CTVJ .FDQMXPSRYHUWKDWWKLQJ . and finally became the first Canadian to walk in space. he joined the Canadian Space Agency’s astronaut programme. Since returning to Earth. then fighter jets – and later earned a degree in engineering and a masters in aviation systems. 12 Interview . Something that has pushed back the level of what we’ve achieved in the past. he embarked on learning to fly – first gliders.CTIGUVURCEGUVCVKQP The International Space Station. and the children’s book The Darkest Dark (2016).INTERVIEW: CHRIS HADFIELD If you get into Guinness World Records. In 1992.̵GEHDW\RX̹LWUDLVHV COMMANDER CHRIS AUSTIN HADFIELD Chris Hadfield was first inspired to become an astronaut as a nine-yearold child after watching the Moon landings on TV. reckoning that being able to speak the language of a superpower able to send humans into space would serve him well. I’ve been lucky enough to do several things that fit into that category… CDR Chris Hadfield rtificate his GWR ce Chris with filmed o de usic vi for first m t). In his gh ri r fa ee in space (s Guide to stronaut’s book. An A his love of h.I VRPHRQHVD\VWR\RX ̸. You Are Here: Around the World in 92 Minutes (2015). he took command of the International Space Station (ISS). With the Moon as his goal.I\RX and I ran from here to that WUHH.WKLQNWKURXJK KXPDQQDWXUHZHUHVSRQG ZHOOWRDFKDOOHQJH.

YJKNGRKCPQCPFQVJGTOWUKECNCEEQORCPKOGPVYGTGCFFGF D[ǡRGTHQTOGTUQP'CTVJ6JGXKFGQYCUOKZGFYKVJVJGJGNR QHǡVJG%CPCFKCP5RCEG#IGPE[ %JTKUCOCUUGFUQOGHQNNQYGTUQP6YKVVGTFWTKPI JKUǡVKOGQPVJGISSHQTJKUXKFGQUCPFRJQVQUQH'CTVJHTQO URCEGDGEQOKPICEGNGDTKV[KPVJGRTQEGUU *GKPVTQFWEGFVJGUQPIYKVJVJGRQUVū9KVJFGHGTGPEGVQ VJGǡIGPKWUQH&CXKF$QYKGJGTGŨU5RCEG1FFKV[TGEQTFGFQP 5VCVKQP#NCUVINKORUGQHVJG9QTNFŬ+P.ZDQW to be an astronaut who ZDONVRQWKH0RRQ̹<HW.ZDQWWRFOLPE the highest six peaks in WKHZRUOG̹RU̸.FAST FACTS Chris Hadfield’s YouTube video of “Space Oddity” had amassed nearly 31.CTIGUVTQDQVKECTOKPURCEG %JTKUYCURCTVQHVJGVGCOVJCVKPUVCNNGF%CPCFCTOŤ VJGO HV TQDQVKECTOVJCVYCUCVVCEJGFVQVJG International Space StationQPǡ#RT6JGCTOYCU ƒVVGFǡFWTKPICJTURCEGYCNMD[%JTKUCPF75CUVTQPCWV 5EQVVǡ2CTC\[PUMK 2KEVWTGFCDQXGKU%JTKUŨISS ETGY &WTKPIVJGOKUUKQP%JTKUDGECOGVJGƒTUV%CPCFKCPVQ YCNMǡKPURCEGū&QKPIURCEGYCNMUKUGZVTGOGN[FCPIGTQWUŬ JGǡUC[Uū#PFKVŨUGZVTGOGN[JCTF9GRTGRCTGHQT=KV?GZVGPUKXGN[ #PFNKMGCP[VJKPIVJCV[QWŨXGRTGRCTGFHQTHQT[GCTUCPF[GCTU VJCVCNUQJCUCPGNGOGPVQHFCPIGTVQKVYJGPVJGOQOGPV EQOGUKVŨU[QWTYJQNGHQEWUŲ+VŨUMKPFQH[QWTYJQNGNKHGKP CǡOQOGPV#PFǡKVFQGUPŨVFKUCRRQKPVБŬ a fundamental response within each of us that is MXVWEDVLFKXPDQQDWXUH <RXPLJKWUXQIDVWHULQ your life than you ever had for no greater purpose than the competition. Chris was temporarily blinded by contamination in his spacesuit .7 million views as of 4 May 2016 • Chris is afraid of heights! • During his first spacewalk. %TCKI9JCVFQGUKVVCMG VQǡDG%JTKU*CFƒGNF! Chris: I think the most important thing is to give yourself a long-term goal that you think is probably LPSRVVLEOH%XWJLYH guinnessworldrecords.QW6WDGQHJKO UKPIKPICOQFKƒGFXGTUKQPQH&CXKF$QYKGŨUū5RCEG1FFKV[Ŭ TGEQTFGFFWTKPIJKUNCUVOKUUKQPQPDQCTFVJGInternational Space Station ISS 6JGOWUKEXKFGQŤVJGƒTUVƒNOGFGPVKTGN[ KPURCEGŤUJQYU%JTKUHNQCVKPICTQWPFKPUKFGVJGISS with JKUǡIWKVCTYKVJ'CTVJXKUKDNGVJTQWIJVJGUVCVKQPŨUEWRQNC YKPFQY6JGXQECNUCPFIWKVCTYGTGTGEQTFGFQPVJGISS. it’s just primordial to who we DUH%\KDYLQJDERRNOLNH Guinness World RecordsLW helps measure the best of XV$QGLI\RX̵UHD\RXQJ SHUVRQLWFDQFKDOOHQJH you to do something that otherwise you never would have attempted – a selfbetterment that you might QHYHUKDYHWULHG&KDOOHQJH is a wonderful thing to have LQOLIH$QGOLNHHYHU\RQH HOVHRQWKHSODQHW.CPJGCFFGF ūǡOKNNKQPJKVUБ+COUQFGNKIJVGFYKVJVJGYQTNFYKFGTGCEVKQP VQUEKGPEGCTVVQIGVJGTŬ $QYKGVYGGVGFū*CNNQ5RCEGDQ[Ŭ VJGVKVNGQHJKUJKV UKPING KPTGURQPUGVQ%JTKUŨUXKFGQ For more on spacewalks. QHYHUKDYH%XWLWDOORZHG me to choose the things I was going to do that led me through a life that has absolutely fascinated me and brought things out of me that I never would have RWKHUZLVHEHHQDEOHWRGR It allowed me to see and understand things that would have been denied PHRWKHUZLVH That’s the real core of LWWRFKDOOHQJH\RXUVHOI 1RWGHͤQH\RXUVHOIE\WKDW ͤQDOVXFFHVVEXWXVHLW as the long-term lure that allows you to pursue – and succeed at – things on a GDLO\EDVLV (KTUVOWUKEXKFGQƒNOGFKPURCEG 1P/C[%JTKURQUVGFCXKFGQVQ. yo but use it as the long-term lure that allows you to pursue – and succeed at – things on a daily basis. Not define ch yourself by that final success.ZDQWWR invent a valve that will allow someone who has DKHDUWDWWDFNWRVXUYLYH̹ or “I want to be able to do surgery on an eyeball so WKDWDEOLQGSHUVRQFDQVHH̹ ̰ZKDWHYHU*LYH\RXUVHOI a goal in life that is right RQWKHHGJHRILPSRVVLEOH Because even though you might not climb all those SHDNVRULQYHQWWKDWWKLQJ the choices you’re going to make in pursuit of that goal will actually change ZKR\RXDUH$QG\RXZLOO be pursuing something WKDWLVLQ\RXUKHDUW .QP\FDVH. HNQCVǡQXGTVQRRŤ Th That’s the real core of it: to challenge yourself.VDLG̸.com 13 .KDYH read through Guinness World Records and have been amazed by some of the things people have DFFRPSOLVKHG \RXUVHOIWKDWJRDO̰PD\EH “I want to climb Mount (YHUHVW̹RU̸.

Canada. . Its age will be confirmed in 2002 by researchers in Quebec. Venetia DATELINE am choolg ather was The n -old s y randf -year 1 1 e n iversit a H rg (UK). hs aft mont ’s d o t w e lu f P a s a ). u o n n a 3. rd Un o o t y f e a x n e O r at Bu er id rarian gh s on h the lib able to pas de Tombau as Cly er and w iscoverer.SPACE ? KNOgeW U ted by s O Y g DIDe Pluto was su irl.825 MYA 14 Space Oldest volcanic rocks on Earth A lava flow on the surface of the still-cooling Earth solidifies into a slab of igneous rock. w A S y (U cover the dis nced.

Recently. changing it from the ninth planet – and the last entry in numerous classroom rhymes and mnemonics – to trans-Neptunian object “134340 Pluto”. however. Pluto was known for generations as the Solar System’s smallest planet. This all changed in 2006.CONTENTS SPACE FACTOGRAPHIC 16 EXTRASOLAR PLANETS 18 PLUTO 20 SPACEWALKS 22 VOYAGER 24 BLACK HOLES 26 Smallest planet? First photosynthesis Tiny. the campaign to return Pluto’s planet status has been gaining ground. boosted by pictures such as this composite showing the relative scale of Pluto (right) and KVUǡOQQP%JCTQPVCMGPD[0#5#ŨUNew Horizons spacecraft in &Tǡ#NCP5VGTPŤ2TKPEKRCN+PXGUVKICVQTQPVJGNew Horizons mission – gives his thoughts on the debate on p. . single-celled organisms – distant ancestors of present-day cyanobacteria – develop the ability to process nutrients using the light of the Sun as an energy source. 3.21.700 MYA guinnessworldrecords.com 15 DATELINE Discovered in 1930. when the International Astronomical Union (IAU) revoked its planet status.

711 mi). those rocky bits and pieces eventually coalesced to form the Moon. fully loaded with propellant – crucial to escape the pull of Earth’s gravity – the rocket weighed some ǡVQPPGU 75VQPU *GTGǡKU VJGǡ5CVWTP8UJQYPVQUECNGYKVJVYQ other record-worthy spacecraft.Solid inner core The heart of the Moon consists of a hard core with a radius of 240 km (150 mi).204 US tons) at launch. There is no lunar atmosphere. Venus. the cores of other planets in the Solar System can account for up to 50% of their size. Fluid outer core Thought to be composed mainly of liquid iron.941 km (241. 6JGƒTUVOGPQPVJG/QQPYGTGECTTKGF KPVQURCEGQPCǡ5CVWTP8TQEMGVUVKNNVJG NCTIGUVTQEMGVlaunched to date. On the launchpad. Neptune. The surface of the Moon is called its regolith. weighing 2.6 m (363 ft) • About 18 m (60 ft) taller than the Statue of Liberty and some 15 times heavier than a blue whale. Saturn. Mars. The outer core has a radius of around 330 km (205 mi). During the next million years or so. although it is as thin as 1 km (0. containing a high density of iron. Fuel alone was around 25 times heavier than the shuttle itself.055 mi). and its elemental composition is very similar to that of our own planet. The Moon is slightly more than a quarter the size of Earth in terms of diameter. YGŨTGENQUGN[TGNCVGFCEEQTFKPIVQVJGIKCPVKORCEVJ[RQVJGUKUCTQWPFǡDKNNKQP years ago a Mars-sized planet called Theia crashed into Earth. formed by asteroids and meteorites pulverising and melting the surface. In fact. SATURN V (USA) • Length: 110. now Russia) • Length: 30. Uranus and Pluto is 387.6 mi) in certain impact basins. the Moon’s crust is 34–43 km (21–27 mi) thick. Active from 1967 to 1973. and the darker maria (seas) that formed as basaltic ODYD̨RRGHGWKHORZODQGV DID YOU KNOW? VOSTOK 1 (USSR. Jupiter. and as thick as 60 km (37 mi) in the highlands on the far side. dominated by breccia.000 tonnes (2.700 km (252. The Moon was thought VQǡDGǡWPKSWGWPVKNǡYJGP+VCNKCP astronomer Galileo Galilei KFGPVKƒGFOQQPU CTQWPFǡ. It represents about 20% of the Moon. and there are two main types: the bright ancient highlands. To understand the vast distance. consider this: the combined diameter of Mercury. SPACE SHUTTLE (USA) • Length: 56 m (184 ft) • The first reusable spacecraft made its maiden flight on 12 Apr 1981.WRKVGT GWR presents a whistle-stop tour of our nearest EQUOKEǡPGKIJDQWTŤCPFVJGVGEJPQNQI[VJCVGPCDNGF JWOCPKV[VQǡTGCEJKV THE MOON FACTOGRAPHIC The footprints left by the Apollo astronauts are all still there. Mantle Between the Moon’s crust and inner core is a rigid zone known as the lithosphere. violently ejecting large amounts of debris into space. The maximum distance between Earth and the Moon is around 406. This means you could fit all eight of our Solar System neighbours between Earth and the Moon! . which means that there is no wind or YGCVJGTVQǡGTQFGVJGO Crust On average.8 m (101 ft) • Carried Yuri Gagarin (USSR) on the first manned spaceflight on 12 Apr 1961. or upper mantle. Partial melt Separating the mantle from the innermost core is a partly molten layer of rocks and metals with a radius of roughly 480 km (300 mi). It is approximately 620 km (385 mi) deep.

The Apollo nce – too t life insura couldn’t ge they signed So . U KNO T he sur W? face gr av it y o Moon is n the approx one-six imately th of th e grav it Ear th. – launch da 16 Jul 1969  KNOW? DID YOU ts 11 astronau A single Google search for ū#RQNNQOKUUKQPŬWUGUCU much computing power as VJGǡGPVKTG#RQNNQǡǡOKUUKQP The Apollo Guidance %QORWVGT #)%  circuitry was even OQTGǡDCUKEVJCPVJG start/stop/defrost electronics used in modern toasters. ly nt re risky. y on T his astron auts wo means that u ld be able six tim to jump es high er on th than h ere on e Moon Ear th – for the were it ir cum not bersom e and heav y s pacesu its. #VCRRTQZKOCVGN[MO ǡOK VJGFKCOGVGTQHVJG /QQPKUCTQWPFMO ǡOK  smaller than the distance between Australia’s west CPFǡGCUVEQCUV 6JGOCUUQHVJG'CTVJ Z24ǡMI QTZ25 ND KUUQOGǡVKOGU greater than that of the Moon ǡZ22MIQTZND  = ǡEO 1 2 3 4 . ent wrong to landing w and posted d pe m ta were date-s nd on ie fr a by s the familie y. appa ies could their famil photos that t Moon rs fi e th case auction in photos e Th . having LWUVǡ-$QHOGOQT[ and operating at ǡ/*\ DID YO The Moon is moving away from Earth at a rate of 4 cm (1. #PCXGTCIG75$OGOQT[UVKEMKUOQTG powerful than the computers that were used to put a man on the Moon. This is roughly the length \RXUͤQJHUQDLOVZLOO grow in the same amount of time.5 in) per year.

6 times the mass of Jupiter. like Earth.200 mi (1. Kepler-37b is only about 1. and is no more than 1 million years old. in 1875. It orbits the star 51 Eridani in the constellation Eridanus and ZDVWKHͤUVWGLVFRYHU\RQ 13 Aug 2015. e. The star. The smallest extrasolar planet directly imaged by telescope is the gas giant 51 Eridani b. it would surely go to the newly formed GJ 504b in the constellation of Virgo. . means that the planet’s surface temperature is just -220°C (-364°F).820 km) but twice its mass. light coming from a distant star is seen to dip if another star and its planet crosses in front of it.880 mi. TRIVIA If we awarded a record for pinkest planet. the planet OGLE-2005-BLG-390Lb orbits a red dwarf star.45 light years from *&ǡ CTVKUVŨUKORTGUUKQPCDQXG KUCUVCTVJCVKU XGT[UKOKNCTVQQWT5WPCPFCDQWVNKIJV[GCTUCYC[ $CUGFQPQDUGTXCVKQPUOCFGCV. This is owing to the gravity of the nearer star and its planet. re pa chilly to orbit its the mass th out one-fif which is ab is likely to The world of our Sun. coupled with the size of its orbit (corresponding to between that of Mars and Jupiter around the Sun). This uses ground-based telescopes to scan the central Milky Way for signs of a “microlensing event”. MOST DISTANT EXTRASOLAR PLANET DATELINE Near the centre of the Milky Way. er ph os atm believed have a thin is e ac rf y su but its rock ath ne be led to lie concea ns. which began searching for extrasolar planets in Nov 2014. Nearest extrasolar planet On 7 Aug 2000.600 MYA 18 Space Oldest mountain range The Barberton Greenstone Belt (also known as the Makhonjwa Mountains) begins to form in present-day South Africa. Its discovery by NASA’s Kepler spacecraft was made public KNOW?5DID YOU -200 anet OGLE pl Extrasolar t 10 years takes abou Lb 90 -3 G BL nt star. estimated to be 1. 139.C5KNNC1DUGTXCVQT[ KPǡ%JKNGD[/KMMQ6WQOK 7- KVJCUCVǡNGCUVUGXGP RNCPGVUCPFRQUUKDN[CUOCP[CUPKPG 5GXGPRNCPGVUCTGCNUQMPQYPVQQTDKV-+% CFYCTHUVCTCDQWVNKIJV[GCTUCYC[ the Sun.930 km) across. just 10. that the first gold in the country will be discovered. at a distance of 21.WRKVGTCPF KVUUK\GOCMGUKVXGT[ENQUG VQVJGDQWPFCT[DGVYGGP IKCPVRNCPGVUCPFDTQYP FYCTHUVCTU+PHCEVKVOC[ VWTPQWVPQVVQDGCRNCPGV CVCNN+VQTDKVUVJGUVCT *&ǡCMC-4/WUECG KPVJGEQPUVGNNCVKQP/WUEC CRRTQZKOCVGN[ǡNKIJV [GCTUCYC[6JGUVCTKVUGNH KUǡEOKNNKQP[GCTUQNF Smallest extrasolar planet Kepler-37b orbits the star Kepler-37 at around 210 light years from Earth in the constellation Lyra.300 light years away from Earth. The gas giant. along with its possible planet. smaller than the planet Mercury. The OGLE part of its name derives from the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment. The exoplanet lies some 478 million km (297 million mi) from its central star. 3. which is about the same distance as our Sun to the Asteroid Belt. It is here. In this phenomenon. ea oc en oz vast fr Most planets orbiting another star on 20 Feb 2013. by the Gemini Planet Imager at Stanford University. USA. planet *&ǡDJCUDGGP GUVKOCVGFVQDGǡOK ǡMO KPFKCOGVGT +VǡJCUCOCUUCRRTQZKOCVGN[ VKOGUVJCVQH. a team led by Dr William Cochran of the University of Texas McDonald Observatory (both USA) revealed evidence of a new world “in our own backyard”. which glows a magenta or cherry red (artist’s impression below). This makes OGLE-2005-BLG-390Lb the coldest extrasolar planet. The low energy of its star. Youngest extrasolar planet Infrared observations of the young star CoKu Tau 4 by NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope reveal a gap in the circumstellar disc of dust and gas that is likely to be a newly formed planet. orbits the star Epsilon Eridani.EXTRASOLAR PLANETS Largest extrasolar planet Discovered in 2005.500 ± 3. is located around 420 light years from Earth in the constellation Taurus. It is about the same diameter as Jupiter (86.

If the planet has an Earth-like greenhouse effect.300-plus systems have been spotted to date. when it suffered an irreparable computer failure. crushed by the intense pressure from sediment deposits to form oil.QECVGFENKIJV [GCTUCYC[KPVJGEQPUVGNNCVKQP%[IPWU-GRNGTDQTDKVUKVU UVCTKPLWUVJTCPFJCUCPGUVKOCVGFUWTHCEGVGORGTCVWTG QHCTQWPF°% °( OCMKPIKVVJGhottest extrasolar planet+VOC[DGVJGTQEM[EQTGTGOCKPUQHCICUIKCPV 'CTVJNKMGGZVTCUQNCTRNCPGV More than 2.4 times the size of Earth and orbits its Sun-like star in about 290 days.000 mph (14.FAST FACTS As of Feb 2016. So PS became R  B 12 5 Lich and 7+12 its plane Draugr. there could be as many as 11 billion habitable. The title of windiest extrasolar planet also goes to 51 Pegasi b.500 km/h). Found in 2011. DID YOU KNOW? In 2015. the Inte rn Astrono ational mical U nion (IA contest. to giv and 31 e e x tr asolar p new nam lanets es. its surface temperature could be about 22°C (72°F). 3. Earth-like planets in the Milky Way alone First map of an extrasolar planet +P0#5#ŨUSpitzer Space TelescopeQDUGTXGFVJGUVCT *&ǡCPFKVURNCPGV *&ǡDHQTǡJT6JG QDUGTXCVKQPUYGTGEQPXGTVGF KPVQCVGORGTCVWTGOCRYKVJ CǡTCPIGQHŤ°% Ť °( 6JGOCRRKEVWTGF JGTGUJQYUCYCTOURQVQP VJGǡRNCPGVŨUUWPNKVUKFG Closest extrasolar planet to its parent star to be subject to winds of up to 9.085 confirmed discoveries of extrasolar planets • According to the National Academy of Sciences.200 MYA guinnessworldrecords.000 extrasolar planets in 1. It ZDVWKHͤUVWFUDIWGHVLJQHG VSHFLͤFDOO\WRͤQGSODQHWV around other stars and operated until Nov 2012. All appear (KTUVEQPƒTOGFFKUEQXGT[ of an extrasolar planet +PCUVTQPQOGTUCPPQWPEGFVJGRTGUGPEGQHVYQ RNCPGVUQTDKVKPICRWNUCTPCOGF254$  CDQXG  ǡNKIJV[GCTUHTQO'CTVJ#RWNUCTKUCTCRKFN[URKPPKPI PGWVTQPUVCTŤVJGEQNNCRUGFEQTGQHCPGZRNQFGFIKCPV UVCTŤCPFGOKVUKPVGPUGTCFKCVKQP254$ ŨU RNCPGVUYGTGFGUKIPCVGFūUWRGT'CTVJUŬŤOQTG OCUUKXGVJCP'CTVJDWVOWEJNGUUOCUUKXG VJCPQWTICUIKCPVUŤUQVJKUCNUQOCTMGF VJGƒTUVUWRGT'CTVJGZVTCUQNCTRNCPGV discovered254$ DC VJKTFRNCPGVNCVGTEQPƒTOGFKP CPFPQYPCOGF&TCWIT KUVJGlightest extrasolar planet+VUOCUUKUCDQWV ǡVKOGUVJCVQH'CTVJ Oldest oil The remnants of dead organisms lying on the seabed begin millions of years of transformation. along with the gas giants HD 179949 b and HD 209458 b. a G5V main-sequence star – one that is in the process of fusing hydrogen into helium at its core. FIRST… Extrasolar planet discovered orbiting CǡOCKPUGSWGPEGUVCT Astronomers from the University of Geneva (CHE) announced the discovery of 51 Pegasi b on 6 Oct 1995. there have been 2. &KUEQXGTGFD[0#5#ŨUKeplerURCEGETCHVKP-GRNGTD QTDKVUKVUJQUVUVCT-GRNGTCVCFKUVCPEGQHǡCUVTQPQOKECN WPKVU CDQWVǡMOǡOK . Of these.com 19 DATELINE Planet hunter space mission The Convection Rotation CPFǡ2NCPGVCT[6TCPUKVU (COROT ) spacecraft was launched on 27 Dec 2006 into a polar orbit 827 km (513 mi) above Earth. . like our Sun. it is about 2. U) ran a open to the pub 14 stars lic. Kepler-22b LVWKHͤUVWSRWHQWLDOO\(DUWK like example. The luminosity of this star and Kepler-22b’s orbital distance suggest that it may occupy its star’s habitable zone. which orbit other stars. ts are no Polterge w ist and P – charact hobetor ers from fantasy and folk lore. It orbits 51 Pegasi.

stretches at least Rock core A core of dense rock accounts for an estimated 70% of Pluto’s diameter Nitrogen ice surface An estimated 98% of the surface is nitrogen ice. the New Horizons spacecraft made the first flyby of Pluto. It is the first mission to the outer Solar System led by a scientist rather than a NASA centre. because of its mass of less than 0. and. DID YO DATELINE U KNOW Pluto is part of th ? e Kuiper a far-dis Belt. It was named Matthew Alexander Henson. in Jan 2006.800 km (17. Nix and Hydra were discovered in 2005. Tallest mountain on Pluto In 2015.25-km-tall (3. Most distant human remains #TQWPFǡI ǡQ\ QH the cremated remains QH%N[FG6QODCWIJ Ť CTGDGKPI ECTTKGFQPDQCTFVJGNew HorizonsURCEGETCHVKPC ECPKUVGT CDQXG CVVCEJGF VQVJGETCHVŨUWRRGTFGEM 1PGQHJKUƒPCNYKUJGU YCUHQTJKUCUJGUVQDG UGPVKPVQURCEG Pluto’s largest moon is Charon.400 MYA 20 Space Longest ice age The most severe ice age begins. 2. Pluto is around eight times more massive than Charon.193 days.600 km (990 mi) across the surface of the moon and may extend farther. rocky object – which it will encounter on 1 Jan 2019. with traces of methane and carbon monoxide Mantle of water ice A sub-surface ocean of water ice that could be 100–180 km (62–112 mi) thick Pluto at a glance Discovery               Mass          Z22ǡMI Volume        ZMO3 Equatorial radius     ǡMO Number of moons            5 Temperature     VQo% Atmospheric pressure at the surface            2C Density          ǡIEO3 Surface gravity       ǡOU2 Axial tilt               o TGVTQITCFGTQVCVKQP 1. NEW HORIZONS On 14 Jul 2015. the entire Earth will be covered in ice. and two others in 2011 and 2012. will re vital data veal about th e evoluti of the So on lar Syste m. USA.PLUTO Plutonian geology The New Horizons̨\E\UHYHDOHGVWXQQLQJVXUIDFH details that helped scientists better understand the composition of the planet Shortest time from the discovery of a planet to its exploration by spacecraft Pluto was discovered by US astronomer Clyde Tombaugh on 18 Feb 1930. to be precise – for it to be explored by spacecraft (see below).5 tonnes (0. and is now en route to the Kuiper Belt Object (KBO) 2014 MU69 – an icy. It launched from Cape Canaveral in Florida. to its dark side. New Horizons passed the orbit of the Moon in just 9 hr and reached Neptune’s orbit in 8. a 5. the two bodies orbit each other around a common centre of gravity between them. achieved the fastest Earth departure speed for a planetary mission: 58. Scie believe th ntists at New H of KBO 2 orizons’ 014 MU flyby 6 9 .212 km (753 mi) – more than half Pluto’s diameter. During this period. New Horizons came within 28. The longest canyon on Charon. tant reg ion of ic that is a y bodies relic fro m the fo of our S rmation olar Syst em. The craft’s suite of seven instruments includes the Venetia Burney Student Dust Counter.2-mi) mountain was discovered by the New Horizons team. This means they tumble instead of rotating neatly along one axis. .55 US tons). Arizona. It took just over 85 years – 31. These last four are chaotically rotating moons. provisionally named S/2011 P 1 and S/2012 P 1. Its discovery was announced on 7 Jul 1978.6 mi). It made observations of Jupiter during its flyby in Feb 2007. with a mean diameter of 1.338 km/h (36. built by students at the University of Colorado. Planet with the most chaotically rotating moons 3OXWRKDVͤYHNQRZQPRRQV Charon was discovered by American astronomer James Christy at the US Naval Observatory in Flagstaff. as imaged by New Horizons. possibly to a depth of 1 km (0.895 mi) of Charon on 14 Jul 2015. after WKHͤUVW$IULFDQ$PHULFDQ Arctic explorer.6 years. Saturn’s moon Hyperion is the only other known chaotically rotating moon in the Solar System. almost miles be a billion yond Plu to. and will last around 70 million years.250 mph).

USA. During this successful experiment. other organisms. later called the “Gabonionta” or “Francevillian biota”. known as bistatic radar. The team had to work round the clock to restore main computer function in time for the 14 Jul flyby. ū6KOGUEJCPIG$CEMKPCEQPXGPVKQPQHCUVTQPQOGTU FGENCTGF2NWVQPQNQPIGTCRNCPGVDWVRNCPGVCT[UEKGPVKUVU PGXGTXQVGFVQCITGG0QYHQNNQYKPIVJGGZRNQTCVKQPQH2NWVQ D[0#5#ŨUNew HorizonsKPVJGRGPFWNWOUQHRNCPGVCT[ GZRGTVUCPFNC[QRKPKQPCTGUYKPIKPIUVTQPIN[VJGQVJGTYC[ ū6JGCTIWOGPVUCICKPUV2NWVQYGTGVJCVKVYCUVQQUOCNN QPVQQQFFCPQTDKVCPFQPGQHVQQOCP[HQTUEJQQNMKFUVQ TGOGODGTVJGKTPCOGU$WVCHVGTVJGCFXCPEGUCPFUEKGPVKƒE RTQITGUUQHVJGNCUVFGECFGHTQOVGNGUEQRKEUVWFKGUVQVJGHN[D[ QH2NWVQYGUGGPGYFCVCQXGTVWTPKPIVJQUGQNFKFGCU ū5KPEGVJGP2NWVQJCUDGGPUJQYPVQDGVJGNCTIGUVMPQYP DQF[KPVJGFGGRQWVGT5QNCT5[UVGODG[QPF0GRVWPG#PF VJQWUCPFUQHRNCPGVUJCXGDGGPFKUEQXGTGFQTDKVKPIQVJGT UVCTUOCP[KPQTDKVUNKMG2NWVQŨU6JGUGHCEVUCNQPIYKVJVJG FK\\[KPIN[EQORNGZUWTHCEGVJCV2NWVQUJQYGFNew Horizons CPFFKUEQXGTKGUVJCV2NWVQJCUƒXGOQQPU OQTGVJCP'CTVJ /CTU8GPWUCPF/GTEWT[EQODKPGF ŤCUYGNNCUDNWGUMKGU OQWPVCKPUINCEKGTUCTQEM[KPVGTKQTCPFFWPGUŤJCXGVKRRGF VJGUECNGUDCEMVQRNCPGVJQQF ū9GMPQYVJCV2NWVQKUPQVCEQOGVCHGYMKNQOGVTGUCETQUU GKVJGT+VŨUJWIGYKVJCEKTEWOHGTGPEGQHCNOQUVǡMO ǡOK ťCUHCTCUHTQO/CPJCVVCPYGUVCETQUU0QTVJ #OGTKECCPFVJG2CEKƒEVQ/CWK=KP*CYCKK?+P2NWVQKUPŨV UGGPLWUVCUCRNCPGVDWVVJGNCTIGUVQHOCP[UOCNNRNCPGVUVJCV KPJCDKVQWTFGGRQWVGT5QNCT5[UVGOCPFRTQDCDN[CTGEQOOQP VQQVJGTUVCTU[UVGOUCUYGNNŬ Oldest macroscopic organism Grypania cf.100 MYA guinnessworldrecords. is present in Michigan. a radar signal from NASA’s Deep Space Network on Earth was sent in the Dr Alan Stern The Principal Investigator on NASA’s New Horizons mission to Pluto and the Kuiper Belt. New Horizons was 33 astronomical units from Earth. .8 billion km (3 billion mi) from Earth • A major feature is a vast. Africa. spiralis. can reveal surface properties of planetary bodies. measures around 1.050 x 800 km (650 x 495 mi). Largest cryovolcano on Pluto by diameter #ET[QXQNECPQQTKEGXQNECPQGTWRVUNKSWKFUCPFXCRQWT 6YQǡIGQNQIKECNHGCVWTGUTGUGODNKPIET[QXQNECPQGUJCXGDGGP HQWPFUQWVJQH2NWVQŨUKE[5RWVPKM2NCPWO4GUWNVUUQHCT UJQY2KEECTF/QPU DGNQY VQDGCTQWPFǡMO ǡOK  YKFGCPF9TKIJV/QPU CDQXG ǡMOǡ ǡOK YKFG+H VJGUGCTGET[QXQNECPQGUVJGKTGTWRVKXGOCVGTKCNYQWNF RTQDCDN[DGYCVGTKEGCOOQPKCPKVTQIGPCPFQTOGVJCPG TRIVIA On 4 Jul 2015. Meanwhile. or 33 times the distance of Earth to the Sun. Sputnik Planum is now believed to occupy a giant DQFLHQWLPSDFWEDVLQͤOOHG with volatile ices. Both are visible to the naked eye. are flourishing in Gabon.com 21 DATELINE Largest crater on Pluto Sputnik Planum. It is the site of active nitrogen glaciation. The technique. mostly in Pluto’s northern hemisphere.FAST FACTS Pluto is 4. Part of WKLVVLJQDOZDVUHͥHFWHG from Pluto and detected by the REX radar experiment on board the spacecraft. Dr Alan Stern (fourth from right) shares his thoughts on Pluto’s changing status as a planetary body. an ancestor of algae. roughly heart-shaped area dubbed the Tombaugh Regio • Pluto has a nitrogen atmosphere with layers of constant haze hovering above its surface direction of Pluto. the New Horizons team lost contact with the spacecraft – it had switched to the backup computer because of a problem. Coldest glaciers in the Solar System %NQUGWRUQHVJGXCUVKE[ RNCKPMPQYPCU5RWVPKM 2NCPWOKP2NWVQŨUūJGCTVŬ UJQYHNWXKCNHGCVWTGU TGOKPKUEGPVQHINCEKGTUQP 'CTVJ6JGUWTHCEGJGTGKU VJQWIJVVQDGEQORQUGF OQUVN[QHPKVTQIGPKEGYKVJ VGORGTCVWTGUCUNQYCU ǡMGNXKP º%º(  and the lack of impact craters indicates its surface is less than 10 million years old. 2. Largest “classical” crater on Pluto 6JGMOYKFG OK KORCEVDCUKP8GPGVKC$WTPG[KU CǡūENCUUKECNŬETCVGTQPGVJCVJCUPQVDGGPTGUWTHCEGFYKVJKEG 6JKUKOCIGUJQYUVJGETCVGTGFKPVGTKQTQH8GPGVKC$WTPG[ YJQUGQWVGTTKOHQTOUVJGNKPGQHJKNNUXKUKDNGCVVJGDQVVQO Most distant bistatic radar experiment Just after New Horizons’ closest approach to Pluto.

filmed during his last mission on the ISS and immortalized as the first music video filmed in space. “And then I was blind. During a 7-hr spacewalk on 22 Apr 2001. IPVGTPCNURCEGYCNM On 22 Aug 1997. (KTUVURCEGYCNMKPFGGRURCEG #N9QTFGP 75# YCU%QOOCPF/QFWNG2KNQVQP#RQNNQǡ YJKEJTGVWTPGFVQ'CTVJQPǡ#WI'PTQWVGJQOGCPF UVKNNPGCTN[ǡMO ǡOK HTQO'CTVJJGRGTHQTOGF VJGƒTUVURCEGYCNMVJCVYCUPQVKP. then the other.WN5QXKGV EQUOQPCWV5XGVNCPC 5CXKVUMC[CRGTHQTOGFC URCEGYCNMŤOQTGHQTOCNN[ MPQYPCUCPGZVTCXGJKEWNCT CEVKXKV[ '8# ŤQWVUKFG the 5CN[WVǡURCEGUVCVKQP CURCTVQHVJG5Q[W\ǡ6 OKUUKQP5CXKVUMC[CCPF 8NCFKOKT&\JCPKDGMQXURGPV ǡJTǡOKPQWVUKFG5CN[WVǡ. “But I can still feel. (KTUVURCEGYCNM . Collins ͥLSSHGKLVFDPHUD around to take the ̨UVW VHǪHLQVSDFH in the )GOKPKǡ capsule. “OK.KGWVGPCPV%QNQPGN#NGZGK. How am I going to solve this problem?” Luckily. creating a depression with an estimated diameter of 300 km (186 mi). even when he was hanging on to the ISS for dear life. The same urge gripped astronaut Buzz Aldrin (USA) during the Gemini 12 mission. It was his first spacewalk. Chris and Scott Parazynski (USA) attached Canadarm2 (the longest robotic arm in space) to the ISS. The craft were 3 m (9 ft 10 in) apart.” he told himself. lasted 3 hr 16 min. I can breathe. first in one eye. I can hear.000 MYA 22 Space Largest impact crater on Earth An asteroid or comet collides with Earth. But GWR caught up with him in Nov 2015 to find out about another record-breaking feat.GQPQXJCFRTQDNGOU4GVWTPKPIVQVJGCKTNQEMJGHQWPFVJCV JKUURCEGUWKVJCFDCNNQQPGF*GEQWNFPŨVDGPFJKUCTOUQTNGIU RTQRGTN[CPFJCFVQTGNGCUGCNKVVNGQZ[IGPYJKNGKPURCEGVQ TGGPVGTVJGETCHV (KTUV URCEGYCNM HGOCNG 1Pǡ. SPACEWALKER DATELINE Canada’s Chris Hadfield is the man who charmed the world with his memorable take on David Bowie’s “Space Oddity”. which took place later that year. and it got off to a bad start: his visor’s chemical anti-fogging solution got in his eyes. Their spacewalk. whose hull had been breached after striking an unmanned Progress supply vehicle. .SPACEWALKS Longest total time YCNMKPIǡKPURCEGD[ CǡHGOCNGCUVTQPCWV Sunita Williams (USA) has spent 50 hr 40 min on seven separate spacewalks from the International 5RCEGǡ5VCVKQP (ISS). his tears welled up and helped to dilute the contaminant within half an hour. it is located near present-day Johannesburg in South Africa. outside on a spacewalk!” Years of extensive preparation helped him to keep a calm head. I can talk. ECTT[KPIQWVOCKPVGPCPEG TGRCKTUKPENWFKPIVJGƒTUV YGNFKPIKPQRGPURCEG 1NFGUVRGTUQPVQRGTHQTO CǡURCEGYCNM On 19 Apr 2013. Russia’s Pavel Vinogradov (b. Russia’s Anatoly Solovyev and Pavel Vinogradov carried out a spacewalk inside the depressurized Spektr module of the Mir space station. Now known as the Vredefort crater. 2.QY'CTVJ1TDKVVQTGVTKGXG ƒNOECUUGVVGUHTQOECOGTCUQPVJGURCEGETCHV*KU'8#QP ǡ#WINCUVGFHQTǡOKPKPCNN9QTFGPKURKEVWTGFCDQXG TGEGKXKPIJKU)94EGTVKƒECVGKP(GD CHRIS HADFIELD. in my spacesuit. Michael Collins (USA) spacewalked from )GOKPKǡ to the unmanned GATV-8 booster with a tether and Hand-Held Maneuvering Unit. I can’t see.GQPQX 7554 RGTHQTOGFVJGƒTUV '8#QP/CTURGPFKPIOKPUGEQWVUKFGVJG 8QUMJQFǡURCEGETCHV6JGURCEGYCNMYCUCVTKWORJDWV . he paused during a 2-hr spacewalk to take thęUVWVHǪHLQ RSHQVSDFH. FIRST… 5RCEGYCNMDGVYGGP URCEGETCHV On 20 Jul 1966. 31 Aug 1953) performed a spacewalk from the ISS aged 59 years 231 days. On 13 Nov. to inspect and initiate repairs. The day before. causing him to lose his vision.

CTIGUVPGWVTCNDWQ[CPE[RQQN 0#5#CUVTQPCWV%CRVCKP$TWEG/E%CPFNGUU++ 75#  YCUǡVJGƒTUVRGTUQPVQRGTHQTOCPWPVGVJGTGF URCEGYCNMHTQOVJG5RCEG5JWVVNGChallenger. They were undertaken by 121 different astronauts and cosmonauts and lasted for 1. nitrogen to fr o m their Otherwis bodies. 5RCEGYCNMUFWTKPI Cǡ5RCEGǡ5JWVVNGOKUUKQn Robert Curbeam (USA) performed four spacewalks during the STS-116 mission by the Space Shuttle Discovery on 9–22 Dec 2006.FAST FACTS To date. the pure remove oxygen. 5RCEGYCNMUHTQO QPGǡURCEGETCHV As of 3 Feb 2016.192 hr overall. F as a little or the fi rst few h astrona uts brea ours. e they m ight dev gas bub elop bles. g on the carried tasks be out – alt ing hough th spacew e longest alk (see below) w longer.000 sq mi (207.KO8QUUCPF5WUCP*GNOUURGPVǡJT ǡOKPKPURCEGQP/CT6JGKTLQDYCUVQOCMGTQQO on the ISS HQTVJG+VCNKCPECTIQOQFWNGLeonardo6JGOQFWNG YJKEJECTTKGFUWRRNKGUCPFGSWKROGPVHQTVJGUVCVKQPYCU VTCPURQTVGFD[VJG5RCEG5JWVVNGDiscovery . (KTUVWPVGVJGTGFURCEGYCNM .CDQTCVQT[KUUKVWCVGFCVVJG 5QPP[%CTVGT6TCKPKPI(CEKNKV[PGCTVJG. it will eventually measure 80. more than 200 astronauts have performed a spacewalk • Spacesuits are white to reflect the heat of direct sunlight in space.200 km2). wh ich can pain in th cause e joints – aka the “ben ds”. 600 MYA guinnessworldrecords. Anatoly Solovyev (RUS) made 16 spacewalks. on ǡ(GDǡ6JGYCNMYCUUEJGFWNGFKPQTFGTVQVGUV VJGǡ/CPPGF/CPGWXGTKPI7PKVCǡDCEMRCEMVJCVEQUV ǡO cO VQFGXGNQR 0#5#ŨU0GWVTCN$WQ[CPE[. which may exceed 275°F (135°C) • It takes about 45 min to don a spacesuit DID YO U KNOW Spacewa ? lks can la st up to dependin 8 hr.QJPUQP5RCEG %GPVGTKP*QWUVQP6GZCU75#6JGHCEKNKV[JCUCXQNWOGQH ǡEWǡHV ǡO3 ŤPGCTN[VKOGUVJCVQHCP 1N[ORKEUYKOOKPIRQQN6JGPGWVTCNDWQ[CPE[RTQXKFGFD[ VJGYCVGTUKOWNCVGUVJGGHHGEVUQHOKETQITCXKV[QPCP'8# MOST… 5RCEGYCNMU 'XULQJͤYHVSDFHͥLJKWV between 1988 and 1998.QPIGUVURCEGYCNM Largest marine animal structure Dead and living stony corals begin to coalesce into what will become the Great Barrier Reef. a total of 193 spacewalks had been staged outside the ISS. /QUVRGQRNGQPCURCEGYCNM 6JG5RCEG5JWVVNGEndeavourNCWPEJGFKP/C[ OKUUKQP 565 6JGRTKOCT[CKOQHVJGGZGTEKUGYCUVQTGRCKTVJG Intelsat VIUCVGNNKVGYJKEJJCFRCTVKCNN[HCKNGF4GVTKGXKPIVJG UCVGNNKVGRTQXGFRTQDNGOCVKEWPVKN2KGTTG6JWQV4KEJCTF*KGDCPF 6JQOCU#MGTU CNN75# RGTHQTOGFCURCEGYCNMVQIGVJGTCPFYGTG CDNGVQECRVWTGIntelsat VID[JCPFYJKNGOKUUKQPEQOOCPFGT &CPKGN$TCPFGPUVGKPFGNKECVGN[RQUKVKQPGFEndeavourVQYKVJKPC HGYHGGVQHVJGUVTKEMGPUCVGNNKVG6JKUOCTMUVJGQPN[QEECUKQPVQ FCVGVJCVVJTGGRGQRNGJCXGYCNMGFKPURCEGCVVJGUCOGVKOG . Located off the coast of present-day Queensland in Australia.com 23 DATELINE #OGTKECPCUVTQPCWVU.

WN 6DWXUQ 80QX 8#WI 8UDQXV 8.CP 1HSWXQH 8#WI 8Q[CIGT (launched 5 Sep 1977) 8Q[CIGT (launched 20 Aug 1977) Io: On 8Q[CIGT’s OKUUKQP PCXKICVKQPGPIKPGGT. the ri d. on around 25 Aug 2012.268. possibly resembling sea anemones. Uranus and Neptune. ed ly erod eorites. 8Q[CIGTǡ captured the ̨UVW LPDJHRI(DUWKDQGWKH 0RRQLQDVLQJOHIUDPHIURP VSDFH. re disappea Oldest animal trails Marine creatures. . These are later found off Newfoundland.WNǡ +OCIGUQHYJCVNQQMUNKMG DTQMGPUGCKEGTGHTQ\GP UWIIGUVVJCVCUWDUWTHCEG QEGCPOC[GZKUVQP'WTQRC Not to scale 5CVWTP6JGUVTWEVWTGQH5CVWTPŨUTKPIUŤVJGNCTIGUVTKPIU[UVGO QHCP[RNCPGV– TGUWNVUHTQOVJGITCXKVCVKQPCNKPHNWGPEGQHKVU OCP[OQQPU6JGUGEQWPVNGUURCTVKENGUQHKEGCPFFWUVJCXG COCUUQHǡZǡ19ǡMI ǡZǡ19ǡND GSWKXCNGPVVQCDQWVǡOKNNKQP /QWPV'XGTGUVU5CVWTPCNUQJCUVJGNCTIGUVJGZCIQPKPVJG5QNCT 5[UVGO– CENQWFHQTOCVKQPYKVJMONQPI OK UKFGU CVKVUPQTVJRQNGƒTUVFKUEQXGTGFD[VJGVYQVoyager probes. leave tracks on rocks in the Ediacaran Period. En route to Jupiter. 8Q[CIGTǡ was 20. making it the ̨UVWSUREHWR OHDYHRXU6RODU6\VWHP.WRKVGTQPǡ/CT 1979. DATELINE Planetary bodies not to scale Jupiter: 8Q[CIGTǡ performed KVUHN[D[QH. Canada.057.WRKVGTŨUOQQP+Q6JKU OCTMGFVJGƒTUVFKUEQXGT[ QHGZVTCVGTTGUVTKCN XQNECPKUO+QKUVJGOQUV XQNECPKECNN[CEVKXGDQF[ KPVJG5QNCT5[UVGO.WRKVGTŨUTKPI U[UVGOKVUKIJVGFCHCKPVTKPI ŤVJGOCKPEQORQPGPVKPǡVJG RNCPGVŨUTKPIU[UVGO6JKUǡCNUQ JCUCPKPPGTVQTWU EKTENGǡQH ICU CPFVYQHCKPVQWVGTTKPIU 565 MYA 24 Space VOYAGER MISSIONS -XSLWHU 8/CT 8. Its only RTQOKPGPVTGNKGHCTGTKFIGU CHGYJWPFTGFOGVTGUJKIJ CUFKUEQXGTGFD[8Q[CIGTǡ FWTKPIKVUHN[D[KP. With their radioisotope thermoelectric generators. s of its man the gravitie t. but are en an rm pe t They are no ly by the rt pa .476. Its XQNECPKERNWOGUECPTGCEJ JWPFTGFUQHMKNQOGVTGUJKIJ 'WTQRC. the probes are the PRVW GXUDEOHQXFOHDUSRZHUHG LQWHUSODQHWDU\VSDFHFUDIW. Saturn. It has now travelled into interstellar space. 8Q[CIGTǡ and8Q[CIGTǡ were sent to study the giant outer planets Jupiter. As of 24 Mar 2016.831 km (12.841 mi) away from Earth and still sending data to Mission Control in the USA – the ORQJHVW FRPPXQLFDWLRQVGLVWDQFH.VOYAGER First and farthest Launched in 1977.WRKVGTŨUNCTIG KE[OQQP'WTQRCJCUVJG UOQQVJGUVUWTHCEGKPVJG 5QNCT5[UVGO.KPFC /QTCDKVQ 75# PQVKEGFC ETGUEGPVRTQVTWFKPIǡHTQO . After its closest CRRTQCEJVJGRTQDGVWTPGF VQHCEGVJGRNCPGVKPVJG 5WPŨUFKTGEVKQP+PVJGƒTUV QDUGTXCVKQPUǡQH. being slow et m ro in of mic that constant ra t ic ists pred Some scient n years io ill m 0  10 in another ve ngs may ha or so. ? U KNOW t by DID YOar bi or in pt e ke ngs Saturn’s ri y moons.078.

Infra-red spectrometer: A multi-function device that acts as a thermometer. Imaging cameras: Voyager 2 has narrow-angle and wide-angle cameras. This makes the 2.FAST FACTS High-gain antenna: For transmitting science and engineering data to Earth via two channels.com 25 DATELINE Optical calibration target: Flat. 'PEGNCFWU+Pǡ0#5#ŨU %CUUKPKOKUUKQPQDUGTXGF VJGNCTIGUVGTWRVKXGKEG RNWOGUCDQXGVJGUQWVJRQNG QH5CVWTPŨUOQQP'PEGNCFWU 6JKUEQPƒTOGFYJCVVJG Voyager probes JCFKPFKECVGF VJGTGKUET[QXQNECPKUO CEVKXKV[HTQOCPKEGXQNECPQ  QP'PEGNCFWU+VKUCNUQVJG UOCNNGUVIGQNQIKECNN[CEVKXG DQF[KPVJG5QNCT5[UVGO. Voyager 1 and 2 carry a “Golden Record” – a phonograph of sounds and images from Earth to tell aliens who and where we are • Both Voyagers are powered by long-lasting plutonium batteries. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator: The central power source for the mission module – there are three in all. which should operate until the 2020s VOYAGER 2 Magnetometer boom: Takes direct measurements of magnetic fields in space. fixed rectangle against which instruments (such as cameras) on the movable scan platform can calibrate. a detector of elements and compounds. Voyager 2 is equipped with two low-field and two high-field magnetometers.5-cm (1-in) sea creatures our oldest ancestors. 7TCPWU1Pǡ. and a radiometer for measuring the amount of sunlight reflected by a body. Low-energy chargedparticle detector: For sensing the speed and number of particles in the solar wind and at the outer planets.CP 8Q[CIGTOCFGVJG ƒTUVHN[D[QH7TCPWU EQOKPIYKVJKPǡMO ǡOK QHVJGENQWF VQRUQHVJGRNCPGV+V FKUEQXGTGFTKPIUCTQWPF 7TCPWUCEQORNGZ OCIPGVKEƒGNFCPFPGY UOCNNOQQPU8Q[CIGTǡ is UQHCTVJGQPN[OCPOCFG QDLGEVVQTGCEJ7TCPWU /KTCPFC7TCPWUŨUUOCNN OQQP/KTCPFCKUQPN[ ǡMO ǡOK KPFKCOGVGT $WVKVUIGQNQIKECNN[DK\CTTG UWTHCEGRJQVQITCRJGFD[ 8Q[CIGTǡHGCVWTGUVJG JKIJGUVENKHHKPVJG5QNCT 5[UVGOCDQWVǡMOǡ ǡOK  VCNN0COGFVerona RupesKV KUOQTGVJCPǡVKOGUVCNNGT VJCPVJGYCNNUQHVJG)TCPF %CP[QPKP#TK\QPC75# 0GRVWPG1Pǡ#WI 8Q[CIGTǡOCFGVJGƒTUV HN[D[QH0GRVWPGCHVGTC VJTGGCPFCJCNH[GCTETWKUG HTQO7TCPWU+VECOGYKVJKP ǡMO ǡOK QHVJG ENQWFVQRUQHVJGRNCPGVŨU PQTVJRQNG8Q[CIGTǡ HQWPFVJCV0GRVWPGJCUVJG HCUVGUVYKPFUKPVJG5QNCT 5[UVGODNQYKPICVCTQWPF ǡMOJ ǡORJ  Oldest vertebrate The prehistoric jawless fish Haikouichthys swims in Earth’s Early Cambrian oceans. 6TKVQP 8Q[CIGTǡFKUEQXGTGF CEVKXGET[QXQNECPKUOQP 0GRVWPGŨUNCTIGUVOQQP KPVJGHQTOQHIG[UGTUQH PKVTQIGPICUCPFUPQY7R VQǡMO ǡOK JKIJVJG[CTG VJGVCNNGUVPKVTQIGPIG[UGTU RTQDCDN[ECWUGFD[YGCM UWPNKIJVJGCVKPIPKVTQIGPKEG DGNQY6TKVQPŨUUWTHCEG6JG DNCEMUVTGCMUKPVJKUKOCIG CTGHCNNQWVHTQOVJGIG[UGTU 530 MYA guinnessworldrecords. .

Some 25 cm (9. The ͥDVKIURPWKLVLQFLGHQW̰ referred to by astronomers First known example of a live birth A mother and embryo placoderm (prehistoric armoured fish) perish. Densest objects KPǡVJGǡWPKXGTUG A “stellar” black hole (i. painstakingly created by the makers of the movie Interstellar (USA. At its centre is the “singularity”. where the mass of the dead star from which the black hole originated is compressed to a single point of zero VL]HDQGLQͤQLWHGHQVLW\ It is this singularity that generates the powerful JUDYLWDWLRQDOͤHOGRIDEODFN hole. They are characterized by a region of space in which gravity is so strong that not even light can escape.8 in) long.5 billion light years away. The result is an accurate reproduction of the gravitational lensing effects an observer would see if they were there. the two black holes weigh the equivalent of 50 million and 20 million Suns. 2014) in collaboration with the US theoretical physicist Kip Thorne. is a supermassive black hole that has been ejected from the galaxy’s centre. galaxies and weigh more than a million Suns. It works by solving equations for bundles of light propagating around the curved space-time of a spinning black hole. pler effect light of in the Dop sity the and inten r u ding lo n co ou e th ” surr retion disc ce was en in the “acc lic c ti rtis the hole. in the constellation Monoceros. This is less than 10% of the distance between our Sun and the nearest star. created as supermassive stars exhaust their fuel and collapse to a singularity.000 times larger than the supermassive black hole at the heart of our Milky Way galaxy. the optical counterpart of the gamma burst was picked up by telescopes on Earth. Heaviest black hole In 2009. While the initial black hole they produced was more realistic. What is a black hole? Black holes are the remnants of stars that ended their lives as supernovae.0 appears to contain a binary black hole at its centre. below). The black hole in this star system has a mass at least 3. Studies using Hawaii’s Keck Observatory in Jun 2013 strongly suggest that the bright object SDSS1133. The system is located approximately 3.2 times that of the Sun CPFEQWNFDGCUOWEJCUǡVKOGUJGCXKGT1PEGGXGT[JTKVKUQTDKVGFD[Cū-V[RGŬUVCT ŤQPGVJCVKPUVGNNCTVGTOUJCUCTGNCVKXGN[EQQNVGORGTCVWTG6JGCTVKUVŨUKORTGUUKQPCDQXG UJQYUVJGEQORCPKQPUVCTECWIJVKPVJGDNCEMJQNGŨUITCXKVCVKQPCNRWNN 380 MYA 26 Space MOST SCIENTIFICALLY ACCURATE BLACK HOLE IN A MOVIE Gargantua (above) is the fictional black hole in the movie Interstellar (released 5 Nov 2014). the species will be named Materpiscis attenboroughi. which was developed by visual effects company Double Negative in collaboration with renowned physicist Kip Thorne (USA.22+044127. Closest black hole to Earth DATELINE A0620-00 is a binary system containing a low-mass star and a stellar black hole.) The result – around 40 billion solar masses – means that this black hole is some 10. Alpha Centauri. Many thousands of them are thought to exist in our galaxy alone. Revealed by spectral analysis of their light. a team of astronomers reported that the quasar SDSS J153636. It was rendered using code called Double Negative Gravitational Renderer (DNGR). On 19 Mar 2008. astronomers using NASA’s Swift gammaray space telescope measured the mass of the supermassive black hole at the centre of the quasar S5 0014+81. First “rogue” black hole discovered Markarian 177 is a dwarf galaxy some 90 million light years away. . if not all. director Christopher Nolan requested a few changes to make it more comprehensible to movie audiences – a decision that Thorne agreed with. te ra lly accu h affects scientifica ic h w . A d the . NASA’s Swift satellite detected a gammaray burst from a galaxy 7.BLACK HOLES ? U KNOW DID YO terstellar hole in In The black more ally much was origin factored It . though..e. Scientists believe that supermassive black holes reside in the centres of most. Farthest object ever visible to the naked eye Gamma-ray bursts are the birth cries of black holes. producing a well-preserved fossil in which the embryo is attached to its mother via an umbilical cord. an employed ured ct pi is lt resu here. associated with the galaxy. Some 30–40 sec after the detection by Swift. but are only one-third of a light year apart. a black hole created from the gravitational collapse of a massive star) can be around 20 times the mass of our Sun. Pictured right is a ground-breaking rendering of a black hole.000 light years away from Earth. (Quasars are star-like “extra-galactic” objects that are the most luminous objects in the universe. Shortest distance between two black holes In Mar 2009.

9999% of the speed of light. the lower its apparent magnitude number will be. and that its Nearest supermassive black hole 5CIKVVCTKWU#. If 3C 273 was just 30 light years away. which is consistent with one theory about its origins. Despite its distance. It lasted for a couple of hours. Later the same year. making it about as bright as the planet Uranus appears from Earth.FAST FACTS Black holes distort space and time: the closer you get to one.5 billion light years away in the constellation of Virgo. on 16 Sep. from 12. The event recorded by Fermi was as powerful as around 9. located at the centre of the Milky Way galaxy. The ͥDUHZDVWKUHHWLPHVPRUH powerful than the previous holder. Confusingly. astronomers using NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory detected an increase in X-ray radiation of a factor of 400 from the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A*. NASA’s Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope detected the most powerful gamma-ray burst ever. the more time slows down • Prof John Wheeler (USA) coined the term “black hole” in 1967 • The term for the way matter is shredded by the gravity of a black hole is “spaghettification” At the heart of the spiral galaxy NGC 1365 is a black JQNGYKVJCOCUUQHCTQWPFǡOKNNKQP5WPU5EKGPVKƒE UVWFKGURWDNKUJGFQP(GDTGXGCNGFVJCVVJG black hole is spinning at around 84% of the speed of light. Scientists have speculated that an asteroid was torn apart by the gravitational force of the black hole. as GRB 080319B – was visible to the naked eye for approximately 30 sec.9 – bright enough for it to be seen with relatively modest telescopes.8. the numbers in the magnitude scale run backwards: the brighter the light from an astronomical object appears. Brightest quasar in the sky Quasar 3C 273 is some 2. The blast threw out material at speeds of 99.000 normal supernovae. Most powerful X-ray flare from a black hole in the Milky Way On 14 Sep 2013. Apparent magnitude is a scale used in astronomy to describe the brightness of objects as seen from Earth. it had an apparent magnitude of 5.2 billion light years away in the direction of the Carina constellation. The extreme luminosity of this quasar is believed to be caused by the heating of a huge accretion disc (revolving disc of material) surrounding a supermassive black hole. which occurred in the same region in 2012. it would shine as brightly as the Sun in our sky. In technical terms. it has an apparent magnitude of 12.

It is p erhaps th be sucked e ultima “point o te f no retu rn”. million billion times lower than the deepest note a human ear can detect. The different colours represent X-rays of different GPGTIKGU6JGūENQWFŬKPVJGEGPVTGTGRTGUGPVUFWUVCPFICUCV the centre of the galaxy emitting X-rays. Sagittarius A* is JKFFGPKPVJGXGT[DTKIJVGUVRCTVQHVJGEGPVTGQHVJKUKOCIG debris was then heated as it spiralled into the event KRUL]RQFUHDWLQJWKHͥDUH Most massive overcontact binary VFTS 352 is a binary star system in the Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud. this bou n dary. 300 MYA guinnessworldrecords. Also. The sound. UQOGNKIJV[GCTUCYC[HTQO'CTVJ6JGVYQUVCTUJCXGCEQODKPGFOCUUQHCTQWPF VKOGUVJCVQHVJG5WPCPFQTDKVGCEJQVJGTUQENQUGN[VJCVVJG[QXGTNCRCPFUJCTG OCVGTKCN-PQYPCUCPūQXGTEQPVCEVDKPCT[ŬVJGUGVYQOCUUKXGUVCTUCTGCPGUVKOCVGF ǡOKNNKQPMO ǡOKNNKQPOK CRCTVCPFQTDKVVJGKTEQOOQPEGPVTGQHOCUUQPEGCFC[ &GGRGUVPQVGKPǡVJGǡWPKXGTUG Acoustic waves generated by a supermassive black hole in the centre of the Perseus cluster of galaxies. no – not eve thing n light – can esca black ho pe the le’s pull and will in. 250 million light years away.KUVJGUWRGTOCUUKXGDNCEMJQNGCVVJGEGPVTG QHQWT/KNM[9C[UQOGNKIJV[GCTUCYC[HTQO'CTVJ 9KVJCOCUUQHCTQWPFOKNNKQP5WPUKVKUQTDKVGFD[UGXGTCN OCUUKXGUVCTU6JKUKOCIGYCUVCMGPD[0#5#ŨUChandra space telescope. We can’t hear this noise because sound waves cannot travel through the vacuum of space and so the black hole’s rumblings are contained within the gas cloud.com 27 DATELINE Fastest spinning supermassive black hole TM . which propagates through the extremely thin gas surrounding the black KROHLVD%ͥDWRFWDYHV below middle C. These acoustic waves were discovered by an international team of astronomers led by Prof Andrew Fabian (UK) using observations recorded by the Chandra X-ray Observatory. DID YO U KNOW An “even ? t horizo n” is the astrono term mers use to descri outer pe be the rimeter of a black Beyond hole.000 galaxies. resulting in Abell 754 – a turbulent giant galactic cluster with a diameter of approximately 1 million light years. the note produced is more than a Largest galactic collision A group of around 300 galaxies slams into a larger group of approximately 1. have given rise to a phenomenally deep note.

DATELINE EARTH 240 MYA 28 Earth Oldest known dinosaur The small. analysis of fossils in 2012 reveals that it is the oldest dinosaur by 10–15 million years. meat-eating Nyasasaurus parringtoni thrives in Tanzania. .

Seismosaurus halli – a diplodocid sauropod dinosaur – is the lengthiest vertebrate to ever roam the Earth. 9GCTKPICJGCVTGUKUVCPVCNWOKPKWOUWKVCPFWUKPICEWUVQO OCFG-GXNCTENKODKPIJCTPGUU-QWTQWPKUFGUEGPFGFVQVJGDCUG QHVJGƒGT[JQNGVQEQNNGEVTQEMUCORNGU. is located KPCǡPCVWTCNICUƒGNFKP6WTMOGPKUVCPCPFJCUDGGPDWTPKPIUKPEG +VKUDGNKGXGFVJCVVJGITQWPFECXGFKPCUCTGUWNVQHFTKNNKPI CPFVJGETCVGTYCUKPVGPVKQPCNN[UGVCNKIJVKPCPCVVGORVVQDWTPQHH VJGNGCMKPIOGVJCPGICU+VJCUDWTPGFEQPVKPWQWUN[GXGTUKPEG +P0QXǡHGCTNGUU%CPCFKCPCFXGPVWTGT)GQTIG-QWTQWPKU DGECOGVJGƒTUVRGTUQPVQGZRNQTGVJG&CTXC\C%TCVGT(inset). 154 MYA guinnessworldrecords.com 29 DATELINE The Darvaza Crater.CONTENTS EARTH FACTOGRAPHIC 30 WILD WEATHER 32 CLOUDS 34 BIZARRE GEOLOGY 36 REEFS 38 RAINFORESTS 40 KILLER PLANTS 42 Longest-burning methane crater Longest dinosaur At 39–52 m (128–170 ft) in length.CVGTNCDVGUVUTGXGCNGF DCEVGTKCNKXKPIQPVJGTQEMURTQXKPIVJCVNKHGECPUWTXKXGGZVTGOG VGORGTCVWTGUKPGZEGUUQHo% o(  . also known as the “Door to Hell”.

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DID YOU

KNOW?
H M survey
ship Challe
nger first
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and named
deepest pa
the
rt of the oc
ean (see
below), wit
hin the M
ariana
Trench, in
18 75. If M
ount Ever
were drop
est
ped into th
e trench, it
peak wou
s
ld sit 2 km
(1 .2 mi)
below the 
surface.

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WILD WEATHER

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When cold, dense air from high altitudes flows downhill under the force of gravity, it
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trains. Because these winds are driven by the local geography, they are known for their
consistency of direction. The term derives from the Greek word katabasis (“descending”).

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OLDEST
DESCRIPTION
OF VOLCANIC
LIGHTNING

DATELINE

In volcanic eruptions that
include a large ash plume,
an electrical charge builds
up in the air above the
volcano and discharges as
lightning. The first known
description of volcanic
lightning was written by
Roman statesman Pliny the
Younger, who witnessed
the 79 CE eruption of Mount
Vesuvius. He narrowly
escaped with his life, and
his famous uncle, Pliny
the Elder, died trying to
evacuate nearby towns.

153 MYA
32 Earth

Oldest flying bird
Archaeopteryx lithographica flourishes in what is now southern Germany; with feathers
and wings but also claws and teeth, it is a key link between dinosaurs and birds.

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within the thundercloud,
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shaped ice crystals align,
reflecting sunlight.

FAST FACTS
On 3 Mar 1876, it rained raw meat near Rankin in Kentucky, USA • Tropical
cyclones that form in the Atlantic or eastern Pacific are called hurricanes,
while those that form in the western Pacific are called typhoons

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leaving the earliest known human-like footprints. the rocks sometimes get caught up and moved in a process known as “ice shove”. where they are CUUQEKCVGFYKVJVJG(TQPVKGT(QTOCVKQPQHVJG.6 MYA 36 Earth Oldest hominid footprints Two or three hominids stride upright on the ashy plains of present-day Laetoli in northern Tanzania. rather water ero than by sion. this limestone has been eroded by rain. the Richat Structure is a circular. also known as the Danakil Depression) in Ethiopia. has ton. as well as in central Wyoming and north-east Utah. 3. Th e feature Arches National to the Yil belongs garn Cra Park in Utah. Two Largest cannonball concretions Cannonball concretions are roughly spherical boulders formed by the natural cementation of UCPFD[COKPGTCNECNNGFECNEKVG6JGNCTIGUVGZCORNGUCTGǡO ǡHVǡKP CETQUUCPFCTGHQWPFKP Rock City. The tectonic processes occurring under Afar are the same as those on the ocean ͥRRUDWULGJHVZKHUHQHZ crust forms and the existing crust is pushed apart.887 ft) long.QPIGUVūUCKNKPIǡUVQPGŬǡVTCKNU The Racetrack Playa – a dry lake bed in Death Valley on the US Nevada-California border – is home to “sailing stones”. Largest flared slope 9CXG4QEMKUǡO ǡHV NQPICPF ŤǡO ŤǡHV VCNN with an exposed area of CDQWVŤǡO ŤǡUSǡHV  +VǡKUNQECVGFQPVJG north face of Hyden Rock in Western Australia. . This distinctive “bull’s-eye” feature was discovered from orbit by US astronauts Jim McDivitt and Ed White on the Gemini 4 mission in Jun 1965. An expedition by the Natural Arch and Bridge Society in Oct 2010 measured its span at approximately 400 ft (120 m). DID YOU KNOW? Wave Ro ck (see b e compose low) is d of gran ite datin 2. leaving trails across the surface up to 880 m (2. As the ice begins to break up.7 billio g back n years. Largest “stone forest” The Grand Tsingy in western Madagascar is a 600-km2 (230-sq-mi) “stone forest” of sharp limestone pinnacles dating from the Jurassic period (201.CVG%TGVCEGQWURGTKQF EŤOKNNKQP[GCTUCIQ  scientists discovered the cause in Dec 2013 when checking on equipment put in place to research this phenomenon. The rocks here appear to have moved on their own. The track consists of some 70 prints in two parallel trails about 30 m (100 ft) long. Xian Ren Qiao was formed by the Buliu River carving through terrain composed of limestone. USA.BIZARRE GEOLOGY Largest geological feature discovered from space Located in the part of the Sahara Desert that lies within Mauritania. All it takes is the heating up of a thin sheet of ground ice and a light breeze. Kansas. USA. multi-ringed sedimentary basin with a diameter of around 50 km (31 mi). In Nov 2009. USA. the largest exceed 300 ft (97 m). Over time. it is now believed to be the eroded remains of an uplifted sedimentary dome. Newest ocean In 2005. Once thought to be an impact crater. China. part the orig of inal Aust 2. . forming a landscape in which limestone peaks reach 90 m (295 ft) in height. spans of 3 ft (90 cm) or more. scientists stated that their analysis showed the rift to be the start of the formation of a new ocean.3– 145 million years ago). a rift some 56 km (35 mi) long opened up in the Afar Depression (the lowest point in Africa. LONGEST NATURAL ARCH DATELINE Xian Ren Qiao (Fairy Bridge) is located north-west of Fengshan in Guangxi Province. A subclass of arch known as a natural bridge.067 natural arches with ralian landma ss . It was fo a result rmed as of the gra nite bein by acidic g eroded Most natural arches that once conditions in th e soil covered KPǡQPGǡTGIKQP it .

Krubera.FAST FACTS Pumice is the only rock that floats in water • Sand makes up only about 30% of the Sahara Desert • Scientists have identified about 4. It cuts through 160-millionyear-old Jurassic limestone.000 minerals • You could fit about 4 million Empire State Buildings into the Grand Canyon Highest natural arch 6WUJWM6CUJ OGCPKPI2KGTEGF4QEMCMC5JKRVQPŨUǡ#TEJ  KUCPCVWTCNCTEJQHEQPINQOGTCVGOCVGTKCNNQECVGFYGUVŤ PQTVJYGUVQH-ŨCUJKJKP5KPMKCPI%JKPC+PCP expedition from National Geographic measured the height QHǡVJGCTEJVQDGCTQWPFǡHV ǡO ŤCDQWVǡHV ǡO UJQTVGTVJCP0GY.QTMŨU'ORKTG5VCVG$WKNFKPI Waterfall with the OQUVǡPCVWTCNDTKFIGU Discovered in 1952. the only known cave with a depth greater than 2 km PL. Lebanon. contains a waterfall that plunges 255 m (836 ft) past three natural stone bridges. by 6 m (19 ft 8 in). Longest cave system Mammoth Cave in Mammoth Cave National Park. the Cave of the Three Bridges in Tannourine. Kentucky. Created by the weathering action of the Green River and its tributaries. It is home to around 200 indigenous species. Georgia. the cave has taken some 25 million years to form. is a network of limestone chambers of which around 400 mi (640 km) have been explored so far. USA. Ukrainian caver Gennady Samokhin extended the explored depth of the Krubera Cave in the Arabika Massif. mostly invertebrates. Deepest cave On 10 Aug 2013.

It lives in what is today eastern and southern Africa.197 m (7. The US state of Utah is particularly rich in these formations.com 37 DATELINE Largest concentration of OGVJCPGǡGZRNQUKQPETCVGTU .COCN2GPKPUWNCKP PQTVJYGUV5KDGTKCURQVVGFCNCTIGJQNGEǡǡO ǡHV  CETQUUǡǡO ǡHV FGGRCPFHTGUJKPQTKIKP5EKGPVKUVU believe that it formed after an explosion of methane hitherto trapped in the permafrost. Seven such craters have now DGGPǡHQWPFQPGYCUǡEKTENGFD[ǡCTQWPFǡUOCNNGTQPGU Slot canyons evolve when hairline cracks in rock gradually DGEQOGGPNCTIGFQXGTOKNNGPPKCD[SWKEMN[HNQYKPIYCVGTCPF flash floods.208 ft). Largest slot canyon +P.QRZKDVDQRͦFLDO depth of 2.5 MYA guinnessworldrecords. although it has smaller teeth and a larger brain than its ancestors. 2.WNCRKNQVHN[KPIQXGTVJG. owing to its dry conditions and the presence of soft UCPFUVQPG6JG0CTTQYUUNQVECP[QPKP<KQP0CVKQPCN2CTM7VCJ KUCRRTQZKOCVGN[ǡO ǡHV FGGR[GVKVUYCNNUCTGQPN[ǡO ǡHV CRCTVCVVJGKTYKFGUVRQKPVU6JGECP[QPUPCMGUHQTǡMO ǡOK VJTQWIJVJG<KQP0CVKQPCN2CTM KPUGV CPFJKMGTUVCMG CPǡCXGTCIGQHǡJQWTUVQVTCXGTUGKV First recognizable human The tool-using Homo habilis evolves from a hominid such as Australopithecus afarensis.

000 species that call it home. research at a deep-water reef called Pulley Ridge.000 km (4. thrived in the Tethys Ocean during the Late Jurassic (157–145 million years ago). That’s about the same as the distance from Miami to New York City or from Madrid to Rome.900 separate colonies of living coral – that covers an area of 80. revealed a new type of coral ecosystem.65 MYA 38 Earth but their hard-to-reach locations mean that little is known about their ecosystems and life-cycles. to Newfoundland. It is home to sponges that are as tall as 21 m (69 ft) – that’s more than four storeys high – and in excess of 9.000 years old. This is impressive. 7. covering around 700 km2 (270 sq mi) of WKHVHDͥRRULQWKH4XHHQ Charlotte Sound. the coast of Florida.000 sq mi (207. because LWVORFDWLRQRQWKHVHDͥRRU at a depth of 80 m (262 ft) receives only 1% of the light that reaches the surface. . mostly submerged coral atoll. Seemingly minor human interference can have dramatic effects. a “reef system” – comprising some 2. It originally formed around 450 million years ago in what was then the Iapetus Ocean. Deep-water corals are found everywhere from Norway to Nova Scotia. Reef system ever A system of glass sponge reefs. The oldest surviving samples of these “Acheulean” tools are later found in the West Turkana region of Kenya. a rocky lake island that was once a substantial colony of stromatoporoid coral. located off LONGEST REEF DATELINE The Great Barrier Reef. for example.200 km²). but living examples were discovered in the 1980s. Its most VLJQLͤFDQWRXWFURSRFFXUV in Vermont at Isle La Motte. LARGEST.027 km) from end to end. The Great Barrier Reef is. The reef is a diverse but fragile ecosystem.350 mi) from end to end. It is suspected. located off the coast of Queensland in north-eastern Australia. in fact.  1. that overfishing certain predators creates “plagues” of coral-eating starfish that kill off whole reefs.. but is then lifted far above sea level by tectonic forces. It was more than three times the length of the Great Barrier Reef. Largest raised coral atoll A raised coral atoll is an island that forms as a normal. Unlike all the deep-water reefs previously studied. USA.and pear-shaped tools are made by chipping flakes from stone to create sharp or rounded edges.260 mi (2. USA. Barrier reef system in VJGǡPQTVJGTPJGOKURJGTG Barrier reefs are separated from the mainland or island Oldest stone tools In Africa..REEFS Oldest coral reef The Chazy Reef Formation is a fossilized coral reef that extends from Tennessee. Pulley Ridge has photosynthesizing algae. oval. Canada. The largest of these is Lifou Island in the UQWVJYGUV2CEKƒE1EGCPYJKEJEQXGTUUQOGǡMO ǡUSǡOK CPFǡKUǡJQOGVQCTQWPFRGQRNG The largest system of glass sponge reefs today is ORFDWHGRII&DQDGD̵V3DFLͤF coast. measures some 1. maintained by a delicate balance between the more than 5. Deepest photosynthetic coral reef In 1999. Such reefs were thought to be extinct.

Double barrier reef Only six double barrier reefs – reefs formed as inner and outer layers – exist in the world today. a Neanderthal takes a segment of femur from a cave bear (Ursus spelaeus) and pierces it with four holes to create a bone flute. Fringing reef This type of reef occurs close to the shore with no intervening lagoon. Of these. . the largest is the Danajon Bank.CTIGUVCTVKƒEKCNTGGH Oldest musical instrument In a campsite located in modern-day Ljubljana. and often wide. The largest is Ningaloo Reef in Western Australia.000 species. Marine reserve The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument covers 356. Although Kwajalein is the largest atoll. the largest reef system in the southern hemisphere and the overall longest reef (see left). which stretches from the coast of southern Mexico to northern Guatemala. the wreck toll (see left) is home to of the G erman b Prinz Eu attleship gen.879 km² (137. a quarter of which are found nowhere else.850 km²) – the largest body of water enclosed by an atoll. which is approximately 300 km (180 mi) long and some 100 m (330 ft) from the shore at its closest point. It lies between the islands of Cebu and Bohol in the Philippines. DID YO U KNOW The Gre at Carrie ? r Reef is only ree n’t the f with a warship Kwajale in A in it. The lagoon is so large that observers cannot see the islands on one side from the other. Slovenia. part of the Line Islands chain in the central 3DFLͤF7KLVLVDSDUWLDOO\ raised atoll (see left) whose islands cover an area of 235 sq mi (609 km2) around a small lagoon. The largest is Kwajalein Atoll. very little of it is above sea level. 43. No reef system in the northern hemisphere is more extensive than the Belize Barrier Reef. Atoll reef An atoll reef is an often more or less circular coral reef that encloses a shallow lagoon.com 39 DATELINE +PVJG750CX[FGEKFGFVJCVVJGHV O CKTETCHV ECTTKGT755Oriskany. the word “reef” describes any underwater obstruction • Corals are marine invertebrates (phylum Cnidaria) related to jellyfish and anemones • Coral reefs are home to around 25% of all fish species Largest atoll archipelago 6JG6WCOQVW#TEJKRGNCIQKPVJGEGPVTCN2CEKƒE1EGCP EQPVCKPUEQTCNCVQNNUKPCEJCKPCDQWVǡMO ǡOK  NQPI6JGNCTIGUVCVQNN4CPIKTQC RKEVWTGF EQXGTUCPCTGC QHCTQWPFǡMO ǡUSǡOK CNVJQWIJQPN[ǡMO ǡUSǡOK QHVJCVKUNCPF Largest coral die-off +PCTKUGKPQEGCPVGORGTCVWTGUVTKIIGTGFD[CP'N0KȓQ GXGPVECWUGFUQOGQHVJGYQTNFŨUEQTCNTGGHUVQDNGCEJCPF FKG$NGCEJKPIKUCRJGPQOGPQPKPYJKEJFCOCIGFTGGHUUJGF VJGKTU[ODKQVKECNICGNGCXKPILWUVVJGUVQPGNKMGHQTOUQHVJG EQTCNKVUGNH CDQXG #UKOKNCTFKGQHHJCRRGPGFKPCPFOCP[ UEKGPVKUVUDGNKGXGVJCVCVJKTFUWEJGXGPVKUEWTTGPVN[VCMKPIRNCEG shore by a deep.100 sq mi (2. It was radioact too ive to m ove and is now a popular dive site . one of the Marshall Islands. the Oriskany was sent to the bottom of the )WNHQH/GZKEQD[ǡND ǡMI QHECTGHWNN[RNCEGFGZRNQUKXGU DGNQY 6JGOriskany has since attracted an abundance of OCTKPGNKHGCPFDGEQOGCRQRWNCTFKXKPIUKVG NGHV EQOOQPN[ MPQYPCUVJGū)TGCV%CTTKGT4GGHŬ .791 sq mi) of the 3DFLͤF7KHUHHIVLQWKLV protected region – about the size of Germany – are home to more than 7.000 BCE guinnessworldrecords. It is second in size only to the Great Barrier Reef. which is 272 km2 (105 sq mi) in size. wh ich sank US Navy while th was usin e g it in nucl tests du ear ring 194 6. which twists and turns for 176 mi (283 km) to enclose a lagoon of 1.FAST FACTS Technically. lagoon. The largest atoll by land area is Kiritimati. Although large barrier reefs are FRPPRQLQWKH3DFLͤFWKH Caribbean is home to only a few. which had been rusting away in a navy UJKR[CTFUKPEGYQWNFDGFQPCVGFHQTWUGCUCPCTVKƒEKCN TGGH1P/C[CHVGTVYQ[GCTUQHYQTMVQTGOQXGVQZKE insulation materials.

. The creation of the park was announced on 22 Aug 2002 by Brazilian president Fernando Henrique Cardoso. The mangrove trees in this forest sometimes exceed 70 ft (21 m) in height.CTIGUVTKXGTDCUKP The greatest river basin is that drained by the Amazon.CTIGUVVGORGTCVGǡTCKPHQTGUV Temperate rainforests. .875 km² (15. Measuring some 38. They have a much greater seasonal variation than tropical rainforests.540 km²) across eastern India and Bangladesh. N as north-w d. es such ac pl in s st rainfore orway est USA. located on the north-east coast of Queensland in Australia. which was made a World Heritage Site in 1988 by the United Nations Educational.RAINFORESTS 295. which exist outside the Earth’s tropics. covering Biome with the ITGCVGUVǡDKQFKXGTUKV[ The precise number of animal and plant species VJCVǡGZKUVKPVJGYQTNFŨUVTQRKECNTCKPHQTGUVUKUWPMPQYP Current estimates of biodiversity suggest that UQOGVJKPIKPVJGTCPIGQHŤQHCNN'CTVJŨUNKXKPI URGEKGUCTGEQPEGPVTCVGFKPVJKUJCDKVCVYJKEJVQFC[ EQXGTUCTQWPFŤQHVJGRNCPGVŨUUWTHCEG Oldest paintings A group of Stone Age humans paint portraits of animals and imaginary beasts on the walls of a cave in what is now southern France. The oldest rainforest of them all is the Daintree Rainforest. They have saltwater-tolerant roots. and Irelan survived the last Ice Age.000 sq mi (15. the equatorial forests did not freeze over. DWVVJGYGUVGTPYQTNFQPN[ began to rediscover them in the second half of the VJǡEGPVWT[ in area.900 sq mi) of the west coasts of the USA and Canada. because unlike the majority of the planet.000 years ago. the reserve contains many endangered species of plant and animal. They ? U KNOW bes DID YOnf ri sc de t” ores DATELINE ai The term “r nse tree ith both a de any area w 140 cm an th e or m d canopy an ll. having formed after the last Ice Age. In fa in ra al nu (55 in) of an tropical n w no the well-k rate pe addition to m te there are rainforests. It covers around 1. (KTUVWUGQHCECPQR[TCHVKPTCKPHQTGUVTGUGCTEJ +P1EVǡDKQNQIKUV(TCPEKU*CNNȌ (4# NGFVJGƒTUVGZRGFKVKQPVQVJGECPQR[QHVJGTCKPHQTGUVKP 5PCMG%TGGM)W[CPC*KUVGCOWUGFCECPQR[TCHVFGUKIPGFD[RKQPGGTKPI(TGPEJDCNNQQPKUV&CP[ %NG[GV/CTTGNYJKEJYCUFTQRRGFQPVQVJGVQRQHVJGTCKPHQTGUVECPQR[D[CPCGTQUVCV CNKIJVGT VJCPCKTETCHVUWEJCUCPCKTUJKR 6JGTCHVKVUGNHYCUCO2 USHV JGZCIQPVJCVWUGFCKT KPHNCVGFDGCOUCPFRQN[XKP[NEJNQTKFGPGVVKPI9GKIJKPILWUVǡMI ǡND KVYCUFGUKIPGFVQTGUV QPVJGTCKPHQTGUVECPQR[YKVJQWVFCOCIKPIPGYITQYVJ6JKUƒTUVGZRGFKVKQPYJKEJCNUQEQWPVGFCU ƒGNFVTKCNUCNNQYGFUEKGPVKUVUVQUCORNGVTGGUCPFRNCPVUCPFRTGUGTXGVJGOHQTNCVGTUVWF[ 1NFGUVVGTTGUVTKCNDKQOG Most of Earth’s tropical rainforests have been established for at least a million years. The largest expanse of this biome RQ(DUWKLVWKH3DFLͤF Temperate Rainforests. 30.000 km2 (113. and acts as a natural barrier against tsunamis and cyclones that often blow in from the Bay of Bengal.010 sq mi) Largest natural RJCTOCE[ #TQWPFQHCNNYGUVGTP pharmaceutical products come from ingredients in VTQRKECNTCKPHQTGUVUQYKPI VQVJGKTTKEJDKQFKXGTUKV[ Indigenous tribes have utilized plants for medicinal purposes for millennia.200 km2 (463 sq mi) and is part of the Wet Tropics of Queensland.000 BCE 40 Earth This area represents the largest single contiguous block of rainforest in Australia and is estimated to be 180 million years old. which ended around 10. above islands of layered sand and grey clay. . generally form where relatively warm ocean temperatures impact inland climates. These forests are only around a few thousand years old. 6FLHQWLͤFDQG&XOWXUDO Organization (UNESCO). Largest coastal OCPITQXGǡHQTGUV The Sundarbans stretches for almost 6. which cover around Largest tropical HQTGUVǡTGUGTXG The Tumucumaque National Park is located in the rainforest of the northern Amazonian state of Amapá in Brazil. although some are much older.

. Australia. and is a saprophyte (i.000 m³/sec (7. Approximately two-thirds of the rainforest is in Brazil.6 million sq mi) – and includes the whole of the Amazon River Basin.7–6.94 million of its 761 million hectares lost. EQORTKUKPICUOCNNPWODGTQHXGT[NCTIGVTGGU6JGVCNNGUVKU VJGǡMCRQMVTGG Ceiba pentandra YJKEJITQYUVQǡO ǡHV  CVCTCVGQHCTQWPFO ǡHV RGT[GCT+VECPDGHQWPFOCKPN[ KPUQWVJGTP/GZKEQVJGUQWVJGTP#OC\QPCPF9GUV#HTKEC around 7.9 million km2 (2. it feeds on decaying organic material). :KLOHQRWLQͥRRG its main stretches reach widths of up to 11 km (7 mi) at their broadest. Highest concentration QHǡWPEQPVCEVGFVTKDGU Largest waterfall ever The ice dam holding Glacial Lake Missoula collapses. 6CNNGUVQTEJKF A height of 15 m (49 ft) has been recorded for the orchid )CNGQNCǡHQNKCVC. Indonesia’s tree-cover loss rose by more than 30% in 2013–14 – the largest deforestation by annual increase rate – while that of Brazil rose by “only” 16% during the same time period. 13.com 41 DATELINE According to the human rights organization Survival +PVGTPCVKQPCNVJGTGCTGCRRTQZKOCVGN[WPEQPVCEVGF VTKDGUǡKPVJGYQTNFVQFC[/QTGVJCPJCNHQHVJGUGCTGDGNKGXGF VQǡNKXGYKVJKPVJG$TC\KN2GTWTGIKQPQHVJG#OC\QPKCP TCKPHQTGUV/CP[QHVJGUGVTKDGUCEVKXGN[EJQQUGVQJCXGPQ EQPVCEVYKVJVJGQWVUKFGYQTNFUQOGVKOGUD[GZJKDKVKPI JQUVKNKV[VQQWVUKFGTUKPENWFKPIPGKIJDQWTKPIVTKDGU .100.FAST FACTS Around 70% of plants identified as potential anti-cancer treatments are native to rainforests • If it were a country. LARGEST TROPICAL RAINFOREST The Amazon rainforest spans nine South American countries and covers some 5. not only because the rainforest does not have distinct edges.5–6.3 million sq mi). Perhaps unsurprisingly. The two countries showed a less marked three-year average trend – 0. which may be within natural forests or tree plantations. It is not free-standing. ranking second globally after Russia in absolute tree-cover loss (mostly tropical forest) in 2001–14. This is necessarily an estimate. It is part of the Amazon biome – covering 6. USA.1–2.045.01% respectively – for the years 2012 to 2014.46% and 1. Part of the (CUVGUVFGENKPKPIDKQOG Tropical rainforests are shrinking more quickly than any other biome. which at 3. around two-thirds of its rainforests have become pasture since 1950. 6CNNGUVVTQRKECNTCKPHQTGUVVTGGU Above the canopy of rainforests is the “emergent” layer. the Amazonian rainforest would be the ninth largest • More than 20% of Earth’s oxygen is made in the Amazon rainforest YDQLOODIDPLO\WKLVͥRZHU grows in the rainforests of Queensland.3 million acres) of rainforest per year were lost from 1990 to 1997.5–2. A 2002 study using satellites revealed that around 5. with an average discharge rate of about 200. According to data from the University of Maryland and Google published by Global Forest Watch.100 mi) is the longest river tributary. Brazil lost 38 million of its 519 million hectares of tree cover. including the Madeira. but is supported by other trees.e. It has countless tributaries. In terms of the global impact of deforestation. over the years 2001–14 Russia suffered the greatest tree-cover loss – largely boreal forests – with 40. it is Brazil and Indonesia (with some of Earth’s most extensive tropical forests) that have historically come under scrutiny for their rates of deforestation.2 million km2 (2.000 cu ft/sec) – that’s 80% of an Olympic swimming pool – into the Atlantic Ocean. Between 2000 and 2005.000 BCE guinnessworldrecords.720. the Amazon is the widest river. Central America lost 1.8 million ha (14. . The Amazon also has the JUHDWHVWULYHU̩RZ.380 km (2. however. and can result from factors such as mechanical KDUYHVWLQJͤUHGLVHDVHRU storm damage.000 km² (2. but also because it merges with similar biomes across its indistinct boundaries.000 sq mi).CTIGUVVTGGEQXGTNQUU D[ǡCTGC “Tree-cover loss” refers to the removal of trees. and despite a drop in 2013. More worryingly. sending billions of tons of water over cliffs in what is now eastern Washington state.3% of its tropical rainforests each year.

the peristome (the slippery ring of tissue at the opening to the pitcher) of the Khasi Hills pitcher plant (Nepenthes khasiana) of India was found to emit fluorescent light of a wavelength of ŤǡPCPQOGVTGU KGǡDNWGǡNKIJV  First plant species KFGPVKƒGFQP(CEGDQQM 8SWRP IWLQ.KILLER PLANTS Most fluorescent carnivorous plant In a 2013 study.

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the manchineel (Hippomane mancinella) grows in the USA’s Florida Everglades and on the Caribbean coast. digesting insects and RWKHUVPDOOLQYHUWHEUDWHV 7KHSODQWVWUDSWKHLUSUH\ XSRQJOLVWHQLQJGURSVRI GHZOLNHPXFXVDWWKH WLSVRIPXFXVVHFUHWLQJ WHQWDFOHVRQWKHLUOHDYHV and southern Oregon. %UXVKͤUHVUHJXODUO\VZHHS through this area. it can cause blindness. The sap that its trunk exudes is so acidic and poisonous that the merest contact with human skin causes a breakout of blisters. USA. Even standing under the tree in the rain is enough to cause blistering if the skin is wetted by raindrops containing any sap.ORQJ 2IFRVPRSROLWDQGLVWULEXWLRQ VXQGHZVDUHFDUQLYRURXV IDPRXVIRUFDSWXULQJDQG Most dangerous tree A member of the spurge family. and the FREUDOLO\KDVHYROYHGWKH DELOLW\WRUHJURZLWVOHDYHV DQGSLWFKHUVIURPLWVURRW DIWHUVXFKDFRQͥDJUDWLRQ /QUVƒTGRTQQH ECTPKXQTQWUǡRNCPV 7KHFREUDOLO\ &CTNKPIVQPKC ECNKHQTPKEC. if it touches the eyes.

the clamshell-like leaves of the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula.000th of a second. 9500 BCE 42 Earth Earliest cultivated food crops Neolithic farmers in south-west Asia begin sowing domesticated plants for human consumption.WLV QDWLYHWRWKHVRXWKHUQ HQGRIWKH&DVFDGH Mountains range in QRUWKHUQ&DOLIRUQLD Largest prey of any carnivorous plant Both 0GRGPVJGUǡTCLCJ and 0ǡTCHHNGUKCPCKDYHEHHQ NQRZQWRHDWODUJHIURJV ELUGVDQGHYHQUDWV7KHVH VSHFLHVDUHFRPPRQO\ IRXQGLQWKHUDLQIRUHVWVRI $VLDLQSDUWLFXODU%RUQHR . the hinged trapdoor of the bladderwort (Utricularia vulgaris. its fleshy underwater leaf branches are filled with air and keep the plant buoyant. cereal and flax. On land. Underwater.QGRQHVLDDQG0DOD\VLD FASTEST ENTRAPMENT BY A CARNIVOROUS PLANT DATELINE Carnivorous plants trap their prey in movements considered to be among the fastest in the plant kingdom. right) captures its victim in 1/15. enabling it to float. left) shut in one tenth of a second (100 milliseconds) from the moment they are stimulated. 0CNDQOCTIKPCVC LVDOVRWKHRQO\SODQWWR RIIHULWVRZQWLVVXHWR VHFXUHDPHDO7KHSODQW JURZVDULQJRIHGLEOH ZKLWHKDLUV ̸WULFKRPHV̹. Most selective ECTPKXQTQWUǡRNCPV 0GRGPVJGUCNDQOCTIKPCVC DWWUDFWVDQGIHHGV H[FOXVLYHO\RQWKHIRUDJLQJ WHUPLWH*QURKVCNKVGTOGU DKEQNQT*URZLQJLQWKH UDLQIRUHVWVRI0DOD\VLDDQG Indonesia. typically by insect prey moving into the trap.LVQRWDWUXH OLO\EXWDVSHFLHVRI SLWFKHUSODQW. The bladderwort has no roots. including pulses.

 ZKLFKDWWUDFWWKHWHUPLWHV 7KHVHLQVHFWVIUHTXHQWO\ VOLSGRZQWKH̸WKURDW̹RI WKHSODQWDQGDUHWKHQ TRIVIA Tomato leaves and stems contain a poison called tomatine. . Apple seeds contain tiny doses of amygdalin – a cyanide and sugar compound. considered a natural pesticide.

hence its name • The first major study of carnivorous plants was produced by Charles Darwin in 1875 Most poisonous common plant Ricin – the poison of the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis) – KUǡVKOGUOQTGVQZKEVJCP cyanide and 12.000 times more toxic than rattlesnake venom. acetylcholine and HQTOKECEKF1PCVNGCUVQPGQEECUKQPKPVJG RNCPVǡKUMPQYPVQJCXGMKNNGFCǡOCPLWUVƒXGJQWTU CHVGTǡUMKPEQPVCEV MXVWDVLQJOHVSHFLHV̰WKH $XVWUDOLDQSLWFKHUSODQW %GRJCNQVWUHQNNKEWNCTKU. aka ongaonga (7TVKECHGTQZ).FAST FACTS Only 5% of the Venus flytrap’s diet consists of flies • The poisonous plant wolfsbane was once thought to ward off werewolves. 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). According to 6JG/GTEM+PFGZ #P'PE[ENQRGFKCQH%JGOKECNU &TWIUCPF$KQNQIKECNU (1997 edition). notably histamine. The hairs contain many skin irritants. a dose of ǡOKETQITCOU ǡQ\  is enough to kill a person YGKIJKPIǡMI ǡND  GLJHVWHG8QZLWWLQJO\ KRZHYHUVXUYLYLQJWHUPLWHV HQFRXUDJHPRUHRIWKHLU IHOORZSUH\WRYLVLWWKHSODQW E\UHWXUQLQJWRWKHLUFRORQ\ ZLWKWKHKDLUV Smallest family of carnivorous plants 7KHWD[RQRPLFIDPLO\ &HSKDORWDFHDHFRQWDLQV Most dangerous stinger 6JGƒPGYJKVGUVKPIKPIJCKTUQH0GY<GCNCPFŨUVTGG nettle. inject toxins into the skin that are potent enough to kill dogs and horses.


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Oldest walled town
With some 2,000 people already calling it home, Jericho in the Middle East is one of the earliest
settlements to construct a stone boundary. It is today the oldest continually inhabited city.

7800 BCE
guinnessworldrecords.com 43

DATELINE

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44 Animals

Oldest playable instrument
A seven-holed flute is carved from the leg bone of a crane in the village of Jiahu, near the Yellow River in China.
In 9,000 years’ time, when it is unearthed by archaeologists, the wind instrument will still produce a tune!

6000 BCE guinnessworldrecords.CONTENTS ANIMALS FACTOGRAPHIC 46 ANTS 48 OCTOPUSES 50 BIG CATS 52 CROCODILES 54 OWLS 56 MONKEYS 58 SPIDERS 60 DINOSAURS 62 CATS & DOGS 64 FANTASTIC BEASTS 66 Largest lizard First pottery kilns Progressing from baking clay in the Sun. the Hassuna culture of northern Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq) revolutionizes pottery by developing kilns that can reach 1.830°F).GCTEQORGVKVKQPVJKUOKFDCVVNGUJQVYCU UPCRRGFD[4WUUKCPRJQVQITCRJGT#PFTG[)WFMQXKP+PFQPGUKC )GVVKPIVJKUENQUGVQ-QOQFQFTCIQPU Varanus komodoensis) KUǡPQǡOGCPHGCVPQVNGCUVDGECWUGVJGONQPI HVKP  TGRVKNGUCTGMPQYPHQTDGKPICIITGUUKXG +VYCUQPEGVJQWIJVVJCVVQZKEDCEVGTKCKPKVUUCNKXCCNQPI YKVJKVUUJCTRVGGVJYGTGVJKUNK\CTFŨURTKOCT[YGCRQPU+P ǡJQYGXGTUEKGPVKUVUEQPƒTOGFVJCVŤCUYGNNCUDKVKPIKVU RTG[ǡŤVJGURGEKGUGORNQ[UXGPQOUGETGVKPIINCPFUKPKVUNQYGT LCYOCMKPI-QOQFQUVJGǡlargest venomous land animal .000°C (1.com 45 DATELINE 5JQTVNKUVGFCUCƒPCNKUVKPVJGRTGUVKIKQWU9KNFNKHG 2JQVQITCRJGTQHVJG.

#PCFWNVOCNGIKTCHHG Giraffa camelopardalis V[RKECNN[ OGCUWTGUŤǡO ŤǡHV  in height. a h te a wa phon up h to pull It can si g enoug ve ’s stron It l.= 6JGCFWNVOCNG#HTKECPGNGRJCPV Loxodonta africana V[RKECNN[UVCPFUŤǡO ǡHV ǡKPŤǡHVǡKP CVVJGUJQWNFGT+VYGKIJU ŤǡVQPPGU ŤǡND ŤCPCXGTCIG YGKIJVGSWKXCNGPVVQHWNN[ITQYPCFWNVOGP 6JGVCNNGUVURGEKOGPMPQYPŤCDWNNUJQVQP ǡ#RTŤOGCUWTGFCPWPRTGEGFGPVGF ǡO ǡHVǡKP HTQOUJQWNFGTVQHQTGHQQV LARGEST TERRESTRIAL MAMMAL ph se. s offspr o their ing (c with a alves) star t li thump fe . 2 m (6 r a  ft 6 in ). le tool.CP*GYCUOQTG than three times the height QHǡCPǡCFWNVJWOCP TALLEST MAMMAL The animal kingdom is remarkably diverse. from single-celled organisms to the mighty blue whale. the range is also extreme. LARGEST WING-SPAN FOR A LIVING BIRD . dro aroun d 2 m to pping the groun d! 1Pǡ5GRCOCNG YCPFGTKPICNDCVTQUU Diomedea exulans) of the southern oceans was studied by members of the TGUGCTEJUJKR7505Eltanin in the 6CUOCP5GC+VJCFCYKPIURCP QHǡO ǡHVǡKP ŤCDQWV VYKEGVJGJGKIJVQHVJGCXGTCIG JWOCPCPFPGCTN[ǡVKOGU VJGYKPIURCPQHǡCDNCEMDKTF 6WTFWUǡOGTWNC). entar y m le versati pp be used and a su r d o n r.  b  a m o fr ? U KNOW DID YanOt’s trunk is a highglyer. The tallest recorded URGEKOGPVQFCVGYCUOVCNN HV )GQTIGC/CUCKDWNN )ǡEǡVKRRGNUMKTEJK ) originally HTQO-GP[CVJCVYCUTGEGKXGF CVǡ%JGUVGT<QQKP%JGUJKTG7- QPǡ. a dig T he ele It’s a no foot. a se n d nsiti to sig trees an le y o r h r e w b a down to pluck enough ranch. Members range in complexity HTQOIGNCVKPQWULGNN[ƒUJCPFUKORNGURQPIGUVQUWTRTKUKPIN[EQORNGZ YCVGTǡHNGCUCPFWNVTCKPVGNNKIGPVFQNRJKPUŲCPFVJKUKULWUVVJGUGCNKHGБ In size. T he fe veraging bir th s m ales giv tandin e g up. the largest animal ever. ANIMALS FACTOGRAPHIC = DID = YOU K Even n NOW? ewbor n gira t ha n m ffes ar ost hu e talle ma n s. Illustrated here is a selection QHǡETGCVWTGUPQVGFHQTVJGKTUWRGTNCVKXGUK\GDGKVJGKIJVYGKIJV YKPIURCPQTCRRGVKVGCNQPIUKFGGCEJKUCEQORCTKUQPVQKNNWUVTCVG just how immense these animals are.

000 x10.000 x10. While UGXGTCNYJCNGUGCVOGCVVJG[CTGPQVRCTVQHVJG%CTPKXQTCITQWR UQVCZQPQOKECNN[URGCMKPICTGPQVECTPKXQTGU LARGEST PINNIPED = x10.000 = LARGEST FELINE CARNIVORE 6JGOCNG5KDGTKCPVKIGT 2CPVJGTCVKITKUCNVCKEC) CXGTCIGUǡO ǡHVǡKP KPNGPIVJHTQOPQUGVQVJG VKRQHVJGGZVGPFGFVCKN+VCNUQUVCPFUŤǡEO ǡHV ǡKPŤǡHVǡKP CVVJGUJQWNFGTCPFYGKIJUCDQWVǡMI ǡND 6QOCKPVCKPKVUYGKIJVQPGVKIGTJCUVQGCV VJGǡGSWKXCNGPVQHVGP[GCTQNFDQ[UGXGT[OQPVJБ LARGEST LIVING BIRD /CNGGZCORNGUQHVJG0QTVJ#HTKECPQUVTKEJ 5VTWVJKQ camelus camelus CTCVKVG HNKIJVNGUU UWDURGEKGU JCXGǡDGGPTGEQTFGFCVǡO ǡHV VCNNCPFYGKIJKPI ǡMI ǡND 6JCVOCMGUVJGQUVTKEJCRRTQZKOCVGN[ ǡVKOGUJGCXKGTVJCPVJGOCNGDGGJWOOKPIDKTF /GNNKUWICJGNGPCG).000 x8.000 x10.000 x10.000 x10.000 x10. the smallest bird.000 x10.000 x10. .= 6JGTGCTGMPQYPURGEKGUQHRKPPKRGFŤCSWCVKEOCOOCNU KPENWFKPIUGCNUUGCNKQPUCPFYCNTWUGUŤVJGNCTIGUVQHYJKEJKU VJGUQWVJGTPGNGRJCPVUGCN Mirounga leonina $WNNUCXGTCIGǡO ǡHVǡKP NQPICPFYGKIJUQOGŤǡVQPPGU ŤǡND  ŤWRVQQHYJKEJECPDGDNWDDGT#UVJGDWNMKGUVOGODGT QHVJGVCZQPQOKEQTFGT%CTPKXQTCVJGGNGRJCPVUGCNKUCNUQVJG largest carnivoreUQOGƒXGVKOGUJGCXKGTVJCPVJGCXGTCIGCFWNV RQNCTDGCT Ursus maritimus ŤVJGlargest land carnivore.

Going on the mean body size (the average obtained from the measurements of workers. Eye: The ant’s compound eyes comprise numerous tiny lenses.3 cm (1. Its telescoping segments allow the gaster to expand – for example. He describ in the proces g “like in be as t llet an al sting of a bu ming charco fla er ov g in walk sty nail ru ch in 3a with in your heel”.ANTS ANATOMY OF AN ANT 100% Spiracle: Ants do not have lungs. (GYGUVEJTQOQUQOGU KPǡCPǡKPUGEV Male ants are “haploid” (they have only one chromosome from each of their species’ chromosome pairs). and vice versa. touch and feel. that queens of Titanomyrma giganteum. along with wings in the flying (mating) phase. Head Mouth Largest ant Fulvus driver ant (Dorylus fulvus) queens (above) can measure as much as 5 cm (2 in) long once fully mature. The Australian jack jumper ant (Myrmecia pilosula) has only a single pair. if the ant has fattened up to survive the winter. were 6 cm (2. drones and queens). Antennae: Sensory organs used to smell. The smallest driver ant workers. A species with NOW? DID YOUidK t put together Justin O Schm e index as a sid his sting pain ct arching inse se re le hi w t projec stung a lot ng tti ge nd defences (a es the s). Claws and Peru as well as in coastal Guyana. by contrast.CTIGUVCPVURGEKGUGXGT We know from fossils found in Messel.1 in) long. while female ants are “diploid” (possessing both parts of the pair). meaning that males of the species have just one chromosome. Mandibles: Mouthparts used for cutting.5 mm (0. wingless queens travel with their workers in migratory groups that periodically split up to form new colonies. soldiers. are only 2.3 in) long. which lived in Europe around 50 million years ago.4 in) long and had a wing-span of 15 cm (5. it averages 3. a queen that is much larger than normal may not have unusually large workers. as well as passing food to the mouth. digging and fighting. Germany. the largest species is Dinoponera gigantea. controlled by powerful muscles in the head. Native to the Amazon rainforest in Brazil Leg Thorax: A muscular midsection to which the six jointed legs connect. Largest average size HQTǡCPǡCPVURGEKGU 7KHUHLVXVXDOO\VLJQLͤFDQW variation in size between the different castes of ants in a colony. They can also be used for communication.9 in). Gaster: Abdominal structure housing vital organs. The most chromosomes recorded in an ant is 94 SDLUV. The large. . Oxygen enters the body through openings called spiracles and is piped directly to tissue.

and its workers have developed the ability to swim underwater for prolonged periods – an adaptation seen in no other species of ant. (CUVGUVUGNHRQYGTGF RTGFCVQT[UVTKMG Odontomachus bauri – aka the trap-jaw ant – of South America can close its mandibles at a speed of up to 64 m/s (209 ft/s). the ant also utilizes them to escape danger. that are routinely inundated by the tide.7KLVͤJXUHZDV recorded from two different species – the dinosaur or dawn ant (Nothomyrmecia macrops) of Australia and Platythyrea tricuspidata. a species found in Indonesia. In addition to using its mandibles to bite prey. striking them against the ground to ͥLQJLWVHOIFP LQ. Its nests are constructed with purposebuilt air pockets for the safe storage of eggs.

The formic acid released from the ants helps to keep parasites away. TRIVIA A number of birds indulge in “anting”. Pictured is a hairy woodpecker (Picoides villosus) in a typical anting posture.4 m (44 ft) straight up. which involves crushing ants and rubbing them all over their plumage.5 in). France.700% 100% . native to Queensland in Australia. /QUVCSWCVKECPV Polyrhachis sokolova. undergoes trepanation – the process of removing bone from the top of the skull.6 cm (1 ft 3. This is the equivalent of a human jumping 13. 5.000 years later provides the oldest evidence of surgery.LQWR the air and horizontally as far as 39. lives in mangrove forests Smallest ant /QUVRCKPHWNKPUGEVUVKPI DATELINE +PGPVQOQNQIKUV. a species of ant native to Sri Lanka. contains YQTMGTUCUVKP[CUǡOO ǡKP  NQPIŤVKOGUUOCNNGTVJCPVJG longest worker ant UGGCDQXG TKIJV 6JGNGPIVJQH%ǡDTWPK KUTQWIJN[ǡVJGUCOGCUVJG VJKEMPGUUQHCDCPMECTF Oldest surgical procedure A 50-year-old man in Ensisheim. the discovery of his body 7.WUVKP15EJOKFV 75# RWDNKUJGFVJG ƒTUVXGTUKQPQHVJG5EJOKFV5VKPI2CKP+PFGZ6JGKPFGZTCPMU VJGDWNNGVCPV Paraponera clavata ŤPCVKXGVQ0KECTCIWCCPF UQWVJYCTFUVJTQWIJ%GPVTCN#OGTKECVQ2CTCIWC[ŤCUVJG KPUGEVYKVJVJGOQUVRCKPHWNUVKPITGIKUVGTKPICOCZKOWO UEQTGQH QP5EJOKFVŨUHQWTRQKPVUECNG 5000 BCE 48 Animals Carebara bruni. Papua New Guinea and the island of New Caledonia.

and it can stay out in the scorching heat until its body temperature reaches 53°C (127°F). *KIJGUVVJGTOQVQNGTCPEG HQTǡCPCPV The Saharan silver ant (Cataglyphis bombycina. Although this hypothesis has been proven wrong. “queen “drone” an ”. with all the ants in the colony being clones of the queen. d “soldier ”.002 species when the last major survey was carried out in 2014. China. typica of lly “worke r”. establishing a colony that stretches 6.CTIGUVEQNQP[QHCPVU The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) was only introduced to Europe DERXW\HDUVDJREXWKDV spread rapidly.com 49 DATELINE (CTVJGUV LWORǡD[CPǡCPV . see fastest ant. Workers the most co  – mmon – se rve a smal population l of fertile fe males (queens) an d fertile m ales (drones). pictured) of Central and South America. It has been speculated that they may be microscopically small. Some entomologists regard it as a living “fossil” on account of its primitive form. which only contains one species.700 mi) from northern Italy to the Atlantic coast of Spain. 1. such as the army ants (Eciton.DID YOU . /QUVFCPIGTQWUCPV Myrmecia pyriformis. which inhabits western and southern Australia.8 km/h Fastest ant 6JG5CJCTCPUKNXGTCPV %ǡDQOD[EKPC ECPTGCEJURGGFU QHǡMOJ ǡORJ 6JKUKUVKOGUKVUDQF[NGPIVJ GXGT[UGEQPF$[EQORCTKUQP7UCKP$QNVVJGYQTNFŨU fastest manūQPN[ŬEQXGTUUKZDQF[NGPIVJURGTUGEQPF 6JKUGZVTCQTFKPCT[VWTPQHURGGFOKPKOK\GUKVUGZRQUWTG VQVJG5WPCPFCNUQEQPVTKDWVGUVQKVUDQF[ŨUEQQNKPID[ EQPXGEVKQP UGGNGHV  First written language Pottery from the neolithic Yangshao culture of Shaanxi Province. right) does not begin foraging until the outside temperature has reached 46°C (115°F). however. the dinosaur or dawn ant (0ǡOCETQRU. This adaptation allows it to avoid less heat-tolerant predators. The smallest ant genus is Nothomyrmecia. w hile soldie rs defend th e nest. These two genera are nomadic. . LONGEST COLUMN OF ANTS Most ant colonies live in fixed nests on a site chosen by the queen. and new species are being discovered all the time. no male specimens of /ǡUOKVJKKhave ever been found. leaving only to mate or forage for food. CURGEKGUQHDWNNCPVHQWPFKPǡEQCUVCN TGIKQPUQH#WUVTCNKCJCURQYGTHWNLCYUCPFCǡUVKPIVJCV FKURGPUGUCXGPQOUGXGTCNVKOGUOQTGRQVGPVVJCPE[CPKFG QTCTUGPKE$WNNFQICPVUJCXGECWUGFCVNGCUVVJTGGǡJWOCP HCVCNKVKGUUKPEG 6JG+PFKCPLWORKPICPV Harpegnathos saltator KU VJGOQUVCEEQORNKUJGFQH CNNLWORKPICPVU#NVJQWIJ QPN[ǡEO ǡKP NQPI VJG+PFKCPLWORKPICPV ECPNGCRǡEO ǡKP  JQTK\QPVCNN[ QXGTƒXGVKOGU KVUQYPDQF[NGPIVJ CPF ǡEO ǡKP XGTVKECNN[ +VǡCEJKGXGUVJKUXKCǡVJG U[PEJTQPQWUCEVKXCVKQPQH OWUENGUKPKVUOKFFNGCPF DCEMRCKTUQHNGIU Rarest male ants It was initially thought that Mycocepurus smithii was one of the ant species that reproduced asexually. 4000 BCE guinnessworldrecords. or that they only live for a very short period. A colony on the move forms into a column that can be as much as 1 m (3 ft 3 in) wide and 100 m (328 ft) long. KNOW? Ant colon ies contain several different types – or “castes” – ant. see opposite page). There are some exceptions. is inscribed with characters thought to represent numerals. and the driver ants (Dorylus) of Africa.QPIGUVYQTMGTCPV 6JGGNQPICVGFDQFKGUQH#WUVTCNKCPIKCPVDWNNFQICPVU Myrmecia brevinoda CURGEKGUQH#WUVTCNKCPDWNNCPV OGCUWTGCUOWEJCUǡEO ǡKP NQPI$WNNCPVU NCEMCFXCPEGFUQEKCNUVTWEVWTGUUQGCEJYQTMGTJCU GXQNXGFVQDGUVTQPIGPQWIJVQHQTCIGCNQPG Largest ant genus The genus Pheidole held 1. Army ant workers break up the column to form themselves into a living nest for their queen every night. with entire colonies leaving their nests in search of new foraging grounds.000 km (3.

OCTOPUSES First octopus Dating back some 296 million years. or even adapting their behaviour. Whereas most octopus species reproduce once.6-m (1-ft 11-in) mantle. sea anemones. First timekeeping device The time stick – a primitive type of sundial – is developed by the ancient Mesopotamians. it possesses all the features associated with modern octopuses. Also going against normal octorelations. two eyes and what may be an ink sac. Most have eight. This unusually gregarious cephalopod is also the most fecund octopus. laying and hatching multiple egg broods continuously. but no octopus TRIVIA As part of a 2008 study into animal dexterity. there are three holders of the title of smallest octopus family. the other two are reserved for locomotion. containing all its major organs. like a crab’s exoskeleton. That’s more than a third of all octopuses. females of this species can mate and gestate many times throughout their lives. the XQFODVVLͤHGODUJHU3DFLͤF striped octopus. a den with a partner for several days while mating. Largest octopus genus There are more than 100 species within the rather uninspiringly named Octopus genus (opinions vary among biologists about the exact number). Funnel: Water can be pumped through the siphon as a means of propulsion. USA. Arm: Despite often being called “tentacles”. this “body” section measured 0. Longest brooding period All female octopuses are known for being very protective when it comes to their eggs. It is used to both latch on to and crush prey. On one specimen. It tells the time by casting a shadow that changes length and position as the Sun “moves” overhead. the octopus’s equivalent of our abdomen. it has been said to resemble a “globular splat”. ANATOMY OF AN OCTOPUS Eye Mantle: What looks like the head is. found off Nicaragua. however. none has mastered the art of impersonation better than the mimic octopus (Thaumoctopus mimicus. octopuses were given jam jars and Rubik’s Cubes to see if they favoured a certain arm. At the other end of the scale. beating even that of the largest octopus (opposite) with an average 0. but there are exceptions (see most arms on an octopus and first hexapus). ETCDUCPFǡLGNN[ƒUJ 3500 BCE 50 Animals Skin: Pigment-containing cells called chromatophores just under the skin enable the octopus to change colour to reflect its mood or to blend into its surroundings. including HNCVƒUJ DQVVQOTKIJV  UGCǡUPCMGU VQRTKIJV  brittle stars. an octopus’s appendages are really arms/legs. a fossilized octopod dubbed Pohlsepia mazonensis was unearthed in Illinois. can form groups of 30 to 40 individuals. Greatest octopus mimic DATELINE Several species of octopus have been observed in the wild mimicking other animals by changing their colour and body shape. they often share Beak: The mouth is located below the mantle where all the arms meet. Results showed that octopuses use six of their eight limbs equally to manipulate objects. the beak is the only hard part of this creature’s body. Made of chitin. with eight distinct arms. left). in fact.69 m (2 ft 3 in) long. However. Suckers The seven-arm octopus also holds an exclusive record for largest mantle. Most sociable octopus While most octopuses lead quite solitary lives. the sevenarm octopus (Haliphron atlanticus) and the football octopus (Ocythoe tuberculata) – named for the shape of its mantle – are all the sole members of their respective families. The see-through glass octopus (Vitreledonella richardi). . native to the +PFQ2CEKƒECPFVJG4GF5GC Studies reveal that this shape-shifter can imitate at least 16 other marine creatures. Formally described in 2000.

but they are widely accepted to be genetic mutants rather than a distinct species. the plural is octopuses or octopodes • Octopus wrestling was a popular sport in the USA in the 1960s • Octopuses have three hearts Most arms on an octopus As the name suggests.FAST FACTS Octopi is not correct. The ̨UVWKH[DSXV documented was a lesser octopus (Eledone cirrhosa). A month later she was gone. UK. the majority of octopuses have eight limbs. In terms of individual specimens. previously. humans had rolled along heavy objects on logs. One far-fromordinary common octopus (Octopus vulgaris). Other six-legged octopuses have been spotted. c. the largest on record boasted an arm-span of 31 ft 5 in (9.600 ft) guarding eggs laid just a few weeks earlier. In May 2007. It’s now preserved for posterity at the Marineland aquarium in Shima. and the 160 or so egg cases had all hatched. is one of very HGYǡQEVQRWUGUVQFKURNC[VJGVTCKV#FCRVGFUWEMGTUQPVJGCTms have been observed glowing blue-green. but the blue-ringed octopuses (Hapalochlaena). but will occasionally take on bigger meals such as sharks (below). which continued to Sep 2011 – a staggering 53 months (nearly four-and-a-half years). YJGTGKVKUCDNGǡVQ withstand pressures QHǡCVOQURJGTGUŤ that’s the equivalent QHǡMI ǡND  weighing down on a ƒPIGTPCKN#NVJQWIJ typically measuring ŤǡEO ŤǡKP  KPNGPIVJQPGLWODQ FWODQYCUǡO ǡHVǡǡKP Б Most venomous mollusc A 2009 study found that all octopuses are venomous to some degree. .com 51 DATELINE – nor any other animal. but there are exceptions. found off Australia and south-east Asia. caught in 2008 near Wales. It was christened Henry after King Henry VIII. boasted 96 arms.6 m) – longer than an anaconda – and weighed in at 600 lb (272 kg). pack enough neurotoxin to paralyse or kill 10 adult humans! There are also accounts of octopuses with fewer arms. aka the glowing sucker octopus (above). The giant Pacific octopus has a diet of crustaceans and small fish. who is famed for having six wives. found off Japan. Most bioluminescent octopus Deepest octopus While many squid species have evolved to emit light to attract prey and mates in the gloomy QEGCPǡFGRVJUStauroteuthis syrtensis. for that matter – can lay claim to being more committed to brooding than the deepsea species Graneledone DQTGQRCEKƒEC. First use of the wheel The ancient Mesopotamians begin using wheeled carts as a means of transport.400 m (4. one mother was sighted on a rocky wall at a depth of 1. primarily at 470 nanometres – a wavelength that travels well through water.3500 BCE guinnessworldrecords. however. LARGEST OCTOPUS The giant Pacific octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini) has an average arm-span of 16 ft (5 m). Japan. 6XEVHTXHQWYLVLWVFRQͤUPHG her ongoing vigil. The dumbo octopus (Grimpoteuthis) has been sighted at ǡO ǡHV  below the surface.

000 years ago.07 m (3 ft 3 in–3 ft 6 in). which once inhabited North America but became extinct c. USA. Some 25% larger than the largest modern-day African lions. Highest bite force KPCǡDKIECVKP proportion to size The bite of a jaguar (Panthera onca) is proportionately stronger than that of any other big cat. stands 4 ft 1 in (1. stood 1. Other hybrid cr within th osses e feline fa mily incl a “jagule ude p” (a ma le jagua leopard ress mix) a n d a lijagulep (a mix b etween a male lion and female jagulep). all of which are now extinct.2 m (3 ft 11 in) at the shoulder and weighed up to 350 kg (773 lb).100 lb). When his well-preserved body is discovered in 1991 – in the Alps between Austria and Italy – it is found to be covered with 61 tattoos. was Smilodon populator.WZDVͤQDOO\GLVSDWFKHG by renowned Anglo-Indian hunter Jim Corbett in 1910. . The largest species of sabre-toothed cat or machairodont. while the biggest males may have exceeded 500 kg (1. northern India.6–2. FIRST WHITE LIGERS In Dec 2013. A 100-kg (220-lb) jaguar can bite with a force of 503.100 lb 3 oz) at the canine teeth. Hercules (inset).25 m) at the shoulder and weighs 922 lb (418. at Myrtle Beach Safari in South Carolina. he is 10 ft 11 in (3.556 lb) at the carnassial notch on its fourth upper premolar and ͤUVWORZHUPRODUWHHWK /QUVRTQNKƒE man-killing leopard The “Leopard of Panar” was deemed responsible for Smallest leopard 6JGCFWNVOCNG#TCDKCP leopard (Panthera pardus nimr YGKIJUCRRTQZKOCVGN[ ǡMI ND CPFVJGHGOCNG MI ǡND ŤHCTNKIJVGT VJCPCP[QHKVUQVJGTGKIJV UWDURGEKGU6JKUETKVKECNN[ GPFCPIGTGFECVJCUQPN[ TGEGPVN[DGGPTGEQIPK\GF killing more than 400 people during the early 20th century in Kumaon. Myrtle Beach is also home to the largest living cat. or Amur.7–3. It stood 1. . Highest-living predators on land Hidden cameras have photographed the rare and seldomseen snow leopard (Panthera uncia.BIG CATS The largest-ever lion subspecies was the American lion (Panthera leo atrox).3 m (8 ft 10 in–10 ft 10 in) from nose tip to tail tip. and may weigh up to 306 kg (674 lb). it had a head-andbody length of 1.56 m (5 ft 1 in) at the shoulder. DID YO DATELINE U KN A “liger” is a cross OW? male lio between n and a a tigress. and ma A lioness le tiger cross re a “tigon sults in ”.57 kg (1. tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) normally have a length of 2.5 m (5 ft 3 in–8 ft 2 in). The father was a white African lion. 3300 BCE 52 Animals Oldest tattoos “Ötzi the Iceman” dies from an arrow wound during the Bronze Age. which lived in South America from around 1 million to 10. An adult male liger.2 kg).000 years ago. and 705.79 kg (1.33 m) long. a shoulder height of 1–1. 11. pictured) at altitudes of HVǡ ǡO &WTKPIVJGGCTN[UCRWOC Puma concolor) was observed at the same altitude in VJGǡ5QWVJ#OGTKECP#PFGUOQWPVCKPU Largest wild cat Male Siberian. a white Bengal tigress called Saraswati (pictured) gave birth to the first confirmed white ligers.

is struck by lightning and catches fire. Australia. but the lion (P. Most social big cat Most big cats are solitary creatures. Lowest-frequency big-cat roar The roar of the lion (Panthera leo PCVKXGVQ#HTKECCPF #UKCJCUCNQYGTHTGSWGPE[VJCPVJCVQHCP[QVJGTDKI ECV#NKQPŨUTQCTKUFGNKXGTGFKPDQWVUNCUVKPIWRVQǡUGE CPFEQPUKUVKPIQHWRVQECNNUYKVJCHWPFCOGPVCN HTGSWGPE[QHŤǡ*\(TQOǡO ǡHVǡKP CYC[ KVǡYQWNFTGEQTFǡF$QPCUQWPFNGXGNOGVGT The least dangerous big cat to humans is the snow leopard (2ǡWPEKC). instead. She resembled a slim. To GDWHRQO\WZRFRQͤUPHG attacks have been recorded. USA. (KTUVEQPƒTOGFUKIJVKPI of a white lion Long familiar in traditional South African folklore. 3000 BCE guinnessworldrecords. matings between pumas (Puma concolor) and leopards (Panthera pardus) in captivity at German animal collector Carl Hagenbeck’s private zoo. known as the n membra ictitatin ne. the ZKLWHOLRQZDVͤUVWVLJKWHG in 1938. long-limbed lioness but was dappled with large brown rosettes. A the top a sw nd botto m lids. leo) is famously social.000 years later. resulted in the birth and survival into adulthood of several puma-leopard hybrids.FAST FACTS Snow leopards can cover seven times their body length in one leap • No two tigers have the same pattern of stripes • The roar of a lion can be heard 5 mi (8 km) away • Cheetahs don’t roar. the Tierpark in Hamburg. they purr First hybrid of big CPFǡUOCNNǡECVU Near the end of the 19th century. DID Y OU KNO Cats hav W? e three e yelids. living in groups of individuals known as prides. Her mother had been a jagupard (a hybrid of a male jaguar and leopardess) born at Chicago Zoo in Illinois. It ori g ginates corner o at the f the eye n e ar the nose an d moves across th eye from e side to si de. Most prides consist RIͤYHWRVL[OLRQHVVHV their cubs and one or two lions. some 5. It is still burning. First three-species big cat hybrid in captivity The UK’s London Zoo displayed a female “lijagupard” in 1908. but there is evidence of prides with as many as 30 individuals. and her father a lion.com 53 DATELINE Oldest living leopard in captivity +VOC[DGVJGHQWTVJNCTIGUVECVURGEKGUŤQPN[ VJGNKQPVKIGTCPFLCIWCTCTGDKIIGTŤDWV VJGRWOCKUIGPGTCNN[PQVENCUUKƒGFCUCūDKI ECVŬ5RGEKOGPUV[RKECNN[ITQYVQǡO ǡHV  KPNGPIVJYJKNGCPCFWNVOCNGOC[YGKIJǡMI ǡNDǡQ\ 6JGRWOCKUCNUQVJGmammal with the most common names+VURNWUVKVNGUKPENWFGEQWICT OQWPVCKPNKQPECVCOQWPVCPFRCKPVGT . when one specimen was seen by Joyce Little in Timbavati (now a private game reserve) on the western edge of South Africa’s Kruger National Park. Largest “small” cat #DNCEMNGQRCTF Panthera pardus PCOGF+XQT[Dǡ5GR YCUCIGFǡ[GCTUFC[UCUQH0QX *GǡKUǡQYPGFD[&QPPC/CTVKPCPF9QTMKPI9KNFNKHG DQVJǡ75# CPFNKXGUKP(TC\KGT2CTM%CNKHQTPKC75# Longest-burning fire A coal seam in New South Wales. In a healthy cat. it is tucked away at the side of the ey e. th ell as third lid ere is a .

an American alligator (#NNKICVQTǡOKUUKUUKRRKGPUKU).17-m (20-ft 3-in) saltwater crocodile captured in Bunawan. weighed 8 tonnes ǡND CPFYCUŤǡO ŤǡHV NQPI4GCEJKPI VJKUǡKOOGPUGUK\GTGSWKTGFOQTGVJCP[GCTUQHITQYVJ 78 years 219 days he has lived there to 18 Apr 2016 are enough to secure him this record. . suchus) of West Africa looks almost identical to the Nile 5OCNNGUVETQEQFKNKCPHCOKN[ 6JGHCOKN[)CXKCNKFCGEQPVCKPUQPN[VYQURGEKGU the gharial (Gavialis gangeticusDGNQY CPFVJGHCNUG gharial (Tomistoma schlegelii 6JGHQTOGTKUPCVKXG VQǡ$CPINCFGUJ+PFKCCPF2CMKUVCPYJKNGVJGNCVVGTNKXGU KPUQWVJGCUV#UKC7PVKNTGEGPVN[VJGHCNUGIJCTKCNYCU VJQWIJVVQDGCV[RGQHETQEQFKNGJGPEGVJGPCOG First autograph A Sumerian scribe named “Adu” uses a reed to etch his cuneiform signature into a clay tablet in what is now Tell Abu Salãbikh. Rarest crocodilian According to a 2002 study. are laid by the Chinese alligator (#UKPGPUKU). Chinese 0GYGUVETQEQFKNGURGEKGU The desert or sacred crocodile (C.76 in). the true crocodiles. on 3 Sep 2011. The smallest crocodilian eggs. That’s about the same diameter as a baseball. by contrast.3 in) wide – smaller than a hen’s egg. and died on 10 Feb 2013. Hakuna lived there for a total of 85 years until his death on 19 Feb 2015. While Matata died in 2014. the largest ever was a 6. It is not known how old he was on arrival (fully grown) at Belgrade Zoo. Philippines.94 x 2. This crocodile was named Lolong and housed at Bunawan Eco-Park. contains Most human fatalities in a crocodile attack? DATELINE +PJKUDQQMWildlife Sketches Near and FarVJG%CPCFKCPPCVWTCNKUV$TWEG5VCPNG[9TKIJV TGEQWPVGFCFGCFN[UCNVYCVGTETQEQFKNGGPEQWPVGTQP4COTGG+UNCPFKP$WTOCFWTKPI9QTNF9CTǡ++ 1Pǡ(GDCUVJGUVQT[IQGU#NNKGFVTQQRU DGNQY HQTEGF. Iraq.23 cm (2 in) long and 3. He and his mate. there are fewer than 200 Chinese alligators living in the wild.CROCODILES Largest crocodile KPǡECRVKXKV[ This saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus Ť known to his keepers as %CUUKWUŤYCUECRVWTGF KPCHVGTIQKPIQPC DQCVUOCUJKPIURTGGPGCT &CTYKP#WUVTCNKC%CUUKWU YCUHQWPFVQDGCP KORTGUUKXGǡHV ǡO  NQPIYJGPOGCUWTGF KPCVJKUJQOGKP Marineland Melanesia YKNFNKHG\QQQP)TGGP +UNCPF3WGGPUNCPF Largest crocodile KPǡECRVKXKV[ GXGT Although Cassius (above) is the largest crocodile in captivity today. a monster crocodile that walked the Earth some 110 million years ago. were acquired in 1929 – a gift from singer and dancer Josephine Baker. Lolong did not adapt well to life in captivity. an African slender-snouted crocodile (/GEKUVQRUECVCRJTCEVWU) at Blijdorp Zoo in Rotterdam.CRCPGUGRTKUQPGTUQHYCTVQ ETQUUǡOK ǡMO QHOCPITQXGUYCORUYJGTGVJG[HGNNRTG[VQC. but genetic analysis carried out in 2011 proved that it is only distantly related. Netherlands. Native to the lower Yangtze River in China. Largest crocodile genus The genus %TQEQF[NWU. however.27 cm (1. this species has struggled with habitat destruction and hunting by local farmers. The oldest crocodilian in captivity (living) is Muja. porosus#HVGTCPKIJVQHHTGP\KGF HGGFKPID[VJGETQEQFKNGUQPN[OGPGOGTIGFCNKXG0GYTGUGCTEJD[VJG0CVKQPCN)GQITCRJKE %JCPPGNJQYGXGTJCUECUVFQWDVQPVJGUVQT[QTCVNGCUVQPVJGGZVGPVQHVJGFGCVJU 2600 BCE 12 individual species and is represented on every continent other than Europe and Antarctica. Largest crocodilian eggs The false gharial (see below) lays eggs that are around 10 x 7 cm (3. but the Largest crocodile ever Sarcosuchus imperator. Muja survived the aerial bombing of the zoo during World War II. The oldest crocodilian in captivity (ever) was Hakuna. These are as little as 5. Matata. crocodile (%ǡPKNQVKEWU). Unsurprisingly.

The most extreme example of this is the Cuban crocodile (%ǡTJQODKHGT). others have adapted to life in a very restricted habitat. The crocodile was subsequently hacked to death with a machete. the loudest crocodilian. People have claimed to have seen 10-m (32-ft 10-in) individuals in the wild.9 in).5-in) structure. and when it broke loose the panicked passengers caused a stampede that unbalanced the aircraft. but no conclusive evidence of such giants exists. an area of 4. such as the doomed boar.com 55 DATELINE Adult male estuarine or saltwater crocodiles (such as Brutus. .681 sq mi).216 N (2. they found a lone survivor who explained that the crash had been caused by a crocodile. inset left. later classified as one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.205 lb). which lives only in Cuba’s Zapata Swamp. The salt crocodil water e is missi n g o ne front leg follo wing a sh ark attack. a small passenger plane crashed DID YO The 5. with an average length of 20 cm (7.5 m (4 ft 11 in) for males.521 lbf) – equivalent to being crushed under the weight of a mid-sized car. a’s where h lured in e can be to view b y an offeri of buffa ng lo meat. (KTUVRNCPGETCUJ ECWUGFǡD[ǡCETQEQFKNG On 25 Aug 2010. as adults. the smallest alligators – with an average length of just 1. It will take 20 years to complete the 146. When emergency services reached the crash site. A passenger had smuggled one on board in a sports bag. can be subjected to a bite force of 11. and are.FAST FACTS The roar of an American alligator. but their jaws can be kept shut with a regular rubber band: the muscles that open the mouth are much weaker than those that clamp it shut.5-m U KNOW? (18-ft) B become rutus ha someth s ing of a with tou celebrity rists on Australi Adelaid e River. LARGEST CROCODILIAN Tallest pyramid Construction begins on the iconic Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt. right) can grow to at least 7 m (23 ft) long and often weigh more than 1 tonne (2. 2560 BCE guinnessworldrecords. Most restricted distribution for a crocodile While some crocodiles are spread over vast areas (the saltwater crocodile ranges from southern India to on approach to Bandundu Airport in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The saltwater species also holds the record for strongest bite force for a crocodile.7-m-tall (481-ft 3.354 km2 (1. Any animal (or person!) unlucky enough to get caught. alligators also produce the smallest crocodilian hatchlings. western Australia). can reach 92 dB • The word “crocodile” comes from the Greek for “pebble worm” • Crocodiles can swim faster than they can run Fastest crocodile 6JGHTGUJYCVGTETQEQFKNG Crocodylus johnstoni QHPQTVJGTP #WUVTCNKCECPTWPCVURGGFUQHǡMOJ ǡORJ 5ECT[CU VJKUUQWPFUVJGūHTGUJKGŬ CUKVKUEQOOQPN[MPQYP IGPGTCNN[ WUGUKVUURGGFVQTWPCYC[HTQORGQRNGPQVVQYCTFUVJGO TRIVIA Crocodiles have a powerful biting force (see below).

a single northern hawk owl (Surnia ulula) in Finland has been recorded as laying a clutch of 13 eggs. Indigestible parts. or tear larger animals to pieces before eating. however.000 years ago. ? KNOWed DID YOhiU liz ghly specia Owls have w them rs that allo flight feathe without ey pr on their ve to descend ntists belie ie Sc d. This also potentially makes his the longest ever reign of any monarch. Most northerly owl DATELINE The snowy owl is native to the Arctic regions of Eurasia and North America. however. are stored in the gizzard for up to 10 hours and regurgitated in pellet form (below). and they must expel it before consuming fresh prey.2281 BCE 56 Animals TRIVIA Owls have 14 neck vertebrae (humans have seven) and their spinal cord and blood vessels run via wide channels in the spine. Largest owl clutch In general. Of those species whose populations have been VFLHQWLͤFDOO\HVWLPDWHG the most abundant owl is the little owl (Athene noctua). in the bitter-cold FCTMPGUUQHǡOKFYKPVGT c. so they can track prey without moving their bodies. and probably weighing well in excess of 9 kg (19 lb 13 oz). at 82°N. bones and feathers. which are the largest owls of any kind alive (see right). is found worldwide. northern Africa and Asia eastwards to the Korean peninsula. when a specimen was photographed (but not collected) in the wild by a visiting expedition. Native to much of temperate Europe. un making a so s of these et cr se e th ing that unlock e way for uld pave th t feathers co and almos ft ter aircra . It is native to. Its fossils have been found in deposits at Reims in northeastern France. They swallow small prey whole. such as teeth. Standing 1. the Indonesian island of Seram.1 m (3 ft 7 in) tall.000 individuals worldwide. their heads can turn 270°. much quie es in turb silent wind Earliest known owl species Berruornis orbisantiqui dates back to the mid/late Palaeocene epoch. raising this total to as many as 51. . aka Pepi II or Neferkare. with 46 distinct species recognized. It heads north in search of food and is one of very few birds to spend much of the year in the high Arctic zone. owls cannot chew their food.000–15. As a result. Largest owl genus The genus Otus.000. However. The pellet partly blocks the owls’ digestive system. the snowy owl (Nyctea scandiaca. This ancestor was about the same size as today’s largest eagle owls.OWLS Largest owl ever The Cuban giant owl Ornimegalonyx is known from fossils of four closely related species native to Cuba and dating from approximately 10. containing most of the scops owls. Some authorities consider a few subspecies to be separate species in their own right.000. and named after. it is thought to number some 5. Longest reigning pharaoh Phiops II. pictured below) lays the largest clutch. Ornimegalonyx is believed WRKDYHEHHQͥLJKWOHVV RUDOPRVWͥLJKWOHVV Newest species of owl The Seram masked owl (Tyto almae) was formally described and named KP+VYCUƒTUV made known to science back in 1987. some 60–57 million years ago. Snowy owls have even been recorded on Canada’s Ellesmere Island. becomes ruler of Egypt at the age of six and will remain in power for allegedly 94 years. The owl species with the greatest distribution range is the common barn TRIVIA Like other birds. with many 11-egg clutches known.

300. It has a near-global distribution. estimated by the International Union for Conservation of Nature to cover 63. It is generally split into at least 27 subspecies. It also has the greatest wing-span for an owl: at more than 1. YGKIJKPICTQWPFǡI ǡQ\ CPF YKVJCVQVCNNGPIVJQHǡEO KP  . it will continue to flourish into the 21st century. seabirds and even other owls.000 sq mi). 100% Smallest owl Oldest cypress tree A specimen of Cupressus sempervirens takes root in the city of Abarkuh in Iran. later named Sarv-e-Abarkuh. ducks. Smallest owl family There are two taxonomic families of owl alive today (plus several prehistoric ones): Strigidae and Tytonidae. 2000 BCE guinnessworldrecords.com 57 DATELINE The elf owl (Micrathene whitneyi.6–4 kg (3 lb 8 oz– 8 lb 13 oz). This bird also has the most subspecies for an owl. The smallest is Tytonidae – the barn owls and bay owls – with 19 species. including crows. or in cavities in trees.FAST FACTS Owls’ eyes are tube-shaped and cannot move • A group of owls is called a “parliament” • A barn owl can eat 1.000 km2 (24. 100% owl (Tyto alba).440. a woodpecker and GNHQYNOC[GXGPPGUVǡKPVJGUCOGDWUJ 1PN[ǡOCTIKPCNN[NCTIGTKUVJGNGCUV pygmy owl (Glaucidium minutissimum).5 m (4 ft 11 in). The major part of their diet consists of mammals (such as rats. but birds of all kinds are also taken. this is about the same as the arm-span of a 14-year-old child. Eagle owls will eat almost anything that moves. female owls are bigger than males and often have brighter plumage LARGEST OWL The European race of the eagle owl (Bubo bubo) has an average body length of 66–71 cm (2 ft 2 in–2 ft 4 in) and a weight of 1. Sometimes. from beetles to roe deer fawns. and is absent only from Antarctica. foxes and hares). grouse. right) of south-western USA and Mexico averages ŤǡEO ŤǡKP NQPICPFYGKIJUNGUU VJCPǡI ǡQ\ +VV[RKECNN[PGUVUKPC hole made by another bird.000 mice per year • Unusually for birds. mice.

the heaviest is Azara’s night monkey (Aotus azarae). South America’s night monkeys. DATELINE Smallest 1NFǡ9QTNFǡOQPMG[ At the opposite end of the scale from the mandrill (left) are two closely related species of talapoin: the Angolan or southern talapoin (Miopithecus talapoin) and the Gabon or northern talapoin (/ǡQIQWGPUKU). These talapoins have a total length of no more than 45 cm (1 ft 5 in). are the world’s only nocturnal monkeys. This makes the chacma baboon the most droughtresistant monkey. Encroaching human activity and drought have drastically reduced the gelada population over . juveniles pictured). Despite their size – typically 136 mm (5. which weighs about 1. and dominance power.20 oz) – about the same as a mid-sized orange. Despite its fearsome appearance and huge canine teeth. An isolated troop has even been discovered living in the Namib Desert.CTIGUVOQPMG[ SMALLEST MONKEY The male mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx) of equatorial West Africa JCUCJGCFCPFDQF[NGPIVJQHŤǡEO ǡHVŤǡHVǡKP /CNGU CXGTCIGǡMI ǡND DWVECPYGKIJMI ǡND 6JGOCPFTKNNŨU FKUVKPEVKXGDNWGTWORTGFHCEGCPF[GNNQYDGCTFOCMGǡKVQPGQH VJGOQUVEQNQWTHWNOCOOCNU The largest New World monkeyOGCPYJKNGKUVJGJKIJN[ GPFCPIGTGFYQQNN[URKFGTOQPMG[ Brachyteles arachnoides) ťCMCOWTKSWKťQH$TC\KNYKVJCJGCFCPFDQF[NGPIVJQH ŤǡEO ǡHVǡKPŤǡHV CPFYGKIJKPIWRVQǡMI ǡND  Adult pygmy marmosets (Cebuella pygmaea. found in the upper Amazon. this species is exclusively vegetarian. Of the 11 species currently recognized. and are excellent swimmers. ured lo striking co co ly ht key’s brig of the mon is linked ndquarters face and hi osterone st te of nt to the amou g its lin al gn si produced.3 in) long excluding tail. where there is no surface water for eight months every year. or douroucoulis. and weigh c.MONKEYS NOW? d DID YOeUinK “hordes”. Ethiopia. where plant life is abundant enough to support herds of up to 700 individuals. 54 kg Largest baboon Adult male chacma baboons (Papio ursinus) can grow to a length of 115 cm (3 ft 9 in) – not including a tail of up to 84 cm (2 ft 9 in) – and can weigh as much as 40 kg (88 lb). these baboons are found all over southern Africa. which is usually longer than the body – pygmy marmosets can leap 5 m (16 ft 5 in) into the air! 1900 BCE 58 Animals First alphabet Egyptian masons carve an inscription into a limestone block using the earliest known form of phonetic writing system. They typically live in swamps and mangrove forests. an Mandrills liv e in the minant mal the most do the most ve ha lly typica ity horde will The intens louration. /QUVJGTDKXQTQWUOQPMG[ The gelada (Theropithecus IGNCFC) is a large. Although native to South Africa. The gelada’s diet is an adaptation to its habitat in the verdant highlands of northern Ethiopia. with males being slightly heavier than females.25 kg (2 lb 12 oz). with grass making up 90% of its diet (the rest is seeds and roots). 800 g (1 lb 12 oz). baboonlike monkey native to . Noisiest land animal 6JGHGCTUQOGUETGCOUQHVJGJQYNGTOQPMG[ IGPWU Alouatta) of Central and South America have been described CUCETQUUDGVYGGPVJGDCTMQHCFQICPFVJGDTC[QHC FQPMG[KPETGCUGFCVJQWUCPFHQNFБ6JGOCNGUJCXGCP GPNCTIGFDQP[UVTWEVWTGCVVJGVQRQHVJGYKPFRKRGVJCV GPCDNGUVJGUQWPFVQTGXGTDGTCVG1PEGKPHWNNXQKEGVJG[ ECPDGJGCTFENGCTN[WRVQǡOK ǡMO CYC[ *GCXKGUVPKIJVOQPMG[ As their name suggests. grow to an average weight of 119 g (4. Namibia.

FAST FACTS
The word “monkey” is thought to derive from “mannikin”, the Dutch for “little
man” • A group of monkeys is a “troop” • The first mammal in space was a
monkey called Albert II in 1949 • 2016 was the Chinese Year of the Monkey

KNOW YOUR PRIMATES
What’s the difference between apes, monkeys and prosimians?

Fastest primate
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TRIVIA
Spider monkeys (Ateles)
use their muscular,
tactile, prehensile
(“grasping”) tail as a
fifth hand. Pictured
here is one such monkey
extending its reach by
grasping on to a branch
with its tail.

the last few decades, but
it is still thought to be the
most abundant monkey,
with a population of around
200,000 individuals.
/QUVPQTVJGTN[DCDQQP
The sacred or hamadryas
baboon (2CRKQJCOCFT[CU)
is native to the Horn of
Africa and the most southwesterly portion of the
Arabian Peninsula. The
most southerly baboon,
and also the most southerly
non-human primate, is the
chacma baboon (P. ursinus,
see opposite page), which

MONKEY

PROSIMIAN

Apes are tailless, and
typically larger – and
more intelligent – than
other primates. This
superfamily comprises
the “great apes” (bonobos,
chimpanzees, gorillas
and orang-utans) and
“lesser apes” (gibbons).

Monkeys usually have
tails, and many of the
approximately 260 known
species are arboreal (live in
trees). Monkeys are divided
into two main groups:
“Old World” (Africa and
Asia) and “New World”
(Americas).

Prosimians are a group of
more primitive primates
that includes lemurs,
lorises, bushbabies,
pottos and tarsiers. They
are mostly nocturnal
and arboreal, hunting
for insects and small
mammals in the trees.

has a range that extends
as far south as the Cape of
Good Hope in South Africa.
/QUVUQWVJGTN[OCTOQUGV
Marmosets are a group of
New World monkeys that,
along with tamarins, make
up the family Callitrichidae.
Almost all marmosets and
tamarins live in the Amazon
rainforest. The notable
exception is the blacktailed marmoset (Mico
melanurus), which has a
range that extends from
the south-central Amazon
in Brazil to the edges of the

Chaco plains in Paraguay.
It is thought that the blacktailed marmoset’s range is
a result of deforestation in
the Amazon, which forced
it to adapt to new habitats.
0GYGUVOQPMG[
The most recent species
of monkey to have been
VFLHQWLͤFDOO\UHFRJQL]HGLV
the white-cheeked macaque
(/CECECNGWEQIGP[U).
Native to the tropical
forests of southeastern Tibet, it was
RͦFLDOO\GHVFULEHG
in Mar 2015 and
is distinguished
from other local
macaques
by the white
whiskers on
its cheeks, the
shape of the
male’s genitals
and a ruff of fur
around its neck.

/QUVPQTVJGTN[RTKOCVG

Longest nose on a primate

Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) live near Nagano
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o( 
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Nasalis larvatus), found only on the
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Oldest love song
A love song is etched into a stone tablet in the ancient city of Ugarit (modern-day Ras Shamra in
Syria); lost until the 1950s, its first performance to modern audiences comes on 6 Mar 1974.

1800 BCE
guinnessworldrecords.com 59

DATELINE

55 km/h

APE

SPIDERS
Earliest fossil spiders
Found in coal deposits in
North America and Europe,
the remains of the suborder
of primitive spiders known
as Mesothelae date from
the Carboniferous period,
359–299 million years
ago. They probably used
their silk for covering their
eggs or as a groundsheet,
since web-weaving is
considered to have evolved
much later.
Mesothelae, of which
there is only one living
family, also possess the
most spinnerets for a
spider: four pairs. Originally
evolving from limbs, these
organs produce the silk that
spiders use for creating
webs and linings.

Largest spider eyes
The ogre-faced (aka gladiator or net-casting) spider, of the genus
DeinopisJCUDWNIKPIG[GUOGCUWTKPIWRVQǡOO 
ǡKP 
across. The eyes do not produce very good images but are
excellent at gathering light for night vision – helpful, as this sticklike, tropical arachnid is a nocturnal ambush hunter. It catches
prey in a net-like web that it holds
suspended from its four front
legs; any prey touching
the trap is instantly
enveloped.

NOW?
el
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DATELINE

When golia
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, they mak
threatened
ther the
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to
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not typically
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1500 BCE
60 Animals

Largest fossil spider
A preserved female
specimen of Mongolarachne
jurassica has a body
DSSUR[LPDWHO\PP
(1 in) long, with front legs
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long. It lived in what is
now northern China some 
PLOOLRQ\HDUV
ago, during the
Mid-Jurassic era.

Most venomous spider
The venom of the Sydney funnel-web (Atrax robustus), which
lives in and around the city of Sydney, Australia, is fatal to
JWOCPUCVCEQPEGPVTCVKQPQHLWUVOIRGTMIQHDQF[
weight. The spider owes its lethal poison to a quirk of evolution:
although it preys on insects, its venom acts in a way that is
especially deadly to humans. At least 14 people have died as
CǡTGUWNVQH5[FPG[HWPPGNYGDDKVGUUQOGKPCUNKVVNGCUOKP
Earliest orb-weaver spider
Modern orb-weaver or
orb-web spiders spin large,
strong, complex webs. The
earliest known species,
Cretaraneus vilaltae, was
described in 1990 from an
exoskeleton discovered in
Spain. It lived 140 million
years ago in the Early
Cretaceous period.
The oldest cobweb also
dates from the Cretaceous
period. In 2009, brothers

and amateur fossil hunters
Jamie and Jonathan
Hiscocks found a web
preserved in amber on a
beach in East Sussex, UK.
First herbivorous spider
Bagheera kiplingi was
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from a male specimen.
It took another 110 years
WRLGHQWLI\WKHͤUVWIHPDOH
specimen because of the
species’ extreme sexual

LARGEST SPIDER
First discovered in 1804, this heavyweight ambush
hunter is native to the coastal rainforests of
Suriname, Guyana and French Guiana. The
record leg-span for a male goliath bird-eating
spider (Theraphosa blondi ) is 28 cm
(11 in). The specimen was collected by
members of the Pablo San Martin
Expedition at Rio Cavro, Venezuela,
in Apr 1965, and was large enough
to cover a dinner plate.
A two-year-old spider of
the same species, bred by
Robert Bustard and
reared by Brian Burnett
of Alyth in Perthshire,
UK, also had a
leg-span of 28 cm
in Feb 1998.

100%

First all-weather clock
A timekeeping device called a clepsydra is first used in Ancient Egypt. It works by allowing water to drain from a
container at a steady rate. It is not accurate by modern standards, but unlike a sundial it works on overcast days.

FAST FACTS
If attacked, tarantulas flick small barbed hairs, which can cause temporary
blindness in humans • Antarctica is the only continent with no spiders
• Gram for gram, spider silk is around five times stronger than steel

TRIVIA
The goliath bird-eating
spider has no need of a
web. Instead, it sneaks
up and pounces on prey
– such as birds, frogs or
mice – injecting venom
via fangs that can
exceed 2.5 cm (1 in) long.

Most widespread widow spider
In the genus Latrodectus, the brown widow (L. geometricus),
believed to be native to South Africa, has been inadvertently
distributed by humans almost worldwide. Introduced
populations have been recorded in 14 countries, from the USA
to the Far East and Australia. There is evidence that it has
begun to displace the more venomous native black widow
(.ǡJGURGTWU) in certain areas of southern California, USA.
dimorphism (differences
between male and female).
This jumping spider, or
salticid, lives in Mexico,
Guatemala and Costa Rica,
and feeds on protein- and
fat-rich nubs called Beltian
bodies, found at the tips
of acacia leaves.
The spider is named after
the black panther Bagheera,
who features in Rudyard
Kipling’s The Jungle Book,
and the author himself.

Rarest spider
Counts of the Kauai cave
wolf spider (Adelocosa
anops) have never exceeded
30 specimens. It lives in
total darkness in caves on
the island of Kauai, Hawaii,
USA, and has no eyes.
Noisiest spider
The male European
buzzing spider, Anyphaena
accentuata, vibrates his
abdomen against a leaf

Largest spider venom glands
The glands of South America’s 2JQPGWVTKCPKITKXGPVGT
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and asphyxiation in humans and the contents of one
URKFGTŨUINCPFUCTGGPQWIJVQMKNNOKEG

to make a buzzing sound
and attract a female –
though she can only detect
it from the vibrations.
The male of the American
species Lycosa gulosa taps
his palps and abdomen on
dry leaves to produce an
equally audible purr.
Least venomous spider
Uniquely among modernday spiders, the cribellate
or hackled orb-weavers lack
venom glands. Instead, they
wrap their prey in silk and
douse them with digestive
enzymes to liquefy them.
Smallest spider webs
The webs of the so-called
midget spiders can be
less than 10 mm (0.39 in)
across. Among their 44 tiny
species is Patu marplesi,
which has a body length of
0.3 mm (0.011 in), making
it the smallest spider.

Strongest spider webs
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Caerostris
darwini ) weaves the strongest known spider silk, with a
VGPUKNGUVTGPIVJQHWRVQǡ/,O (megajoules per cubic
metre) – making it twice as tough as any previously described
silk. C. darwini also spins the largest websŤWRVQǡO 

ǡUSǡHV ŤYJKEJECPUVTGVEJ
between two river banks.

Highest living spider

First documented war
The Egyptians defeat the Hittites at the Battle of Kadesh. Pharaoh Ramses II has the campaign
written up in a series of propaganda bulletins that are distributed throughout his kingdom.

1274 BCE
guinnessworldrecords.com 61

DATELINE

The Himalayan jumping spider
('WQRJT[UQOPKUWRGTUVGU), or “highest
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Everest in Nepal. It was
living under stones
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First described in 
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to feed on tiny
insects blown by
the wind from
lower altitudes.

DINOSAURS

(KTUVUEKGPVKƒE
description
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Megalosaurus bucklandii
(“great fossil lizard”) was
described in 1824. Workmen
uncovered remains of
WKLVELSHGDOͥHVKHDWHU
some time before 1818 in
a quarry near Woodstock
in Oxfordshire, UK.
(KTUVUVGIQUCWT
Huayangosaurus taibaii lived
during the Middle Jurassic
period – 165 million years
ago – in the
area of
Huayang
(Sichuan)
in China. It was
formally described
and named in 1982.
The dinosaur with
the longest spikes was
Loricatosaurus, a genus of
herbivorous stegosaur that
lived 160–164 million years
ago in what is now England.
As fossils, these spikes, set
on the tail, are 1 m (3 ft 3 in)
long but may have been
covered by a horny sheath,

u

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rs n

LARGEST PLESIOSAUR

which might have doubled
their length. They were
probably used as weapons
and perhaps also utilized
to attract mates.
&KPQUCWTYKVJ
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hadrosaurs were
herbivores with toothless
beaks. In the side of
their jaws, however,
they had as many as 960
VHOIVKDUSHQLQJFKHHNWHHWK
for chewing tough plants.
.QPIGUVFKPQUCWT
A diplodocid excavated
in New Mexico, USA, in
1980 was estimated to be

LARGEST…
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The feathered Microraptor
zhaoianus measured 39 cm
(1 ft 3.3 in), of which 24 cm
(9.4 in) was the tail. A fossil
of the diminutive species
discovered at Chaoyang in
Liaoning Province, China,
in 1999 is estimated to be
110–120 million
years old.

ū1UVTKEJŬFKPQUCWT
The largest species
of ostrich dinosaur or
ornithomimosaur (named
DIWHUWKHLUVXSHUͤFLDO
outward similarity to an
ostrich) was Deinocheirus
OKTKƒEWU. It lived 69–71
million years ago during

the Late Cretaceous period
in what is today Mongolia.
It is currently known from
three specimens, the largest
of which measures 11 m
(36 ft) in length and weighs
6.36 tonnes (14,020 lb).

DID YOU
KNOW?
The neck
of Omei

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saurus
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four tim
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ly
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ale!

c
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LONGEST DINOSAUR TAIL
The sauropod Diplodocus lived during the
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DATELINE

39–52 m (128–170 ft) long
based on comparisons of
individual bones. Named
Seismosaurus halli ̸HDUWK
shaking lizard”), it was
ͤQDOO\UHFRQVWUXFWHGDWWKH
Wyoming Dinosaur Center,
USA, in 1999 and found to
be 41 m (134 ft) in length.

The carnivorous marine reptile Liopleurodon
grew to 25 m (82 ft) in length. It had a short
neck, a 3-m-long (10-ft) head and four powerful
flippers. It lived in the Mid to Late Jurassic period,
some 150–165 million years ago, but was not
technically a dinosaur; it belonged to an order
of reptiles called Sauropterygia. Plesiosaurs
were divided into two distinct suborders: the
short-necked Pliosauroidea, which included
Liopleurodon, and the long-necked Plesiosauroidea.

1271 BCE
62 Animals

LONGEST DINOSAUR TAIL
RELATIVE TO BODY SIZE
Leaellynasaura amicagraphicaYCUǡO 
ǡHV 
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VJTGGVKOGUVJGNGPIVJQHKVUJGCFPGEMCPF
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WIDEST DINOSAUR
&KUVKPIWKUJGFD[VJGNCTIGENWDCVVJGGPFQH
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ǡHV 
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DINOSAUR WITH THE LONGEST
NECK RELATIVE TO BODY SIZE
Omeisaurus tianfuensisJCFCPGEMUQOG 
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First peace treaty
After three years of war, Egyptian pharaoh Ramses II and Hattusili III, king of the Hittites, agree to a peace treaty.
Copies of the treaty are made on silver tablets in both Akkadian cuneiform and Egyptian hieroglyphics.

CVG %TGVCEGQWUGTC EŤOKNNKQP[GCTUCIQ CPF KPENWFGGIIUHTQOQXKTCRVQTKFCPFFWEMDKNNGFFKPQUCWTU OLPEVERUHORQJWUXHͥLJKW feathers. A fully grown adult.2 m (3 ft 11 in) long and is estimated to have weighed 4 kg (8 lb 13 oz) when alive – making it approximately the same HEAVIEST CERATOPSIAN 6JGOCUUKXGVJTGGJQTPGFJGTDKXQTG Triceratops horridusYGKIJGFǡVQPPGU ǡND +VNKXGFŤǡOKNNKQPǡ[GCTU CIQFWTKPIVJG. as bases for the reinforced attachment of the wing feathers (remiges). the specimen measured some 1.CTIGUVEQNNGEVKQP QHFKPQUCWTGIIU . It is roughly 100 m (328 ft) long on each side and 50m (164 ft) tall. Dakotaraptor steini was 5–6 m (16 ft 4 in–19 ft 8 in) long.4 m (7 ft 10 in) long – the longest arms for a bipedal dinosaur.WOLYHGLQ the Early Cretaceous period some 125 million years ago.CVG%TGVCEGQWURGTKQF KPYJCVKUPQY0QTVJ#OGTKEC size as a turkey.. (QWTYKPIGFFKPQUCWT The only recorded specimen of Changyuraptor yangi was discovered in China’s Liaoning Province and formally described and named in 2014. or quill knobs. forelimbs) ZDVFRQͤUPHG by the presence of a row of bumps along a ridge on the lower edge of the forearm bone called the ulna.FAST FACTS Dinosaurs roamed the Earth for 165 million years (humans have been here for about 2 million years) • British scientist Richard Owen coined the word “dinosaur” (“terrible lizard”) in 1841 • Most dinosaur species were vegetarian *KIJGUVRGTEGPVCIG QHKPVCEVFKPQUCWTTGOCKPU (GCVJGTYKPIGFTCRVQT Formally described and named in Oct 2015. The existence of feathers on this dinosaur’s wings (i.e. 1250 BCE guinnessworldrecords. these bumps are also SUHVHQWLQPRGHUQGD\ birds. Each hand had WKUHHODUJHFODZHGͤQJHUV +PVJGUWOOGTQHVJGHQUUKNK\GFTGOCKPUQHC OKNNKQP[GCTQNFFWEMDKNNGFFKPQUCWTYGTGFKUEQXGTGFKP PQTVJGTP/QPVCPC75#&WDDGFū.GQPCTFQŬVJGONQPI HV BrachylophosaurusYCUVJGHQWTVJFKPQUCWTGXGT HQWPFVQDGENCUUKƒGFCUCOWOO[5QOGQHKVUDQF[ YCUEQXGTGFKPHQUUKNK\GFUQHVVKUUWGKPENWFKPIUMKPOWUENGU UECNGUCPFHQQVRCFUCPFKVUNCUVOGCNYCURTGUGTXGFKPKVU UVQOCEJ6JGETGCVWTGYCUVJTGGQTHQWT[GCTUQNFYJGPKVFKGF . Belonging to the microraptor group of GLQRVDXUVLWLVFDOOHGDIRXU winged dinosaur because its forelimbs and hind #UQH0QXVJGOQUVGZVGPUKXGEQNNGEVKQPQH FKPQUCWTGIIUPWODGTGFKPFKXKFWCNUCORNGU +VǡKUǡJGNFCVVJG*G[WCP/WUGWOKP)WCPIFQPI 2TQXKPEG%JKPC#NNQHVJGGIIUEQOGHTQOVJG. .CTIGUVHQUUKNK\GFGZETGOGPV HTQOCECTPKXQTG %WTTGPVN[TGUKFKPIKPVJG4Q[CN5CUMCVEJGYCP/WUGWO KP4GIKPC5CUMCVEJGYCP%CPCFCVJGNCTIGUVEQRTQNKVG HQUUKNK\GFHCGEGU HTQOCECTPKXQTGTGEQTFGFVQFCVGKUVJCVQH a Tyrannosaurus rex&KUEQXGTGFKPVJGRTGJKUVQTKEQTFWTG OGCUWTGUǡEO ǡHVǡKP CETQUUCPF YGKIJUOQTGVJCPǡMI ǡNDǡQ\  #PCN[UKUQHVJGFTQRRKPIURTQXKFGU KPUKIJVUKPVQFKPQUCWTUŨFKGVGCVKPIJCDKVU HQTGZCORNGYJGVJGTVJG[IWNRGFQTEJGYGFVJGKT HQQF ǡCPFǡJQYNQPIHQQFTGOCKPGFKPVJGKTIWV HEAVIEST DINOSAUR /QUVUEKGPVKUVUCITGGVJCVVJGJGCXKGUV FKPQUCWTYCURTQDCDN[Argentinosaurus CVKVCPQUCWTKFHTQO#TIGPVKPC$CUGFQP KVUXCUVXGTVGDTCGKVKUGUVKOCVGFVQJCXG YGKIJGFUQOGǡVQPPGU ǡND  LARGEST CARNIVOROUS DINOSAUR Spinosaurus TQCOGFVJGRTGUGPVFC[ 5CJCTCCTQWPFOKNNKQP[GCTUǡCIQ +VǡOGCUWTGFUQOGǡO ǡHV NQPICPF YGKIJGFǡŤǡVQPPGU ŤǡND  Largest ziggurat A terraced temple. and it may have EHHQDEOHWRͥ\. Known as ulnar papillae. is built for King Untas of the Elamites in what is now Iran. known today as the Ziggurat of Chogha Zanbil.com 63 DATELINE The arms of Deinocheirus OKTKƒEWU measured 2.

5 years).CATS & DOGS Smallest cat ever Tinker Toy. measured only 7 cm (2.75 in) tall and 19 cm (7. Shortest living cat (height) A nine-year-old female Munchkin cat named Lilieput measured 5.25 in FP. USA.5 in) long when fully grown (aged 2. The unusually tiny feline was owned by Katrina and Scott Forbes of Taylorville in Illinois. a male blue point Himalayan-Persian.

It trait f fetch o s n e o m ga to walk trained . Despite its name. W? U KNO DID YavOannah has beeantional rn The S The Inte ce 2001. Longest jump by a cat Alley. a leash PDGHDͥ\LQJOHDSRIIW (1.82 m) in Austin. She is owned by Christel Young (USA) of Napa in California. It bon -feline in 2012 d has such un n lay and . it is of European-American origin. Texas. USA. Greatest mouser 7RZVHU E$SU. It is also superb at leaping. muscular hind legs.a p s r n a te a m w hu njoying o easily e s ls a a s ’s . thanks to its powerful.IURPWKHͥRRU to the shoulders on 19 Jul 2013. Fastest cat breed The Egyptian Mau has been called a “feline greyhound” for its ability to reach speeds of 48 km/h (29.8 mph). ized by o A) sin IC rec gn (T n o tatus ociati nship s Cat Ass hampio ely with c d e in and ga ds clos . a rescue cat owned by Samantha Martin (USA). on 27 Oct 2013.

caught an estimated 28. named after the US state. Wealthiest cat When Ben Rea (UK) died in May 1988. .33 cm (3 ft 10. the last surviving of the 15 cats with whom he had shared his mansion.D female tortoiseshell owned by Glenturret Distillery Ltd in Perth and Kinross.5-m) fortune to Blackie. It will continue to be used into the 21st century.899 mice.6 in) long on 6 Oct 2015 in Wakefield. There is a myth – impossible in reality. but encouraged by its typical brown tabby colouring and abundant fur – that it resulted from matings between semi-wild cats and raccoons. lively personality has ensured its popularity as a family pet for well over a century. She averaged three mice per day until her death on 20 Mar 1987. he left his entire £7-m ($12. UK. Oldest bridge A slab-stone single-arch bridge is built over the River Meles in Smyrna (Izmir in modern-day Turkey). Tallest domestic cat (ever) 5CXCPPCJ+UNCPFU6TQWDNGCMCū6TQWDNGŬYCUǡEO ǡHV ǡKP VCNNYJGPOGCUWTGFCVVJG5KNXGT%CVU%CV5JQYKP 4GPQ0GXCFC75#QPǡ1EV*GYCUQYPGFD[&GDD[ /CTCURKPK 75# CPFFKGFQPǡ#WI6TQWDNGYCUCP (ǡ5CXCPPCJECVCDTGGFRTQFWEGFHTQOCFQOGUVKE#HTKECP UGTXCN Leptailurus serval ETQUU6JGUGECVUCTGQHƒEKCNN[ TGEQIPK\GFCUFQOGUVKEDWVQYGVJGKTGZQVKENQQMUUVTQPI OCTMKPIUCPFNQPINGIUCPFDQF[VQVJGKTYKNFHQTGDGCTU Most tricks by a cat in one minute DATELINE Didga (AUS) and her owner Robert Dollwet (USA) RGTHQTOGFǡVTKEMUKP6YGGF *GCFU#WUVTCNKCQPǡ5GR 2KEVWTGFHTQOVJGVQR UJGKUUGGPIKXKPICJKIJƒXG TQNNKPIQXGTUMCVGDQCTFKPI CPFLWORKPIQPVQ4QDGTVŨU JCPFU&KFICYJQYCU CFQRVGFHTQOCECVUJGNVGTECP GXGPVCMGQPVJGEJCNNGPIG QHǡCTGCNUMCVGDQCTFKPIRCTM 850 BCE 64 Animals LONGEST CAT (LIVING) Ludo. owned by Kelsey Gill (UK). The Maine Coon’s robust health and companionable. measured 118. Ludo is one of the oldest American breeds: a Maine Coon. UK.

Fastest time to climb ǡUVCKTUQPJKPFNGIU Walking on his back paws. had to tell the eager pooch to “slow down” during the attempt. With his handler Hans-Joachim Brückmann (DEU).000 years ago by breeding aggression out of wolves • Cats were domesticated at least 9.  TGXGCNGFVJGHWNNGZVGPVQHJKUEO HVKP VCKNKP 9GUVGTNQ$GNIKWOQPǡ#WI+NUGCRRNKGFHQTVJG TGEQTFQP-GQPŨUDGJCNHYJGPJGTUQPUTGCNK\GFVJCVJKU VCKNUWTRCUUGFVJCVQHVJGRTGXKQWUTGEQTFJQNFGTCHGNNQY YQNHJQWPFD[LWUVQXGTǡEO ǡKP  First Olympic Games The Olympic Games are held for the first time in July. fearing that he might lose his balance.8 in) tall and 9.5 cm (3.11 cm (2. Tallest female dog . Ella Wendel of New York City. 5OWTHCPFJKURTQWFQYPGT 5CTCJ*WORJTG[U 7-  RGTHQTOGFǡVTKEMUKP *GTVHQTFUJKTG7-QPǡ#WI 2KEVWTGFHTQOVJGVQR 5OWTHKUUJQYPJQNFKPITQNNKPI QXGTDQYKPICPFLWORKPIQXGT 5CTCJŨUCTO6CNGPVGF5OWTH KUCƒNOCPF68UVCT(QTJKU TQNGKPVJGƒNOSightseers 7-  JGYQPVJG2CNO&QI CYCTFCV%CPPGU 776 BCE guinnessworldrecords. a Great Dane. They are inaugurated to honour the god Zeus.000 years ago. a cook from Elis in southern Greece. probably by being given food in return for helping to control rodents person from the Kaarster See lake in Germany on 11 Jun 2013. Xu Ligang (CHN).7 in) long. measured 111. Toby. Tallest dog ever Zeus (USA). Michigan. with Denise Doorlag and family.47 sec on the set of CCTV’s Guinness World Records Special in Beijing.8 cm (3 ft 8 in) on 4 Oct 2011. owned by Vanesa Semler (USA). PHDVXUHGFP LQ. &KLQDRQ-DQ Arsenal’s owner. Fastest time for a dog VQǡTGVTKGXGCRGTUQPHTQO water over a 25-m distance Jack the Black vom Mühlrad is a Newfoundland working for the Most tricks by a dog in one minute Longest tail on a dog -GQPCP+TKUJYQNHJQWPFQYPGFD[+NUG. wins the foot race.FAST FACTS Palaeolithic humans in east Asia domesticated dogs about 15. After her death. Toby was looked after by three servants.5 m) to her standard poodle.K\\[C)TGCV&CPGUVQQFǡEO ǡHVǡKP VCNNKP(QTV/[GTU(NQTKFC75#QPǡ0QX5JG YCUOGCUWTGFCIGFUGXGP[GCTUDWVQYPGT)TGI5CORNGUC[UUJGYCUVJKUVCNND[VJGCIGQHVJTGG *GǡECNNUJGTCūUJQYUVQRRGTŬCFFKPIVJCVUJGCNYC[UCVVTCEVUCVVGPVKQPYJGPVJG[ŨTGQWVCPFCDQWV German rescue organization DLRG. Chinese poodle Arsenal scaled 20 steps in just 7.QQFVU $'. he took 1 min VHFWRUHWULHYHD Wealthiest dog In 1931. bequeathed $15 m (£10.com 65 DATELINE Smallest dog ever A dwarf Yorkshire terrier owned by Arthur Marples (UK) was 7. when Koroibos. USA. A female Chihuahua called Milly. He lived in Otsego.

a female Chihuahua belonging to Paulette Keller (USA). is the smallest dog by length: FP LQ. Heaven Sent Brandy. and is the smallest dog (living). tall on 21 Feb 2013.

IURPQRVH to tail tip on 31 Jan 2005. . conceived by KPǡXKVTQ fertilization (IVF). were born to a surrogate female in summer 2015. First litter of ūVGUVVWDGǡFQIUŬ Seven healthy puppies ͤYHSXUHEHDJOHVDQG two beagle-cocker spaniel crosses).

. The species is indigenous only to the Pamir Mountains bordering Tajikistan. on 21 Aug 2002.37 m).16 m).3 in). the largest of which is the Valdichiana Chianina. the theatre is “in the round”. First permanent theatre The outdoor Theatre of Dionysus is built in Athens. Tyrol.FANTASTIC BEASTS hybrid from a male ass and female zebra. Bulls average 1. the species is critically endangered in certain European countries. that when young it had shoulderstripes. • Largest horn span on a steer (living): 9 ft 9. 6CNNGUVEQYGXGT Blosom. as of 4 Oct 2014. found on the plains and low hills of Arezzo and Siena. yielding a total length of around 40 cm (1 ft 3. . and distin ard. owned by Patricia Meads-Hanson (USA).8 in).WN YCUCIGFǡ[GCTUǡFC[UCUQHǡ/CT5PQQV[YCUDTQWIJV VQVJG5QWVJ(NQTKFC/WUGWOKP$TCFGPVQP(NQTKFC75#CUCECNHKP*GNKXGUKPC 75ICN NKVTG RQQNYKVJVYQQVJGTOCPCVGGU5PQQV[ŨUNQPIGXKV[QYGUOWEJ VQVJGHCEVVJCVJGNKXGUKPCEQPVTQNNGFGPXKTQPOGPV+PVJGYKNFHCEVQTUUWEJCUCNICNDNQQOU DQCVUVTKMGUCPFƒUJKPIFGDTKUUGGOQUVOCPCVGGUFKGDGHQTGVJG[TGCEJVJGCIGQH Although widely distributed in the wild across Eurasia. naturalist Charles Darwin (UK) described a unique three-species specimen.97 m). but I was assured by the superintendent. measured 1.35 m (4 ft 5. The bull is owned by Bhagwan Mahavir Pashu Raksha Kendra Anchorwala Ahinsa Dham animal protection centre in Gujarat.1 in). • Longest horns on a bull: 4 ft 6 in (1. He wrote: “Many years ago I saw in the Zoological Gardens [of London] a curious triple hybrid. for a Marco Polo sheep (Ovis ammon polii).76 m). The distance between the tips of his horns measured 1. with stone rows built up a slope overlooking the stage. by a 4CTGUVOCTUWRKCNRGV A male mountain pygmy possum ($WTTCO[URCTXWU) was found in the kitchen of a ski-lodge in eastern Victoria’s Australian Alps in Aug 1966. Four types of the breed exist. and faint stripes on LWVͥDQNVDQGOHJV.866 lb). • Longest horns on a steer: 10 ft 4. Pakistan and China. • Longest horn on a sheep: 1. Illinois. a Texas longhorn (Bos taurus) living in Greenleaf. on 5 Jun 2015. on 24 May 2014. India. with a circumference of 2 ft 6 in (0.300 kg (2. Greece. It became the pet of mammalogist LARGEST HORN SPAN ON A GOAT (LIVING) Rasputin is an eight-year-old Walliser black-necked goat (Capra hircus).25 in (2. bred and owned by Dickinson Cattle of Texas. for a bull named Gopal. This animal when old had hardly any stripes. be k blac 510 BCE 66 Animals 1NFGUVOCPCVGGKPECRVKXKV[ 5PQQV[ Dǡ. Kansas. USA. resulting from a male donkey mating with a female zebra). plus a tail length of up to 6 cm (2. NOW? DID YObrUeedKhas a highly DATELINE Rasputin’s : black appearance distinctive hite w d an er ld to the shou ular This partic il. Afghanistan. That’s greater than the height of Sultan Kösen (TUR).4 in). Rasputin (1 ar Nichola Russia’s Cz are st advisor to ng ci er his pi famed for ctive long. Rarest domestic JQTUGǡJ[DTKF In his book The Variation QHǡ#PKOCNUCPF2NCPVU 7PFGTǡ&QOGUVKECVKQP (1868). for a Texas longhorn steer named Gibraltar.CTIGUVDTGGFQHECVVNG Chianina cattle were brought to the Chiana Valley in Italy from the Middle East in pre-Roman times. With an estimated capacity of 17.1 in) in Lienz.73 m (5 ft 8 in) at the shoulder and weigh 1.7 in).8 in) from the hoof to the withers (the ridge between the shoulder blades) in Orangeville. Austria. It can live for eight years in captivity. but some Chianina oxen have reached 1. USA. the tallest living man.75 in (3. ta e  th ri down to after Grigo ed m na as w specimen e mystical th – ) 16 19 869– s II.91 m (6 ft 3.9 m (6 ft 2.000 people. from a bay mare.PHQWLRQ this case more especially as an instance of the stripes being much plainer during youth than in old age.” This hybrid’s father was a fertile male donkra (a rare hybrid. USA.9 m (6 ft 2. Largest hamster species The European or common hamster (%TKEGVWUETKEGVWU) has a head-and-body length of up to 34 cm (1 ft 1. for Lazy J’s Bluegrass (USA).

/QUVYQQNUJGCTGFHTQOCUJGGRKPQPGUJGCTKPI #VQVCNQHǡMI ǡNDǡQ\ YCUUJGCTGFHTQO%JTKUŤCPGTTCPVQXGTITQYPUJGGR TGUEWGFD[CPKOCNEJCTKV[452%##%6 #75 ŤD[PCVKQPCNUJGCTKPIEJCORKQP+CP'NMKPUKP 9GUVQP%TGGM#WUVTCNKCP%CRKVCN6GTTKVQT[QPǡ5GR9JGPHQWPF%JTKUYCUUQYQQNN[ HTQONKXKPIKPVJGYKNFHQTUGXGTCN[GCTUVJCVJGEQWNFDCTGN[UVCPFCPFYCUKPWTIGPVPGGF QHǡCVTKOVQRTGXGPVKPHGEVKQP6JGUJGCTKPIVQQMCRRTQZKOCVGN[ǡOKP . the Mediterranean.WP 6JGDCTYCURCTVQHCUVCPFCTFJQTUGLWORQPYJKEJJGKIJVU YGTGOCTMGFCVTGIWNCTKPVGTXCNU Largest empire (by percentage) The Achaemenid (aka Persian) Empire accounts for around 49. North Africa.com 67 DATELINE (CUVGUVǡOQPJKPFNGIUD[CJQTUG . 3. This species was native to Réunion. . 7KHSRVVXPZDVWKHͤUVW VFLHQWLͤFDOO\UHFRUGHGOLYLQJ specimen of its species. Once a common species.000 years and was thought long-extinct.QPIGUVTCDDKV &CTKWUC(NGOKUJIKCPVTCDDKV QYPGFD[#PPGVVG'FYCTFU 7- YCUHQWPFVQDGǡHV ǡKP ǡEO NQPIYJGP OGCUWTGFHQTCPCTVKENGKPVJG 7-ŨUDaily MailPGYURCRGT QPǡ#RT*GKUUJQYP CDQXGYKVJ)GQTIKC*CFNG[ YJQYCUVJGPUKZ[GCTUQNF 5OCNNGUVURGEKGU QHǡ#OC\QPǡRCTTQV Amazon parrots from Mexico. The smallest of these is the blackbilled amazon (#OC\QPC CIKNKU).9 km/h *KIJGUVLWORD[CNNCOC &GUGTV-KUOGV 7#' C[GCTQNFITG[IGNFKPIEQXGTGFC FKUVCPEGQHǡO ǡHVǡKP QPJKUJKPFNGIUKPǡUGECV&WDCK 2QNQ'SWGUVTKCP%NWDKP&WDCK7#'QPǡ(GD&GUGTV -KUOGVKUQYPGFD[ǡ**5JGKMJC/CT[CODKPV/QJCOOGFDKP 4CUJGF#N/CMVQWOCPFVTCKPGFD[4WK&G5QWUC CDQXG  %CURCQYPGFD[5WG9KNNKCOU 7- ENGCTGFCDCTUGVCVǡO ǡHVǡKP FWTKPI&QI(GUVCV#TNG[*CNNKP%JGUJKTG7-QPǡ. which is just 25 cm (9. its numbers have fallen owing to deforestation. It includes parts of Central Asia. South America and the Caribbean islands are popular pets. 490 BCE guinnessworldrecords. It is categorized as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). one of the Mascarene Islands in the Indian Ocean.4 million of the world’s 112. specimen collection for the pet trade and poaching for food.4 million people – or 44%. He kept it in his royal gardens and menagerie at Munich in Germany. the mountain pygmy possum had been known to science only from fossil remains dating back 20. where it lived until at least 1834. the last Mascarene parrot (/CUECTKPWUOCUECTKP) was a pet owned by King Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria. but the last account of wild specimens there dates from the 1770s. Almost 30 species are currently recognized. Until then.FAST FACTS Goats and sheep have rectangular pupils • Only about 15% of young rabbits reach one year old • Many male and female parrots look almost identical • A “cama” is a cross between a one-humped camel (aka dromedary) and a llama Dr John Seebeck (AUS). by which time it was very old.CUV/CUECTGPGRCTTQV As accepted by the IUCN.8 in) long and native to mountainous rainforests in the centre of the island of Jamaica. Thrace and Macedonia.

near the port of Piraeus. An estimated 200. the Battle of Salamis takes place off the coast of Greece.000 men are divided between 800 vessels in the defeated Persian fleet and 370 in the victorious fleet of the Athenians and their allies. .DATELINE HUMANS 480 BCE 68 Humans Largest naval battle In September.

Its eight books detail the political and military developments of the 431–404 war between Sparta and Athens. .CP 6JGOGCUWTGOGPVYCUEQPƒTOGFD[FGPVKUV5KNXKC. is the earliest work to try to recount and understand past events.CONTENTS HUMANS FACTOGRAPHIC 70 BODY MODIFIERS 72 MEDICAL MIRACLES 74 OLDEST. by Greek politician Thucydides. it’s actually a record-breaking compliment! The ICRDGVYGGPJKUKPEKUQTUOGCUWTGFǡEO ǡKP CUQHƒEKCNN[ TCVKƒGFCVCFGPVCNRTCEVKEGKP9GPFNKPIGP)GTOCP[QPǡ.com 69 DATELINE No one likes to be called a big mouth… but in the case of Bernd Schmidt (DEU).QEMNCKT $GTPFŨUUQPǡJCFCUMGFJKOVQUWDOKVCPCVVGORVCHVGTUGGKPIVJKU TGEQTFNKUVGFKPVJGGFKVKQPQHGuinness World Records.. 76 FAMILY VALUES 78 BODY EXTREMES 80 100% Largest gape First history book The History of the Peloponnesian War. 400 BCE guinnessworldrecords..

in a healthy adult female. and the subcutis or fat layer. from standing to extreme sport. An average adult KUEQXGTGFKPŤǡO2 ŤǡUSHV QH UMKP$WVǡKHVJGNWPIUYGTGHWNN[UVTGVEJGF QWVVJG[YQWNFEQXGTŤǡO2 ŤǡUSǡHV ŤCDQWVJCNH CǡVGPPKUǡEQWTVБ LARGEST ORGAN A The aorta wall is very elastic. it can support more than 30 times the body weight! LONGEST BONE Excluding a variable number of sesamoids (small rounded bones).2–2 cm (0. with a diameter of 1. and QWPEGHQTQWPEGKUUVTQPIGTVJCPUVGGN#ǡTQF of steel of comparable size would weigh four QTƒXGVKOGUCUOWEJ 100% .200-mi) system of blood vessels – long enough to wrap round the world more than three times.WNKWU-QEJ +VYCU OGCUWTGFD[FQEVQTUCHVGTJKUFGCVJKP The femur is also the strongest bone.78 in). your UMKPKUMGGRKPIOKETQDGUCVDC[CPF[QWTG[GUCTGOCMKPIVJGUWRGTSWKEM OQXGOGPVUTGSWKTGFHQTTGCFKPI0QYQPFGTUGXGTCNQHVJGDQF[ŨUJKFFGP EQORQPGPVUCTGTGEQTFDTGCMGTUŤUJQYPJGTGCVCEVWCNUK\G BODY PARTS FACTOGRAPHIC AO RT 100% The heart is made of involuntary muscle. at the left ventricle – as wide as the orange circle on the right.000-km (93. about the size of \RXUFOHQFKHĢVWSXPSV blood around a 150. +VRCUUGUDNQQFVQVJGJGCTVŨUEQTQPCT[CTVGTKGU before feeding vital organs. Beating 100. is the largest vein. 100% The femur supports the body’s whole weight in all activities.000 times a day.47–0. Besides the aorta. The vena cava. so it works all by itself – all the time. via the arterial network. less than ǡOO ǡKP NQPI SMALLEST BONE 32 sheets of A4 paper Skin The skin has three layers: the outer. Lungs Skin.603 sheets of A4 Named after its shape. it clocks up 3 billion beats over an average lifetime. HTQOVJGJGCFVQVJGRGNXKECTGC*GTGǡKVPCTTQYU VQCDQWVǡEO ǡKP YKFGCPFFKXKFGUKPVQ VJGǡKNKCECTVGTKGUYJKEJECTT[DNQQFVQVJGNGIU LARGEST ARTERY The heart. which protects all other organs and body systems. and their absence YQWNFOGCPUKIPKƒECPVJGCTKPINQUU The stapes measures some ŤǡOO ŤǡKP NQPI CPFYGKIJUǡŤǡOI ŤǡITCKPU +V forms the smallest joint. waterproof epidermis. the stapedius. blood vessels and sweat glands. The complex. the dermis with hair follicles. and is controlled by the body’s smallest muscle. is itself an organ. The American College of Sports Medicine states that. yet extraordinarily neat machine that is the JWOCPDQF[WUWCNN[TWPUUQGHƒEKGPVN[VJCVYGFQPŨVVJKPMCDQWVYJCVKVŨU FQKPICVCP[IKXGPOQOGPVŤNKMGTKIJVPQY'XGPYJKNG[QWŨTGUECPPKPI this page. multi-functional. The aorta distributes oxygenated blood around VJGDQF[+VV[RKECNN[OGCUWTGUǡEO ǡKP KP diameter where it leaves the heart. the pulmonary artery is the other main artery. your brain is receiving oxygen to help you concentrate. allowing it to pulsate in rhythm with the heartbeat and helping to propel blood around the body. the stapes or stirrup bone is one of three auditory ossicles (“tiny bones”) in the middle ear. The thigh DQPGQTHGOWTKUVJGNQPIGUV+VWUWCNN[ OCMGUWRQHCRGTUQPŨUUVCVWTG CPFOC[DGǡEO ǡHVǡKP NQPIKPC EOVCNN HVKP OCP The longest recorded bone was CHGOWTOGCUWTKPIEO HVKP  that belonged to a German giant named %QPUVCPVKPG CMC. and regulates temperature and moisture. carrying de-oxygenated blood only to the lungs. which returns blood to the heart from the rest of the body. the CFWNVJWOCPJCUDQPGUEQORCTGF YKVJCDQWVKPEJKNFTGP CUVJG[ITQY some bones fuse together). These transmit sound vibrations.930% 100% = = 1. with the incus bone. The others are the malleus (hammer) and incus (anvil).

Most are only a few millimetres wide and shaped like eggs or sesame seeds (the name “sesamoid” comes from “sesamum”. which protects the ends of the femur and tibia (shin bone) where they meet at the knee joint. At any one time. Glands secrete substances such as hormones and release them into the bloodstream. so good vision is maintained. 100% LARGEST INTERNAL ORGAN The inside of our larger bones have a spongy appearance. so one person can donate a portion of their liver. the Latin for sesame seed). The average human kneecap is ǡOO ǡKP YKFGCPFǡOO ǡKP ǡHTQOVQRVQDQVVQO LARGEST SESAMOID BONE The liver is divided into four parts. Blood vessels and nerves run through our bones. MOST ACTIVE MUSCLE The eye muscles have been estimated to move more VJCPVKOGUCFC[CPFCTGVJGDQF[ŨUfastestreacting muscleCDNGVQEQPVTCEVKPǡUGE Their seven coordinated movements allow the G[GUVQVTCEMOCP[MKPFUQHOQXKPIQDLGEVǡ6JG[ also ensure that the eye’s receptors are not overloaded. h OW?ne U KN O of bo e Y r DID contain a cossue. Located behind the lower ribs. the donated part will ITQYVQVJGTKIJVUK\GKPVJGTGEKRKGPVБ Three pairs of extraocular muscles in the orbit (eye socket) anchor each eye. which helps us digest fats. and storing nutrients. moving it up and down and side to side.100% 100% Sesamoid bones are bones that act like pulleys in the complex arrangements of tendons around some joints. or “lobes”. in l low. i s cel ls. Bone w.57 litres or 1 pint in a fully grown adult). What’s more. As well as being the largest internal organ (see below right). of differing size and shape. a soft t lood o new b ial ly fat. which will then grow back to normal size. it secretes bile. The body’s largest is the patella or kneecap. Red and white blood cells are formed inside bone. Chi femu tly red. the liver is also the body’s largest gland. it contains about 13% of your blood (0. in the case of the liver. then carried around the body via the bloodstream. and rotating it. It’s between the microscopically thin walls of this honeycomb-like material that marrow is found. KVǡRGTHQTOUOQTGVJCPUGRCTCVGXKVCNHWPEVKQPU+VKU the only organ that can regenerate itself. The liver’s functions LQFOXGḨJKWLQJRIILQIHFWLRQUHPRYLQJWR[LQV from the blood. vitamins and blood sugar. mos alf ye r ed . = +PCPCFWNVVJGNKXGTECPYGKIJŤǡMI ǡNDǡǡQ\ŤǡNDǡQ\ ŤVJGGSWKXCNGPVQHHQWT(+(# approved soccer balls. ma r r s e k t a ow m w is essen ike the l ma r r ar ro is bone m g w n lo lo a r r ow a ye l ne m f nd in l o u a b o h f ’s s and ldren adults it i r. Red .

Alle Tattoo arranged the most people to form a tattooed sentence: 77.13-in) ͥHVKWXQQHOLQKLVHDUOREH YHULͤHGDWDQDWXUDOKHDOWK clinic in Hawaii. consisting of dark spots on a yellow background. such as delicate Victorian mittens. Longest tattoo session OWNVKRNGRGQRNG “Alle Tattoo”. on 3 Jun 2015.550 needles to Matthew Menczyk (both CAN) in 8 hr 12 min at Wicked Tattoo & Piercing in Maple Ridge. She plans to continue with a full head tattoo.5 cm (23.BODY MODIFIERS /QUVHNGUJVWPPGNU HCEG  As of 27 Nov 2014. and about 1. as of 17 Feb 2012. On the same day. MOST TATTOOED SENIOR CITIZEN (FEMALE) DATELINE Charlotte Guttenberg’s (USA) tattoos cover 91.” Most tattoos of… • Squares: Matt Gone (USA) had 848 squares tattooed Most tattooed UGPKQTǡEKVK\GPǡ OCNG Tom Leppard (UK) has 99. re og pr g min words beco e. had a grand total of 241 piercings – including 151 in his head and neck – as counted in London. Charlotte’s body art has burgeoned into floral and animal imagery. on 14 Apr 2014. as revealed in Melbourne. with an growing fa ssively its owner. on 10–12 Oct 2014. China. She told GWR that her “gallery” began with a tattoo of a butterfly. een 50 and needle betw along with es ag oo tt ta y a minute. They spelt out “Step by step together for a world of peace happiness family passion art love tattoo and music. Most pierced senior citizen “Prince Albert”. . Most facial piercings Axel Rosales (ARG) had 280 piercings on his face. It is probably a single-shot weapon held with a pistol-style grip. Since then. a “secret garden” below her hair. aka Alessandro Bonacorsi (ITA). Canada. DID YOU chos the image on Depending the skin ay involve tattooing m ttooist’s ta e th ced with 0 times being pier 00 3.7 in) in width and 59. KNOW?en.4 in) in circumference. 341 BCE 72 Humans /QUVRKGTEGFYQOCP 1Pǡ/C[ǡ'NCKPG&CXKFUQP $4#7- YCUXGTKƒGFCU JCXKPIRKGTEKPIUQPJGTHCEKCNCTGCCPFQP CPF KPUKFG JGTDQF[#UQHǡ. British Columbia. 9 Nov 1930). on 26 Oct 2013.CTIGUVHNGUJVWPPGN GCT Kalawelo Kaiwi (USA) had a 10. completed a session of 50 hr 8 min in Palermo.WP'NCKPGJCFCEEWOWNCVGF VJGmost piercings in a lifetime (female)'NCKPGKU EQPUVCPVN[CFFKPICPFTGRNCEKPILGYGNNGT[OQUVN[KPJGTHCEG First use of a crossbow The use of a crossbow is documented for the first time at the Battle of Ma-Ling in Linyi.000 tattooing hours later. on 17 Oct 2008. With Riccardo Rivieccio (ITA). USA. Florida. Alle Tattoo also achieved the most tattoos in 12 hours by a team of artists: 836 tattoos by 12 artists.5 cm (7. she has added a few details of her own. b. A ded. While her inspiration is Japanese culture. USA. Largest lip plate Ataye Eligidagne’s (ETH) lip plate spanned 19. ad over tim harder to re Most body OQFKƒECVKQPU HGOCNG  ū6JG/GZKECP8CORKTG. a birthday present to herself in 2006.5-cm (4. aka John Lynch (UK. Italy. UK. symbols from Shintoism and an emperor dragon winding around her leg. Russ Foxx applied 4. Joel Miggler (DEU) had acquired IDFLDOͥHVKWXQQHOV . And on 10 Oct 2015.5% of her body.QUG%TKUVGTPC /': JCUǡDQF[ OQFKƒECVKQPUKPENWFKPI UKIPKƒECPVVCVVQQEQXGTCIG CTCPIGQHVTCPUFGTOCN KORNCPVUQPJGTHQTGJGCF EJGUVCPFCTOUCPFOWNVKRNG RKGTEKPIUKPJGTG[GDTQYU NKRUPQUGVQPIWGGCTNQDGU DGNN[DWVVQPCPFEJGUV9KVJ VCVVQQEQXGTCIGQPJGT DQF[CUQHǡ(GDUJG KUCNUQVJGmost tattooed female (living) Most surgical-needle piercings in one session On 14 Dec 2014. Francesco Vacca (USA) revealed the most piercings in the tongue: 16.CF[Ŭ CMC/CTKC.9% of his body covered in a leopard-skin design. as YHULͤHGLQ2FW The previous maximum width of these clay plates was 15 cm (6 in).

com 73 DATELINE #UQHǡ#WI4QNH $WEJJQN\ &'7 JCF ǡRKGTEKPIUKPENWFKPI ǡCTQWPFJKUNKRUKP JKUGCTUǡKPJKUG[GDTQYU GKIJVǡKPJKUPQUGVYQǡKPJKU VQPIWGVJTGGǡKPJKUEJGUV CPFHQWTǡKPJKUPCXGN1P ǡ&GE4QNHŨURKGTEKPI VQVCNQHCFFGFVQ VYQǡUWDFGTOCNūJQTPŬ KORNCPVUCPFQVJGTDQF[ VTCPUHQTOCVKQPUOCFGC VCNN[QHŤVJGmost DQF[OQFKƒECVKQPU OCNG  . such as Englishman John Rutherford. They will be discovered in 1974.FAST FACTS Stone Age people probably inked themselves with natural dyes • From the 1770s. CPFJKUYKHG)CDTKGNC2GTCNVC #4)  JCXGOQFKƒECVKQPUXGTKƒGFQPVJGUGVQHLo Show dei Record KP/KNCP+VCN[QPǡ. “Rico” also had 176 insect tattoos on his upper body and head.WN6JGUGEQPUKUVQHǡRKGTEKPIU ǡDQF[KORNCPVUGKIJVǡOKETQFGTOCNUƒXGǡFGPVCNKORNCPVU HQWTǡGCTGZRCPFGTUVYQǡGCTDQNVUCPFQPGǡHQTMGFVQPIWG over his body. including 201 on his head. 221 BCE guinnessworldrecords.000–8. • Bones: “Rico”. • Insects: As of the same date. ected m ore tatto moved a os as he bout. as counted on Lo Show dei Record in Italy on 7 Jul 2014.000 life-size clay soldiers and other figures – later known as the “Terracotta Army” – are created for Emperor Qin Shi Huangdi’s tomb near Xi’an in China. Italy.WEM[&KCOQPF 4KEJ #75D0< YJQJCUURGPV OQTGVJCPǡJTJCXKPIJKU DQF[KPMGFD[JWPFTGFUQH VCVVQQCTVKUVU(KTUVJGJCFCHWNN EQNNGEVKQPQHEQNQWTHWNFGUKIPU HTQOCTQWPFVJGYQTNFVCVVQQGF QXGTJKUGPVKTGDQF[$WVVJCVYCU LWUVHQTUVCTVGTU*GPGZVQRVGF HQTCEQXGTKPIQHDNCEMKPM KPENWFKPIG[GNKFUVJGUMKPDGVYGGP VJGVQGUKPUKFGVJGGCTUCPFGXGPJKU IWOU*GKUPQYDGKPIVCVVQQGFYKVJ YJKVGFGUKIPUQPVQRQHVJGDNCEMCPF EQNQWTGFFGUKIPUQXGTVJGYJKVGБ /QUVDQF[OQFKƒECVKQPU EQWRNG 8KEVQT*WIQ2GTCNVC 74. circuses became centres of tattooing in Europe and the USA • Early tattooed attractions. has 139 human bones tattooed on his body. started touring in the 1820s /QUVVCVVQQGFOCP 6JGWNVKOCVGKPOWNVKNC[GTGFVCVVQQKPI KUTGRTGUGPVGFD[. reproducing part RIKLVVNHOHWRQDVYHULͤHGLQ Milan. ith He first had a sm juggling all club ink ed on his then coll hip. as of 5 Jun 2014. on 27 Apr 2011. DID YOU KNOW? Lucky b egan his ta o ttooing dyssey w hen trav elling w a circus. Most pierced OCP Largest group of life-size statues A group of 6. aka Rick Genest (CAN). He now push bounda es the ries of his layeri tattooing with ng conce pt. • A cartoon character: Lee Weir (NZ) had been tattooed with 41 portraits of Homer Simpson.

rather than strapping them to the limb as a whole. As of the same year. James Boysen (USA) was left without the top of his skull. Most sensitive bionic skin ances a ething that replaces or enh A bionic component is som CPKECN GEJ TQO NGEV QTG JCPGNGEVTQPKE RCTVQHVJGJWOCPDQF[YKV WN5QWVJ 5GQ UKP VKQP VKVW KPU HTQO GTU KORNCPV+PTGUGCTEJ WPEGF CUUCEJWUGVVU75#CPPQ -QTGCCPF%CODTKFIG/ 6JG MKP KEU KQP KED JGV [PV QHU CDTGCMVJTQWIJKPVJGƒGNF a lattice with ets she thin. While rods and pins have long been used in brokenbone repair. rubbery material takes the form of e thre re asu me can t of electronic sensors tha ature. out of a total of 118. sensory elements – temper  WTG QKUV PFO TGC UUW RTG FIRST… Bionic bone implant In Jul 2006. wh ri ct nerves te of ele la u to stim be used dy. in the bo 200 BCE 74 Humans were performed that year. According to the same source. A 15-hr QRGTCVKQPQPǡ/C[UCYJKOTGEGKXGRCTVKCNUMWNNCPFUECNR ITCHVUKPXQNXKPIRCKPUVCMKPIOKETQUWTIGT[*GCNUQTGEGKXGFC PGYMKFPG[CPFRCPETGCU6JGRTQEGFWTGVQQMRNCEGCV*QWUVQP /GVJQFKUV*QURKVCNKP6GZCU75#CPFKPXQNXGFUWTIKECNVGCOU HTQODQVJVJCVJQURKVCNCPFVJG#PFGTUQP%CPEGT%GPVGT Youngest organ donor On 1 Dec 2015. In 2011 – in collaboration with Sam Deadwyler and Robert Hampson at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center in North Carolina.325 kidney transfer operations OW? OU KN even be DID Yic y a skin m y: DATELINE n tivit This bio of sensi r in terms of senso ty adapted si n e rs. Bionic brain prosthesis The hippocampus is the part of the brain that forms and stores long-term memories.127 transplants – about 67% of all such operations.5 volts of electricity. had been completed for a method of attaching a titanium rod directly to human bone. 79. Hope Lee (UK) donated her kidneys and liver cells just 74 min after her birth. the d in areas n a th for finge r he .& TGRNCEGFCDQWVQHCUMWNNWUKPI&RTKPVKPIVGEJPQNQI[6JGRCVKGPVC[GCTQNF YQOCPUWHHGTGFHTQOCOGFKECNEQPFKVKQPVJCVOCFGJGTETCPKCNDQPGVJKEMGP6JGITQYKPI DQPGYCURWVVKPIRTGUUWTGQPJGTDTCKPCHHGEVKPIXKVCNDQF[HWPEVKQPU6JGQRGTCVKQPVQQM RNCEGCVVJG7PKXGTUKV[/GFKECN%GPVGT7VTGEJVKPVJG0GVJGTNCPFUCPFNCUVGFJT More than 95 organs were transplanted per million citizens. o th m a s a ll a such te sm rs genera ich can the senso cal current. UK. Iraq.MEDICAL MIRACLES Most extensive skull implant using 3D printing First skull and scalp transplant Following treatment for leiomyosarcoma (a rare form of cancer). Professor Theodore Berger (USA) has developed a working hippocampal prosthesis. scientists at University College London. USA – it was successfully tested with First battery An unknown inventor in what is now Baghdad. in 2013 Norway was the country with the most transplanted organs per million population. this was the ͤUVWWLPHWKDWWKHPHWDOURG protruded through the skin. According to the Global Observatory on Donation and Transplantation. . UK. discovers that by placing a copper cylinder and an iron rod in a ceramic pot filled with acid. +P0QXPGWTQUWTIGQP$QP8GTYGKLCPFOCZKNNQHCEKCNUWTIGQP/CTXKEM/WTCFKP DQVJ 0. Spain was the country with the most organ donations from deceased people. announced that early clinical trials at Mount Vernon Hospital in Middlesex. Most transplanted organ In 2013 – the most recent year for which statistics are available – the kidney was the most widely transplanted organ.3 organs donated per million of the population. it is possible to generate around 1. The aim is to enable direct attachment of prosthetic limbs to residual bone. with 35. ill be hig ctivated weave w When a unts e wrist.

the USA’s Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) developed the first prosthetic hand that could be controlled directly by the brain. This is fatal in 68% of cases.FAST FACTS In 2013. The prosthetic limb was developed by DARPA in collaboration with scientists from the Applied Physics Laboratory at Johns Hopkins University in Maryland. Egypt DID YOU KNOW? Frank th e artifici al huma is curre n ntly hou sed at th Smithso e nian Na tional A Space M ir and useum in Washin DC. USA gton. In 2013. . .. The operation took place at the Manchester Royal Eye Hospital. with survivors usually suffering paralysis. The hand was implanted in a 28-year-old man who had been paralysed for 10 years as a result of a spinal-cord injury. Fortunately. a trauma known as “internal decapitation”. It could also transmit tactile sensations (i. The input was analysed by an external processor array and appropriate responses were then generated to stimulate an output pattern.e. he conv with hu erses man mu seum-g through oers a laser-sc anned copy of  Prof Bert olt Meyer’s  own face .CEMUQP/GOQTKCN *QURKVCN75#QPǡ. The prosthesis uses electrodes to record both from the input and output nerve bundles of a damaged hippocampus. a sense of touch) allowing users to pick up delicate objects without damaging them. The computer is lost in a shipwreck and not rediscovered until 1901. Jaxon’s spinal cord did not snap.com 75 DATELINE Most bionic body parts KPǡCPǡCTVKƒEKCNǡJWOCP Bionic eye to overcome macular degeneration In Jul 2015. The breakthrough opens up the possibility of repairing brains damaged by diseases such as Alzheimer’s. Austrian scientists began growing pea-sized brains from cells to help with research into brain disease • Surgeons transplanted a robotic heart into a sheep in 2015 • Artificial toes dating from 900–600 BCE have been found in Luxor. FIRST PROSTHETIC HAND CONTROLLED BY THE BRAIN In Sep 2015. Macular degeneration is the most common cause of sight loss in the developed world. were able to repair Jaxon’s injury with complete success. was successfully tested on primates. There. ū(TCPMŬ UJQTVHQTū(TCPMGPUVGKPŬ KUCPGZRGTKOGPVVQUJQYVJCVC HWPEVKQPKPICTVKƒEKCNJWOCPDQF[ECPDGOCFGHTQODKQPKERCTVU 7PXGKNGFQPǡ1EV(TCPMŤYJQJCUKPFKXKFWCNDKQPKE DQF[RCTVUŤYCUKPURKTGFD[2TQH$GTVQNV/G[GT CDQXG PQY QH%JGOPKV\7PKXGTUKV[QH6GEJPQNQI[KP)GTOCP[CPFETGCVGF D[ǡ&CTNQY5OKVJUQP2TQFWEVKQPUCPF5JCFQY4QDQV DQVJ7-  live rats. Australia. the prosthesis Most organs transplanted in a single operation 5KZOQPVJQNF+VCNKCP#NGUUKCFK/CVVGQ Ť WPFGTYGPV VJGVTCPURNCPVQHGKIJVQTICPUKPCJTQRGTCVKQPCV*QNV\ %JKNFTGPŨU*QURKVCNCV7PKXGTUKV[QH/KCOK. This meant that his head was separated from his neck. 100% 100 BCE guinnessworldrecords. 16-monthold Jaxon Taylor (AUS) suffered the fracture of his ͤUVWWZRYHUWHEUDHDQGWKHLU ligaments as a result of a car accident. Surgeon Dr Geoffrey Askin and his team at the Lady Cilento Children’s Hospital in Brisbane. Ray Flynn (UK) became the ͤUVWSHUVRQWRKDYHD bionic eye implanted to recover the sight he had partially lost from macular degeneration.CP6JGQTICPUYGTGVJGNKXGT UVQOCEJRCPETGCUUOCNNCPFNCTIGKPVGUVKPGURNGGPCPFDQVJ MKFPG[U6TCIKECNN[#NGUUKCFKGFQHEQORNKECVKQPUYKVJKPC[GCT Child to survive ūKPVGTPCNǡFGECRKVCVKQPŬ In Oct 2015. This mimicked the way in which a healthy hippocampus functions. Oldest analogue computer A Greek inventor builds a complex mechanical computer. known today as the Antikythera Mechanism. USA. UK.

20 KUCLC\\GPUGODNGYJQUG OGODGTUJCFCPCXGTCIGCIGQHǡ[GCTUǡFC[UCUQHǡ. b. surr Kristal’s Haifa. left). 18 May 1914) abseiled down the Spinnaker Tower in Portsmouth. who died on 12 Jun 2013 aged 116 years 54 days. 13 Mar 1941) crossed from Shakespeare Beach OLDEST LIVING PEOPLE DATELINE As of 11 Mar 2016. Jeanne died at a nursing home in Arles. 24 Nov 1945). It will be toppled by an earthquake in 31 BCE. she survived hip surgery aged 114 years 11 months. y il fam ’t his large le: “I don ere simp r words w fo t e secre know th . as verified by the Gerontology Research Group and Jewish Records Indexing. which she celebrated with two parties. Woman to row across any ocean solo Diana Hoff (UK. The oldest man ever was Jiroemon Kimura (JPN. aged 73 years 177 days. Is r M . near Żarnów in Russia (now Poland). Ms Jones lives in Brooklyn. in Star #VNCPVKEǡ++. in Dover. The oldest English Channel swimmer (female) is Sue Oldham (AUS. who was aged 112 years 178 days. Since 1950 he has lived in Haifa.WN 5GGPCDQXGYKVJ)94CFLWFKECVQT-CQTW+UJKMCYC VJG[CTG0CQVGTW0CDGUJKOC XKDTCRJQPGǡ[GCTUǡFC[U QNFCDQXGNGHV <GPUJQ1VUWMC RKCPQǡ[GCTUǡFC[UQNF EGPVTG CPF0CQUWMG/K[COQVQ DCUUǡ[GCTUǡFC[UQNF TKIJV #NNJCXGOCKPVCKPGFCRCUUKQPHQTOWUKEHTQOVJGKTGCTN[ FC[UCPFHQTOGFVJGDCPFQPǡ5GR6JGKTTGRGTVQKTG ETQUUGUIGPTGUCPFKPENWFGUCLC\\XGTUKQPQH$GGVJQXGPŨU 2KCPQ5QPCVC0QKP%OKPQT1R ū2CVJȌVKSWGŬ  3WCNKƒGFRKNQV )GQTIG0GCN %#0ǡ0QXŤǡ#RT YCUUVKNNTGIWNCTN[ HN[KPINKIJVCKTETCHVCVVJGCIGQHǡ[GCTUǡFC[UCUXGTKƒGFQP ǡ. 21 Nov 1938) became the oldest woman to climb Everest when she summitted – for the second time – on 19 May 2012. on 8 Aug 2010. on 12 Jul 2015. Doris Cicely Long MBE (UK. 75 BCE 76 Humans Oldest synagogue The Wadi Qelt Synagogue is erected as part of the Hasmonean Winter Palace complex on the road between Jericho and Jerusalem in the Middle East. who made the crossing in 17 hr 11 min. b. France. Abseiler Aged 101 years 55 days. Israel. 1 May 1944) was 55 years 135 days old at the start of her crossing of the Atlantic east to west solo.” long life In 1990. Born on 21 Feb 1875. b. Ugo Sansonetti (ITA. b. b. on 6 Sep 2014. 19 Apr 1897). UK. at the age of 73 years 180 days. Person to climb Everest Yuichiro Miura (JPN. to Wissant Bay near Calais in France in 12 hr 52 min.OLDEST… $CPF 6JG)QNFGP5GPKQT6TKQ CNN. b. on 4 Aug 1997. Mr Kristal was born on 15 Sep 1903 in the village of Maleniec. b. b. New York City. b. where she received her certificate just before her 116th birthday. Person to fly in zero gravity At 86 years 90 days old.000 m. making her the oldest surgery patient. English Channel swimmer Otto Thaning (ZAF. UK. the oldest living man was Israel Kristal (ISR.WP)GQTIGYJQJCFJKUƒTUVHN[KPINGUUQPCVVJGCIGQH JCFCTGOCTMCDNG[GCTECTGGTCUCVGUVRKNQVYKVJFGǡ*CXKNNCPF CPFYGPVQPVQHN[JKUQYPCKTETCHVC&*%%JKROWPM Person (ever) Jeanne Louise Calment (FRA) lived for 122 years 164 days. W? U KNO s Marco DID YaO rd co e R f do l sta GWR He Israel Kri awarded him as g in Frigatti rm fi cate con e in his certifi t his hom st man a by e d ld e o d e n th ou rael. This also made him the oldest person to climb a mountain over 8. Tamae Watanabe (JPN. 10 Jan 1919) took D]HURJUDYLW\ͥLJKW . between 13 Sep 1999 and 5 Jan 2000. aged 64 years 257 days. Susannah Mushatt Jones (USA. 12 Oct 1932) reached the peak of Everest on 23 May 2013 at 80 years 223 days. She is the oldest living person. right) was 116 years 303 days old as of 4 May 2016. 6 Jul 1899.

20 ǡ/C[ ǡ[TǡFC[U ǡ[TǡFC[U  'WFQZKG$CDQWN (4# ǡ1EV ǡ[TǡFC[U  #PC8GNC4WDKQ '52 ǡ1EV ǡ[TǡFC[U ǡ[TǡFC[U  /KVUWG6Q[QFC .CEMEQOOGPVGFū+ŨF TCVJGTDGFQKPIVJKUVJCPJCXKPICJCKTEWVŬGood Morning Britain +687- VQQMWRJKUUVQT[CPFƒNOGFJKOTGEGKXKPIJKU)94 EGTVKƒECVGCVǡJQOGVJGPGZVFC[ 2GTUQPVQNCPFQPVJG/QQP On 4 Feb 1971. a Grammy in 1979 (Best Spoken Word. an Oscar in 1982 (Best Actor in a Supporting Role: Arthur. 23 were born in Japan • The odds of you reaching 120 years old are 1 in 10 billion Silver URQTVUǡUVCTU 6JGoldest bodybuilder KU. an Oscar and a Tony. Dame Vera Lynn (UK.20 Source: Gerontology Research Group is an acronym for the feat of winning an Emmy. Only 12 individuals have earned an EGOT. who achieved his in 1991 at the age of 87 years 133 days. from the Greek geron (“old man”) and logos (“explanation”) • Of the 50 people aged 110 or more.CEMQŬKPMGFQPJKUWRRGTCTOCV2GVG9JQŨU 6CVVQQUKP%JGUVGTƒGNF7-#TGNCZGF.WN ǡ[TǡFC[U 2 'OOC/QTCPQ/CTVKPW\\K +6# ǡ0QX ǡ[TǡFC[U  8KQNGV$TQYP .#/ ǡ/CT  0CDK6CLKOC . b. Little Fish). Person to release CǡPGYǡCNDWO Aged 97 years 74 days. Winner of an EGOT Known as the “Grand Slam of Show Business”.QUGRJKPG)CWFGVVG +6# ǡ/CT ǡ[TǡFC[U ǡ#RT ǡ[TǡFC[U  . Alan Shepard (USA. He won: a Tony in 1961 (Best Director of a Drama: Big Fish. 18 Nov 1923) was 47 years 78 days old when he walked on the Moon during the Apollo 14 lunar mission. As of 4 May 2016.CEM 4G[PQNFU 7-Dǡǡ#RT JCFCVCVVQQQHJKUQYPFGUKIP TGCFKPIū. there were 49 women in the 50 oldest living supercentenarians and only one man. EGOT OLDEST SUPERCENTENARIANS A “supercentenarian” is anyone who is aged 110 years or more.QPGU 75# ǡ. Vera Welch.KO#TTKPIVQP 75# Dǡǡ5GRNGHV CIGF ǡ[GCTUǡFC[UYJGP EQORGVKPICVCRTQHGUUKQPCN DQF[DWKNFKPIEQORGVKVKQPKP 8GPKEG%CNKHQTPKCQPǡ5GR .20 ǡ#WI ǡ[TǡFC[U  %JK[Q/K[CMQ . 20 Mar 1917) launched compilation album National Treasure – The Ultimate Collection (Decca) on 2 Jun 2014. a Grammy. Australian artist Herbert Henry “Smoky” Dawson MBE (19 Mar 1913–13 Feb 2008) is the oldest person to release an album of new material. the oldest being British actor/ director John Gielgud (14 Apr 1904–21 May 2000). He was 92 years 156 days old when Homestead of My Dreams came out on 22 Aug 2005. b. Documentary or Drama Recording: Ages of Man).FAST FACTS The study of ageing and the elderly is known as “gerontology”.20 ǡ(GD  /CTKG.WMKG*KPQ .KOYJQJCUDGGP DQF[DWKNFKPIHQTOQTGVJCP ǡ[GCTUECOGHQWTVJQWVQH OQTGVJCPǡEQPVGUVCPVU %QORGVKVKXGURTKPVGT *KFGMKEJK/K[C\CMK .CRCPQPǡ5GRVJG VJKTFEQPUGEWVKXG[GCTVJCV JGJCUDGEQOGVJGoldest sprinter/T/K[C\CMKTCP VJGǡOTCEGKPǡUGE 2GTUQPVQTGEGKXGVJGKTƒTUVVCVVQQ 1Pǡ#RTŤVQEGNGDTCVGJKUVJDKTVJFC[Ť. 1 Name Born Age 5WUCPPCJ/WUJCVV.20 Dǡ5GRTKIJV YCU ǡ[GCTUCPFQPGǡFC[QNF YJGPJGTCPKPVJG-[QVQ /CUVGTU#VJNGVKEU#WVWOP %QORGVKVKQPKP-[QVQ .

WN TKIJV DGECOGVJG oldest astronautCVVJG CIGQHǡ[GCTUǡFC[U YJGPJGYCUNCWPEJGF CURC[NQCFURGEKCNKUVQP VJG5655RCEG5JWVVNG OKUUKQP+PPKPGFC[UVJG ETGYEQPFWEVGFPGCTN[ ǡGZRGTKOGPVU 6JGoldest astronaut (female) KU$CTDCTC/QTICP 75#Dǡǡ0QX KPUGV YJQYCUǡ[GCTU ǡFC[UQNFYJGPUJG NKHVGFQHHQPVJG565 OKUUKQPVQVJGInternational Space Station (ISS QP ǡ#WI/QTICPŨUTQNGU KPENWFGFGFWECVQTCPF TQDQVKECTOQRGTCVQT Longest-lasting empire After thwarting Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE.QJP )NGPP 75#Dǡǡ. on 10 Apr 2005. onths a nd nine after he days became Americ th e first an to orb it the Ea On 20 F rth. Octavian dissembles the Roman Republic and appoints himself Emperor Augustus.DQGͤQDOO\DQ Emmy in 1991 (Outstanding Lead Actor in a Miniseries or Special: Summer’s Lease). . he circ led the globe th ree tim es in 4 hr 56 m in. USA. 27 BCE guinnessworldrecords. eb 1962 . DID YO U KNOW? Researc h missi on STS-9 returne 5 d space John Gle p nn to orb ioneer it 36 yea eight m rs.com 77 DATELINE RQDPRGLͤHG%RHLQJ in Fort Lauderdale. Astronauts 1Pǡ1EV. Florida. The new Roman Empire will endure for 503 years.

Hayden. Russia.WP lived in Shuya. Shigetsugu Anan and Yasuko Nakatake both crossed the line in 6 hr 42 min 28 sec.43 kg) in 2006.WP CPF&QTGGP-KTD[ 7-née . with Consolata aged 106. . Quadruplets born to the same mother Valentina Vassilyev.FAMILY VALUES Consolata. Charles. into the world on 22 Aug 1907.WEMKGDǡ5GR YJGPVJG[YGTGOCTTKGFKP'CUVDQWTPG 'CUV5WUUGZ7-QPǡ. the nine siblings’ total age was 837 years 6 days. was born only one ounce heavier. Augusta Bunge (USA) became the matriarch of a sevengeneration family. in the 18th century. Violet is also believed to be the last living subject of Queen Victoria. Keanu and Phoenix. while the youngest member of their group. 1903–2005) had a total motherdaughter age of 215! 40 CE 78 Humans The highest combined age for a living parent and child. Highest age of 12 living siblings 6JGEJKNFTGPQH/CIPWUCPF'NUGDGVJ1NUGP &'0 ŤCNNQH YJQOYGTGDQTPKPVJG(CTQG+UNCPFUDGVYGGPCPF ŤJCFCEQODKPGFCIGITGCVGTVJCPCOKNNGPPKWO[GCTU ǡFC[U6JGƒXGUKUVGTUCPFUGXGPDTQVJGTUJCFVJGKTEQODKPGF CIGEQPƒTOGFQPǡ#WI HIGHEST AGE OF… DATELINE A parent and child Sarah Knauss (USA. Centenarian siblings The Clarke family (IRL) lays FODLPWRͤYHFHQWHQDULDQV Joseph. Longest Roman aqueduct Roman engineers complete a 275-m-long (902-ft) aqueduct – known today as the Pont du Gard – to supply the settlement of Nemausus (present-day Nîmes in France) with clean drinking water. Nine living siblings Francesco Melis and his wife Eleonora Mameli (both ITA) welcomed WKHLUͤUVWFKLOG Three generations to run a marathon At the Tokyo Marathon on 22 Feb 2015. all weighed precisely 7 lb 8 oz (3. is 210 years 48 days. meanwhile. who Oldest couple to marry CIITGICVGǡCIG 6JGEQODKPGFCIGQHVJGQNFGUVEQWRNGVQOCTT[KUǡ[GCTU ǡFC[U6JGNCPFOCTMYCUCEJKGXGFD[NQXGUVTWEMEQWRNG )GQTIG-KTD[ 7-Dǡ.4 kg) when they were born between 2007 and 2013. 15 Apr 1920) on 21 Apr 2015. ͤQLVKHGVHFHDUOLHU MOST… Living generations On the birth of her great-great-great-great grandson in 1989. Her overall total of 69 children easily makes her the most SUROL̨FPRWKHU. Suguru Nakatake. raced their way into the record books. daughter and grandson. 10 Mar 1900) and Harland Fairweather (b. On 30 Dec 1999. the 119-year-old and her 96-year-old daughter Kathryn Knauss Sullivan (USA. Patrick. She also bore seven sets of triplets and 16 pairs of twins. MOST SIBLINGS WITH THE SAME BIRTH WEIGHT Oliver. three of the four sons of Megan and Luke Bell from Queensland. with a combined age of 173 years 163 days. 1880– 1999) was once the oldest living woman. set by Jamaican mother and son Violet Brown (b. Incredibly. Over the next 27 years. gave birth to four sets of quads. James and Margaret. By 20 Jun 2014. The UHFRUGZDVFRQͤUPHGRQ Margaret’s 100th birthday on 30 May 2014. Australia. weighing in at 7 lb 9 oz (3. the Bells’ first son. she would be joined by eight brothers and sisters. a Japanese grandfather.

ͤYHGDXJKWHUVRI1DUDQGUD Nath and Taramoni Roy PDUULHGͤYHVRQVRI Trarpoda Karmaker and Khana Rani Roy (all BGD).11 people vs the average 2.63 • In the USA.FAST FACTS The British royal family celebrates each new baby with a 41-gun salute • Among OECD countries. 1Pǡ1EV CVVJG&WDNKP/CTCVJQPTGNCVKXGU RKEVWTGF  HTQOOWNVKRNGIGPGTCVKQPUVQQMVQVJGVTCEM6JGHCUVGUV YCUǡ*KNNCT[*WIJGUYJQTCPCVKOGQHǡJTǡOKPǡUGE Siblings to marry siblings from another family Between 1977 and 1996. continuing a long lineage of acting talent. great-grandfather Maurice Costello and her father John D Barrymore. grandfather John.LWDNLCPC5NQXGPKCQPǡ#RT star.T. the historian Tacitus.com 79 DATELINE %NC[VQP 75#TKIJV QPǡ. destroying of the town of Pompeii. where she felt happiest . who boasts two stars. s taken in by va relative rious s. The Roman politician and writer Pliny the Younger writes two letters to his friend. but ag ed 14 sh 2TQXKPIVJCVKVŨUPGXGTVQQNCVGVQDGCFQRVGF/CT[$CPMU to live w e moved ith Muri e 5OKVJǡ 75#NGHV YCUCIGFǡ[GCTUǡFC[UYJGPCEQWTV l. She joined her great uncle Lionel Barrymore. E. along with great aunt Ethel. detailing the events and their aftermath in great detail. Italy. $TQVJGTU#TEJKG. KPǡ&CNNCU6GZCUFGENCTGFJGTVJGFCWIJVGTQH/WTKGN$CPMU Oldest adoptee Most leap-year generations in one family 'XGT[HQWT[GCTU2GVGT#PVJQP[-GQIJ +4'DEGPVTG  JKUUQP2GVGT'TKE 7-DTKIJV CPFJKUITCPFFCWIJVGT $GVJCP[ 7-DǡNGHV JCXGVJGKTDKTVJFC[UQPǡ(GD First documented volcanic eruption Mount Vesuvius erupts. who each have one.[TMK/CTMWUCPF2CUK*KPVUCNC CNNǡ(+0 YGPVJGCFVQJGCFCVVJGCPPWCN8GJMCOCCP OQVQTǡTCEGKP. grandmother Dolores Costello. Turkey has the largest average household: 4. child star Drew Barrymore (USA) became the seventh member of her family to be honoured with a gold DID Y OU KNO Mary an W? d Murie l are act cousins ually firs by blood t .KOKPMC(KPNCPFQPǡ#WI Family members on the Hollywood Walk of Fame In 2004. the average marrying age is 28 Most family members to complete a marathon Most siblings to play in an international rugby union match 6JGOCLQTKV[QHWUEJGGTQPNQXGFQPGUHTQOVJGUKFGNKPGU CVCOCTCVJQPDWVPQVVJG*WIJGUHCOKN[ +4.CEM(TCPM)GQTIGCPF/CZ5MQƒE CNN580  RNC[GFHQTVJGKTEQWPVT[KPC'WTQRGCP0CVKQPU%WRICOGCICKPUV $WNICTKCCV2CTM5KUMCKP. 79 CE guinnessworldrecords.WP+PFQKPIUQ/WTKGNCNUQ DGECOGVJGǡoldest adoptive parentCIGF[GCTUFC[U $QVJYQOGPYGTGFGNKIJVGFD[VJGNQPIEQOKPICHƒTOCVKQP YKVJǡ/CT[EQOOGPVKPIū+HGGNXGT[JCRR[5JGJCUDGGP/QO HQTǡCǡNQPIǡVKOGCPFPQYKVŨUQHƒEKCNŬ . e r were Aft her moth er her father die d and er was in st itutiona Mary wa lized. Most siblings to compete KPǡCǡOQVQTURQTVEQORGVKVKQP $TQVJGTU#TVQ/CVVK#TK. That’s eight gold stars for the family altogether. Mary’s and Muri father el’s moth siblings.

8 in) on 8 Feb 2011. the tallest living human is Sultan Kösen (TUR). • Beard ever: When he died in 1927.Qǡ5JQYFGK4GEQTFKP4QOG+VCN[QPǡ/CT LONGEST… TALLEST… • Man and person: Currently.7 in) from the wrist to the tip of his middle ͤQJHU7KHVHDUHWKH largest feet ever and the largest hands ever. or UK size 36 – equivalent to 47 cm (18.5 in) long – and his hands measured 32. who performed the measurements.QWKUǡ/KUUQWTK75#QPǡ. on 27 Jun 1940. who measured 251 cm (8 ft 2.1 in) tall. respectively. see above. • Woman: Siddiqa Parveen (IND) measured at least 222.6 cm (7 ft 8 in).4 in) tall in Dec 2012. it’s impossible to ascertain her exact stature. Robert Pershing Wadlow (USA) was 272 cm (8 ft 11. His shoe size was 37AA.2 cm (7 ft 3. For the tallest man ever.BODY EXTREMES Tallest man ever When last measured. Largest afro 6[NGT9TKIJV 75# KUVJGRTQWFQYPGTQHCJGCFQHJCKTVJCVOGCUWTGUǡEO ǡKP JKIJ ǡEOǡ ǡKP YKFGCPFǡEO ǡHVǡKP KPEKTEWOHGTGPEG6[NGTŨUCHTQYCUOGCUWTGFKP 5Vǡ. Owing to Siddiqa’s ill health and her inability to stand upright. however. estimated her standing height to be at least 233. Hans N Langseth’s (NOR) beard measured 5. Dr Debashish Saha.3 cm (12.33 m IWLQ.WPYJGPJGYCUǡ[GCTUǡQNF The largest afro (female)DGNQPIUVQ#GXKP&WICU 75# +VǡOGCUWTGFǡEO ǡKP JKIJ ǡEOǡ ǡKP YKFGCPFJCFCEKTEWOHGTGPEGQHǡEO ǡHVǡKP YJGPXGTKƒGFQPVJGUGV QHǡ.

6 cm (21. It is designed by the architect Apollodorus of Damascus. 1939–2015). • Beard on a living person: Sarwan Singh (CAN) had a beard measuring 2. After his death. though the opposite is usually true.7 in) tall on 16 Dec 2011. was shorter than the shortest non-mobile living man. in 1967. far left) measured 62. .8 cm (24.495 m (8 ft 2. At 54. • Fingernails on a pair of hands ever (male): 7KHQDLOVRI0HOYLQ%RRWKH (USA) had a combined length of 9.Qǡ5JQYFGK4GEQTFLQ0DGULG Spain. Chandra.5 in) long as of 8 Sep 2011. who was mobile.4 in) tall on 14 Oct 2010. DC. Canada.ORQJ7KH record-breaking facial hair was presented to the Smithsonian Institution in Washington. he remains the shortest man ever. USA.08 cm (26.5 in) tall.5 in). we have said a farewell to Chandra Bahadur Dangi (NPL. British Columbia. 112 CE 80 Humans First shopping mall Located in Rome. on 23 Feb 2008.8 in) when measured RQ0D\ • Fingernails on a pair of hands ever (female): Lee Redmond (USA) started to JURZKHUͤQJHUQDLOVLQ She carefully manicured them to reach an overall length of 8. DVFRQͤUPHGRQWKHVHWRI . • Man: Since GWR 2016.93 cm (23.65 m (28 ft 4.6 in) tall on 12 Jun 2011. Italy. centre left). near left). Sarwan leads the congregation of the Guru Nanak Sikh temple.85 m (32 ft 3. The shortest living man (mobile) is once more Khagendra Thapa Magar (NPL. who stood 67. located in Surrey. who was 59. …AND SHORTEST DATELINE • Woman: Jyoti Amge (IND. Trajan’s Forum includes a covered market area with 150 shops and offices set over six gallery levels. The shortest living man (non-mobile) is Junrey Balawing (PHL. GWR re-opened separate categories for the record.

Indian monk Swami Pandarasannadhi was reported to have hair 26 ft P. only primates have fingernails • The human tongue “print” is unique – just like a fingerprint Youngest female with a full beard *CTPCCO-CWT 7-Dǡ0QX YCU CIGFǡ[GCTUǡFC[UYJGPUJGYCU EQPƒTOGFVQJCXGCHWNNDGCTFKP5NQWIJ 7-QPǡ5GR*CTPCCODGICPVQITQY HCEKCNJCKTCVVJGCIGQH5JGKUCPǡCXKF DQF[EQPƒFGPEGCPF CPVKDWNN[KPICEVKXKUV The longest beard on a woman is that QHǡ8KXKCP9JGGNGT 75#TKIJV *GT HCEKCNJCKTOGCUWTGF ǡEO ǡKP  HTQOHQNNKENGVQVKRQP the set of .FAST FACTS Hair retains a short-term record of the substances in the bloodstream – which is why it is so useful as forensic evidence • Of all the mammals.Qǡ5JQY FGK4GEQTFKP/KNCP+VCN[QPǡ#RT ū+VTGCNN[JGNRGFVQJCXGCǡ)WKPPGUU9QTNF 4GEQTFŬ8KXKCPVQNFǡ)94ū+VǡUJQYGFOG +ǡEQWNFDGRTQWFQHǡDGKPIOGǡ+VOCFGOG HGGNNKMG+ǡJCFCǡEJCPEGKPǡUQEKGV[Ŭ • Hair (male): In 1949.

• Hair (female)7KHKDLU of Xie Qiuping (CHN) measured 5. which makes the hair so matted that it cannot be untangled.LQOHQJWK7KLV may have been caused by a scalp condition called plica neuropathica.627 m (18 ft LQ.

RQ0D\ She began growing her lengthy locks in 1973.Q5JQY FGK4GEQTFLQ5RPHRQ0DU 2010.29 m) long. the moustache of Ram Singh Chauhan (IND) was 14 ft (4. • Moustache: When measured for Italy’s . • Nose on a living person: 7KHQRVHRI0HKPHW ˜]\¾UHN 785.

PHDVXUHG 8. • Tongue (female): Chanel 7DSSHU̵V 86$. from its tip to the middle of the closed top lip.97 in) long.46 in) long from the bridge to the tip when UHFRUGHGRQ0DU • Tongue: Nick Stoeberl (USA) had a tongue 10. as of 27 Nov 2012.1 cm (3.8 cm (3.

th s in a pa e ir of fee around t represe 25% of a nt ll the bo adult hu n e s in an man’s sk eleton. T in the fi he bone ngers an s d toes are called p halange s. scles T aken tog 52 bone ether.com 81 DATELINE Longest eyebrow hair • Man ever: Jon Brower 0LQQRFK 86$̰. ints.75 cm (3.QPFQP7-QPǡ5GR/CZYGNNYCU FKUEQXGTGFCVVJG/KPGETCHVEQPHGTGPEG/KPGEQPŤJG UCYCRKEVWTGQHVJGRTGXKQWUTGEQTFJQNFGTCPFVQNFC )WKPPGUU9QTNF4GEQTFUVGCOOGODGTVJCVJGEQWNFDTGCM VJGTGEQTF+PHCEV/CZYGNNECPTQVCVGDQVJJKUHGGVCNVJQWIJ JGECPūQPN[ŬTQVCVGJKUNGHVHQQVo First use of gas warfare Persian forces attacking the Roman garrison of Dura-Europos in eastern Syria dig tunnels to try to gain access. They ignite bitumen and sulphur crystals to fill the tunnels with noxious fumes.CP The longest ear hairKUQPN[OCTIKPCNN[UJQTVGT#PVJQP[8KEVQT +0& JCUJCKTURTQWVKPIHTQOVJGEGPVTGQHJKUQWVGTGCTU OKFFNG QHVJGRKPPC VJCVOGCUWTGUǡEO KP CVKVUNQPIGUVRQKPV )TGCVGUVHQQVǡTQVCVKQP /CZYGNN&C[ 7- KUCDNGVQTQVCVGJKUTKIJVHQQVVJTQWIJ oCUXGTKƒGFKP. 26 b ones an d 19 mu in a foot. HEAVIEST… <JGPI5JWUGP %*0 JCUQPGG[GDTQYJCKTVJCVGZVGPFGFVQ ǡEO ǡKP YJGPOGCUWTGFCV/CP\JQWNK+PPGT/QPIQNKC %JKPCQPǡ. DID YOU KNOW? There are 107 liga 33 jo ments.WRQJXH measured 9. 254 CE guinnessworldrecords.8 in) long on 29 Sep 2010.

200 lb (544 kg. weighed over 1. • Living woman: As of 0D\3DXOLQH Potter (USA) weighed 643 lb (291. 100 st) when DVVHVVHGLQ0DU • Woman ever: Rosalie Bradford (USA.6 kg.400 lb (635 kg. 85 st) in Jan 1987. 1943–2006) was reported to have a peak weight of 1. 46 st). .

’s F e h in : e names .RECORDOLOGY ? KNOEW U sh li O g n Y DID e creation of . . a guide for pilgrims going from France to Jerusalem. Charli a in ic ly r il e W Am . It gives recommendations for hostels. many. inns and stables along the route. North in Ger nmark r e e D lt a in W er d y. The DATELINE rd is th Handfo any Wally m Martin r y b to s a e tr o g illus ed boy ldo in tt a a W -h s a bobble known rance. Holg n a a w r n o e N n Swed ! Hugo i ly o in Ita ld a b U 330 CE Oldest travel guide An anonymous traveller writes the Itinerarium Burdigalense.

so that the pole could be slightly increased in height. Ireland.com 83 DATELINE Where’s Wally? If you were at the Street Performance World Championship at Merrion Square West in Dublin. dies atop the 15-m (50-ft) pillar on which he had sat for the previous 39 years. 459 CE guinnessworldrecords.WP[QWYQWNFJCXGUGGPJKOGXGT[YJGTGБ+PVQVCN ǡRCTVKEKRCPVUFQPPGF9CNN[ŨUVTCFGOCTMURGEUDQDDNGJCV CPFǡTGFUVTKRGU#PFKVYCUCNNKPCIQQFECWUGRTQEGGFUTCKUGF HTQOVJGUCNGQH9CNN[QWVƒVUQPVJGFC[YGTGUWDUGSWGPVN[ FQPCVGFVQ#HTKECǡ#YCTGCP+TKUJEJCTKV[YQTMKPIKP/CNCYK . He came down just once.CONTENTS RECORDOLOGY FACTOGRAPHIC 84 FOOD 86 GARDEN GIANTS 88 CHOCOLATE 90 COLLECTIONS 92 MASS PARTICIPATION 94 COSPLAY 96 BIG STUFF 98 SMALLTOWN BIG STUFF 100 BALL SKILLS 102 Largest gathering of RGQRNGǡFTGUUGFǡCU9CNN[ Longest pole-sitting overall St Simeon the Stylite. on ǡ. a Christian mystic and hermit.

To celebrate the work of our global team of photographers. they also symbolize the diversity and scope of record-breaking… PICTURE THIS! FACTOGRAPHIC = +PYGDTQWIJVVQIGVJGTVJG mightiest and meekest dogs for CRJQVQUJQQVKP5CETCOGPVQ %CNKHQTPKC75##VǡEO ǡKP VQVJGUJQWNFGT)TGCV &CPG)KDUQPYCUVKOGUVCNNGT VJCP%JKJWCJWC$QQ$QQCVLWUV ǡEO ǡKP Б TALLEST AND SHORTEST DOGS Bog snorkelling ǡO ǡHV  %[ENKPI ǡMO ǡOK +P&QPCNF#)QTUMG 75# EGNGDTCVGFJKUVJCPPKXGTUCT[CUCEWUVQOGT QHVJGHCUVHQQFEJCKP/E&QPCNFŨUD[EQPUWOKPIJKUVJ$KI/CEБ&QPCNF KUUWEJCHCPQHVJGDWTIGTEJCKPVJCVJGŨUGCVGPCVQPGQHVJGKTQWVNGVUGXGT[ UKPINGFC[UKPEG/C[+H[QWVQQMVJG DGGHHTQOCNNVJG$KI/CEUVJCV&QPCNFŨU GCVGPKPJKUNKHGVKOG[QWŨFDGHCEGFYKVJ CUKPINGVQPPG ND DWTIGT RCVV[OGCUWTKPICOCOOQVJǡO ǡHV ǡKP YKFGCPFǡEO ǡKP VJKEMБ MOST BIG MACS EATEN 4WPPKPI ǡMO ǡOK The fastest time to complete the World Bog Snorkelling 6TKCVJNQPKUǡJTǡOKPǡUGECPFYCUCEJKGXGFD[0CVCNKG $GPV 7- CVVJG9QTNF$QI5PQTMGNNKPI6TKCVJNQPKP .8 t ost cars p 1 5).145 9 heav 7 . the Guinness World Records Picture Editors criss-cross the planet in search of the most striking record-holder images.NCPYTV[F9GNNU9CNGU7-QPǡ. These iconic record holders are not only inspiring. we present here 10 of our favourite images snapped for the last few editions of the book.1Pǡ5GR4GXGTGPF-GXKP(CUVQH1PVCTKQ%CPCFC RWNNGFC%%)NQDGOCUVGT+++YGKIJKPICPKPETGFKDNG ǡVQPPGU ǡND *GJCWNGFVJGCKTETCHVCVVJG %CPCFKCP(QTEGU$CUGKP6TGPVQP1PVCTKQ%QKPEKFGPVCNN[ VJG)NQDGOCUVGT+++YGKIJGFCNOQUVGZCEVN[VJGUCOGCUVJG largest blue whaleGXGTOGCUWTGF ǡVQPPGUǡND QPǡ/CT  HEAVIEST AIRCRAFT PULLED kK  m It too ne 8.WN FASTEST COMPLETION OF THE BOG SNORKELLING TRIATHLON (FEMALE) -KO)QQFOCP 75# KUCVTWN[eye-conic TGEQTFJQNFGTБ5JGKUCDNGVQRQRJGT RGGRGTUQWVQHVJGKTUQEMGVUD[CP G[GYCVGTKPIǡOO ǡKP CU EQPƒTOGFKP+UVCPDWN6WTMG[KP FARTHEST EYEBALL PROTRUSION . fascinating ambassadors for GWR. s onne u l le d (35. ( m ly s u o ltane simu ? NOW to U K m O 16 sec n Y i D DI evin Fast 1 (28 ft 10 in). Every year.8 cle-bound s he pla re pull t ng the mu ords a er r e c le d A mo h t o pu l ter’s minis est house  lb) and i .

[PEJ 7-TKIJV UJQYUVJGGZVGPVQHVJGKTRKGTEKPIU#VVJGNCUVEQWPVVJGRKGTEGF RCKTRQUUGUUGFCEQODKPGFVQVCNQHǡTKPIUUVWFUCPFTQFU#UUWOKPI ǡI ǡQ\ RGTRKGTEKPIVJKUGSWCVGUVQGPQWIJOGVCNVQ RTQFWEGUQFCECPUБ MOST PIERCED WOMAN AND MOST PIERCED SENIOR CITIZEN (CPP[KUCTCFKQEQPVTQNNGFTQDQVFTCIQPOGCUWTKPI ǡO ǡHVǡKP NQPID[ǡO ǡHVǡKP VCNN5JGYCU OCFGD[<QNNPGT'NGMVTQPKM#) &'7 KP<CPFV)GTOCP[ HQTCPCPPWCNHQNMNQTGHGUVKXCN6JGVGTTKH[KPIETGCVWTG KURQYGTGFD[CNKVTGVWTDQFKGUGNGPIKPGCPFYGKIJU ǡVQPPGU ǡND ŤCDQWVVJGUCOGCU-QOQFQ FTCIQPUCVEǡMI ǡND VJGTGCNYQTNFŨUlargest lizard LARGEST MONSTER TRUCK %QWPVGF 7PEQWPVGF 5VGXG5CPUYGGV 75# JCUEQNNGEVGFUQ OCP[RKGEGUQHOGOQTCDKNKCTGNCVKPI VQJKUHCXQWTKVGOQXKGHTCPEJKUGVJCV JGECPŨVNQIVJGOHCUVGPQWIJ#UVJKU RCEMGFRKEVWTGUJQYUJGJCUCNQV of 5VCTǡ9CTUKVGOUCVVJGNCUV QHƒEKCNEQWPV*QYGXGTJGQYPUCP GUVKOCVGFKVGOUKPVQVCN OCMKPIJKUQHƒEKCNEQWPVCOGTG QHJKUCEVWCNEQNNGEVKQP LARGEST COLLECTION OF STAR WARS MEMORABILIA .QWKUCPFOCMGU QEECUKQPCNCRRGCTCPEGUCVNQECNUJQYU6KRRKPIVJGUECNGUCVC YJQRRKPIǡND ǡMI KVŨUGSWKXCNGPVKP YGKIJVVQVJTGGDWNN#HTKECPGNGRJCPVUБ = = 6JKUKPETGFKDNGRQTVTCKVQH'NCKPG&CXKFUQP 7-D$4#NGHV CPF.WN6JGpawesome RQQEJEQXGTGFǡO ǡHV QPC UEQQVGTKPǡUGEŤCXGTCIKPI CURGGFQHǡǡMOJ ǡORJ  +VJCUDGGPGUVKOCVGFVJCVVJG CXGTCIGFQIKUCUKPVGNNKIGPV CUCVYQ[GCTQNFEJKNF ŤCPFGXGPECRCDNGQH DCUKECTKVJOGVKEБ FASTEST 30 M ON A SCOOTER BY A DOG + LARGEST WALKING ROBOT = $KIHQQVKUǡO ǡHVǡKP VCNNYKVJOVCNN HV V[TGU$WKNVKP CUQPGKPCUGTKGUQHD[$QD%JCPFNGTQH5V.QWKU/KUUQWTK 75#$KIHQQVKUPQYRGTOCPGPVN[RCTMGFKP5V.= 0QTOCPVJG5EQQVGT&QIQYPGFD[-CTGP %QDD 75# UGVVJKUWPWUWCNURGGF TGEQTFKP/CTKGVVC)GQTIKC75# QPǡ.QJP.

Italy. That’s some feat: the Carolina Reaper is the hottest chilli. Grown by the PuckerButt Pepper Company (USA). UK. The tallest ice-cream cone measured 3. it averages 1.56-m² (1. on 12 Apr 2015. 650 CE 86 Recordology Largest hoard of Anglo-Saxon treasure A veteran soldier buries 5 kg (11 lb) of gold in Staffordshire. Philippines.62 sec in Taguig. though. Norway. South Africa. he topped his own record of 109 scoops. )TGCVGUVYGKIJVQH %CTQNKPCǡ4GCRGTEJKNNKGU GCVGPKPQPGǡOKPWVG Russel Todd (USA) scoffed 70 g (2. on 26 Jul 2015. In doing so. UK. UGTXGFWRCUVGY YGKIJKPIMI NDQ\ YJKEJVQQMJTVQRTGRCTG KP%CKTQ'I[RV1PGQH'I[RVŨUPCVKQPCNFKUJGUfoul (aka ful QTǡfoule KPENWFGUEQQMGFHCXCDGCPUQRVKQPCNN[UGCUQPGF YKVJNGOQPLWKEGCPFCOKZQHJGTDUCPFURKEGU Carolina Reaper chillies in 60 sec in New York.CTIGUVXGIGVCDNGUVGY 1P/CT-PQTT(KPG(QQFU '). an annual celebration of the ice-cream that the Val di Zoldo area produces. When it comes to cones. /QUVGZRGPUKXGUCPFYKEJ The “Quintessential Grilled Cheese” was selling for $214 (£132.FOOD . on ǡ5GR%QORTKUKPIEWRECMGUKVYCUETGCVGFCUC VTKDWVGVQVJG5RTKPIDQMUHQTVJG4WID[9QTNF%WRCUYGNN CUCHWPFTCKUGTHQT%JKNFJQQF%CPEGT#YCTGPGUU/QPVJ . one towers above all the rest. MOST ICE-CREAM SCOOPS BALANCED ON A CONE DATELINE Dimitri Panciera (ITA) carefully balanced 121 scoops of ice-cream on a single cone in Forno di Zoldo.26 in) and was made by HennigOlsen Is AS and Trond L Wøien (both NOR) at Kristiansand. as of 29 Oct 2014.5 oz) of /QUVUCWUCIGURTQFWEGF KPQPGOKPWVG Liam O’Hagan of O’Hagan’s Sausages (both UK) made 44 sausages in 60 sec at a charity event in Chichester. on 20 Sep 2015.491.64) at Serendipity 3 in New York. The hoard creates a sensation when it is uncovered in 2009. Fastest time to eat CǡKPEJRK\\C Kelvin Medina (PHL) ate a pizza in 23.300 units on the Scoville heat scale. Largest cupcake mosaic The Spar Group Ltd (ZAF) put together a 138.569. USA.44-sq-ft) cupcake mosaic in Durban. set in the same location on 20 Jul 2014 at the Gelatiamo festival. on 2 Nov 2015.08 m (10 ft 1. on 26 Apr 2015. USA.

California. prom easing cr in d  an health ls.KOGU0KPLCŬ Largest… Cheese sculpture: On 18 Sep 2015. The remains of this ship represent the oldest evidence of Viking seafarers. Salakhet Siem Reap (KHM) made a sticky rice cake weighing 4.%CNCTCUK DQVJ41/ ETGCVGFCMONQPI OK UCWUCIGKP2NQKGɲVK4QOCPKCQPǡ&GE6JCVŨUPGCTN[VYQCPFCJCNH VKOGUǡVJGNGPIVJQHCNNVJGEQTTKFQTUKPVJG752GPVCIQPБ /QUVNKOGUUNKEGF KPǡJCNHǡKPǡQPGǡOKPWVG 1Pǡ/CT.906 lb 10 oz) – the weight of six dairy cows – in Siem Reap.558-lb 10-oz) portion of pulled pork – the weight of two grand pianos – in the Australian city of Sydney on 14 Apr 2015. health bene a variety of terol es ol ch g provin ive such as im st ge di g otin levels. Chiba.4 ha) of pizza every day • Hot dogs were among the first foods eaten during the Apollo 11 Moon mission • Heinz sells 11 billion single-serve packets of ketchup each year .040 kg (8. Cambodia. on 6 Jul 2014. carved a 1. Rice cracker: On 26 Oct 2014.com 87 DATELINE This gargan “Ottavia” in was named free pizza ustus.27-kg) cheeseburger out of a block of Wisconsin cheddar. JCI Noda (JPN) unveiled a 2. Pulled pork: The Pork Association (AUS) produced a 707-kg (1. Japan. West Yorkshire. Estonia. empero first Roman edited with cr en be s free diet ha fits.KOC2GTW. the Melt fastfood eatery in Hollywood. .CVKPC68 KP. 700 CE guinnessworldrecords. energy leve .FAST FACTS Americans eat 100 acres (40. the ug A n Octavia homage to  glutenA r.CTIGUVRK\\C 9KVJCUWTHCEGCTGCQHǡOq ǡUSHV VJKU IKICPVKERK\\C CNUQVJGlargest gluten-free pizza YCUPGCTN[ ƒXGVKOGUVJGUK\GQHCVGPPKUEQWTVБ+VYCURTGRCTGFD[&QXKNKQ 0CTFK#PFTGC/CPPQEEJK/CTEQ0CTFK/CVVGQ0CTFKCPF /CVVGQ)KCPPQVVG CNN+6# HTQO0+2HQQFCVVJG(KGTCFK4QOC VTCFGHCKTKPǡVJG+VCNKCPECRKVCNEKV[QH4QOGQPǡ&GE NOW? DID YOtuUanK en . Glass of beer: Angus Wood and Ed Dupuy of Stod Fold Brewing Company (all UK) served up a 2.35-m² (25.524-lb (691. 100% glut Oldest Viking boats A defeated Viking raiding party buries its dead in a longship on the island of Saaremaa.082-litre (550-US-gal) glass of ale – equivalent in volume to 26 bathtubs of beer – in Halifax. Sticky rice cake: On 13 Apr 2015.WNKQǡ%ȌUCT YQTMUKPCUGCHQQFTGUVCWTCPVPGCT2KWTCKP2GTWCPFJKU PKEMPCOGKUū6JG. UK. USA.WNKQ%ȌUCT6ȄXCTC 2'4 JCNXGFǡNKOGUǡKP ǡUGECVReporte Semanal .QPIGUVUCWUCIG 5%%CTTGHQWT4QOCPKC5#CPF#NFKU54.3-sq-ft) rice cracker in Noda.

20 0QX Plum I Q\ /KPCOK#NRU%KV[.QTMUJKTG7- CARROT 2GVGT)NC\GDTQQM 7- ITGYCECTTQVVQC YQTNFDGCVKPIYGKIJVQHǡMI ǡNDǡQ\  #UYKVJ6QP[)NQXGTŨUIKICPVKEQPKQP UGG NGHV VJGTGEQTFYCUXGTKƒGFCVVJG*CTTQICVG #WVWOP(NQYGT5JQY7-QP5GR CUCUMBER 1P5GRCVVJG/CNXGTP#WVWOP 5JQYCVVJG6JTGG%QWPVKGU5JQYITQWPF KP/CNXGTP7-&CXKF6JQOCU 7-  RTGUGPVGFCEWEWODGTYGKIJKPICP CUVQPKUJKPIǡMI ǡNDǡQ\  Oldest family business Buddhist monk Garyo Houshi sets up a ryokan.WFYKIUDWTI)GTOCP[QPǡ1EV Largest rose bush A specimen of the rose bush Lady Banks (Rosa banksiae) located in Tombstone. Peach I NDQ\ 2CWN(TKFC[ 75# #WI Pear MI NDQ\ .20 (GD Sweet potato MI NDQ\ /CPWGN2ȌTG\2ȌTG\ '52 /CT Turnip MI NDQ\ 5EQVVCPF/CTFKG4QDD DQVJ75# 5GR HEAVIEST..CP Mango MI ǡNDǡQ\ 5GTIKQCPF/CTKC5QEQTTQ$QFKQPICP DQVJ2*.75 m) tall and covers 8.09 m)..500 m2 (80. DATELINE WATERMELON %JTKU-GPVQH5GXKGTXKNNG6GPPGUUGG75# ITGYCYCVGTOGNQPVJCVYGKIJGFǡNDǡQ\ ǡMI +VYCUXGTKƒGFCVVJG1RGTCVKQP 2WORMKPHGUVKXCNJGNFKP*COKNVQP1JKQ 75#QPǡ1EV 717 CE 88 Recordology ONION 1Pǡ5GR6QP[)NQXGT 7- RTGUGPVGF CPQPKQPVJCVYGKIJGFǡMI ǡNDǡQ\  6JGG[GYCVGTKPIN[NCTIGXGIGVCDNGYCU RTGUGPVGFCVVJG*CTTQICVG#WVWOP(NQYGT 5JQYKP*CTTQICVG0QTVJ.CXGT[ 7- Fig I Q\ /GJVCR1OGT 7- Garlic head MI NDQ\ 4QDGTV-KTMRCVTKEM 75# Most blooms on an orchid In all.##KEJK6Q[QVC0CUJK$WMCK . Brazil.WP Courgette MI ǡNDǡQ\ $GTPCTF. Parsnip MI NDQ\ &CXKF6JQOCU 7- 5GR Most tomatoes HTQOǡCǡUKPINGRNCPV Surjit Singh Kainth (UK) harvested 1.CP +CP0GCNG 7- Beetroot MI ǡNDǡQ\ Broccoli MI ǡNDǡQ\ . in the village of Awazu. USA. 5GR   #WI  #WI #WI . Gooseberry I Q\ -GNXKP#TEJGT 7- Grapefruit MI NDQ\ %NQ[&KCU&WVTC $4# 0QX Lemon MI NDQ\ #JCTQP5JGOQGN +54 .20 1EV Avocado ǡMI ǡNDǡQ\ )CDTKGN4COKTG\0CJKO 8'0 .700 sq ft) – and yields up to 80. a traditional inn. covers an area as large as 28 tennis courts – c. on 20 May 2014. Arizona. Japan.20 Potato MI ǡNDǡQ\ 2GVGT)NC\GDTQQM 7- Pumpkin MI NDǡQ\ $GPK/GKGT %*' *GCXKGUVRWORMKP $GPK/GKGTQH5YKV\GTNCPFYQPVJG'WTQRGCP%JCORKQPUJKR 2WORMKP9GKIJQHHYKVJCJQOGITQYPURGEKOGPYGKIJKPI ǡMI ǡNDǡQ\ ŤCUJGCX[CUHWNN[ITQYPOGP 6JGICTICPVWCPIQWTFYCUCWVJGPVKECVGFD[VJG)TGCV2WORMKP %QOOQPYGCNVJKPǡ. 7.000 sq ft (743 m²). West Midlands. FRUIT/VEG Largest cashew tree A cashew tree in Natal.QJPCPF/CT['XCPU DQVJ75# Cabbage MI ǡNDǡQ\ 5EQVV#4QDD 75# #WI Cantaloupe melon MI NDQ\ 5EQVVCPF/CTFKG4QDD DQVJ75# #WI Celery MI NDQ\ +CP0GCNG 7- 5GR Cherry I Q\ )GTCTFQ/CIIKRKPVQ +6# . 91 blooms were counted on an orchid grown by Shi Yuanfeng (CHN).000 fruit (and “nuts”) per year.#-QOCPQ5GEVKQP-K[Q .355 tomatoes from just one of his plants in Coventry.GARDEN GIANTS HEAVIEST FRUIT & VEG WEIGHT GROWER DATE Apple ǡMI ǡNDǡQ\ %JKUCVQ+YCUCMK . stands some 9 ft (2. . on 11 Sep 2013. The current owner is Houshi’s 46th-generation descendant. as YHULͤHGLQ%HQ[L/LDRQLQJ China. UK.WN 5GR 1EV Radish MI NDQ\ /CPCDW1QPQ . has a trunk circumference of 13 ft 5 in (4. reputedly planted by DORFDOͤVKHUPDQLQ 1888. near a spring reputed to have healing powers.

Worcestershire.212-m-long (23-ft 7. cashews and pine nuts are not nuts. watermelons and avocados are • Botanically. UK. Radish Jamie Courtney-Fortey.CP LONGEST… Beetroot On 26 Sep 2015. The year before.9-in) beetroot. Joe Atherton (UK) presented a 7.GG5RKNQXG 75# O HVKP 9QQFTQY9KNUQP)TCPIGT 75# /C[ Cosmos ǡO HVKP %QUOQU'ZGEWVKXG%QOOKVVGG .WN 0QX butterbean) 100% Cactus (homegrown) &GE %QNNGIGQH&GPVCN5EKGPEGU +0& -QLK0CMCQ .KCPI 75# 1999 Petunia O HVKP $GTPCTF.QYG 7- 1EV 1979 Dandelion O HVKP .CWTC.5-in) bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) at Bracebridge Fall Fair in Ontario. Gwent. the reticulated python – the longest snake – grows to around 6. SWEDE +P5GR+CP0GCNG 7- WPXGKNGF CRTK\GYKPPKPIMI ND UYGFG CVVJG7-0CVKQPCN)KCPV8GIGVCDNG %JCORKQPUJKRJGNFFWTKPIVJG /CNXGTPǡ#WVWOP5JQY Bottle gourd Alan Eaton (CAN) presented a 3. acorns and hazelnuts are TALLEST PLANTS PLANT HEIGHT GROWER DATE Amaranthus O HVKP . Gareth Fortey and Kevin Fortey (all UK) grew a radish measuring 2. Its specialist subjects are Islamic studies and Arabic linguistics.  Papaya tree O HV 2TCUCPVC/CN +0& 5GR Parsley O HVKP &CXKF$TGPPGT 75# ..235 m (7 ft 4 in) in Cwmbran. 859 CE guinnessworldrecords. Canada. Joe submitted the longest parsnip.797-m-long (12-ft 5. which measured 6..25 m (20 ft 6 in). Cucumber Ian Neale (UK) grew a 1.CXGT[ 7- 1994 Rose (climbing) O HV #PPGCPF%JCTNGU)TCPV DQVJ75# #WI Rose bush (supported) O HVKP 4QDGTV$GPFGN 75# 1EV Sugar cane O HV  *QQXC[[C)QYFC +0& .20 1EV Cotton O HV &/9KNNKCOU 75# . Morocco.WP Sunflower O HVKP *CPU2GVGT5EJKHHGT &'7 #WI Sweetcorn (maize) O HVKP . and remains a seat of learning to this day. UK. on 26 Sep 2011.07-m-long (3-ft 8-in) cucumber for presentation at the Royal Bath & West Show in Shepton Mallet. there is no such thing as a vegetable • Peanuts. at the Three Counties Showground in Malvern. DVYHULͤHG on 25 Oct 2015. coconuts. By way of contrast. but pecans.CUQP-CTN 75# &GE Thistle O HV %JTKUVKPG5CFNGT %#0 #WI LEEK 2CWN4QEJGUVGT 7- RTGUGPVGFCMI NDQ\ NGGMCVVJG/CNXGTP#WVWOP 5JQYQP5GR2CWNUC[UVJCVVJG UGETGVVQJKUUWEEGUUKURNC[KPIOWUKEVQJKU XGIGVCDNGUCVKRJKUHCVJGT9KNHTGFICXGJKO CAULIFLOWER $KIXGIURGEKCNKUV2GVGT)NC\GDTQQM 7- ITGYCECWNKHNQYGTVJCV YGKIJGFǡMI ǡNDǡQ\  QPǡ#RT*GKUUGGPJGTG YKVJJKUYKHG/CT[ Oldest university The University of Karueein is founded in Fez.WN Daffodil O HVKP /.QG[(WUEQ DQVJ%#0 5GR Fuchsia (climbing) O HVKP  4GKPJCTF$KGJNGT &'7 .CRCPQPǡ. Wales.Q4KFKPICPF.com 89 DATELINE Heaviest strawberry Coleus Collard . on 19 Sep 2015.WP Kale O HVKP )QUUG*CKUOC #75 1987 Lupin O HVKP #*(GPPGNN +4.FAST FACTS Strawberries are not true berries… but bananas. O HVKP 0CPE[. UK.28 m (20 ft 7.WP Pepper O HV . at the same competition.20 EWNVKXCVGFCI Q\ UVTCYDGTT[VJCV OGCUWTGFZǡEO ZǡKP CPFJCFCǡEKTEWOHGTGPEG QHǡŤǡEO ŤǡKP +VYCUYGKIJGFKP(WMWQMC (WMWQMC2TGHGEVWTG.2 in).GUUG'NFTKF 75# Basil O HVKP #PCUVCUKC)TKIQTCMK )4% Bean (speckled O HVKP 5VCVQP4QTKG 75# O HVKP 5TK&JCTOCUVJCNC/CPLWPCVJGUJYCTC 1EV .

The bar was gradually introduced in other countries under various names. First white chocolate White chocolate was introduced by Nestlé in 1930. anthropologist John Henderson (USA) found traces of cacao in pottery fragments dating WRΎ΍΋QHDU3XHUWR Escondido in Honduras. an Indian Drinke. penned by Spanish physician Antonio Colmenero. It’s thought the cacao was fermented and drank as a mildly alcoholic beverage. Although cacaobased drinks may have emerged centuries before.QPFQP7-QPǡ5GR Oldest chocolate In 2007. and even aid conception. the earliest recipe for chocolate drink dates from 1631. and marketed in Switzerland under the name First Valentine’s DQZQHEJQEQNCVGU 5LFKDUG&DGEXU\ 8. the book expounded the food's health EHQHͤWVFODLPLQJLWFRXOG cure coughs and sickness. including Milky Bar and Alpine White. Most expensive chocolate bar UQNFǡCVCWEVKQP 9JGP$TKVKUJGZRNQTGT 4QDGTV(CNEQP5EQVV GODCTMGFQPVJG Discovery GZRGFKVKQP to Antarctica KPOCP[ supplies were FQPCVGFD[CTCPIG QHGXGT[FC[DTCPFU MGGPVQDGCUUQEKCVGFYKVJVJG CFXGPVWTG2TQFWEVUKPENWFGF%QNOCPŨU 'PINKUJOWUVCTF$KTFŨUEWUVCTFCPFUQOG ǡND ǡMI QH%CFDWT[ŨUEJQEQNCVGCPFEQEQC1PGQH VJGǡEONQPI KP EJQEQNCVGDCTUUVKNNWPYTCRRGFCPFUVQTGF KPCEKICTGVVGVKPUQNFHQTc  VQCPCPQP[OQWUDW[GT CVǡ%JTKUVKGŨUCWEVKQPJQWUGKP.CHOCOLATE “Galak”. 3XEOLVKHGLQChocolate: or.

3 ha). the standard fourͤQJHU. tree Theobroma cacao.DWFKRFRODWHEDU has been made available LQPRUHWKDQͥDYRXUV The variations include cucumber. Chocolate bar with VJGǡOQUVǡHNCXQWTXCTKCPVU To date. the castle covers an area of 18 acres (7. the beans are fermented and dried. producing a heart-shaped box of chocolates for Valentine’s Day in 1868. the average Swiss person consumed an estimated 9. was WKHͤUVWFKRFRODWHPDNHU to commercialize the association between the confectionery and romance. . Longest chocolate sculpture DATELINE Master chocolatier Andrew Farrugia of Malta used up OQTGǡVJCPǡJTCPFCTQWPFǡMI ǡND QH$GNIKCP EJQEQNCVGUEWNRVKPIYJCVOWUVDGVJGOQUVFGNKEKQWUVTCKP ever made. after harvesting. In 2015. watermelon and salt. no nation eats a greater amount of chocolate than Switzerland. or cacao.LW. milk chocolate. The intricately detailed Belcolade Express PCOGFKPJQPQWTQHVJG$GNIKCPEJQEQNCVKGTURQPUQTYCU UEWNRVGFVQEGNGDTCVG$TWUUGNU%JQEQNCVG9GGMCPF UVTGVEJGFCPKPETGFKDNGǡO ǡHVǡKP ŤNQPIGTVJCPC HWNN[ITQYPDNWGYJCNG 5VCPFKPIǡEO ǡHVǡKP  JKIJVJGVTCKPHGCVWTGFC modern electric locomotive at one end and a classic steam loco at the other. of course. Pictured is (CTTWIKC QPVJGTKIJV CVVJG unveiling ceremony for the OKNNKQPECNQTKGETGCVKQP CV$TWUUGNU5QWVJUVCVKQPKP $GNIKWOQPǡ0QXǡ 870 CE 90 Recordology Largest ancient castle Construction begins on Prague Castle (in the present-day Czech Republic).3 kg (20 lb 8 oz). who founded the now iconic brand. Cocoa beans are actually seeds from the trees’ pods (below). and. the eldest son of John Cadbury. TRIVIA Chocolate is derived from the fruit (“pods”) of the cocoa. Tallest chocolate Santa Claus /KTCDGNNQUJQRRKPIEGPVTGKP%CPVș+VCN[EQOOKUUKQPGFC OVCNN HVKP EQEQCDCUGFGHƒI[QH(CVJGT%JTKUVOCUKP $WKNVQXGTVJTGGYGGMUD[UKZEJQEQNCVKGTUHTQO6QUECC HCOKN[TWPEQPHGEVKQPGTKP%TGOQPC+VCN[VJGUWRGTUK\GFUWICT INC\GF5CPVCYCUJQNNQY[GVUVKNNYGKIJGFCOCUUKXGǡVQPPGU ǡND ŤCDQWVVJGUCOGCUTGCNNKHG5CPVC%NCWUGUБ Highest chocolate consumption per capita Based on annual confectionery sales. When completed. native to the tropics of Central and South America. wasabi.

39 m (34 ft 1 in) tall.FAST FACTS The oldest person ever.7:+6#  6JG*GTUJG[%QORCP[ 75#  10 4GGUGŨU Revenue (2014) 5QWTEG'WTQOQPKVQT+PVGTPCVKQPCNGUVKOCVGFƒIWTGU  4 7 1 . Rimini Fiera. this eggs-treme creation is also the tallest Easter egg. Jeanne Louise Calment (FRA). Italy. 6TWHHNG $WLWDQLFWUXͧHZHLJKLQJ 802 kg (1. who lived to 122. Icam and Martellato (all ITA) in Rimini. Le Acciaierie Shopping Village in Cortenuova.200 kg (15. The 1-m-wide (3-ft LQ. At more than twice the height of a typical London double-decker bus. partly put down her long life to eating chocolate • White chocolate is not technically chocolate as it has no cocoa solids TOP OF THE CHOCS Chocolate is seriously big business. Fabbri 1905. unveiled a chocolate egg weighing 7.873 lb) and standing 10. Here we take a look at the biggest-selling chocolate confectionery brands… Brand Maker 1 %CFDWT[ /QPFGNȰ\+PVGTPCVKQPCN+PE 75# 2 -KPFGT (GTTGTQ)TQWR .7:+6#  3 *GTUJG[ŨU 6JG*GTUJG[%QORCP[ 75#  4 //ŨU /CTU+PE 75#  5 5PKEMGTU /CTU+PE 75#  6 /KNMC /QPFGNȰ\+PVGTPCVKQPCN+PE 75#   7 -KV-CV 0GUVNȌ5# %*' 8 )CNCZ[&QXG /CTU+PE 75#   9 Ferrero Rocher (GTTGTQ)TQWR . on 21 Jan 2012.768 lb 2 oz) – the equivalent of 11 adult men – was made by Mirco Della Vecchia. Italy.CTIGUVDQZQHEJQEQNCVGU 1P#RTEQPHGEVKQPGT[TGVCKNGT6JQTPVQPUCPFRTQR OCMGT4WUUGNN$GEM5VWFKQ DQVJ7- ETGCVGFCDWORGTDQZ QHEJQEQNCVGUVJCVVQYGTGFǡO ǡHVǡKP VCNN6KRRKPIVJG UECNGUCVǡMI ǡND ŤVJGYGKIJVQHCUOCNNECTŤKV YCUVKOGUJGCXKGTVJCPCUVCPFCTFI Q\ DQZ QHǡ6JQTPVQPU/QOGPVU Easter egg In 2011. Andrea Andrighetti.

electric fans were also deployed to keep the record-breaking choc cool. Sculpture $ͤFLRQ&KRFRODWH &+1.WUXͧHZDVFRQFRFWHG from dark chocolate.000 chocolate bars were axed and chiselled into shape to produce a Bell Bonbons Verdier of SerresCastet in France crafted a gold-coated chocolate bell weighing 293 kg (645 lb 15 oz) on 16 Jun 2011.51-m (4-ft 11. The 1. cream and Amarena cherries.4-in) bell had to be moved into the shade to prevent it melting in the intense summer heat. Rabbit Some 6.

the tallest chocolate sculpture UHFUHDWHGWKH%XUM.17 in) – more than the height of the average male adult – and was 17 cm (6. The coin had a diameter of 1. Brazil. LARGEST CHOCOLATE COIN Tipping the scales at 658 kg (1.4-kg (589-lb 8-oz) sugar-coated heart. Italy. Training agency Senac-RS %5$. Weighing 10. Iceland’s parliament. on 15 Nov 2012 to mark Guinness World Records Day. The Althing. gathering men from all the island’s clans to decide on matters of law.2 in) high.KDOLID at Dubai Airport.187 kg (22. Meanwhile. this edible HGLͤFHRXWGLGWKHprevious record by 1.96 m (6 ft 5.08 m (13 ft 4.188 lb). after which sculptors Stefano and Tommaso Comelli (both ITA) spent a further 12 hr carving it into shape.458 lb 7 oz). the Namba Walk mall in Osaka. it was 61 times smaller than the real tallest building.com 91 DATELINE LARGEST CHOCOLATE… behemoth bunny at the annual Chocofest event. 930 CE guinnessworldrecords. UAE.450 lb 10 oz).69 in) thick. Japan. on 27 Nov 2014. The outsized confectionery took 22 hr to prepare. Oldest parliament A great assembly (the Althing) is held in Iceland. made the largest chocolatecandy sculpture in 2012: a 267. still meets today. Crafted by Andrew Farrugia (see choc train opposite). crafted a building 4. this colossal chocolate 1-Euro coin was presented at the Cioccoshow fair in an event organized by the BF Servizi SRL (ITA) in Bologna.6 in) long on 30 Sep 2015. At 13. held in Gramado.5 m (44 ft 4.900 kg (4.

850-kg (8.488-lb) sculpture on 12 Apr 2014. The rabbit was posed with a chocolate football in honour of the 2014 FIFA World Cup.XQYHLOHGWKHͤQDO 3. . which was hosted by Brazil.

keychains. gathered by Dario Calabria (ITA) up to 12 Apr 2015. videogames. Secret cyphers are included within the design to try to prevent counterfeits. NOW? by DID YOeUhiK ghly valued DATELINE ar Coprolites hat they ogists for w palaeontol as bone ch aterials su e contain: m pollen. Corkscrews Ion Chirescu (ROM) had acquired 23. He began buying comics as a child and adds (and reads) around 100 titles a month. his largest true-to-form coprolite. YHULͤHGRQ'HF Lupin the Third memorabilia %RRNVPDJD]LQHVͤJXULQHV collectable cards.281 items related to the Japanese animation character. Joe Galiardi (USA) had 204 golf balls. as of 18 Apr 2015. DVYHULͤHGRQ-XO Dragon-related items Born in the year of the dragon. He also has the largest collection of candles: 6. “Auntie” Betty Webster (USA) began wearing and collecting novelty sunglasses while YQTMKPICUCTGUVCWTCPVJQUVGUUKP-COWGNC*CYCKK75#*GTTWPPKPIVQVCNQHǡKPFKXKFWCN FGUKIPUYCUXGTKƒGFVJGTGQPǡ1EV-PQYPVJTQWIJQWVVJGKUNCPFUCUVJGū*QUVGUU YKVJǡVJG/QUVGUUŬ$GVV[EQNQWTEQQTFKPCVGUJGTUWPINCUUGUYKVJJGTQWVƒVUCPFKUCNYC[U on the lookout for new designs. Doctor Who memorabilia Beginning in 1974 with a yellow “Bump and Go” Marx Dalek received for Christmas. or fossilized faeces. Largest collection of sunglasses In 1999.201 different dragon-related objects. to house them. ecosystem 960 CE 92 Recordology The Dark Eye memorabilia Alexander Grimme (DEU). up to 18 Jun 2015. George began finding the fossils on camping trips to Utah as a youngster. Romania.8–5. First paper money Chinese merchants of the Song Dynasty (960–1279) begin to use banknotes as currency. on 1 Aug 2015.277 coprolites. had assembled 2.5 oz).360. feels and smells like rock. LARGEST COLLECTION OF COPROLITES George Frandsen (USA) owns 1. Jade Lam Chung Foon (HKG) had collected 7. A prize piece is “Precious” (below right).92 kg (4 lb 3. “Coprolite” comes from the Greek for “dung stone”.3 million years ago. 23. Florida.COLLECTIONS Autographed golf balls As of 1 Mar 2015. artworks. miniatures and more by 11 Apr 2015. Comic books On 6 Aug 2015. His prehistoric poo comes from 15 states in the USA and eight countries worldwide. Ian O’Brien (UK) has 2. and du e ted th that deposi out extinct ab h uc m reveal s. guitar tabs and toys comprise the 2. In Aug 2015. as documented at the South Florida Museum in Bradenton. Bob Bretall (USA) updated his record for the third time.848 print items. Thes d an r te at and plant m animals d an ts an e pl indicate th e creature ted with th that coexis ng. and was produced by a huge crocodilian species around 6 m (20 ft) long.176 exquisite pieces of jade art and jewellery by 20 Jun 2015. all signed by different professional golf players. Huang Xiaojing (CHN) had spent 40 years gathering 3. . It is naturally glossy. USA.021 Doctor Who items. weighing in at 1. with 101.822 publications. It was found in South Carolina and dates from the Miocene epoch.965 pieces over 10 years. a devotee of the role-playing game. while fans and followers regularly contribute to her collection. he opened a museum in Bucharest.

680 9CPI. As of 11 Apr 2015.  (£  m for $4.365 Tyesha Elam (USA) ǡ0QX 2 ǡ5GR ǡ. ? KNOW DID YO4U ebbie D s es tr ac .260 historic wooden tennis rackets. lanyards and posters.CPGV/CNNGTPGG$TKNG[ 75# ǡ#RT /QPMG[ 5. aka Hamburger Harley. planganologists (dolls) and sucrologists (sugar packets). 2. Skylanders memorabilia The 4. as e d h S ai . an WHVWLͤHGE\KLVFROOHFWLRQ g iconic p worn by ss gatherin re d ” ) for “that of 797 items – among Year n ve Se e $200 (£80 Th onroe in ld them 501 comics – Marilyn M e dress so Th ).921 holders.100 Skylanders items collected by Christopher Desaliza (USA). Tea glass holders The containers for tea glasses are often collected as works of art in their own right.KPIZKCP %*0 ǡ/CT Horse  'FICT4WIGNGU %1. along with two burger beds and one burger waterbed. John’s Itch (USA 85 m).WN 2 Cow  Ruth Klossner (USA) ǡ.505 %GEKNCPF. as of 27 Jan 2015. or simply with a fondness for a certain kind of animal. include all YHUVLRQVRIDOOWKHͤJXUHV plus cards. Swamp Thing memorabilia In 2011–1 500 film tion of 3. RQUVGTUǡDCIUICOGUCPFENQVJKPI . 55 19 . Igor Kucej (SVK) unveiled his display of 1. CDs. favourites include a Swamp Thing TV crewmember jacket and original comic-book art. 1006 guinnessworldrecords. covers. Sergey Kruglov (RUS) had amassed 1. ǡ#WI Giraffe  5WUC(QTUVGT &'7 ǡ#WI 3 5JGGR 1.WP 3 Largest collection of hamburger-related items Brightest supernova Exploding star SN 1006 exceeds the luminosity of Sirius – today’s brightest star seen from Earth – by up to 1.FAST FACTS Collectors have “proper” names based on their speciality. p d SA U ieces. deltiologists (postcards). The DC Comics character ec ll co s e s’ th Reynold ioned in has loomed large in the life was auct es ad ec costumes td had spen of John Boylan (USA). C*&5RQTVUVGTDWKNVKP*GCNUQ has hamburger toys.466 games to his name as of 12 Jan 2016. such as archtophilists (teddy bears).500 times. an ornament or a plush toy.779 Anne Langton (UK) ǡ. *KURTK\GRQUUGUUKQPKUCJCODWTIGT*CTNG[ Davidson motorcycle.QCPP&KZQP 75#  'NGRJCPV 5.com 93 DATELINE #UQHǡ5GRū*CODWTIGT*CTT[ŬCMC*CTT[5RGTN &'7 JCFCOCUUGFǡKVGOUQPCDWTIGTVJGOG XGTKƒGFKP&C[VQPC$GCEJ(NQTKFC75#*CTT[QYPUVJG burger mobile from the movie Good Burger (USA.055 Dianne Turner (USA) ǡ&GE Pig 16.739 Andrew Gray (UK) Chicken 6. It remains visible for two years.6 Rackets On 1 Jul 2015. But soon a collector will be the custodian of an entire menagerie… Theme 1 /QWUGCPFTCV Rabbit Number Collector &CVGXGTKƒGF  Christa Behmenburg (DEU) ǡ1EV  Steve Lubanski and %CPFCEG(TC\GG 75# ǡ/CT Cat  %CTOGPFG#NFCPC )6/ ǡ/CT 1YN 18.779 . books. 1997). pannapictagraphists (comic books). ANIMAL COLLECTIONS 1 It may begin with a gift. on 21 Mar 2015. Videogames Joel Hopkins (AUS) had 17. each distinctively crafted in metal or enamel.WP Penguin  Birgit Berends (DEU) ǡ/CT (TQI  Sheila Crown (UK) ǡ/C[ Crocodile 6. statues. all made between 1890 and 1985.

a total of 267 people gathered at Peterborough Airport. an annual event in Ontario. Italy. A more dramatic change of hairstyle was chosen by Pedal for Hope (CAN). Largest pantomime animal race #PGENGEVKEOKZQHVYQRGTUQPRCPVQOKOGCPKOCNUKPENWFKPI JQTUGUECOGNUCPF4WFQNRJVJG4GKPFGGTUUVGRRGFWRVQVJG UVCTVKPINKPGCV0GYECUVNG4CEGEQWTUG7-QPǡ#WI6JG YCEM[TCEGTUYGTGTCKUKPIHWPFUHQTNQECNEJCTKV[5Vǡ1UYCNFŨU *QURKEGCURCTVQHCPGXGPVVJCVYCUQTICPK\GFD[ǡ6JG)TGCV 0QTVJ)CNNQR 7-  MOST PEOPLE… Caber tossing On 8 Aug 2015. hairspray and almost 50 stylists at hand. La Catrina Fest MX (MEX) assembled DID YO Most people riding a surfboard DATELINE 5WTHŨUWRБ+H[QWŨXGGXGTVTKGFUWTƒPI[QWŨNNMPQYJQYFKHƒEWNVKVKUŲ5QKOCIKPGVT[KPIVQIGVRGQRNG TKFKPICUWTHDQCTFCVVJGUCOGVKOG6JCVŨUGZCEVN[YJCV8KUKV*WPVKPIVQP$GCEJCPFVJG'RKE$KI$QCTF 4KFG DQVJ75# CEJKGXGFCV*WPVKPIVQP$GCEJCUWTƒPIJQVURQVKP%CNKHQTPKC75#QPǡ. Eating breakfast in bed Talk about dedication to customer service… The Sheraton Langfang Chaobai River Hotel served up its “Color Your Plate” breakfast – which includes pastries. The ere then manufa by mou ctured ldCAM in USA. It will still be operating 976 years later. Keep Wales Tidy arranged the event to promote the nation’s pristine coast. China. with 225 beds laid out on the hotel’s lawn in Beijing. UK. US A. Oldest working brewery The monks of Weihenstephan Abbey in Bavaria (now part of Germany) are given permission to open a brewery near Freising. Making “sand angels” Freshwater West beach in Pembrokeshire. to raise money for the Canadian Cancer Society.ŨUQYPGPOCUUGDQF[RCKPVKPITGEQTFCEJKGXGF CVǡYYVJGUCOGGXGPVKPD[ǡǡRGQRNG on “snow angels” – on 6 Jun 2015. Twerking simultaneously American hip-hop star Big Freedia. The event took part at the eighth Annual Central City Festival held in New Orleans. It with CA was desi D softw gned are by A board-m ustralia aker Ne n v Hyma parts w n.3 mi) was covered in the attempt.MASS PARTICIPATION of 11. to say goodbye to their locks and set a new record for the most heads shaved simultaneously. Dressed as Catrinas and Catrines $WDͤHVWDVWDJHGLQ Cuauhtémoc. orange juice and yoghurt – to 418 guests on 16 Aug 2015. put on by Hong Kong-based company GP22 (CHN). fruit. USA. when Chicago-based salon owner Margaret Vinci Heldt (USA) was challenged to conceive an original coiffure to see in the new decade.ICVJGTGFǡRCTV[ IQGTUCVVJG9QQFUVQEM(GUVKXCNKP-QUVT\[PPCF1FTȤ Poland – one of Europe’s largest music events – and UOQVJGTGFVJGOKPRCKPVQPǡ. Louisiana. aka Frederick Ross. It was an al-fresco affair. Canada. although no longer staffed by monks. was imprinted with 352 “sand angels” – the seaside take Most bodies painted 6JG2QNKUJVGNGEQOUEQORCP[2.85 km (7. on 1 Nov 2014. bly was by boathandled builders Westerl y Marin in Califo e rnia.WN6JKUDGVVGTGF 2.WP #VǡO ǡHVǡKP NQPICPFǡO ǡHVǡKP YKFGVJG$KI$QCTFWRQPYJKEJVJG[TQFGYCUCNUQ EQPƒTOGFCUVJGYQTNFŨUlargest surfboard0QVCDCFYC[VQEGNGDTCVG+PVGTPCVKQPCN5WTƒPI&C[ 1040 94 Recordology U KNOW Making the big ? board re a group quired effort. was just one of 406 people to twerk their way into the record books on 15 Nov 2014. on 19 Mar 2015. Mexico. Discovery Italia gave 261 women beehive hairdos in Milan. Ontario. 237 people completed a 50-m (164-ft) leg of a course within the required 10 sec on 25 Apr 2015. The mass feat of strength took place at the 70th Fergus Scottish Festival and Highland Games. On 16 May 2015. plus its 41 Blue Flag beaches.#. . The distinctive bouffant hairstyle is believed to have originated in 1960. wh R ile assem hode Island. a group of 69 people simultaneously launched a volley of near-6-m (20-ft) wooden poles known as “cabers” into the air.#. In a zorbing relay Each running inside a big plastic zorb ball. That means a total Wearing hair in a beehive With brushes.

2. set in Jan 2015. but the passion for stars.000 National Cadet Corps.869 astronomy lovers. Comprising both professional models and runway wannabes.681 boy scouts assembled at Denver Area Council’s Camporee on 19 Sep 2015 to pop bubble wrap together. Narendra Modi (left). This gathering in Australia’s capital city was just one of 37 around the country that evening. Yoga and Naturopathy.002 members of the Osaka Baton Twirling Association (JPN) performed at the Japanese city’s central gymnasium.200 police officers and 5.co.985 people adopted a cross-legged “lotus” position in honour of the inaugural International Day of Yoga on 21 Jun 2015. The feat took place at the Peaceful Valley Scout Ranch in Elbert. the 500-m (1.WN %JGOKUVT[ 6GEJPQRQNKU $'. eRetailer Very.640-ft) race event was celebrating the region’s newly acquired Special Municipality status.651 people strutted their stuff down Liverpool’s Pier Head riverside promenade to set this record in style. a total of 3.682 unicycles – were all required to secure this record on 1 Nov 2014. %QQMGT[ 1PG2NWU1PG0CVWTCN(NQWT %*0  ǡ&GE /CVJU /CVVGEGPVTWOCPF'P$TC5VCTV DQVJ59'  ǡ0QX /CIKE +UTCGN%CINKQUVTQ1ZOCP +54  ǡ. . 1042 guinnessworldrecords.uk and Culture Liverpool (both UK) joined forces to organize a unique fashion show. Soccer -PQEMN[QP7VF(QQVDCNN%NWD +4.FAST FACTS The largest yoga lesson included: 5. The event was held to celebrate Mexico’s annual Day of the Dead festival. Stargazing As part of a nationwide science week in Australia. 5. Siddha and Homeopathy). the Australian National University and the Canberra Astronomical Society on 21 Aug 2015 to study the night sky. 1.000 yoga specialists.000 army troops Riding unicycles Balance and co-ordination – not to mention a total of 1. dedicated to natural wellbeing pursuits. Popping bubble wrap In all. even India’s Prime Minister.8-mi) stretch of the Rajpath in the heart of New Delhi. First use of rockets Chinese scholar and military engineer Zeng Gongliang describes the use of “fire arrows” – simple gunpowder rockets launched from crossbows – by the armies of Song Dynasty China.4-km (0.000 schoolchildren. which attracted a combined 7. and records.011 people.com 95 DATELINE 509 people decked out in traditional skeleton costumes. 1. LARGEST LESSONS Extraordinary examples of en-masse education… People Date Subject Organizer Art . Colorado.WP  ǡ/C[  ǡ. 15. The dizzying display was the centrepiece of the 25th Osaka Baton Twirling Competition. They easily wrapped up the record. wielding telescopes and binoculars. Twirling batons On 21 Sep 2015. the event took place on a 1. at which deceased loved ones are remembered. Modelling on a catwalk On 4 Jul 2015.960 visitors – the most people stargazing in multiple locations. Organized by the Government of India’s Ministry of AYUSH (Ayurveda. As well as soldiers. USA. Hockey %WPFCNN/CPQT5EJQQN 7-  ǡ/CT Welding 6JTGG(KTGU%QWPEKNCPF$Q[5EQWVU QH#OGTKEC DQVJ75#  ǡ#RT Segway 5QP[2KEVWTGU'PVGTVCKPOGPV 75#  ǡ#RT  ǡ/C[ LARGEST YOGA LESSON A staggering 35. were brought together by Mt Stromlo Observatory. demonstrated his flexibility. more than doubling the previous best of 1. civil servants and students (see Fast Facts). 500 diplomats and foreign nationals. Unani. paid off.KQPU%NWD+PVŨN&KUVTKEV) +0&  ǡ0QX <WODC %KV[QH/CPFCNW[QPI 2*. Staged by Taoyuan County Government (Chinese Taipei). a gathering of 2. The event was threatened by cold weather and cloudy skies.

ar Altho s been rm play ha . on 29 Nov 2008.580 caped crusaders. Spain. Daleks Many cosplayers put hundreds of hours of work into their creations. World le e 4 g 8 9 n 1 the Los A tion in Conven . Rosie the Riveter We can do it! Inspired by the rallying cry of America’s iconic female war worker.KHG'FWECVKQP6JGQTICPK\GTUUGVVNGFQP the classic red.WNCEJCTKV[GXGPVQTICPK\GFD[TGETWKVOGPVƒTO Charterhouse drew 438 spider folk to the streets of Sydney. during the annual National Feast of Lanterns camping rally. UK. on 25 Sep 2015. when 1. UK. web-slingers and Largest monolithic church Work begins on the church of Medhane Alem in Lalibela.063 Star Trek cosplayers for an event on 20 Oct 2012. Most SDUWLFLSDQWVZRUHVWDUͥHHW uniforms. It measures some 10 m (32 ft) high from the bottom of the pit in which it sits. Superheroes On 2 Oct 2010. the Saló del Manga comic festival in Barcelona.215 people dressed up as the legendary archer. Utah. Rather than building up.084 boiler-suited women and girls ICVJGTGFCVVJG9QTNF9CTǡ++*QOG(TQPV0CVKQPCN*KUVQTKECN 2CTMKP%CNKHQTPKC75#QPǡ#WIǡ OW? OU KwNe would DID Y t a ugh wh ound Spider-Man 1187 popular with cosplayers. An impressive 1. UK. it grew into the cultural phenomenon it is today as part of the Japanese anime and manga scene. USA. This made it all the more terrifying when a force of 95 Daleks. exactly 1.KXGF6JGRCTVKEKRCPVURWVQPYK\CTFUŨ JCVU*QIYCTVUWPKHQTOUCPFINCUUGUVQEQORNGVGVJGGHHGEV Dragon Ball characters Although cosplay has its RULJLQVLQ$PHULFDQVFLͤ fandom. #WUVTCNKC&QPCVKQPUraised by the masked web-slingers went to UWRRQTVJGCNVJEJCTKV[. Ethiopia. the builders dig down. 1. carving the church out of a uniform piece of bedrock. but the crowd also included Klingons. blue and black costume of The Amazing SpiderManVJGHCXQWTKVGQH5RKFGT/CPRWTKUVUUJWPPKPIVJGO[TKCF QVJGTEQUVWOGUVJCV5RKFG[JCUYQTPKPJKUXCTKQWUTGDQQVU CPFǡECOGQCRRGCTCPEGU 96 Recordology Robin Hood The UK’s Camping and Caravanning Club hit the target on 27 Aug 2011. USA. Harry Potter 1Pǡ/CTVGCEJGTUCV6CPDTKFIG*QWUG5EJQQN 7- OKZGFWRGPQWIJRQN[LWKEGRQVKQPHQT QHVJGKTUVWFGPVUVQVTCPUHQTOKPVQ6JG$Q[9JQ. the end result can be hard to distinguish from the original. Borg and a variety of alien monsters from the original series. waving their eyestalks and barking “Exterminate!” at anything that moved. The manga Dragon Ball and its anime offshoot Dragon Ball Z are particularly DATELINE 1Pǡ. e tively n since th la e  r is r elf e s k it a ” y -m y film “cospla oined b PN) at (J i  h s It was c a ah n uki Tak e Fictio Nobuy Scienc s. with large events attracting huge numbers of costumed attendees. hosted 307 Dragon Ball characters as part of an event staged by Editorial Planeta (ESP). On 1 Nov 2012.COSPLAY LARGEST GATHERING OF PEOPLE DRESSED AS… Comic-book characters Conventions for comics fans are where cosplayers go to see and be seen. . rolled on to the grounds of the National Space Centre in Leicester. and when they’re copying something from a movie or TV show. the te call cos s 0 3 9 1 ew. convention organizers Media 10 Limited (UK) gathered 1.784 dressed-up comicbook heroes and villains gathered at the Salt Lake Comic Con in Salt Lake City. ia n r fo Cali Star Trek characters As part of Destination Star Trek in London. Doctor Who’s seemingly indestructible enemy. The attempt took place at the Newark Showground in Nottinghamshire.

280 people donned the green tunic and tights of The Boy Who Wouldn’t Grow Up in London. .com 97 DATELINE As part of a charity event organized on 29 Aug 2014 by recruitment firm Goodman Masson. The park is no stranger to gaming. mustered 491 gaming cosplayers on 7 Sep 2013. The Särkänniemi theme park in Tampere. The Pan-tastic gathering took place on the steps of St Paul’s Cathedral.WNCPKPETGFKDNG ǡXKUKVQTUCPFNQECNKPJCDKVCPVU VWTPGFWRFTGUUGFCUVJG*WNM on the streets of Castleblayney KP+TGNCPFCVVJGCPPWCN/WEMPQ /CPKC(GUVKXCN PETER PAN Largest New World civilization The Inca Empire reaches its greatest extent. a much-loved institution and the favourite philanthropic cause of J M Barrie. UK.FAST FACTS Cosplay is a portmanteau of “costume” and “play” •  The World Cosplay Summit attracted teams from 26 different countries in 2015 • Competitive cosplayers have to create their own costumes Santa Claus #PCUVQPKUJKPI5CPVCUECOGVQIGVJGTCVVJG0CICT5CMVJCP6JCORWTCP)TQWPF-GTCNC+PFKC QPǡ&GE6JG[YGTGVCMKPIRCTVKPCPGXGPVQTICPK\GFD[6JTKUUWT%KVK\GPT[CPF6JTKUUWT #TEJFKQEGUG DQVJ+0& VQTCKUGOQPG[HQTNQECNEJCTKVKGU other costumed heroes assembled at Paramount Studios in Los Angeles. as part of the annual Zombie Pub Crawl. stretching along the Pacific coast of South America from what is now southern Colombia to central Chile. Zombies A 15. in an event to promote WKHͤOPMegamind. Videogame characters People have been enjoying game cosplay for almost as long as games have had characters to dress up as. on 11 Oct 2014. The Hulk 1Pǡ.458-strong horde of the shambling undead groaned and lurched its way through the streets of Minneapolis in Minnesota. 1200 guinnessworldrecords. having opened up an Angry Birds Land attraction in 2012. Finland. The event was staged to raise money and publicity for Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children. USA. the author of Peter Pan. Its population is estimated to be around 10 million. USA.

Colouring book You’d need a lot of felt tips for the 10-m² (107.63-sq-ft) colouring book produced by the Zielona Sowa Publishing House (POL). South Africa. on 7 Mar 2015. Lunch box A 2.13 m (6 ft 11. below) has created a tunable and RNC[CDNGWMWNGNGǡO ǡHVǡKP NQPICUXGTKƒGFKP .06 m (6 ft 9.CPUKPIǡ/KEJKICP75#QPǡ&GE6JGKPUVTWOGPV YCUǡDWKNVWUKPIǡVJGUCOGOGVJQFUCPFOCVGTKCNUCU CUVCPFCTFUK\GUQRTCPQWMWNGNGŤCNVJQWIJ KVǡKUǡVKOGUNCTIGT First gun Anecdotal evidence suggests that firearms are in use in China and northern Africa. al-sized a norm 1250 98 Recordology Bean bag Yogibo (USA) presented a 211-ft-wide (64. Its size ZDVUDWLͤHGLQ6KHͦHOG8.28 in) tall. It was measured in Stellenbosch.406. Magazine (single edition) The River Group and Polestar (both UK) produced a version of the Aug 2015 issue of Healthy magazine that measured 2. on 9 Sep 2015. Cheese slicer Kristen Gunstad (NOR) unveiled a 7. . as is o it e m k e s u . It was measured at Eagle Sign & Design in Louisville.BIG STUFF Horseshoe Kentucky Derby Museum (USA) has made a horseshoe 2.6-in) slicer at the ski resort in Kvitfjell. s d g e e ir p qu tuning cing re d by a fret spa eparate correct s s te o en c se on a u c d e ro p th ne.52 in) wide by 3. USA. as f o a h re a le s th head e ukule h T to .79-m-long (25-ft 6.05 m (10 ft 0.1 in) wide and 2. Largest folding chair 4GVCKNGT+PVGTOCTEJȌCPF OCPWHCEVWTGT0G[TCV 2G[TQPKG DQVJ(4#  collaborated to produce CEQNNCRUKDNGEJCKTǡO ǡHVǡKP VCNN6JGJKIJ seat was presented and OGCUWTGFKP$QPFQWHNG (TCPEGQPǡ/C[ Largest ukulele Lawrence Stump (USA. Kentucky.6-m-wide (8-ft 6-in) lunch box with a capacity of 8. and o four w ll a ly p re a birch e pine.35 m (7 ft 8. New Hampshire. USA.82 m³) at Nashua. Poland. Its size was FRQͤUPHGDWWKH1DWLRQDO Stadium in Warsaw.8 in) tall.11 cu ft) was produced by Altus Viljoen and Wilgenhof Men’s Residence (both ZAF).47 m³ (299. on 15 Sep 2015. on 12 Apr 2015.3-m) bean bag with a volume of 1. although the first documentary evidence for gun construction will not emerge until the following century. on 30 Jun 2015. Norway. Largest wheelbarrow #VǡO ǡHV NQPICPFYKVJCYJGGNFKCOGVGTQHǡO ǡHVǡKP VJKUUWRGTUK\GFYJGGNDCTTQY VQQMCVGCOQHRGQRNGOQTGVJCPǡJTVQRNCPCPFDWKNF+VYCUEQPUVTWEVGFD[*GKOCVXGTGKP $QMGG8 &'7 CPFKVYCURTGUGPVGFCPFOGCUWTGFKP$QMG)GTOCP[QPǡ/C[ LARGEST… W? g U KNO -breakin rd DID YO o c re f this DATELINE y of ted o The bod onstruc ent is c k and m u n tr e s th ec in od. on 24 May 2014.23 cu ft (39.

6 m) tall. it stands 12 ft (3.FAST FACTS You could accommodate more than 25. Measured in an aircraft hangar at Last Stop in White Hills.07 m (10 ft 0. The titanic truck is currently operated by Russ Mann (USA). DVYHULͤHGLQ. 1302 guinnessworldrecords. was 99.800 kg) – about the same as a bull elephant – and can accommodate 12 passengers.7-m) monster truck.000 lb (6.05-sq-ft) poster.DUEDOD. Spain.73 m (15 ft 6. Umbrella Jiangxi Kuntak Industrial Co Ltd (CHN) have made an umbrella 22.UDT on 26 Feb 2016. Arizona. Piggy bank Even the keenest savers ZRXOGVWUXJJOHWRͤOOWKH 8.58-m-tall (18-ft 3.2 in) long and 0.121.98) • The largest TV remote control (below) is around 24 times larger than its real-life counterpart and took 68 days to build Largest TV remote control $TQVJGTU5WTCLCPF4CLGUJ-WOCT/GJGT DQVJ+0& ETGCVGF VJKUONQPI HVKP VGNGXKUKQPTGOQVGEQPVTQNYJKEJ YCUOGCUWTGFKP5CODCNRWT+PFKCQPǡ5GR+VKUHWNN[ QRGTCVKQPCNCPFYCUUJQYPVQYQTMQPCPQTOCNUK\GF68 Largest ice-cream scoop &KOKVTK2CPEKGTC +6# UGTXGFWRCIKICPVKEKEGETGCOUEQQRKP(QTPQFK<QNFQ+VCN[QPǡ5GR +VOGCUWTGFǡO ǡHVǡKP NQPICPFEO ǡHVKP YKFGYKVJCFGRVJQHǡEO ǡKP  6JGǡUWRGTUK\GFUEQQRJCUCYQTMKPIOGEJCPKUOVQGLGEVVJGKEGETGCO Mortar and pestle Measured in Macael.com 99 DATELINE Brad and Jen Campbell (both USA) of Big Toyz Racing have created the Sin City Hustler. Its pestle is 4. on 3 Aug 2015.5 in) high and has a diameter of 3. weighs a hefty 15.7-in) piggy bank created by Kreissparkasse Ludwigsburg (DEU). which depicted a map of Iraq.95 m (236 ft) wide. a 32-ft-long (9.58 m (326 ft 8 in) long and 71. but owing to its considerable weight the Sin City Hustler only has a maximum speed of around 45 mph (72.4 in) at its broadest point. It packs a powerful 750-hp engine. Poster Fareed Lafta (IRQ) has created a 7.85 m (2 ft 9.1-in).8 in) at its mouth. It was unveiled at Xingzi in Jiangxi Province. LONGEST MONSTER TRUCK First forensic autopsy As part of an investigation into the suspected murder of a nobleman.5 in) in diameter. He will later be involved in other legally required autopsies. the largest mortar is 3. Germany.4 km/h). USA.500 conventionally sized sandwiches in the largest lunch box (see p. on 18 May 2015. on 28 Mar 2015.03-m-long (26-ft 4. 5. It was measured in Ludwigsburg.164. . China. The poster. The über-utensil was created by Ayuntamiento de Macael (ESP).78-m² (77. on 10 Jul 2014. Italian physician Bartolomeo da Varignana performs the first medico-legal autopsy.9 m (75 ft 1.29 m (10 ft 9. It was put on display at Karbala Stadium.

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diplomats from England and Portugal sign the Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of Alliance. in Wilburby-the-Sea. USA.6 m (61 ft).JQGP. Bernie Boehm (USA) spun a basketball for 25. UK.BALL SKILLS Longest tennis volley rally Angelo A Rossetti and Ettore Rossetti (both USA) exchanged 30. former Premier League star Jamie Redknapp (UK) recorded the greatest height to control a soccer ball. Bernie can surf. USA. .52 sec. a peace deal that will endure through countless global conflicts and many changes of government. Connecticut. Oldest treaty still in force On 16 Jun.CYVJG most slam dunks in one minute by an individual  D[ū<GWUŬ/E%NWTMKPVJGfarthest kneeling basketball shot made backwards ǡHVǡKPQTǡO D[ū*CPFNGUŬ (TCPMNKPCPFVJG most basketball three-pointers made by a pair in one minute  D[ū#PVŬ#VMKPUQP CPFǡū%JGGUGŬǡ%JKUJQNO CNN75#  1373 102 Recordology Most consecutive soccer ball headers while treading water . Most hits of a golf ball QPǡCǡENWDKPUGEQPFU Soccer player Aaron Ramsey (UK) racked up 61 hits of a golf ball on a golf club in 30 sec on the set of #. On the same TV show. On 31 Aug 2013. 75#QPǡ#WI6JGVYQDTQVJGTUQPEGCEJKGXGFVJGlongest tennis rally. spinning both balls. It is still in effect today.GCIWG QH6JGKT1YP (UK) in London. too.Q5JQYFGK4GEQTF in Milan. this sporty multi-tasker achieved the longest duration to spin a EDVNHWEDOOZKLOHVXŲQJ – 33. Chen Weiwei (CHN) achieved this revolutionary performance.576 volleys of a tennis ball (without the ball hitting the ground) at the Weston Racquet Club in Weston. Italy. One ball too easy for you? The longest duration to spin two basketballs on Longest duration spinning a basketball on the nose DATELINE ū5EQQVGTŬ%JTKUVGPUGPQHVJG*CTNGO)NQDGVTQVVGTUMGRVCDCUMGVDCNNURKPPKPIQPJKUPQUGHQT ǡUGEKP2JQGPKZ#TK\QPC75#QPǡ0QX6JKUYCUQPGQHUGXGPTGEQTFUUGVD[VJG )NQDGVTQVVGTUKPEGNGDTCVKQPQH)94&C[6JGQVJGTUKPENWFGVJGlongest basketball shot blindfolded ǡHVǡKPQTǡO D[ū6JWPFGTŬ.WNKP$C[TGWVJ)GTOCP[KUJGNFD[(TCPM CPF&GPPKU(WJTOCPP DQVJ&'7  Longest duration to spin CǡDCUMGVDCNNQPVJGVQG On 12 Mar 2015. Florida.25 sec – on the set of 1HƒEKCNN[#OC\KPIat Ponce Inlet in Daytona Beach. although the EWTTGPVTGEQTF UVTQMGU UGVQPǡ. on 7 Jul 2014.GHQPV4QFTKIWG\ %7$ GZGEWVGFEQPUGEWVKXG UQEEGTDCNNVQWEJGUYKVJVJGJGCFŤYJKNGCHNQCV*GCEJKGXGF VJGTGEQTFKPVJGUYKOOKPIRQQNQHVJG*QVGN0CEKQPCNFG%WDC KPǡ*CXCPC%WDCQPǡ#WI RQH̨QJHU PDLQWDLQLQJ spin) is 4 min 31 sec. one on top of the other. He brought under control a ball that he had kicked to a height of 18. on the set of . on 9 Jul 2015. Florida.

com 103 DATELINE Most bowling balls JGNFǡUKOWNVCPGQWUN[ Chad McLean (USA) clung on to 13 regular bowling balls (as approved by the World Tenpin Bowling Association) in Brigham City. 2015. The PRVW˼DURXQGWKH PRRQ˽WULFNVLQRQHPLQXWH is 61. “spat” high into the air and caught back in his mouth. The ORQJHVWWLPHWR balance a soccer ball on the shin is 1 min 55 sec. Germany. by 0. Utah.5 kg (9 lb 14. on 13 Nov 2014. UK. Tony Fercos (USA. London. Each ball is fed into his mouth. John Farnworth kept a soccer ball airborne for 29. But to do it in mid-air? On 14 Dec 2015. Germany. He held four balls on KLVͤQJHUVFUDGOHGVHYHQLQ his arms and clamped two between his lower legs. b. a performer has to tap a soccer ball in the air then circle the same foot around it. Most soccer ball rolls around the face in QPGǡOKPWVG 8KEVQT4WDKNCT #4)  rolled a soccer ball around his face ǡVKOGUKPVJG6WTMKUJ EKV[QH+UVCPDWNQPǡ0QX 6JGJGCFVWTPKPI TGEQTFYCUOCFGKP collaboration with /CNVGRG2CTMUJQRRKPI EGPVTG 674 8KEVQT also shares the record for most soccer balls juggledƒXG*KU VQVCNUGVKPYCU GSWCNNGFD[/CTMQ 8GTOGGT 0. This bettered his previous record. break into frenzied dancing. on 25 Aug 2015. 1374 guinnessworldrecords. Most “around the world” WULFNVLQRQHPLQXWH In this trick.FAST FACTS A Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) soccer ball is nearly 170 times heavier than a regulation ping-pong ball • Basketball was first played with soccer balls • A golf ball has no official minimum weight Heaviest balls rotated QPǡVJGDCEMQHVJGJCPF Xie Jiajun (CHN) rotated two balls weighing 4. by Adrian Fogel (DEU) on 14 Feb 2010 in Nordhorn. Saxony.2 km (9.31 kg (10. UK. Germany. set in 2015. the ball is placed on the back of the QHFNDQGͥLFNHGXSGXULQJ which time the person’s head must complete one full revolution. QPǡ. Worst outbreak of “dancing mania” In July. achieved by Sinan Öztürk (DEU) in Mittweida. below) holds the absolute record.WN1PVJG UCOGFC[UJGCNUQUGV VJGQPGOKPWVGTGEQTF for most soccer ball touches with the head (female) LONGEST DURATION TO CONTROL A SOCCER BALL ON A SLACKLINE Most of us find it hard enough to perform “keepieuppies” at the best of times. a large number of men and women in Aachen.82 sec while maintaining his balance on a slackline (left).7 oz) – which roughly equates to the combined weight of seven NBA basketballs – on 9 Jan 2016. Abdul Halim (BGD) walked 15.& KP Most ping-pong balls juggled with the mouth In his performances. The footie freestyler also achieved the most fullvolley rebounds in 30 seconds – 28 – at the National Football Museum in Manchester.9 oz). UK. on 2 Nov . Farnworth demonstrates the trick below.CWTC$KQPFQ +6#8'0  EQORNGVGFūCTQWPF the world” tricks (see left) in Edinburgh. USA. This medieval illness has never been fully explained. in Brentford. For this. Many dance until they collapse from exhaustion. on 3 Oct 2008. with 85 tricks achieved in London. Most “around the worlds” in one minute (female) . Bangladesh. Football freestyler John Farnworth (UK. CZE) is able to blow and catch seven ping-pong balls in succession with his mouth in a single cycle. He made 38 laps of the 400-m track at the Bangabandhu National Stadium in Dhaka. UK. Farthest distance travelled with a soccer ball balanced QPǡVJGJGCF On 22 Oct 2011.44 mi) with a soccer ball atop his head.

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all-in-one down suit is vital.co.com. water. provisions. DID Y Sources: thebmc. 21 May 2004 Fastest ascent2GODC&QTLG5JGTRC 02. At the higher reaches of the mountain. QP/C[ 11 May 2006 Most ascents (female)UKZD[.uk. Without extra oxygen. alanarnette. so they can adapt to weather changes and new stages of a climb. Climbers take clothing that can be worn as layers.KCȓQ)QP\ȄNG\ /': VJGƒTUVRGTUQP to climb Everest from both sides in one season*GTGCEJGF VJGRGCMHTQO0GRCNQPVJGUQWVJUKFGQP/C[CPF TGVWTPGFVQVJGRGCMQP/C[ENKODKPIHTQO6KDGVQPVJG PQTVJUKFG#U&CXKFCVVGUVUEJQQUKPIVJGTKIJVGSWKROGPVKU XKVCNHQTKPETGCUKPI[QWTEJCPEGUQHCUWEEGUUHWNENKOD(QTQWT RJQVQUJQQV&CXKFFTGUUGFCUJGFKFQPJKUENKODUCPFVCNMGF WUVJTQWIJVJGXCTKQWUDKVUQHMKVVJCVJGNRGFJKOOCMGJKU TGEQTFDTGCMKPIUWOOKVU GEARING UP CONQUERING MOUNT EVEREST 19 May 2012 Most ascents in one dayENKODGTU 11 May 2011 Most ascentsD[#RC5JGTRCGSWCNNGFD[ 2JWTDC6CUJK5JGTRC DQVJ02. The high outer boot helps prevent snow and ice from getting inside.000-ers (mountains of 8. oxygen levels are only around one-third of those at sea level.CMRC5JGTRC 02. camera and other accessories. ITKPFVXEQOǡ Campsite maintenance c Supplies and gear c KPENWFKPI ENQVJKPIHQQFC0GRCNKEQQMCVDCUGECOR UWRRNGOGPVCNQZI[GPCPFCǡOGFKECNMKV QTc Climbing permit (per climber) c HTQOVJGPQTVJ UKFGǡ c HTQOVJGUQWVJUKFG Sherpas c GCEJRNWUVJGKTDQVVNGF UWRRNGOGPVCNQZ[IGPCV c RGTDQVVNG Porters c GCEJRGTFC[CVNGCUV c  $QVJǡCTGPGGFGFVQECTT[MKVVQCPFHTQODCUGECOR Yaks c GCEJRGTFC[CVNGCUV c TravelŤ cŤc VQHN[KPVQ -CVJOCPFWCPFQPVQDCUGECOR +VECPGCUKN[EQUV c VQENKOD 'XGTGUVCNVJQWIJHQTVTKRUD[9GUVGTPQRGTCVQTU VJGRTKEGECPGZEGGF c 6JG UWOXCTKGUCEEQTFKPIVQJQYDCUKEVJGVTGMKU YJGVJGTQTPQV[QWCTGUWRRQTVGFCPFYJGVJGT [QWENKODVJGPQTVJUKFG HTQO6KDGV QTVJGUQWVJ UKFGǡ HTQOǡ0GRCN 'ZRGPUGUKPENWFG HOW MUCH IT ALL COSTS OU KNO T he mo W? s t a s ce n ts of Ev one day erest in took pla 20 1 2 . A s ed y ou can photogra se e in this ph from mounta th a t day. the brain cannot focus and the body quickly tires. Here are some of its pioneering conquerors. For summit day.Clip-on glacier crampons are essential for a sure grip on rock and ice. This lightweight ice axe is attached to a wrist leash – a useful way of keeping the axe secure when attempting steeper sections of the climb. thin inner gloves are enclosed in two separate mittens. expandable backpack can accommodate clothes. but it still represents one of the ultimate challenges. w c e on 19 M hen 245 ay climber the sum s reach mit. 2KEVWTGFJGTGKU&CXKF. a warm. . the outer one is waterproof. with a hood to shield the face. At the summit. Some types of rope are treated to prevent them from becoming heavy in wet conditions.WPMQ6CDGK . This lightweight. Most climbers take supplemental oxygen bottles and a mask for their climb. climbers wear both an inner and outer boot.000 m or more).  KPǡǡJTǡOKP UQWVJUKFG 20 Aug 1980 First solo summit4GKPJQNF/GUUPGT +6#  8 May 1978 First ascent without supplemental oxygen 4GKPJQNFǡ/GUUPGT +6# CPF2GVGT*CDGNGT #76 16 May 1975 First ascent (female). Climbing rope should be both strong and light.20 29 May 1953 First ascent'FOWPF2GTEKXCN*KNNCT[ 0<  CPFǡ6GP\KPI0QTIC[ +0&6KDGV DATE RECORD Increasing numbers of climbers attempt to scale Everest each year. Inside the inner glove are chemical hand-warming packs. Mittens are EHWWHUWKDQ̧QJHUJORYHVDVWKHODWWHU PDNHWKḨQJHUVPRUHYXOQHUDEOHWRWKH cold. the in beca and clim me ver y conge sted bers cau sed a tr jam nea affic r the su mmit. a sleeping bag. For the 8.

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QTM%KV[75# V1969: “The 'CINGJCUNCPFGFŬ0GKN #TOUVTQPICPF$W\\ǡ#NFTKP DQVJ75# DGEQOG the ƒTUV OGPQPVJG/QQPQPǡ.WP V 1953: #VǡCOQP/C[ 'FOWPF2GTEKXCN*KNNCT[ 0<CDQXG NGHV CPF+PFQ6KDGVCP6GP\KPI0QTIC[ Dǡ0COI[CN9CPIFKCDQXGTKIJV  complete the ƒTUVCUEGPVQH'XGTGUV 6JG[ǡCTGUJQYPJGTGQPVJGFC[ DGHQTGǡVJGKTJKUVQTKECEJKGXGOGPV X 1924The ƒTUVCGTKCN EKTEWOPCXKICVKQPis OCFGD[VYQ75#TO[ &QWINCU9QTNF%TWKUGT &9% UGCRNCPGUHTQO ǡ#RTVQǡ5GRUVCTVKPI CPFGPFKPICV5GCVVNG 9CUJKPIVQP75#6JG %JKECIQKURKNQVGFD[ .GUNKG2#TPQNFYJKNG . but some of his other drawings show a human knight with anatomically correct joints operated by cables and pulleys.QJP*CTFKPI CNN75#  HN[ǡVJG0GY1TNGCPU V 1950: #VO HV #PPCRWTPCǡ+ KUVJGVJVCNNGUVOQWPVCKPKPVJGYQTNFCPFKU UKVWCVGFKPVJG0GRCNGUG*KOCNC[CU+VKUƒTUV UWOOKVVGFQPǡ.VUǡ'TKM*0GNUQPCPF .WN9KNG[2QUV 75# ECTTKGUQWVVJGƒTUVUQNQHNKIJVCTQWPF VJGYQTNF in 9KPPKGǡ/CGC. 1495 guinnessworldrecords.V8CNGPVKPC8NCFKOKTQXPC 6GTGUJMQXC 7554 DGEQOGUVJGƒTUV YQOCPKPURCEG5JGVCMGUQHHKP 8QUVQMǡHTQOVJG$CKMQPWT%QUOQFTQOG CVǡǡCO)/6QP.WP KPVJG5WPFC[6KOGU)QNFGP)NQDG4CEG CPFǡTGVWTPUQPǡ#RT Oldest android design Leonardo da Vinci (ITA) sketches a humanoid robot.WN#TOUVTQPI UVGRUQPVQVJGNWPCTUWTHCEGCV)/6 HQNNQYGFD[ǡ#NFTKPCV)/6 .com 109 DATELINE V 1933: $GVYGGPCPFǡ.QJPUVQP 7- DGEQOGUVJGƒTUVRGTUQPVQ UCKNCTQWPFVJGYQTNF UQNQCPFPQPUVQR KPJKU [CEJV5WJCKNK*GNGCXGU(CNOQWVJ7-QPǡ.VUǡ.WPKQT.WTK#NGMUG[GXKEJ )CICTKP 7554 HNKGUKPVQURCEGKP8QUVQMǡ on ǡ#RTQPVJGƒTUVOCPPGFURCEGHNKIJV6JG VCMGQHHKUHTQOVJG$CKMQPWT%QUOQFTQOGKP -C\CMJUVCPCVǡCO)/6CPFVJGNCPFKPI CVǡ5OGNQXMCPGCT'PIGNUKPVJG5CTCVQXTGIKQP QHǡ4WUUKCǡOKPNCVGT 1963: .FAST FACTS Magellan is famed as the first circumnavigator.CEJGPCN DQVJ(4#  V 1969: The ƒTUVRGTUQPVQTQYCP[QEGCPUQNQ KUǡ.QEMJGGF8GIC *GEQXGTUǡOK ǡMO UVCTVKPI CPFǡGPFKPIKP0GYǡ.WPD[/CWTKEG*GT\QICPF .QWKUǡ. His ideas for the finished model are lost. but he didn’t make it all the way home: he was hacked to death in the Philippines • The first power-driven flight lasted 12 sec • John O’Groats is named after Jan de Groot.QJP(CKTHCZ 7-CDQXG YJQETQUUGUVJG #VNCPVKE1EGCPGCUVVQYGUVKP$TKVCPPKCDGVYGGP ǡ.QYGNN*5OKVJCPF .CPCPFǡ. a Dutch ferryman 1900 1950 X 1911: The ƒTUV UWEEGUUHWNGZRGFKVKQP VQVJG5QWVJ2QNG TGCEJGUKVUIQCNCV ǡCOQPǡ&GE 6JG0QTYGIKCPRCTV[ QHƒXGOGPKUNGF D[%CRVCKP4QCNF #OWPFUGP TKIJV  6JG[TGCEJVJG2QNG CHVGTCFC[ǡOCTEJ YKVJFQIUNGFIGUHTQO VJG$C[QH9JCNGU 1970 1961: %QUOQPCWV(NKIJV/CLQT.WN+PVJGUCOG[GCT4QDKP -PQZ.

20 DGEQOGUVJG ƒTUVYQOCPVQENKOD/QWPVǡ'XGTGUV5JGYKNNIQQPVQ become the ƒTUVYQOCPVQENKODVJG5GXGP5WOOKVU VJGJKIJGUVRGCMQPGCEJEQPVKPGPV YJGPUJGVQRU 2WPECM. . It is on display in the White Tower at HM Tower of London. In fact. UK.057-m (6-ft 8-in) suit of armour made at around this time was once thought to have been worn by John of Gaunt.C[C CMC%CTUVGPU\2[TCOKF QP.WPCPF EQXGTUǡMO ǡOK CETQUU HQWTEQPVKPGPVU)GQTIG/CVVJGY Schilling (USA) is reputed to have YCNMGFCTQWPFVJGYQTNFHTQO VQCNVJQWIJVJKUKUWPRTQXGF V1983: )GQTIG/GGICP 7- EQORNGVGUVJGHCUVGUV YCNMCNQPIVJG2CP#OGTKECP*KIJYC[QPǡ5GR *GEQXGTUMO OK KPFC[U CHVGTUGVVKPIQWVQP. CVCO)/6QPǡ/C[ *GVTCXGNUǡMO ǡOK  UGVVKPIQWVQPǡ/CTHTQO %CRG'FYCTF'NNGUOGTG +UNCPFKPPQTVJGTP%CPCFC 6JGGZRGFKVKQPKUFQI assisted and is supported YKVJTGUWRRNKGU DATELINE V1975:1Pǡ/C[.CP*KULQWTPG[VCMGU him from the southernmost point of South America VQǡVJGǡPQTVJGTPOQUVRQKPVQH0QTVJ#OGTKEC V1978:. above) completes the ƒTUVEQPƒTOGF EKTEWOPCXKICVKQPQPHQQVQPǡ1EV *GJCFDGIWPQPǡ. 1st Duke of Lancaster.WP 1535 110 Journeys V1982: 1Pǡ#WI5KT4CPWNRJ(KGPPGU CDQXGNGHV CPF%JCTNGU$WTVQP CDQXGTKIJVDQVJ7- TGVWTPVQ)TGGPYKEJ. reaching VJGUWOOKVQPǡ#WI +VVCMGUJKOVJTGG FC[UVQTGCEJVJG top from his base ECORCVǡO ǡHV 6JGENKOD is made all the more FKHƒEWNVD[VJGHCEV that he does not use DQVVNGFǡQZ[IGP V1974: David Kunst (USA.WPMQ6CDGK . in the 14th century.EXPLORATION 1971–1995 JOURNEYS 1971 1980 V1980:+VCN[ŨU 4GKPJQNF/GUUPGT becomes the ƒTUV RGTUQPVQENKOD 'XGTGUVUQNQ. it is German in origin.QPFQP7-JCXKPIEQORNGVGF VJGǡƒTUVUWTHCEGEKTEWOPCXKICVKQPXKCDQVJ2QNGU6JG[JCFUGVQWVHTQO )TGGPYKEJQPǡ5GRETQUUKPIVJG5QWVJ2QNGQPǡ&GECPFVJG 0QTVJǡ2QNGQPǡ#RT+PCNNVJGKTGRKEVTGMEQXGTUǡOK ǡMO  Tallest suit of armour A 2.CRCPGUGGZRNQTGT CPFOQWPVCKPGGT0CQOK Uemura becomes the ƒTUV RGTUQPVQTGCEJVJG0QTVJ 2QNGKPCUQNQGZRGFKVKQP across the Arctic sea ice.

the original design remains – a circular central plot (symbolizing the world) surrounded by a ring of water – and the site is still dedicated to scientific research.CPJGJCFNGFVJG VJTGGOCPū+PVJG(QQVUVGRUQH5EQVVŬGZRGFKVKQP VQVJG5QWVJ2QNG 1995 V 1992: 6JGHCUVGUVETQUUKPIQHVJG#VNCPVKE 1EGCPKUǡFC[UǡJTǡOKPǡUGED[VJGO HV NWZWT[[CEJVDestrieroHTQOǡVQ#WI 6JGICUVWTDKPGRTQRGNNGFXGUUGNOCKPVCKPUCP CXGTCIGURGGFQHǡMPQVU ǡMOJǡORJ  6JGǡUMKRRGTKU%GUCTG(KQTKQ +6#  1993: 1P.FAST FACTS In 2011.CP VQǡǡ#RTǡ Oldest botanical garden (same location) The Orto Botanico in Padua.com 111 DATELINE 1985 .WPCPFǡ#WI*CPURGVGT$GEM #75 WPKE[ENGU ǡMO ǡOK HTQO2QTV*GFNCPFKP9GUVGTP#WUVTCNKCVQ/GNDQWTPG KPǡ8KEVQTKC*KUFC[JTOKPLQWTPG[TGRTGUGPVUVJGHCUVGUV WPKE[ENGǡTKFGCETQUU#WUVTCNKC V1988: 9GCTKPIDWQ[CPVONQPI HVKP UMKU 4ȌO[$TKEMC (4# ECTTKGUQWVVJGHCUVGUVūYCNMŬCETQUUVJG #VNCPVKE1EGCPKPFC[UHTQOǡ#RTVQ/C[*GEQXGTU ǡMO ǡOK VQYKPICRNCVHQTOQHUWRRNKGUCPF GUUGPVKCNUUWEJCUǡCYCVGTUVKNN 1989 and 1991: 6JGTGEQTFHQTVJGƒTUVCPFHCUVGUVOCP CPFYQOCPVQJCXGEKTEWOPCXKICVGFVJG'CTVJD[ECT EQXGTKPIUKZEQPVKPGPVUWPFGTVJGTWNGUCRRNKECDNGKP CPFGODTCEKPIOQTGVJCPCPGSWCVQTŨUNGPIVJQH FTKXKPI ǡTQCFOKNGUǡMO KUJGNFD[5CNQQ %JQWFJWT[CPFJKUYKHG0GGPC%JQWFJWT[ DQVJ+PFKC 6JG LQWTPG[VQQMǡFC[UǡJQWTUǡOKPWVGUHTQOǡ5GRVGODGT VQǡ0QXGODGT6JGEQWRNGFTQXGC*KPFWUVCP ū%QPVGUUC%NCUUKEŬUVCTVKPICPFƒPKUJKPIKP&GNJK+PFKC V1986: 4KEJCTF)ū&KEMŬ4WVCPCPF .GCIGT DQVJ75# EQORNGVGVJG ƒTUVEKTEWOPCXKICVKQPD[CKTETCHVYKVJQWV TGHWGNNKPIKPFC[UHTQOVQǡ&GE 6JGKTǡWPKSWGCKTETCHVVoyager is designed CPFǡDWKNVD[&KEMŨUDTQVJGT$WTV X1986: 1Pǡ#WI2CVTKEM/QTTQY %#0 DGEQOGUVJGƒTUVRGTUQP VQENKODVJG5GXGP5WOOKVU – the highest mountains on all seven continents – according VQVJG%CTUVGPU\NKUVYJKEJ TGEQIPK\GUVJGJKIJGUVRQKPV KP1EGCPKCCU2WPECM. As of 2016.CP'TNKPI-CIIG 014 EQORNGVGU theƒTUVUQNQGZRGFKVKQPVQVJG5QWVJ2QNG*KU MO OK WPUWRRQTVGFUWTHCEGVTGM HTQOǡ$GTMPGT+UNCPFVCMGUJKOǡFC[U V1994: $‡TIG1WUNCPF 014 RGTHQTOUVJG HCUVGUVUQNQWPUWRRQTVGFVTGMVQVJG0QTVJ2QNG KPFC[UHTQOǡ/CTVQǡ#RT*GUGVUQWVHTQO %CRG#TMVKEJGUMK[QPVJG4WUUKCPCTEJKRGNCIQ QH5GXGTPC[C<GON[C6JGHGCVCNUQOCMGUJKO the ƒTUVǡRGTUQPVQOCMGC UQNQCPFWPUWRRQTVGF LQWTPG[ǡVQVJG0QTVJǡ2QNGHTQONCPF X 1995: %QXGTKPI OQTGVJCPǡMO ǡOK CPF ǡEQWPVTKGUCPF VGTTKVQTKGU'OKNKQ 5EQVVQ #4) OCMGU the NQPIGUVGXGT LQWTPG[D[ǡOQVQTE[ENG. HTQOǡ. but the Pacific Ocean is shrinking 1990 V1985: $GVYGGPǡ. is created.GCPC. a whale graveyard was found near the Pan-American Highway in Chile • The North and South Poles have switched some 400 times in 330 million years • The Atlantic Ocean is growing. Italy.C[C CMC%CTUVGPU\2[TCOKF  KPǡ+PFQPGUKC V1989: 4QDGTV5YCP 7- DGEQOGUVJGƒTUV RGTUQPVQYCNMVQDQVJ2QNGUYJGPVJGGKIJV OCPū+EGYCNMŬGZRGFKVKQPCTTKXGUCVVJG0QTVJ 2QNGWPFGTJKUNGCFGTUJKRQPǡ/C[6JTGG [GCTUGCTNKGTQPǡ. 1545 guinnessworldrecords.

Shanxi and Henan provinces in China on 2 Feb.CP#PVQKPG&G%JQWFGPU (4#  DGEQOGUVJGƒTUVRGTUQPVQEQORNGVGVJG6JTGG2QNGU Challenge without supplementary oxygen on Everest JCXKPIGODCTMGFQPJKUHGCVQPǡ#RT V1998:%QPUVTWEVKQP DGIKPUQPVJGInternational Space Station (ISS 9KVJ CƒPCNEQUVKPGZEGUUQH ǡDP cǡDP KVYKNN DGEQOGVJGOQUVexpensive man-made object DATELINE X1998:&CXKF*GORNGOCP#FCOU 7-  DGEQOGUVJGƒTUVRGTUQPVQEQORNGVG the Adventurers Grand SlamCITWGNNKPI EJCNNGPIGVJCVKPXQNXGUENKODKPIVJG 5GXGP5WOOKVU VJGJKIJGUVRGCMQPGXGT[ EQPVKPGPV CPFVTGMMKPIVQDQVJVJG0QTVJ CPF5QWVJ2QNGHTQOVJGEQCUV*GDGIKPU JKUSWGUVKPǡCPFEQORNGVGUKV ǡ[GCTUNCVGTYJGPǡJGCPFHGNNQY CFXGPVWTGT4WPGǡ)LGNFPGU 014 YCNMVQVJG0QTVJ2QNG HTQO/CTVQǡ/C[ǡ 1556 112 Journeys 1999: 4QDGTV*CPUGP QH-KVVGT[/CKPG75# EQORNGVGUVJGlongest solo and unsupported journey on a snowmobileHTQOǡ.000 people perish in the quake (or dizhen) that strikes the Shaanxi.GPPKHGT/WTTC[ 7- YJQ TGIKUVGTUVJG fastest circumnavigation by helicopter (female)KPǡVJGUCOGVKOGCPF DGVYGGPVJGUCOGFCVGU T2001: 'TKM9GKJGPOC[GT 75# YCUDQTPYKVJTGVKPQUEJKUKU CPG[GEQPFKVKQPVJCVNGHVJKO EQORNGVGN[DNKPFD[VJGCIG QHǡ&GURKVGVJKUQPǡ/C[ JGDGEQOGUVJGƒTUVDNKPFOCP to climb Mount Everest#UQH #RTǡJGKUUVKNNVJGQPN[DNKPF RGTUQPVQJCXGFQPGUQ'TKM KUCNUQCPCEEQORNKUJGFTQEM ENKODGTUMKGTCPFRCTCINKFGT .CUVN[JGEQORNGVGUVJGfastest solo row across the Indian Ocean KPǡǡFC[UǡJTǡOKPǡUGEHTQO0QXVQǡ.CP VQǡ(GD*GEQXGTUǡMO ǡOK HTQO/GFYC[ /CKPGVQ+PVGTPCVKQPCN(CNNU /KPPGUQVC75#CPFDCEM Highest death toll from an earthquake An estimated 830.CRCP VQ%QQU$C[KP1TGIQP75#KPVCMKPIǡFC[UǡJTǡOKP . 2000 V2000: $GVYGGPǡ/C[CPFǡ5GR %QNKP$QFKNN 7- TGEQTFUVJGfastest circumnavigation by microlight*GTQWPFU VJGINQDGKPJKU/CKPCKT$NCFG(NGZYKPI OKETQNKIJVKPFC[UUVCTVKPICPFNCPFKPI CV$TQQMNCPFUCKTƒGNFKP9G[DTKFIG5WTTG[ 7-'PTQWVG$QFKNNHNKGUCNQPIUKFGCPQVJGT TGEQTFDTGCMGT.EXPLORATION 1996–2005 JOURNEYS 1996 1999 V1996: Peter Bird (UK) spends the longest collective time at sea in an ocean rowboatǡFC[U(TQOVQJGEQXGTUǡMO ǡOK TQYKPICETQUUVJG#VNCPVKE1EGCPHTQOGCUVVQYGUVVJG2CEKƒE 1EGCPHTQOGCUVVQYGUVCPFVJG2CEKƒE1EGCPHTQOYGUVVQGCUV V1999: 'OOCPWGN%QKPFTG (4# GODCTMUWRQPVJGƒTUVQH UGXGPGRKECFXGPVWTGUCVUGCŤVJG most solo ocean crossingsŤD[ VTCXGTUKPIVJG#VNCPVKE1EGCPGCUVVQYGUVKPCRGFCNDQCV*GIQGU QPVQTQYVJG#VNCPVKEGCUVVQYGUVKPYGUVVQGCUVKPCPF GCUVVQYGUVKPDGHQTGTGEQTFKPIVJGfastest solo row across the Atlantic (west to east)CNUQKPKPǡFC[UǡJTǡOKP RKEVWTGF CDQXG *GTQYUVJG2CEKƒE1EGCPYGUVVQGCUVHTQO%JɢUJKKP.CP T1999: 1P ǡ.

WN(NȄXKQ. five Russian. Scotland – a follower and supporter of Mary.CTU%NCWUGP 75# UGVUQWVHTQO 6KNNCOQQM1TGIQP75#QPǡ#RT*KU FQWDNGETQUUKPIQHVJGEQWPVT[ƒPKUJGUKP.QWPI5GQM -14 TGCEJGUVJG 0QTVJ2QNGQPHQQVQP#RTDGEQOKPIVJGƒTUV person to achieve the Explorers Grand Slam 6JKUKPXQNXGUENKODKPIVJGJKIJGUVOQWPVCKPU QPCNNUGXGPEQPVKPGPVUVJGOQWPVCKPUQXGT ǡO ǡHV CPFTGCEJKPIVJG0QTVJCPF 5QWVJ2QNGUQPHQQV*KUSWGUVJCFDGIWPYJGP JGUWOOKVVGF'XGTGUVQPǡ/C[ǡ 2002: 'ODCTMKPIQPVJGlongest unicycle journey. James Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh.QU #PIGNGU%CNKHQTPKCQPǡ0QXJCXKPIEQXGTGF ǡMO ǡOK CETQUUUVCVGU V2005: $GVYGGPCPFǡ/CT5VGXG(QUUGVV EQORNGVGUVJGƒTUVUQNQEKTEWOPCXKICVKQPD[ aircraft without refuelling+VVCMGUJKOǡJT ǡOKPKPVJGVirgin Atlantic GlobalFlyerUVCTVKPI CPFƒPKUJKPICV5CNKPC-CPUCU75#6JGCKTETCHV YJKEJKUDWKNVD[5ECNGF%QORQUKVGUECTTKGU PGCTN[ǡVQPPGU ǡND QHHWGN V2005: 1Pǡ. Queen of Scots – uses a carbine to kill James Stewart.CPCPFǡ/C[ V2001: The ƒTUVOCTTKGFEQWRNGVQTGCEJDQVJ2QNGUŤ/KMGCPF(KQPC 6JQTPGYKNN DQVJ7- ŤCTTKXGCVVJG0QTVJ2QNGQP/C[JCXKPITGCEJGF VJG5QWVJ2QNGD[UMKQPǡ.WPCPFǡ.CTFKOCPF &KQIQ)WGTTGKTQ DQVJ$4# EQORNGVGVJGKTVTKR HTQO%JWȐVQ1KCRQSWGQPVJG$TC\KNKCPEQCUV CURCTVQHVJG$NWG&GUVKPCVKQP'ZRGFKVKQP #VǡMO ǡOK VJKUKUVJGlongest YKPFUWTƒPILQWTPG[6JG[DGICPQPǡ/C[ First assassination by firearm On 23 Jan.WNKPVJGBud Light Spirit of Freedom*GVCMGUQHHCPFNCPFUKP#WUVTCNKC V2005: 2CTM. 1570 guinnessworldrecords.com 113 DATELINE X 2002: 6KPC5LȘITGP 59' DGEQOGUVJGƒTUV woman to complete an unsupported journey to VJG5QWVJǡ2QNGQPǡ(GD #NQPIYKVJJGTJWUDCPF 6JQOCUUJGCEJKGXGUVJG LQWTPG[ HTQOVJG*GTEWNGU +PNGV KPǡǡFC[UUVCTVKPI QPǡǡ0QX .FAST FACTS Oceans can hold approximately 50% more carbon than Earth’s atmosphere • No country owns Antarctica • The ISS has 15 pressurized modules (seven US. 1st Earl of Moray and Regent of Scotland. two Japanese and one European) 2001 2004 2005 V2004: 5CTCJCPF5CNN[-GVVNG DQVJ7- ECTT[QWVVJG ƒTUVǡTQYCETQUUCP[QEGCPD[COQVJGTCPFFCWIJVGTVGCO 6JG[ETQUUVJG#VNCPVKE1EGCPGCUVVQYGUVKPCalderdale – The Yorkshire ChallengerDGVYGGPǡ.CP$QVJVTKRUCTGCKTUWRRQTVGFCPF VJGǡEQWRNGCTGCEEQORCPKGFD[VGCOOCVG%CVJCTKPG*CTVNG[ 7-  6JGǡNCVVGTNGICNUQGCTPU(KQPC6JQTPGYKNNCPF*CTVNG[CPQVJGTTGEQTF HQTHCUVGUVUMKǡLQWTPG[VQVJG0QTVJ2QNG HGOCNG FC[U 2002: #XKCVQT5VGXG(QUUGVV 75#ŤTKIJV  EQORNGVGUVJGƒTUVUQNQEKTEWOPCXKICVKQPD[DCNNQQP DGVYGGPǡ.

CUQPKU LQKPGFD[XCTKQWUUWRRQTVGTUCPFHTKGPFUHQTUQOG UVCIGUQHJKUOCOOQVJVTGM S2007: #IGF[GCTUFC[U 5COCPVJCǡ. It is defended by Ikkō-ikki warrior monks until Aug 1580.EXPLORATION 2006–2009 JOURNEYS 2006 2007 S2007: 5VCTVKPIKP#VCNC[C2GTW CPFƒPKUJKPIKP$GNȌO$TC\KN/CTVKP 5VTGN 580 UYKOUVJGGPVKTGNGPIVJQH VJG#OC\QP4KXGTKPǡFC[UDGVYGGP ǡ(GDCPFǡ#RT6JGMO OK  CEJKGXGOGPVOCTMUVJGHCTVJGUVQRGP YCVGTUYKO6JGFKUVCPEGUJGEQXGTU GCEJFC[XCT[HTQOǡMO ǡOK VQ ǡMO ǡOK  S2006: Dee Caffari (UK) becomes the ƒTUVHGOCNG VQEKTEWOPCXKICVGVJGYQTNFUQNQUCKNKPIYGUVDQWPF CPFPQPUVQR.CTUQP 75# DGEQOGUVJG [QWPIGUVHGOCNGVQENKODVJG5GXGP5WOOKVU KPENWFKPI%CTUVGPU\QP#WI Longest castle siege The cathedral fort of Ishiyama Hongan-ji in modern Osaka. Japan.GYKU 7- EQORNGVGUVJG ƒTUVEKTEWOPCXKICVKQPWUKPIJWOCPRQYGTC[GCT LQWTPG[YKVJQWVYKPFQTOQVQTCUUKUVCPEG.CUQP. when the complex is finally burned down.QPǡ/C[5GVVKPIQWVHTQO2QTVUOQWVJ 7-QPǡ0QXUJGVCMGUǡFC[UǡJTǡOKP ǡUGEVQEQORNGVGVJGXQ[CIGWPUWRRQTVGFKPVJG O HV OQPQJWNNAviva#NOQUVVJTGG[GCTUNCVGT Caffari becomes the ƒTUVHGOCNGVQUCKNPQPUVQR CTQWPFVJGYQTNFKPDQVJFKTGEVKQPUQPǡ(GD S2007: 1Pǡ/C[. is attacked by the warlord Oda Nobunaga in Aug 1570. .GPPKHGT/WTTC[ CPF%QNKP$QFKNN DQVJ7- CEEQORNKUJ the ƒTUVEKTEWOPCXKICVKQPXKCDQVJ 2QNGUD[JGNKEQRVGT6JG[UGVQHHHTQO (QTV9QTVJKP6GZCU75#KPC$GNN JGNKEQRVGTQPǡ&GE6JGKTHNKIJV KUCNUQVJGHCUVGUVEKTEWOPCXKICVKQP XKCVJGǡ2QNGUD[JGNKEQRVGTVCMKPI ǡFC[UǡǡJTǡǡOKPǡǡUGE S2006:$GVYGGPǡ0QXCPFǡ&GE*CPPCJ /E-GCPF 7- VCMGUǡFC[UǡJTǡOKPVQUMK HTQO*GTEWNGU+PNGVCVVJGGFIGQHVJG#PVCTEVKE EQPVKPGPVVQVJG5QWVJ2QNGŤVJGHCUVGUVUQNQ WPUWRRQTVGFCPFWPCUUKUVGFLQWTPG[VQVJG5QWVJ 2QNG HGOCNG 6JGRQNGKUUKVWCVGFCVCPCNVKVWFG QHǡO ǡHV 6JGGPVKTGLQWTPG[KUWRJKNN CPF/E-GCPFǡECTTKGUCNNJGTQYPUWRRNKGUVQGPUWTG CPǡGUUGPVKCNFCKN[KPVCMGQHECNQTKGU DATELINE 2006: 6JGVJTGGGZVTGOGRQKPVUQP'CTVJCTG /QWPVǡ'XGTGUVVJG0QTVJ2QNGCPFVJG5QWVJ2QNG CMCVJG6JTGG2QNGU 1Pǡ#RT%GEKNKG5MQI 014  TGIKUVGTUVJGHCUVGUVVKOGVQEQORNGVGVJG6JTGG2QNGU EJCNNGPIG HGOCNG YJGPUJGENCKOUVJG0QTVJ2QNG +VVCMGUJGTǡ[GCTǡǡFC[UVQCEJKGXGJGTHGCV 1580 114 Journeys S2007: 1Pǡ1EV.

in TotallyMoney. is set up for trading in printed shares of the United East India Company of the Netherlands.CRCPVQVJG)QNFGP)CVG$TKFIGKP5CP(TCPEKUEQ%CNKHQTPKC 75#CDQCTFBojangles6JGKTGRKEXGPVWTGNCUVUǡFC[UǡJTǡOKPCPF OCMGUVJGOVJGƒTUVVGCOVQTQYVJG2CEKƒE1EGCPYGUVVQGCUV X 2008: (TCPEKU. KP5JCPIJCK%JKPC*GDGIKPUVJGMO OK VTKRKP. 1602 guinnessworldrecords.Q[QPCNUQ CEEQORNKUJGUVJGHCUVGUV UKPINGJCPFGFVTCPUCVNCPVKE UCKNKPIJGEQXGTUǡMO OK KPǡFC[UǡJTǡOKP S2009: 1Pǡǡ#WI /KEJCGN2GTJCO 7- Dǡǡ/CT DGEQOGU the [QWPIGUVRGTUQP VQEKTEWOPCXKICVGD[ UCKNKPIUQNQPQPUVQRCPF WPUWRRQTVGF*GKUCIGF ǡ[GCTUǡFC[UYJGPJG UGVUQWVHTQO2QTVUOQWVJ UK.WP.800 m (15.750 ft) thick • The top 3 m (10 ft) of the ocean holds as much heat as Earth's atmosphere • The last year that no one climbed Everest's summit was 1974 2009 S2009: 5CTCJ1WVGP 7-Dǡ/C[ KUCIGFǡ[GCTUǡFC[UYJGP UJGUGVUQWVVQTQYCETQUUVJG+PFKCP1EGCPHTQOǡ#RTVQǡ#WI*GTMO OK ETQUUKPIDGVYGGP#WUVTCNKCCPF/CWTKVKWUKPSerendipityOCMGUJGT the [QWPIGUVRGTUQPCPFƒTUVYQOCPVQTQYVJG+PFKCP1EGCPUQNQ S2009: $GVYGGPǡ/C[CPFǡ0QX/KEM&CYUQPCPF%JTKU/CTVKP DQVJ7-  TQYHTQO%JɢUJKKP.com QPǡǡ0QXǡ W 2009: 4C[<CJCD-GXKP 8CNNGN[CPF4KEJCTF9GDGT CNNǡ%#0 TGCEJVJG5QWVJ 2QNGHTQO*GTEWNGU+PNGVKP #PVCTEVKECQPǡ.G[UKP5YKV\GTNCPFQPǡ.WP CPFETQUUGURCTVQH'WTQRGVJGGPVKTG75# CPF%JKPCYGUVVQGCUVYGCTKPIQWVVJTGGUGVU QHǡYJGGNUCPFVJTGGUMCVGDQCTFFGEMU .CPCVVJGGPFQHVJG HCUVGUVEKTEWOPCXKICVKQP UCKNKPIUQNQǡFC[UǡJT ǡOKPǡUGE*GOCMGU VJGMO OK  XQ[CIGKPVJGO HV VTKOCTCPIDEC II 1Pǡǡ.CPCHVGT ǡFC[UǡJTǡOKPŤVJG HCUVGUVWPUWRRQTVGFCPF WPCUUKUVGFLQWTPG[VQVJG 5QWVJ2QNGD[CVGCO6JGKT RGTUQPCNDGUVKUVTGMMKPI ǡMO ǡOK KPCFC[ Oldest stock exchange A stock exchange in Amsterdam.FAST FACTS Note: Guinness World Records no longer accepts applications from adventurers under the age of 16 2008 Antarctica’s Gamburtsev Mountains are buried under ice up to 4.Q[QP (4#  CTTKXGUKP$TGUV(TCPEGQP ǡ.com 115 DATELINE S2008: 1Pǡ5GR4QD6JQOUQP 0<  EQORNGVGUVJGNQPIGUVLQWTPG[D[UMCVGDQCTF. Netherlands.

while practising vampirism on girls and young women. She is alleged to have killed as many as 600 people in the previous century. in what is now Slovakia.EXPLORATION 2010–2015 JOURNEYS 2010 2011 S2010: Alan Bate (UK) completes the fastest circumnavigation by bicycle (male DGVYGGPǡ/CTCPFǡ#WI*KUVQVCNLQWTPG[VKOGKUǡFC[UǡJT ǡOKPFWTKPIYJKEJJGE[ENGUǡMO ǡOK CPFVTCXGNU OQTGVJCPMO OK KPENWFKPIVTCPUHGTU*KUGRKETKFG DGIKPUCPFGPFUCVVJG)TCPF2CNCEGKP$CPIMQM6JCKNCPF X 2010: 'F5VCHHQTF 7-  becomes the ƒTUVRGTUQPVQ YCNMVJGNGPIVJQHVJG#OC\QP River.CP%JTKUVKCP'KFG 014 TGCEJGUVJG 5QWVJǡ2QNGCHVGTCǡVTGMQHǡFC[UǡJTǡOKPŤEQORNGVKPI the HCUVGUVUQNQWPUWRRQTVGFCPFǡWPCUUKUVGFLQWTPG[VQVJG 5QWVJ2QNG*GUGVUQHHQPVJGMO OK CFXGPVWTG QPǡ&GEUVCTVKPICVVJG*GTEWNGU+PNGVQPVJGUQWVJ YGUVGTPGFIGQHVJG4QPPG+EG5JGNH'KFGEQXGTUCPCXGTCIG QHǡǡMO ǡOK RGTFC[ŤCNVJQWIJQPJKUNCUVFC[JG OCPCIGUVQUMKǡMO ǡOK *GKUUJQYPCDQXGTGHNGEVGF KPǡVJGOKTTQTGFDCNNVJCVUVCPFUCVVJG5QWVJ2QNG Most prolific female murderer Countess Elizabeth Báthory is walled up in her castle.CRUVKEMIWKVCT 1610 116 Journeys S2011: 1Pǡ. .CPCPFCHVGT CUEGPVUQP#EQPECIWC%CTUVGPU\2[TCOKF -QUEKWU\MQ-KNKOCPLCTQ'NDTWUCPF'XGTGUV TGCEJGUVJGVQRQHVJGNCUVUWOOKVŤ&GPCNK CMC/QWPV/E-KPNG[ŤQPǡ/C[6JKUKUVJG HCUVGUVǡVKOGVQENKODVJG5GXGP5WOOKVU including Carstensz*GKUUJQYPJGTGCV VJGǡVQRQH'XGTGUVYKVJJKU.*GCEEQORNKUJGUVJGVTKR KPǡ[GCTUǡOQPVJUǡFC[U  FC[U ƒPKUJKPIQPǡ#WI*GYCNMU ǡOK ǡMO HTQOVJG2CEKƒE 1EGCPVQVJGUQWTEGQHVJG#OC\QP VJGPHQNNQYUVJGTKXGTHQTǡOK ǡMO VQVCNNKPIǡOK ǡMO EQCUVVQEQCUV S2010: 1Pǡ.CP-CVKG5RQV\ 75#Dǡǡ#RT  KUCIGFǡ[GCTUǡFC[UYJGPUJGUGVUQHH HTQO&CMCT5GPGICNVQRCFFNGCETQUUVJG#VNCPVKE GCUVVQYGUV#HVGTCFC[XQ[CIGUJGCTTKXGUKP )GQTIGVQYP)W[CPCQPǡ/CTŤVJGyoungest female to row across any ocean solo DATELINE X 2010: 8GTPQP6GLCU 75# ENKODUVJG EQODKPGF-QUEKWU\MQCPF%CTUVGPU\NKUVU QHUWOOKVUKPFC[U6GLCUDGIKPUD[ ENKODKPI8KPUQP/CUUKHQPǡ.

the highest peak of Kilimanjaro. It acquires its square shape in 1748.CPŤVJGmost ocean rows D[QPGRGTUQP*KUETQUUKPIUJCXG DGGPUQNQCPFKPVGCOUCPFQXGT VJGǡ#VNCPVKECPF+PFKCPQEGCPU X 2013: 1Pǡ/C[ 2JWTDC6CUJK5JGTRC 02. rock at its summit contains 450-million-year-old fossils from the ocean bed • Kibo.  QPǡ/C[ 2013: &CXKF.KCȓQ )QP\ȄNG\ /': KU the ƒTUVRGTUQPVQ climb Everest from DQVJUKFGUKPQPG season*GENKODU HTQO0GRCNQPVJG UQWVJUKFGQPǡ/C[ CPFHTQO6KDGVǡQPVJG PQTVJUKFGǡQPǡ/C[ OCMKPIWUGQHDQVVNGF QZ[IGPDQVJVKOGU Oldest continuously used national flag The design of the flag of Denmark – a white Scandinavian cross on a red background – is adopted. In Denmark.WNKP'N%CLQP %CNKHQTPKC75#CIGFǡ[GCTUǡFC[U S2012: )ȄDQT4CMQPE\C[ *70 ETQUUGUVJG#VNCPVKE1EGCPGCUVVQYGUV KPJKUONQPI HVKP ECPQGKPǡFC[U&GRCTVKPIHTQO.CIQUKP 2QTVWICNCPFCTTKXKPICVVJG%CTKDDGCPKUNCPFQH#PVKIWCQPǡ/CTJGKU VJGǡƒTUVECPQGKUVVQRCFFNGCPQEGCP X 2012: 1Pǡ. is a dormant volcano. 1625 guinnessworldrecords.TKIJV CUEGPFUVJG YQTNFŨUJKIJGUVRGCMHQT VJGUVVKOG*GGSWCNU VJGTGEQTFHQTVJGmost conquests of Everest UGVD[#RC5JGTRC 02.com 117 DATELINE S2015: %CNNWO)CVJGTEQNG 7- Dǡǡ/C[ KUCIGFǡ[GCTU ǡFC[UCVVJGUVCTVQHJKU#VNCPVKE ETQUUKPIQPǡ&GEŤVJGyoungest RGTUQPVQTQYCETQUUCP[QEGCPUQNQ . its two other peaks are extinct volcanoes 2012 2013 2014 2015 S2014: /CVVJGY)WVJOKNNGT 75# Dǡǡ0QX DGEQOGUVJGyoungest RGTUQPVQEKTEWOPCXKICVGD[CKTETCHVUQNQ *GǡGPFUJKUVTKRQPǡ.FAST FACTS The Himalayas formed 60 million years ago. it is called the “Dannebrog” or “Danish cloth”.WN 'TFGPǡ'TWȊ 674  EQORNGVGUCLQWTPG[QH ǡ[GCTUǡFC[UǡJT ǡOKPŤVJGƒTUVUQNQ EKTEWOPCXKICVKQPQHVJG INQDGWUKPIJWOCPRQYGT *GTQYUMC[CMUJKMGU CPFE[ENGUCETQUUVJTGG EQPVKPGPVUCPFVJTGG QEGCPUVQTGVWTPVQJKU UVCTVKPIRQKPV$QFGIC$C[ KP%CNKHQTPKC75# V2013: $TKVKUJ#OGTKECP8CPGUUC#WFK4J[U 1Ũ$TKGPEQORNGVGUVJGEQODKPGF-QUEKWU\MQCPF %CTUVGPU\NKUVUKPFC[UUVCTVKPIYKVJ'XGTGUV QPǡ/C[CPFGPFKPIYKVJ-KNKOCPLCTQQP ǡ/CT6JKUOCTMUVJGfastest time to climb VJG5GXGP5WOOKVUKPENWFKPI%CTUVGPU\ HGOCNG  5GGRHQTVJGOCNGTGEQTF T 2013: 6JG6TKRNG5GXGP5WOOKVUCTGVJG VJTGGJKIJGUVOQWPVCKPUQPGCEJEQPVKPGPV %JTKUVKCP5VCPIN #76 TGCEJGUJKUNCUV UWOOKV5JMJCTCǡO ǡHV VCNN QPVJG)GQTIKCŤ4WUUKCDQTFGTQPǡ#WI VQǡDGEQOGVJGƒTUVRGTUQPVQENKODVJG 6TKRNG5GXGP5WOOKVU S2015: 5KOQP%JCNM 7-  CEEQORNKUJGUJKUPKPVJQEGCPTQY QPǡ.

. the first working model isn’t patented until some 20 years later.DO TRY THIS AT HOME… KNOW?d DID YOU or outed the w DATELINE Christian sh r “goal” – German fo “Tor!” – the . American h their vow who stretc oaaaal! Goooooooo 1657 118 Do Try This At Home… First operational pendulum clock Although Italian inventor Galileo had conceived of a pendulum-driven clock before he died. His feat pt m te at rd for his reco est to find nt co a radio was part of shout the d n who coul n a sports fa style of Lati e th in l” longest “goa entators m m co er socc els. by astronomer and horologist Christiaan Huygens (NLD).

soccer fan Christian – a dedicated follower of Borussia Dortmund – let rip with a shout that lasted for an impressive 43. )GTOCP[QPǡ#RT$CEMQHVJGPGVБ If you want something to shout about. 1665 guinnessworldrecords. the Royal Society.com 119 DATELINE This chapter is all about records that you can try yourself at home – proving that you don’t need to be an Olympic athlete or Hollywood megastar to be a record-breaker.CONTENTS IN YOUR KITCHEN 120 IN YOUR BACKYARD 122 IN YOUR BEDROOM 124 IN YOUR GYM 126 Longest shout Oldest continuing periodical The first issue of Philosophical Transactions is published by Britain’s science academy. on 6 Mar.56 sec in Munich.fm. why not try breaking some of the records that follow on the next eight pages? . It will go on to number Isaac Newton and Charles Darwin among its acclaimed contributors. One have-a-go hero is Germany’s Christian Kinner. holder of the record for the world’s longest-lasting shout – the kind of feat that anyone can try. With the help of radio station Sportradio Sport1.

He will hold the position until his death just six years later. .. Emilio Altieri) becomes leader of the Catholic Church aged 79 years 290 days..DO TRY THIS AT HOME. Whether you’re a pro chef with lightning-quick prep skills or a gourmand with an acclaimed appetite. there really is something on the menu for everyone. there are record-breaking opportunities in every cupboard and drawer – and even the fruit bowl. BANANAS Most peeled and eaten in one minute 8 Patrick Bertoletti (USA) Most snapped in one minute Most crushed with the head KPǡQPGOKPWVG 142 Scott Damerow (USA) Most cracked with one hand in one minute 32 4QUU/E%WTF[ 75# Most crushed by sitting in one minute 72 MichaȎN. IN YOUR KITCHEN EGGS If you thought that the kitchen was only good for making your dinner and washing the dishes.GXKNNCKP (4# Most crushed with the wrist in two minutes 78 Antonio Almijez (ESP) Fastest time to crush 10 with elbows pointing forwards ǡUGE Mauro Vagnini (ITA) Fastest time to move six from a box to egg cups using the feet ǡUGE Ashlee Carlisle (USA) Fastest time to balance a dozen ǡOKP Brian Spotts (USA) ǡUGE 99 Ashrita Furman (USA) SPOONS SUGAR CUBES Most balanced on the chin (single stack) 17 Silvio Sabba (ITA) Tallest tower Most balanced on the body 52 Etibar Elchiev (GEO) Most twisted in one minute 14 Ashrita Furman (USA) Most balanced on the face 31 Dalibor JablanoviȦ 54$ ǡEO ǡHVǡKP %COKNNG%QWTIGQP (4# CREAM CRACKERS Fastest time to eat three ǡUGE Ambrose Mendy (UK) JELLY CANDIES Most jelly beans moved using a straw in one minute  Andrew Kamil Mourad (LBN) Fastest time to sort 30 jelly ǡUGE Silvio Sabba (ITA) beans using chopsticks Fastest time to sort 30 jelly ǡUGE Stephen Kish (UK) babies using chopsticks M&M’S/SMARTIES Most eaten in one minute with chopsticks DATELINE Largest mosaic  -CVJT[P4CVENKHHG 7- ǡO2 Jackson McKenzie (USA) ǡUSǡHV Fastest time to UQTVǡI ǡQ\  of Peanut M&M’s ǡOKP Stephen Kish (UK) ǡUGE Fastest time to sort 30 using chopsticks ǡUGE Yinger Guan (CHN) 1670 Oldest elected Pope Clement X (ITA. think again: it’s also the perfect place to cook up some records! From common utensils to everyday foods such as eggs. b. sugar and rice.

com 121 DATELINE Most peas eaten in 30 seconds .04 sec 6JQOCU)CPIUVCF 014 CONDIMENTS Fastest time to drink a bottle QHMGVEJWR ǡIǡQ\ ǡUGE Benedikt Weber (DEU) Most mustard drunk in 30 seconds ǡI André Ortolf (DEU) ǡQ\ (CUVGUVVKOGVQFTKPMǡON ǡHNǡQ\ QHOWUVCTF ǡUGE Ashrita Furman (USA) RICE & PASTA LEMONS Fastest time to drink one litre of lemon juice through a straw ǡUGE Stephen Dechert II (USA) Most uncooked rice grains moved with chopsticks in one minute 38 Silvio Sabba (ITA) Fastest time to peel and eat one ǡUGE Ashrita Furman (USA) Most rice grains eaten with EJQRUVKEMUǡKPQPGOKPWVG 23 4QD$GCVQP 75# Fastest time to peel and eat three ǡUGE Jim Lyngvild (DEN) Most rice grains eaten with chopsticks in three minutes 134 Bob Blumer (CAN) Most caught blindfolded in 30 seconds (team of two) 15 Ashrita Furman and Bipin Larkin (both USA) Most tortellini made in three minutes 25 Francesco Boggian (ITA) Most caught blindfolded in one minute (team of two) 33 Ashrita Furman and Bipin Larkin (both USA) Fastest time to eat a bowl of pasta ǡUGE Peter Czerwinski ǡIǡQ\ YKVJUCWEG (CAN) COCKTAIL STICKS Most peas eaten in one minute 40 Ashrita Furman (USA)  Paolo Verri (ITA) Most sweetcorn eaten in three minutes  +CP4KEJCTF2WTXKU 7- Most baked beans eaten KPǡƒXGǡOKPWVGU 271 Ashrita Furman (USA) Most prolific hanging judge Lord Chief Justice George Jeffreys (UK) sentences some 320 rebels to death on the grounds of treason for participating in the Revolt of the West.FERRERO ROCHER Most eaten in one minute ONIONS Fastest time to eat a raw onion (CUVGUVVKOGVQRGGNǡND Most peeled and sliced in one minute ǡUGE Yusuke Yamaguchi (JPN) ǡOKPǡUGE Bob Blumer (CAN) ǡI Masanori Fujimura (JPN) ǡQ\ 9 Peter Czerwinski (CAN) Patrick Bertoletti (USA) Fastest time to eat 15 ǡOKPǡUGE Peter Czerwinski (CAN) Most stacked Fastest time to eat one with no hands 12 Silvio Sabba (ITA) 8. 1685 guinnessworldrecords. These trials will come to be known as the Bloody Assizes.

CTMKP DQVJ75# Most caught and held in one minute 22 #UJTKVC(WTOCPCPF $KRKP.CTMKP DQVJ75# Most thrown at a person in one minute 32 #UJTKVC(WTOCPCPF $KRKP..DO TRY THIS AT HOME.QJP(CTPYQTVJ 7- Most juggled simultaneously 5 8KEVQT4WDKNCT #4)  178 #UJTKVC(WTOCP 75# /CTMQ8GTOGGT 0.CTMKP DQVJ75# First confirmed periodic comet British astronomer Edmond Halley realizes that a comet first documented back in 240 BCE actually passes Earth in a 75-year cycle. He successfully predicts that the next flyby of Halley’s Comet will be in 1758.& Longest time spun on QPGƒPIGT Fastest time to complete ǡRCUUGU VGCOQHVYQ ǡOKP 4CRJCGN*CTTKU +54 ǡUGE ǡUGE . ....GPPKHGT)TKHƒP 75# ǡHVǡKP Longest throw at a target Most rotations by a team of three in one minute ǡO $TQFKG5OKVJ 75# ǡHV Most throws at a target in one minute 27 . IN YOUR BACKYARD If it’s a nice day outside.QKE&WOQPV (4# Most catches behind the back in one minute  6KOCPF&CPKGN *CDGPKEJV DQVJ75# Most cones hit in one minute 12 $TQFKG5OKVJ 75# Most rotations while on a trampoline in one minute 50 2CWN$NCKT 75# 2CP$QCPF &KPI*GOGK DQVJ%*0 130 -GP-QXCEJ 75# SPACE HOPPER (CUVGUVǡO ǡUGE #UJTKVC(WTOCP 75# POGO STICK Highest jump SOCCER BALL ǡO $KHH*WVEJKUQP 75# ǡHVǡKP Most peg taps in 30 seconds 69 5KNXKQ5CDDC +6# Fewest jumps in one minute 39 $KHH*WVEJKUQP 75# Most jumps in one minute Most balloons popped in one minute Most skips in one minute 266 6QPG5VCWDU 75# 57 /CTM#NFTKFIG 7- (CUVGUVǡOYKVJCDCNN balanced on the head ǡUGE &CPKGN%WVVKPI 7- Most “around the Moon” tricks in one minute 61 #FTKCP(QIGN &'7 Most “around the world” tricks in one minute 85 .KW4QPITQPI %*0 Longest distance thrown (male) ǡO %JTKUVKCP5CPFUVTQO ǡHVǡKP 59' Longest distance thrown (female) ǡO . ǡO #UJTKVC(WTOCPCPF ǡHVǡKP $KRKP. there’s no reason to stay cooped up indoors because there are hundreds QHǡTGEQTFYQTVJ[HGCVUCYCKVKPI[QWKP[QWTXGT[QYPDCEM[CTF#UYGNNCUCITGCVGZEWUGVQIGV UQOGHTGUJCKTCPFDQQUV[QWTXKVCOKP&NGXGNUVJKUKUVJGRGTHGEVUGVVKPIVQCVVGORVUQOGURQTV[ CEVKXKVKGUVJCVTGSWKTGCDKVOQTGURCEG5QFKIQWVVJQUGNQPIHQTIQVVGPVQ[U[QWPGXGTVJQWIJV [QWŨFǡWUGCICKPCPFIGVVTCKPKPI9JCVKH[QWFQPŨVJCXGCICTFGP!0QRTQDNGOŤYJ[PQVRCEM CǡRKEPKEJGCFVQVJGNQECNRCTMCPFVWTP[QWTTGEQTFCVVGORVKPVQCHCOKN[FC[QWV! FRISBEE/FLYING DISC Longest duration aloft (male) ǡUGE &QP%CKP 75# HULA HOOPS Longest duration aloft (female) ǡUGE #O[$GMMGP 75# Most spun simultaneously 200 /CTCYC+DTCJKO #75 Most caught and spun in one minute 236 .QPCVJCP)QOG\ 661  CPF-GKVJ%QPUKFKPG 7- WATER BALLOONS DATELINE Farthest throw and catch (without bursting) 1705 122 Do Try This At Home.

which is then cooked on the premises.WP %*0 Most spins around the leg in one minute  #FTKCP*KFCNIQ '52 Most consecutive bounces around the neck 126 *CTXG[9QQFU 7- Longest duration to juggle four around the leg ǡOKPǡUGE 2GPI<JCP 62' Longest grind ǡOKPǡUGE *CTT[(GCEJGP 7- Oldest restaurant Restaurante Botín opens its doors in the centre of Madrid.20 Most consecutive quadruple unders  #MKVQUJK/QTKIWEJK .CEGM)W\QYUMK ǡUGE 21.WPFOCP ǡUGE 59' Longest time to control one using the feet ǡJTǡOKP . Customers have to bring their own food and wine.GF'XCPU 7- Most high front drops in one minute 26 -GP-QXCEJ 75# Most seat drops in one minute 49 1NGMUCPFT0CMQPGEJP[ 7-4 Most backwards tucks in one minute  *W<KEJCQ %*0 SKIPPING ROPE Most backwards skips in 30 seconds  *KLKMK+MW[COC . The eatery is still open today.WGSKW %*0 Most juggling catches on the back in one minute  %JGP.TRAMPOLINE Most consecutive somersaults  $TKCP*WFUQP 7- Most backwards somersaults in 30 seconds  5JCPG%QPPQT5OKVJ 75# Most forward somersaults in one minute 40 . Spain. DIABOLO Most catches in one minute 16 9CPI. 1725 guinnessworldrecords.20 (CUVGUVǡOUMKRRKPI ǡUGE #NCKP6TQVVKGT 75# BASKETBALL Most circles around the waist in 30 seconds Most bounces in one minute 68 %QTG[4KEJ 75# 444 6JCPGUYCT)WTCICK 02.20 Most triple unders in one minute  *G%JWP[CP %*0 Most consecutive triple unders  5JQ\Q*COCFC .com 123 DATELINE Most caught blindfolded in one minute . Longest time spinning three ǡUGE 6JQOCU%QPPQTU 7- Longest time spinning on QPGƒPIGT WUKPIQPGJCPF ǡOKP 4WDGP#NECTC\ '52 ǡUGE Longest time spinning on the head ǡUGE /GJOGV-GMGȊ &'7 MICRO SCOOTER Highest bunny hop ǡEO /CTE8KPEQ (4# ǡHVǡKP Most tailwhips in one minute  &CPKGN$CTTGVV 75# Most backflips in one minute 12 &CMQVC5EJWGV\ 75# TENNIS BALLS Most bounces on a racket handle in one minute 11 #PVJQP[-GNN[ #75 185 (NQTKCP<QNNGT #76 Longest time to control one with a racket Most held in one hand ǡJTǡOKP 2CNOGT%CORDGNN ǡUGE 75#  /CJCFGQ$JWLDCN +0& Longest time to bounce one on the head ǡJTǡOKP 6QOCU.

.DO TRY THIS AT HOME. Whether you’re a newbie or an old hand.QWǡECPǡFQVJGO CNNǡKPǡ[QWTXGT[QYPDGFTQQOŤGXGPKP[QWTR[LCOCUKH[QWUQYKUJБ GOLF BALLS Most stacked in a tower 9 Don Athey (USA) JUGGLING BALLS Most catches in one minute (three) 422 ZdenȸM$TCFȄȬ %<' Most juggled 11 Alex Barron (UK) Longest duration (three. It works on the principle that a metal rod fixed to the top of a building. will draw a lightning strike that would otherwise harm the building. some toys and games will never lose their appeal. what makes these playtime ENCUUKEUUQGPFWTKPIKUVJGVKOGNGUUEJCNNGPIGVJG[RTGUGPVKPVJGXGT[OQOGPVQHǡRNC[KPIYKVJ them. and continuing underground. there’s always the chance to beat your personal DGUVQTKPFGGFVJGYQTNFŨUDGUV#PFVJGEQQNGUVVJKPICDQWVVJGUGTGEQTFU!.. IN YOUR BEDROOM No matter how old we get. blindfolded) Longest duration (four) ǡOKPǡUGE David Rush (USA) ǡJTǡOKPǡUGE ZdenȸM$TCFȄȬ %<' PAPER AIRCRAFT Most made and caught in one minute (team of 10) 25 Airbus Group (FRA) Most consecutive times to hit a target 13 Fumihiro Uno (JPN) Most caught by mouth in one minute 17 Ashrita Furman and Bipin Larkin (both USA) Farthest flight ǡO Joe Ayoob and John ǡHVǡKP Collins (both USA) MR POTATO HEAD Fastest time to assemble ǡUGE Samet Durmaz (TUR) Fastest time to assemble while blindfolded ǡUGE Zoe Jayne Whalley (UK) RUBIK’S CUBE (3x3x3) Fastest time to solve ǡUGE Lucas Etter (USA) Fastest time to solve with one hand ǡUGE Feliks Zemdegs (AUS) Fastest time to solve while blindfolded ǡUGE Kaijun Lin (CHN) Fastest time to solve with the feet ǡUGE Jakub Kipa (POL) Fewest moves to complete 19 Tim Wong (USA) and Marcel Peters (DEU) YO-YO DATELINE Farthest distance to “walk the dog” ǡO Arron Sparks (UK) ǡHVǡKP Most “hop the fence” tricks in one minute 144 Arron Sparks (UK) Most “reach for the Moon” tricks in 30 seconds 27 Arron Sparks (UK) Most “eli hops” in 30 seconds 71 Hiroyuki Suzuki (JPN) Most tricks in one minute 51 Hans Van Dan Elzen (USA) 1749 124 Do Try This At Home… TIDDLYWINKS Longest wink shot ǡO Ben Soares (UK) ǡHVǡKP Highest wink shot ǡO Adrian Jones (UK) ǡHVǡKP David Smith (UK) Ed Wynn (UK) First lightning rod American polymath Benjamin Franklin invents the lightning rod.. From juggling and yo-yoing to solving Rubik’s Cubes and launching paper aircraft.

PING-PONG BALLS Most bounced into a pint glass in one minute 6 Stephen Kish (UK) Coby Cotton (USA) Longest time controlling with a table tennis bat ǡJTǡOKP Deepak Sharma ǡUGE Bajagain (NPL) Most spits and catches of three with the mouth 76 Francisco Tebar Honrubia (ESP) SPORT STACKING Fastest 3-3-3 stack ǡUGE William Orrell (USA) Fastest 3-6-3 stack ǡUGE William Orrell (USA) Fastest cycle stack ǡUGE William Orrell (USA) ǡUGE Chandler Miller. 44 passions and more than 600 orchestral suites. plus concertos and other chamber music.com 125 DATELINE Fastest 3-6-3 relay JENGA . leaving behind a body of work that includes 12 sets of church services for a year. 40 operas. William Polly and Zhewei Wu (all USA) Fastest 30-level tower (team of two) ǡOKP Tyler and Ryan ǡUGE Measel (both USA) PLAYING CARDS Fastest time to arrange a deck ǡUGE ZdenȸM$TCFȄȬ (CZE) Most held in a fan LEGO® Tallest tower built with one hand in one minute 48 Chris Challis (UK) 326 Ralf Laue (DEU) Tallest house of cards ǡO Bryan Berg (USA) ǡHVǡKP Fastest time to learn and recall a deck ǡUGE Simon Reinhard (DEU) Tallest tower built in one minute 131 Andy Parsons (UK) Most bricks picked up with a brick in 30 seconds (one hand) 37 Megane Scott (UK) Nardy Nafzger (NLD) COINS Fastest time to stack 25 ǡUGE Stephen Kish (UK) Most stacked in one minute 69 Silvio Sabba (ITA) Most balanced in a pyramid  Aleksandr Bendikov (BLR) Most stacked 253 Dipak Syal (IND) Most prolific composer Georg Philipp Telemann (DEU) dies. 1767 guinnessworldrecords. William Orrell.

-# )TGCVGUVFKUVCPEGKPǡJQWTU HGOCNG ǡMO ǡOK 'FKV$ȌTEGU *70 )TGCVGUVFKUVCPEGKPQPGYGGM OCNG ǡMO ǡOK /CTEKQ8KNNCT $4# )TGCVGUVFKUVCPEGKPQPGYGGM HGOCNG ǡMO ǡOK 5JCTQP)C[VGT 7- DUMBBELLS /QUVYGKIJVNKHVGFYKVJHTQPVTCKUGUKPQPGOKPWVG ǡMI ǡND 'COQPP-GCPG +4. ǡMI ǡND 'COQPP-GCPG +4. /QUVYGKIJVNKHVGFD[UVCPFKPIRTGUU in one minute /QUVYGKIJVNKHVGFD[KPENKPGHN[GUKPQPGOKPWVG /QUVYGKIJVNKHVGFD[KPENKPGHN[GUKPQPGJQWT DATELINE ǡMI ǡND 'COQPP-GCPG +4. Charles Hughes (UK).. will found the first such show to call itself a circus. First modern circus Trick rider Philip Astley (UK) adds acrobats..DO TRY THIS AT HOME. . /QUVYGKIJVNKHVGFYKVJHTQPVTCKUGUKPQPGJQWT 1770 126 Do Try This At Home… ǡMI ǡND -TKUVKP4JQFGU 75# ǡMI ǡND 'COQPP-GCPG +4. )TGCVGUVFKUVCPEGKPǡJQWTU OCNG ǡMO ǡOK 5WTGUJ. In 1782. rope dancers and clowns to his horse show in London. IN YOUR GYM How better to overcome the boredom of endless reps at the gym than by aiming for CYQTNFǡTGEQTF!9JGVJGT[QWŨTGTWPPKPIQPCVTGCFOKNNRWORKPIKTQPQTRWOOGNNKPIC RWPEJǡDCIVJGTGCTG)WKPPGUU9QTNF4GEQTFUVKVNGUVQUWKVGXGT[CDKNKV[(GCVWTGFJGTG CTGǡLWUVCUOCNNUGNGEVKQPQHVJGJWPFTGFUQHECVGIQTKGUVJCVYGOQPKVQTUQKH[QWFQPŨV UGGǡUQOGVJKPIVJCV[QWYCPVVQCVVGORVFQPŨVYQTT[ŤLWUVCRRN[VQQWT4GEQTFU/CPCIGTU CVYYYIWKPPGUUYQTNFTGEQTFUEQOCPFVJG[ŨNNFQVJGKTDGUVVQJGNRŲ 419+0)/#%*+0' %10%'26++ (CUVGUVǡO OCNG (CUVGUVǡO HGOCNG (CUVGUVOCTCVJQP OCNG (CUVGUVOCTCVJQP HGOCNG (CUVGUVǡO (CUVGUVVKOGVQūTQYVJG 'SWCVQTŬ ǡMO ǡOKPǡUGE 4QD9CFFGNN 0< ǡOKPǡUGE 5QRJKG$CNOCT[ (4# ǡJTǡOKPǡUGE )NGP)QQFOCP 7- ǡJTǡOKPǡUGE #PPC$CKNG[ 7- ǡJTǡOKPǡUGE 0KIGN)QYGT 7- [GCTUOQPVJU &CXKF*QND[ 7- FC[U TREADMILL (CUVGUVVKOGVQTWPǡMO ǡJTǡOKPǡUGE )GOOC%CTVGT 7- (CUVGUVVKOGVQTWPǡMO OCNG ǡJTǡOKPǡUGE 2JKN#PVJQP[ 7- (CUVGUVVKOGVQTWPǡMO HGOCNG ǡJTǡOKPǡUGE 'FKV$ȌTEGU *70 )TGCVGUVFKUVCPEGKPǡJQWTU OCNG ǡMO ǡOK &CXKF5VCNG[ 75# )TGCVGUVFKUVCPEGKPǡJQWTU HGOCNG ǡMO ǡOK &GG$QNCPF +4. UK. a former member of his company. /QUVYGKIJVNKHVGFD[TQYUKPQPGOKPWVG QPGCTO ǡMI ǡND 4QDGTV0CVQNK 75# /QUVYGKIJVNKHVGFD[TQYUKPQPGJQWT ǡMI ǡND 'COQPP-GCPG +4.QCEJKO %#0.

QPIGUVOCTCVJQPRWPEJKPI ǡJT -CXGJ(CVGOKCP 7- ǡMO ǡOK 6KPC6GTPLCM 580 )TGCVGUVFKUVCPEGKPGKIJVJQWTU ǡMO OK 2JKNKRRG8C\ (4# )TGCVGUVFKUVCPEGKPJQWTU OCNG ǡMO ǡOK /KIWGNǩPIGN%CUVTQ4QFTȐIWG\ '52 )TGCVGUVFKUVCPEGKPJQWTU HGOCNG )TGCVGUVFKUVCPEGKPJQWTU 270%*$#) ǡMO ǡOK /KIWGNǩPIGN%CUVTQ4QFTȐIWG\ '52 ǡMO ǡOK 6KPC6GTPLCM 580 ǡMO ǡOK 2JKNKRRG8C\ (4# .CO 75# ǡUGE  Health & Diet %GPVTGU.4 ǡND ǡMI .4 ǡND )TGCVGUVYGKIJVNKHVGFD[MGVVNGDGNNUPCVEJ KPQPGJQWT HGOCNG ǡMI .COGU5CYCTF#PFGTUQP ǡND 7- ǡMI #PCVQN['\JQX $.GNNCP %#0 /QUVUVGRWRUKPJQWTU  /QJCOOCF*CUUCCP $WVV 2#- ǡOKPǡUGE %QPP[5VTȘODGTI 59'  5WDJCUJ5CUPG +0& /QUVUVGRWRUYKVJCNDRCEM in one minute  4QDGTV0CVQNK 75# /QUVUVGRWRUYKVJCNDRCEM in one minute  4QDGTV0CVQNK 75# /QUVUVGRWRUYKVJCPNDRCEM in one minute  4QDGTV0CVQNK 75# /QUVUVGRWRUYKVJCNDRCEM in one minute  2CFF[&Q[NG 7- KETTLEBELLS )TGCVGUVYGKIJVNKHVGFD[MGVVNGDGNNNQPIE[ENG KPQPGJQWT ǡMI #PCVQN['\JQX $.4 ǡND )TGCVGUVYGKIJVNKHVGFD[MGVVNGDGNNUPCVEJ KPQPGJQWT OCNG ǡMI 'XIGP[0C\CTGXKEJ $.VF 7- ǡO ǡHVǡKP 0GKN9J[VG #75 Oldest working steam engine The Smethwick Engine. 1779 guinnessworldrecords. designed by James Watt and built by the Birmingham Canal Company (both UK).COKG/E&QPCNF 7- 56'2$1#4& /QUVUVGRWRUKPQPGOKPWVG  6CMCJKTQ/QTKUJKVC .4 ǡND SWISS BALLS )TGCVGUVYGKIJVUSWCVNKHVGF QPC5YKUUDCNNKPQPGOKPWVG /QUVMPGGDGPFUQPC 5YKUUDCNNKPQPGJQWT Longest time standing QPC5YKUUDCNN /QUVRCUUGUQHC5YKUUDCNN KPƒXGOKPWVGU VGCO .EXERCISE BIKE Greatest distance in one minute ǡMO ǡOK /KIWGNǩPIGN%CUVTQ4QFTȐIWG\ '52 )TGCVGUVFKUVCPEGKPVJTGGOKPWVGU ǡMO ǡOK /KIWGNǩPIGN%CUVTQ4QFTȐIWG\ '52 )TGCVGUVFKUVCPEGKPQPGJQWT OCNG )TGCVGUVFKUVCPEGKPQPGJQWT HGOCNG .[WDQX%JGTGRCJC 7-4 ǡND )TGCVGUVYGKIJVNKHVGFD[MGVVNGDGNNLGTM KPQPGJQWT )TGCVGUVYGKIJVNKHVGFD[MGVVNGDGNNUYKPI KPQPGJQWT /QUVYGKIJVNKHVGFYKVJMGVVNGDGNNUKPQPGOKPWVG CNVGTPCVKPIHNQQTRTGUU ǡMI #PCVQN['\JQX $. enters service on 27 May at Smethwick.QPIGUVEQPVTQN QHCOGFKEKPGDCNN  #TTCP/E.com 127 DATELINE (CUVGUVVKOGVQLWORCETQUU ǡ5YKUUDCNNU .QPIGUVLWORDGVYGGP VYQ5YKUUDCNNU ǡUGE 0GKN9J[VG #75 ǡMI 5VGRJGP$WVVNGT 7- ǡND  5VGRJGP$WVVNGT 7- ǡJTǡOKP )CTTGVV. West Midlands. UK. It is used to pump water back up a series of canal locks.20 /QUVUVGRWRUKPQPGJQWT  /CPLKV5KPIJ 7- /QUVUVGRWRUKPGKIJVJQWTU MEDICINE BALL /QUVRWUJWRUQP COGFKEKPGDCNN in one minute .QPIGUVOCTCVJQP FWTCVKQP ǡJTǡOKPǡUGE .

as w body burn h heatit w s skin covering hi Assistants l. Josef’s safe 1783 First manned flight On 15 Oct in France. resistant the flames re-fuelled ensure constantly to e iv al pt t be ke rn. On 21 Nov. he and the Marquis d’Arlandes also make the first free manned balloon flight. ge t un st . which mus t possible bu the longes oring it on  m le whi ty. Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier rises 26 m (84 ft) in a hot-air balloon built by inventors Joseph and Jacques Montgolfier (all FRA). 128 Don’t Try This At Home.DON’T TRY THIS AT HOME… KNOW? DID YOeU of three layers DATELINE Josef wor r his fullclothing fo protective liberally as l el .. ..

CONTENTS VEHICLES 130 FIRE 132 WATER 134 PERFORMERS 136 Longest duration full-body burn (without oxygen) First modern vaccination To demonstrate the power of inoculation. 1796 guinnessworldrecords.QWŨNNƒPFCPQVJGTQH. but the child proves immune to this otherwise deadly disease. UQRNGCUGFQPŨVVT[CP[QHVJGUGUVWPVUCVJQOGŤVJCVŨUQHƒEKCNБ And who better to introduce a chapter about risky records than #WUVTKCPRTQHGUUKQPCNUVWPVOCP.QUGHŨUƒGT[PGYTGEQTFUQPR .QUGH6ȘFVNKPI!*GURGPVǡOKP ǡUGECHNCOGYKVJQWVQZ[IGPKPCHWNNDQF[DWTPCV5CN\DWTI (KTG&GRCTVOGPVKP#WUVTKCQPǡ0QX0GGFNGUUVQUC[ VJKUTGEQTFTGSWKTGFXGT[ECTGHWNRTGRCTCVKQP#PFJGJCFVQMGGR a cool head to concentrate on controlling his movements: one ECTGNGUUIGUVWTGOKIJVJCXGHCPPGFHNCOGUKPVQJKUG[GUQTOQWVJ Josef put himself in the hot spot again for this Guinness World 4GEQTFURJQVQUJQQVKP5V[TKC#WUVTKCQPǡ5GRUGVVKPI JKOUGNHQPƒTGƒXGVKOGULWUVUQYGEQWNFIGVVJGDGUVUJQVБ .com 129 DATELINE The activities on the following pages are strictly for experts only. a few weeks later. he injects him with smallpox. Dr Edward Jenner (UK) deliberately infects a child with cowpox.

Gerald Gschiel (AUT) held back a Chevrolet Corvette Z06 for a duration of 22. The record run took place at Bruntingthorpe Proving Ground in Leicestershire. Jiangsu Province. on 25 Jul 2009. 130 Don’t Try This At Home… .6 km) in 2 min 55 sec on side wheels at the Goodwood Festival of Speed in West Sussex. Jiangsu Province. Joe Sylvester (USA) propelled his 10. VEHICLES Fastest speed in CǡOQPUVGTǡVTWEM Driving the Ram Trucksponsored 4COKPCVQTMark Hall (USA) achieved a speed of 159. on 7 Jan 2015.G$NCPEOCKPVCKPGFCYJGGNKGKPC7VKNKV[6GTTCKP8GJKENG 768 HQTCFKUVCPEG QHHVǡKP ǡMO CV)TGCVGT/QPEVQP+PVGTPCVKQPCN#KTRQTVKP0GY$TWPUYKEM%CPCFC QP#WI4QIGTŨUTGEQTFDTGCMKPIYJGGNKGRCTVKCNN[WRJKNNYCUCEJKGXGFKPC*QPFC 2KQPGGT768CPFJGVQQMCNQPIHQWTHGCTNGUURCUUGPIGTUHQTVJGTKFG. China. Sweden’s Patrik Fürstenhoff reached 191. w ramp-jum for his first t end practising on fr s it it. Th caught on ed el he w rt ca truck  d.49 km/h (99. /QUVVKOGUVQTQNNCECTD[ JCPFKPǡǡOKPWVGU Jean Caron (CAN) rolled a car 13 times in 5 min on the set of CCTV’s Guinness World Records Special in Jiangyin. ? U KNOW DID YOBa n to d Habit bega On landing.GHH)CNNCPV)KNNGU&WRWKU 2CWN#TUGPCWNVCPF/CTVKP2JKPPG[ Longest ramp jump in a monster truck DATELINE On 1 Sep 2013.9 cm (9.DON’T TRY THIS AT HOME.. pping d. UK.1 mph) at the Circuit of the Americas in Austin. (CUVGUVOQVQTE[ENGYJGGNKG On 18 Apr 1999. *KIJGUVCKTQPCOQVQTE[ENG (quarterpipe) Ronnie Renner (USA) pulled off a 35-ft 4-in (10.000-lb (4.QPIGUVYJGGNKGQPC768 %CPCFCŨU4QIGT.33 sec on the set of <&(ǡ(GTPUGJICTVGP in Mainz.8 in) long. USA. UK. and crashe Longest human horn An 82-year-old French woman known as Madame Dimanche has an operation to remove a horn (technically a keratinous skin tumour) that has been growing out of her forehead for six years.86 km/h) on the back wheel of a Honda Super Blackbird 1100 cc Turbo. That w ies.233-lb) bus with his teeth for 5 m (16 ft 5 in) on the set of CCTV’s Guinness World Records Special in Jiangyin.536-kg) truck Bad HabitCETQUUǡHVǡKP ǡO CVVJG %QTPƒGNFKP%QNWODWU2GPPU[NXCPKC75#*GJCFVQVCMGQHH CVORJ MOJ VQEQXGTVJGFKUVCPEG5[NXGUVGTJCFJGNF VJKUTGEQTFDGHQTGDWVKVYCUDTQMGPKPD[&CP4WPVG 75#  5QYJCVFTQXGJKOVQTGENCKOJKUTGEQTF!ū6JGUCOGVJKPIVJCV OQVKXCVGUOGGXGT[FC[VQRWUJO[NKOKVU 6JGTWUJQHCFTGPCNKPGŬ 1800 Heaviest road vehicle RWNNGFǡD[VGGVJ Igor Zaripov (RUS) pulled a 13.30 mph (307. Texas. China. Germany. on 3 Jul 2011.77-m) air on a motorcycle from a quarterpipe ramp during the Red Bull High Rise in Grant Park at Butler Field in Chicago. Fastest time to drive a car ǡOKNGQPǡVYQYJGGNU Terry Grant (UK) drove 1 mi (1. Illinois. USA.713.6-kg (30. Longest time VQǡTGUVTCKPǡCǡECT On 26 Jul 2015. d Hab e record in Ba landing. nearly ti nose forwar ought br ve ha ould over. or em come m back unwel ester was lv Sy le hi p In 2010.. on 15 Dec 2014. . It is 24. on 11 Jan 2015.

08 m (62 ft 7. in the Puffing Devil. (CUVGUVOQVQTE[ENG YJGGNKGQPKEG 5YGFGPŨU4QDGTV)WNNGZGEWVGFCYJGGNKGCVǡMOJ ǡORJ KPǭTUWPFC5YGFGPQPǡ(GD*GRGTHQTOGF VJGUVWPVQPC$/9544OQVQTE[ENGŤCǡUVCPFCTF OQFGNCRCTVHTQOVJGCFFKVKQPQHUVWFFGFV[TGU &KUVCPEGTKFKPIDCEMYCTFU QPCǡOQVQTE[ENG India’s Dipayan Choudhury rode a motorcycle in reverse for 202 km (125.6–1.1 k The orga m/h). First passenger car On 24 Dec. Ontario.com 131 DATELINE LARGEST LOOPTHE-LOOP IN A CAR . UK. on 14 Sep 2015. The measurement was calculated from the flat of the track to the apex of the loop.25-in (27.2-m) reverse ramp jump for Rob Dyrdek’s (CPVCU[(CEVQT[ (MTV) at Six Flags Magic Mountain in Valencia. 1801 guinnessworldrecords. USA. U KNOW This stu ? nt was m onths in plannin the g. “Nitro” Mike Kunz (CAN) maintained a wheelie in a car for 763. inventor and mining engineer Richard Trevithick (UK) takes passengers for a ride through Camborne in Cornwall.3 km ph /h) to m aintain the car’s grip.4 m (2. At the apex of loop-the the -loop. .FAST FACTS Monster truck tyres are some 5 ft 3 in–5 ft 6 in (1.WN)TGII)QFHTG[ 75# OCFGCHV O  TCORLWORKPCVTWEMECDCVVJG'XGN-PKGXGN&C[UGXGPVKP$WVVG /QPVCPC75#+PFQKPIUQ)QFHTG[YGPVVJTGGVKOGUHCTVJGT VJCPVJGRTGXKQWUTGEQTFQHHVKP O YJKEJJG JCFUGVCV)QFHTG[6TWEMKPI4QEM[/QWPVCKP4CEGYC[ KP5CNV. India.QPIGUVTCORLWORKPCVTWEMECD 1Pǡ. th e car’s v fell to ju elocity st 15 mp h (24.CMG%KV[7VCJ75#QP0QX DID YO Stunt driver Terry Grant and Jaguar (both UK) achieved a loop-the-loop measuring 19. Grant was driving a Jaguar F-PACE. California. a steam-powered automobile. Germany. Wheelie in a car On 12 Aug 2012.67 m) tall – about the height of the average woman • Evel Knievel (USA) pioneered motorcycle distance jumping – and suffered the most bones broken in a lifetime: 433 LONGEST… Reverse ramp jump in a car On 13 Feb 2014.1 in) in diameter at the Niederrad Racecourse in Frankfurt.52 mi) in Jabalpur. Rob Dyrdek (USA) performed an 89-ft 3. and the record was achieved as part of the car’s debut appearance in front of the world’s motoring press. ulated th at Grant approach must the loop  at 53 m (85. Canada. on 7 Oct 2014.504 ft 7 in) at the Temiskaming Drag’N’Fly Summer Classic in Earlton. nizers u sed a pre mathem cise atical fo rmula to the car d ensure idn’t dro p o ff at this They calc point.

Italy. Dan Serblin (ITA) rode through WKHͥDPHVIRUP IW. FIRE Longest quad bike ride VJTQWIJCVWPPGNQHƒTG On the set of Lo Show dei Record in Rome.DON’T TRY THIS AT HOME...

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2KLR86$2UJDQL]HGE\ stuntman Ted Batchelor and +RWFDUGVFRP ERWK86$. Indiana. 86$RQ-XQ /QUVRGQRNGRGTHQTOKPI full-body burns 2Q2FWDWRWDORI SHRSOHZHUHVHWDOLJKWDW the same time in Cleveland.IRU CCTV’s Guinness World Records Special and Lo Show dei Record in Peru.

Josef protected himself with several layers of clothing and cooling gel. pre-measured distance. at the age of just 13 years 283 days. as the specially trained stunt horse kept up a brisk canter for the whole attempt. Germany. Styria.QPFQP7-#NNQHVJGYKEMUJCFVQDWTPCVVJG UCOGVKOGŤCPFEQPVKPWQWUN[HQTǡUGEŤCPFPQPGEQWNF DGJGNF6JQUGQPJGTJCPFUYGTGMGRVKPRNCEGD[URGEKCN CVVCEJOGPVUƒVVGFVQJGTINQXGU LONGEST DISTANCE PULLED BY A HORSE (FULL-BODY BURN) DATELINE On 27 Jun 2015.640 ft) by a horse. professional stuntman Josef Tödtling (AUT) was pulled 500 m (1. who replenished the flames with lamp oil as needed.909-ft) haul. The fearless daredevil was accompanied on his bumpy journey – in Teichalm-Fladnitz. The latter were a vital piece of equipment. Austria – by a quad-bike rider. becomes a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) at the University of Giessen. 132 Don’t Try This At Home… . child prodigy Karl Witte of Lochau. while performing a full-body burn. Germany. tied this time to the back of the quad bike – the longest distance pulled by a vehicle (full-body burn)! 1814 Youngest doctorate On 10 Apr. Having made the full 500-m. Josef promptly outstripped it with another record: a 582-m (1. the event generated money for charities including the Cleveland )RRGEDQN /QUVƒTGYKEMUCVVCEJGF VQVJGDQF[UKOWNVCPGQWUN[ 2[TQRJKNG5PCMG(GTXQTCMC*GKFK$TCFUJCY 7- DGECOG KPECPFGUEGPVD[CVVCEJKPIHNCOKPIYKEMUVQJGTDQF[QP ǡ&GEKP. dragging Josef along on his front at about 35 km/h (21 mph). as well as metal shin and elbow pads.

Pullin a challe g nge was feat. Italian Josephine Giardelli.FAST FACTS Fire-eating was first recorded in Sicily in 133 BCE • Historic English performer Robert Powell ate burning coals and melted sealing wax • The “Fireproof Female”. eve a major n thoug h he spen preparin t a year g with a team led Los Ang by eles stun tman Riley Ha rper. n g a t a youn The idea g age. First person to surf CYCXGYJKNGQPƒTG *KIJGUVUJCNNQYFKXG KPVQƒTG 2Q-XQ3URIHVVRU 6SODVKDND'DUUHQ7D\ORU 86$. and beg an surfi USA. placed molten lead in her mouth DID YO U KNOW Jamie gre ? w up in Hawaii. of riding a wave w on fire ca hile me from an Insta message gram he receiv off such ed.

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on 27 Jan 2012. Italy. pictured).CMG9C\GGEJCKP)TCPF4CRKFU9KUEQPUKP75#(KXGFKHHGTGPVUJQYUMKVGCOU #SWC&WEMU$CEMYCVGT)CODNGTU$CFIGTNCPF$GCXGTNCPF/WUV5MKUCPF9CVGTǡ$WIU  HTQO9KUEQPUKPCPF+NNKPQKUOCFGWRVJGOWNVKR[TCOKFHQTOCVKQP Most waterskiers towed behind a single boat A total of 145 waterskiers from the Horsehead Water Ski Club (AUS) rode behind one boat for more than 1 nautical mi (1.CP5EJYKFGTGM &'7 UWEEGUUHWNN[ YCVGTUMKGFDGJKPFVJGAIDAbellaHQTǡOKPǡUGECVCURGGF QHǡMPQVU ǡMOJǡORJ QHH#NKECPVGKP5RCKPQP ǡ1EV6JGXGUUGNJCUCǡITQUUVQPPCIGCPFYCU EQOOCPFGFD[%CRVCKP. WATER Largest human waterskiing pyramid formation 1Pǡ5GR$KI2WNN 75# CUUGODNGFRGQRNGKPVQCOCUUYCVGTDQTPGJWOCP R[TCOKFQP.1 mi). for Zheng Da Zong Yi – Guinness World Records Special on 5 Oct 2008.1 mi. PSK.QUGH*WUOCPP &'7 6JGAIDAbella KUǡO ǡHV NQPIQXGTCNNYKVJCDTGCFVJQHǡO ǡHV  +VǡJCUHWNNFGEMUCPFǡRCUUGPIGTECDKPU FASTEST SPEED… DEEPEST UNDERWATER CYCLING When it comes to submarine cycling.7 km (4. in Chepstow.. Raymond Woodcock (UK) performed a bungee jump of 141. China.8 km) in Strahan. Highest bungee jump dive into water On 8 Jun 2015. Tasmania. The farthest distance cycled underwater is 6. on 8 Sep 2013.5 m (218 ft 2 in) in Santa Margherita Ligure in Liguria.DON’T TRY THIS AT HOME. Australia. 1. -KVGUWTƒPI OCNG Alexandre Caizergues (FRA) reached a speed of 56.1 m (39 ft 11 in) off the Diaoshuilou Waterfall at Jingpo Lake in Mudanjiang City.8 km/h. by Jens Stötzner (DEU) at Bibert Bad Zirndorf in Zirndorf. no one is as deeply committed as Vittorio Innocente (ITA. Germany. UK. Largest vessel to tow a waterskier )CNKNGQ68TGRQTVGT. Highest waterfall diving Di Huanran (CHN) dived 12. On 21 Jul 2008.6 knots (104..7 m (464 ft 11 in) – taller than the Great Pyramid of Giza – fully submerging himself into water. he rode his bicycle at a depth of 66.

NLWHVXUͤQJLQ Port St Louis. The fastest speed kite VXŲQJE\DZRPDQ is 50. 58 mph). marking the birth of London Zoo. on 28 Oct 2010. Two years later. on 11 Nov 2013. T g he ride to o k h im about 9 min. H scuba e got on to his bik depth of ea 28 m (92  ft) and se t a down an underw t off ater slop reached e until h his reco e rd -breakin depth.4 knots (93. The feat was achieved by France’s Charlotte Consorti at the Lüderitz Speed Challenge held in Lüderitz. its first animal houses are erected at Regent’s Park. the Zoological Society of London is the earliest scientific zoo. 1826 Oldest zoo Founded by British statesman Stamford Raffles. DID YO DATELINE U KNOW At the st ? art of his submari record. 134 Don’t Try This At Home… .3 km/h. V ne ittorio In nocente lowered was into the water by divers. Namibia. France.

75.640-ft) run in Walvis Bay.3 mph) by sail over a timed 500-m (1.FAST FACTS “Scuba” is an acronym. He rode a Vestas Sailrocket 2.4 knots (121. The IDVWHVWVSHHGXQGHU VDLORQZDWHUE\DQ\FUDIW IHPDOH. Namibia. Paul Larsen (AUS) attained a speed of 65. his initial efforts at fashioning skis included using wooden staves from barrels 5CKNKPI OCNG On 24 Nov 2012. standing for Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus • American Ralph Samuelson invented waterskiing in 1922.2 km/h.

2 mph) on board her customized Patrik speed board in Lüderitz. Germany.7 km/h. Underwater walk by an individual in 24 hours On 17–18 Nov 2011. Swim under ice with breath JGNF PQƒPUPQFKXKPIUWKV Stig Åvall Severinsen (DNK) swam 250 ft (76 m) beneath the ice at Qordlortoq Lake (Lake 40) on Ammassalik Island.498.2 km (7. 5VCPFWRUWTƒPITKFG QPǡCǡTKXGTDQTG Steve King (UK) surfed the Severn bore on the River Severn in Gloucestershire. LONGEST… Open saltwater scuba dive EQNFYCVGT Daniel Sammut (MLT) remained submerged for 13 hr 42 min in St Paul’s Bay. $155. Malta. His walk raised €115. on 17 Apr 2013.6 mi) on 30 Mar 2006. 53.3 knots (85. Vieux Bois (“The Adventures of Mister Wooden Head”). Joey Kelly (DEU) walked 16. UK.3 km (10.716) for a charity to support children in need.1 mi) Deepest dive under ice YKVJǡDTGCVJǡJGNF HGOCNG 9GCTKPICFKXKPIUWKVCPFƒPUDWVYKVJQWVDTGCVJKPICRRCTCVWU #WTQTG#UUQ (4# FKXGFVQǡO ǡHVǡKP CV+MGTCUCMKP 7WOOCPPCS$C[)TGGPNCPFQPǡ/C[5JGFGUEGPFGFQP CTQRGVQCVCIVJCVUJGTGVTKGXGFVQRTQXGUJGJCFTGCEJGFVJG KPVGPFGFFGRVJ*GTCVVGORVYCUHQTū1PG$TGCVJHQT#TEVKECŬYJKEJ TCKUGUCYCTGPGUUHQTVJGRTQVGEVKQPQHVJG#TEVKEGPXKTQPOGPV underwater on the set of RTL-Spendenmarathon at MMC studios in Hürth. although it is not published for another decade. Underwater walk YKVJǡQPGǡDTGCVJ On 19 Apr 2015. Turkey.QTM%KV[75# 8GTPCXCP5EJCKM <#( FKXGFǡO HV KPVQVJG $QGUOCPUICVECXGKP5QWVJ #HTKECŨU0QTVJGTP%CRG RTQXKPEGQPǡ1EV ŤVJGdeepest scuba dive (female)*GTFKXGNCUVGFǡJT OKPDWVQPN[OKPQH VJCVYCUURGPVFGUEGPFKPI 6QCXQKFFGEQORTGUUKQP UKEMPGUU CMCūVJGDGPFUŬ  UJGOCFGCUWRGTUNQY CUEGPVVJCVVQQMǡJT ǡOKPǡVQEQORNGVG . East Greenland.KMGCNNVJGTGEQTFU QPVJGUGRCIGUVJKUQPGKU UVTKEVN[HQTRTQHGUUKQPCNU 2TQHGUUQT5RNCUJKUCP GZRGTKGPEGFUVWPVOCP First comic Swiss cartoonist Rodolphe Töpffer creates the 30-page Histoire de M. Turkey’s 6HUWDQ$\GóQWRRNDP (262-ft 3-in) submarine stroll at Anafartalar Olympic Pool in Çanakkale. on 19 Mar 2015. Namibia. She sped to 46.com 135 DATELINE Highest shallow dive #JOGF)CDT '). for 12.000 (£99. on 2 Nov 2015.KPUGVCPFTKIJV  FKXGFVQCFGRVJQHǡO ǡHVǡKP  KPVJG4GF5GCQHHVJGEQCUVQH&CJCDKP'I[RVQP ǡ5GR6JCVŨUCDQWVVJGUCOGCUVJGJGKIJVǡQHVJG %JT[UNGT$WKNFKPIKP0GY. Deepest scuba dive 2TQHGUUQT5RNCUJCMC&CTTGP 6C[NQT 75# LWORGFHTQO ǡO ǡHVǡKP KPVQC RCFFNKPIRQQNYKVJLWUVǡEO ǡKP QHYCVGTQPǡ5GR 6JGFCTKPIFTQRVQQM RNCEGQPVJGUGVQHCCTV – Guinness World Records SpecialKP:KCOGP(WLKCP %JKPC.over a 500-m timed run was set by windsurfer Karin Jaggi (CHE). 1827 guinnessworldrecords.

. *KIJGUVDNKPFHQNFGF VKIJVTQRGYCNM Nik Wallenda (USA) crossed a tightrope while blindfolded 170. Spain. UK. UK.5 oz) using his eye sockets at Cossington Sports Hall in Leicester.86 sec on the set of.WN6JCVŨUƒXGOQTGVJCPVJGRTGXKQWU TGEQTFUGVD[%CUG[5GXGTP 75# KP The JKIJGUVVKIJVTQRG ETQUUKPIQPCOQVQTE[ENG took place at a height of 130 m (426 ft 6 in) on a tightrope 666. 136 Don’t Try This At Home… .3 in) long. on 7 Jul 2014. aka Julia Günthel (DEU). The feat was achieved by Mustafa Danger (MAR) in Benidorm.Qǡ5JQYFGK4GEQTF in Milan. The subject sits still for long enough to be visible in the long-exposure shot. /QUVOQWUGVTCRUTGNGCUGF QPǡVJGVQPIWGKPQPGOKPWVG 5YGGV2GRRGT-NQRGM %#0 UGVQHHOQWUGVTCRUQP JKUVQPIWGKPǡUGEKP5V.. removed the caps from eight beer bottles with her feet in 1 min on the set of 4GMQTNCT&ȜP[CUŠ in Istanbul. Italy. aka Chayne Hultgren.COCV&QPECUVGT4CEGEQWTUG KP5QWVJ. on 15 Nov 2012.QJP0GY$TWPUYKEM%CPCFC QP.QPIGUVFWTCVKQP DCNCPEKPI CǡEJCKPUCY QPǡVJGǡEJKP Serial GWR record-breaker Ashrita Furman (USA) kept a chainsaw balanced on his chin HQTǡOKPǡUGEKP0GY. 1838 First photograph of a human Louis Daguerre (FRA) takes a test photo of a street scene showing a man having his shoes shined.185 ft 4. 6WTMG[QPǡ. The li gaments us harde of most n over ti of m e . USA. but the revealed scan that Zla ta’s liga have rem ments ained as soft and sup ple as th ose of a bab y.QTMUJKTG7-QP1EV#VVJGUCOGGXGPV Johnny set a new record (since broken) for the most apples held in one’s own mouth and cut by chainsaw in one minuteGKIJV /QUVDGGTDQVVNGUQRGPGF YKVJVJGHGGVKPQPGOKPWVG Contortionist Zlata. on 16 Oct 2010.WP6JCV beat her own record of seven. on 2 Nov 2014. PERFORMERS Farthest distance VQǡVJTQYCPFECVEJ CǡTWPPKPIǡEJCKPUCY The Space Cowboy. on 14 Sep 2012.DON’T TRY THIS AT HOME. UGVVYQ[GCTUDGHQTG<NCVC performed the feat in the contortionist elbow-stand RQUKVKQPUGGPTKIJV *GCXKGUVYGKIJVNKHVGF D[ǡDQVJG[GUQEMGVUǡ Manjit Singh (UK) raised a weight of 24 kg (52 lb 14. hurled a running chainsaw 4 m (13 ft 1 in) to catcher The Great Gordo Gamsby (both AUS) at London Wonderground.1 m (2.QTM %KV[75#QPǡ5GR6JG chainsaw he used YGKIJGFǡMI ǡNDǡQ\  DID YO DATELINE U KNOW After Zla ? ta was p rofiled o Discove ry Chan na n e l show in a doctor 2010. /QUVCRRNGUJGNFKPVJGOQWVJ CPFEWVKPJCNHD[EJCKPUCY %JCKPUCYYKGNFKPI. perform ed an M to invest RI scan igate he flexibilit r superl ative y.QJPP[5VTCPIGEWVCRRNGUKPJCNHŤ GCEJǡJGNFKPVJGOQWVJQH&CPKGNNC&Ũ8KNNGCMC&CPKGNNG/CTVKP DQVJ7- ŤKPǡOKPCVVJG6CVVQQ. Fastest WPFGTYCVGT escape from CǡUVTCKVLCEMGV Lucas Wilson (CAN) freed himself from a straitjacket underwater in 22. Illinois..04 m (557 ft 10 in) above the ground in Chicago.

FAST FACTS The chainsaw originated as a surgical tool called an osteotome. Australia. Anthony Kelly $86. still used in dentistry and orthopaedics • The straitjacket was invented in 1790 by a French upholsterer called Guilleret for an asylum near Paris /QUVURGCTUECWIJV WPFGTYCVGTKPǡQPGǡOKPWVG On 13 Nov 2014. in a swimming pool in Armidale.

com 137 DATELINE $TKVCKPŨU. aka James Loughron (AUS). in Milan. He uses the daguerreotype process – an early photographic technique employing mercury vapour and an iodine-sensitized silvered plate.CPǡ/CVVCVVGORVGFVJG TGEQTFDGHQTGCPCWFKGPEGQHRGQRNGCV VJGǡ-TQE%GPVGT6JGCVGT First selfie Robert Cornelius (USA) becomes the first person to take a self-portrait. He took two breaks during the one-minute attempt. Italy. removing the sword and then swallowing it again each time before continuing. so he had to hold his breath during the feat. Aerial Manx. The sword prevented Aerial from breathing.FDXJKWEROWVͤUHG IURPDͤVKHUPDQ̵V spear gun at a range of just 2 m (6 ft 6 in). 1839 guinnessworldrecords.QJPP[RWNNGFQHHVJGNQDGUVTGVEJKPIEJCNNGPIG CVǡ0QTVJ9GCNF#KTƒGNFKP0QTVJ9GCNF'UUGZ7- .QPFQP7-QPǡ5GR 'CEJUYQTF OGCUWTGFǡEO ǡHVǡKP NQPIǡOO ǡKP VJKEMCPFǡEO ǡKP YKFG6JGGZVTC tall unicycle he used was ǡOǡ ǡHVǡǡKP JKIJ MOST BACKFLIPS PERFORMED WHILE SWALLOWING A SWORD IN ONE MINUTE On 2 Jul 2014. The event took place in celebration of Guinness World Records Day 2014.QJPP[5VTCPIGVWIIGFC%GUUPC2CKTETCHVYGKIJKPI MI ǡNDǡQ\ QXGTCFKUVCPEGQHǡO ǡHVǡKP QP ǡ/C[. swallowed a 41-cm-long (1-ft 4-in) sword before carrying out an eye-watering 20 backflips against the clock. /QUVDQYNKPIDCNNU ECWIJVQPVJGHQTGJGCF *GCXKGUVYGKIJVRWNNGF by pierced ears 'PVGTVCKPGT/CVV$CMGT 75# JCUCJGCFHQT YGKIJVU*GECWIJVUKZDQYNKPIDCNNUQPJKU HQTGJGCFKPǡUGEKP%QGWTFŨ#NGPG+FCJQ 75#QP. /QUVUYQTFU UYCNNQYGF QPǡCǡWPKE[ENG The Space Cowboy (see opposite page) swallowed three swords while atop a unicycle at Wonderground in .

517-ft) Atlantic Avenue Tunnel is completed. M r Rydberg of the Vikto um ul ic rr cu eden. . ty vi ti ental teens’ crea nm ro vi en . The tunnel runs beneath Brooklyn. an m Ek a  Monic 1844 138 Toys & Games Oldest subway tunnel The 767-m (2. Sw . ng city planni done ing things issues. m ol ockh school in St ung yo ng ti to boos t with a view y learn abou he “T .TOYS & GAMES KNOW?the DID YOU t on raft was pu DATELINE inec In 2013. gett the to plan for w ho en ev r and he ac te plained  future. It will lie undisturbed and forgotten until 1981.” ex . New York. and carries the trains of the Long Island Rail Road until its closure in 1861. USA.

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they would stretch around the world an astonishing 18 times.WRKVGTǡQPDQCTF0#5#ŨUJuno space probe. easily beating all other manufacturers. And the design was built to last: you can open a brand-new LEGO box today and join any of the standard bricks with any LEGO brick made since 1958 (the picture to the right shows box set 700/5 from that year). that TCVGTQEMGVUVQǡUGVU per second! PLENTY OF LEGO BRICKS TO GO ROUND… All LEGO bricks start out as granules of plastic (below) – acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS).')1DTKEMU+HǡCNN these hours were arranged consecutively across VKOGKVYQWNFǡYQTMQWVCVCTQWPF[GCTUKP VQVCNŤPGCTN[ǡVJTGGVKOGUVJGFWTCVKQPVJCVOQFGTP JWOCPǡDGKPIUJCXGNKXGFQP'CTVJ A GLOBAL PHENOMENON A: There are 915.')1/KPKƒIWTGU have made the arduous trek to the planet . Laid end-to-end. But at Christmas time.WPQCPFVJGVJEGPVWT[ Italian scientist Galileo (pictured right).) FARTHEST DISTANCE TRAVELLED BY A LEGO MINIFIGURE LARGEST TYRE MANUFACTURER Think of all the brands of tyre you know.According to LEGO Education. around seven LEGO sets are sold every second. the rubber compound used for these VQ[ǡV[TGUYQWNFPŨVDGQWVQHRNCEGQPCTGCNECT A big part of the attraction of this construction toy is VJGǡYC[VJCVKVECPDGEQODKPGFKPCUOCP[YC[UCUQWT imagination will allow. then transported via tubes to injection moulding machines. how many possible combinations do you think you can make YKVJLWUVUKZVYQD[HQWT GKIJVUVWF . THINK OF A NUMBER 1Pǡ. where machines stamp them and put together OWNVKRCTVVQ[UUWEJCUǡ/KPKƒIWTGU BUILDING A LEGEND. but understandable when you EQPUKFGTVJCVKPCVQVCNQHǡDKNNKQP.CPVJG. They have proved enduringly popular.WRKVGTJKUYKHG. On arrival at a manufacturing plant.WRKVGTŨUHQWTNCTIGUV moons. which squeeze them into moulds. to be precise. Here. each person would have an average of 86 bricks.')1DTKEMUYGTGRTQFWEGFCVC rate of 5.103. the bricks RQRQPVQCǡEQPXG[QTDGNVVJGPKPVQCDKP0GZV robots take the bricks to an assembly room. Stacked on top of each other. meaning “play well”. 6JG[NCWPEJGFQPǡ#WIVTCXGNNKPICVQVCN QHǡDKNNKQPǡMO ǡDKNNKQPǡOK HTQO'CTVJ 6JGƒIWTGUVCMGVJGHQTOQHVJG4QOCPIQF . BRICK BY BRICK The name LEGO® combines the Danish words “leg” and “godt”. (See also p.148.')1DTKEMU! The answer is below. The company began producing “Automatic Binding Bricks” back in 1949. they are dispersed into silos.765 possible combinations with six two-by-four LEGO bricks! . YJQFKUEQXGTGF. the same number QHDTKEMUYQWNFHQTOCEQNWOPVJCVEQWNFGZVGPF HTQOVJGUWTHCEGQH'CTVJVQOQTGVJCPǡOK ǡMO DG[QPFVJGQTDKVQHVJG/QQP It’s estimated that the children of the world spend ǡDKNNKQPǡJTC[GCTRNC[KPIYKVJ. if you divided the total number of LEGO bricks on Earth among the planet’s population. Seconds later. they are subjected to temperatures up to 310°C (590°F) and pressures of 25–150 tonnes (27–165 US tons). That’s quite a claim. What’s more. LEGO is found in almost every country on Earth – and even in outer space… LEGO-OLOGY FACTOGRAPHIC 6JTGGURGEKCNN[OCFG. Today. too: for most of the year.')1 Group patented the now-famous studded bricks with tubes inside. #TQWPFǡDKNNKQPDTKEMUCTGUQNFGCEJ[GCT on average. Bearing this in mind.2 million bricks per hour! And they sell quickly. Who would make the most tyres on an annual basis? Goodyear? Firestone? Pirelli? The answer is… the .')1)TQWRБ+PCNQPGVJGEQORCP[RTQFWEGFKPGZEGUUQHǡOKNNKQP tyres for its construction kits.

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Meanwhile. Maryland. Australia. Lucas Etter (USA). a robot built by Zackary Gromko (USA) achieved the fastest time to solve a Rubik’s Cube by a robot – 2.09 sec set that same day by Keaton Ellis (USA).05 sec.TOYS & BOARD GAMES Largest collection of model cars 4CNN[FTKXKPIGPVJWUKCUV 0CDKNū$KNN[Ŭ-CTCO . remotecontrolled model car The aptly named Radio Controlled BulletDWKNVD[0KE%CUG 75#TKIJV  CEJKGXGFCURGGFQHǡMOJ ǡORJ KP5V)GQTIG7VCJ75# QPǡ1EVCVVJG4CFKQ1RGTCVGF 5ECNG5RGGF#UUQEKCVKQP 4155#  9QTNFǡ%JCORKQPUJKRU Largest loop-the-loop by a remote-controlled (RC) model vehicle A Venom VMX-450 RC Dirt Bike controlled by Jason %UDGEXU\ 8. Fastest batterypowered. USA. Just over a month earlier. .9 sec at the River Hill Fall 2015 at River Hill High School in Clarksville. Feliks Zemdegs (AUS) created DQHZSHUVRQDOEHVWWLPH of 6.GDCPQPQPǡǡ0QX HQT)WKPPGUU9QTNF4GEQTFU &C[KVEQPVCKPGF WPKSWGUECNGFFQYPECTU Billy also holds another OQFGNTGNCVGFYQTNFTGEQTF ŤƒPFQWVOQTGQPR Fastest time to solve a Rubik’s Cube On 21 Nov 2015. on 10 May 2015 in Canberra. solving a 3x3 cube in an extraordinary 4.$0  UVCTVGFEQNNGEVKPIOQFGN ECTUKPYJGPJG CESWKTGFCVQ[2QTUEJGǡ *KUEQNNGEVKQPJCUUKPEG ITQYPEQPUKFGTCDN[YJGP EQWPVGFKPJKURWTRQUG built museum in Zouk. EHFDPHWKHͤUVWSHUVRQWR breach the 5-sec barrier.39 sec – at Saint 6WHSKHQ̵V(SLVFRSDO6FKRRO in Bradenton. Florida. on 15 Oct 2015. This also beat the record of 5. And on 4 Oct 2015. USA. aged 14 years old. Kaijun Lin (CHN) achieved the fastest time to solve a Rubik’s Cube blindfolded: 21.88 sec for the fastest time to solve a Rubik’s Cube one-handed. at the &KLQD&KDPSLRQVKLSLQ Guangzhou.

18 m (10 ft 5 in) high.ORRSHGDORRS 3. UK. The record was set on &KDQQHO̵VThe Gadget Show in Birmingham. Fastest RC jet-powered model aircraft 2Q6HSDWXUELQH GULYHQDHURSODQHEXLOWE\ 1LHOV+HUEULFK '(8. West Midlands. on 15 Jun 2013.

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20-m-wide (65-ft 7-in) “measurement corridor” via his remote-control device. To ensure accurate results. Germany. 1LHOVKDGWRJXLGHWKHSODQH down a 200-m-long (656-ft). DW:/3%DOOHQVWHGWDLUͤHOG in Saxony-Anhalt. .

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The feat made them record holders for the third time. Texas. USA. . Six times larger than WKHPDPPRWK0RQRSRO\ board was the largest Twister game. First man-made plastic Parkesine. a series of linked tables. is publicly unveiled at the Great International Exhibition in London. the largest model vehicle company.135 sq ft). Manuel Larcher. the tables were divided up and given out to the participating teams to keep. The fast and furious action saw a total of 2. kick and shoot 101 balls – all operated by 424 pairs of hands. Somaliland. with a 2014 TGXGPWGQH c  LONGEST FOOSBALL TABLE On 25 Sep 2015. . Bernd Neururer and Dietmar Neururer (all AUT) SOD\HGWDEOHIRRWEDOOIRU 61 hr 17 min in Innsbruck. Iowa. with a table football (or foosball) game played on a 121. Marco Berry Onlus (ITA) occupied the Via Roma. The “Dogtown After Hours” FDPSXVHYHQWVDZWKH5HG and Blue teams shoot it out RQ0DU7KHͤQDO result? It was a draw. 86$RQ6HS 7KLVSURGXFHGDQRYHUDOO SOD\DEOHVXUIDFHDUHDRI 2. which was SLHFHGWRJHWKHUIURP regular boards by country star Thomas Rhett and %LJ0DFKLQH/DEHO*URXS (USA) in Arlington. Poland.com 143 DATELINE Longest marathon playing foosball (doubles) Between 29 Aug and 6HS$OH[DQGHU Kuen. Austria.332 plastic players or foos men in red and blue jerseys pass.CTIGUVVQ[RKUVQNƒIJV A volley of suction darts and foam bullets secured a world record for 577 Drake University students wielding Nerf blasters in Des Moines.521 m2 (27. Largest model vehicle brand 6JGJQVVGUVPCOGKPVQ[ECTU KUEWTTGPVN[*QV9JGGNU 75#  YKVJCTGXGPWGKPQH  c  This helps to make Mattel 75# VJGQYPGTQH*QV Wheels. the main street in Turin.0RQRSRO\ board – almost twice the size of a tennis court – to celebrate the 650th anniversary of the founding of Warsaw. Afterwards.4-m-long (398-ft 3. 1862 guinnessworldrecords. a plastic developed by Alexander Parkes (UK) and derived from plant cellulose. Italy. The event raised money for building and maintaining the Mohamed Aden Sheikh Children’s Teaching Hospital in Hargeisa.5-in) table – in fact.

and helped to raise money and awareness for an orphanage and cancer charity. above) was 16 years 300 days old when she beat her compatriot Ruan Lufei to become world champion on 24 Dec 2010. Youngest chess ITCPFOCUVGT HGOCNG *QW. ts own projec LARGEST CHESS PIECE DATELINE On 4 Apr 2014. on 22–24 Jun 2015.04 m (6 ft 8 in) in diameter at its base was unveiled by the Gitok technical school (BEL) in Kalmthout. Norway. at in m la sections of their fcuts from recycling of . 1863 144 Toys & Games (CUVGUVVKOG VQCTTCPIGC NCTIGEJGUUUGV 1Pǡ1EV#NV[PDGM $GMOWTCVQX -)< CTTCPIGF CNCTIGEJGUUUGVKPǡOKP ǡUGE*GCEJKGXGFVJKUCV VJG)94. Paulsen.KHCP %*0ǡDǡǡ(GD  SWCNKƒGFCUC ITCPFOCUVGTQPǡ#WI CVVJGCIGQH ǡ[GCTUǡFC[U 6QFCVGVJGyoungest chess grandmaster of all KU5GTIG[-CTLCMKP 7-4 Dǡǡ. ended in a draw after 34 moves. To in their lunc ortions op pr up the they scaled cut out d -size king an of a normal ed MDF. . Denmark. in the First American Chess &RQJUHVVͤQDO3DXO0RUSK\ (USA) and Louis Paulsen (DEU) took more than 15 hr to play 56 moves. He was aged 22 years 210 days when he gained the title in a match against his compatriot Anatoly Karpov on 9 Nov 1985. First computer to beat a World Chess Champion under regular time controls IBM chess-playing computer Deep Blue . caused most of the delay. with both men having won half the games. Garik Kimovich Weinstein. 13 Apr 1963) is the youngest World Chess Champion (male).CTIGUVPGVYQTMGF EJGUUEQORWVGT On 30 Jan 2004. their record marathon of more than 53 years ended with the death of Straszacker on 13 Oct 1999.CP YJQ CEJKGXGFVJGUVCVWUQP ǡ#WICVVJGCIG QHǡ[GCTUǡFC[U . . Deep Blue was capable of assessing 200 million board positions per sec. At the time.CHESS defeated World Chess Champion Garry Kasparov in a formal match on 11 May 1997. 5NQYGUVEJGUUOQXG RTGENQEM Until the chess clock was adopted in the 1860s. and establishes the classic detective genre. who decisively lost the match overall.076 m (16 ft 7 in) tall and 2. In Nov 1857. taking as long as 1 hr 15 min to decide on a single move. The piece was made during lessons in which students learned artisanal skills such as woodworking.QPIGUVICOGQH EQTTGURQPFGPEGEJGUU Dr Reinhart Straszacker and Dr Hendrik Roelof van Huyssteen (both ZAF) SOD\HGWKHLUͤUVWJDPHRI ? KNOWad e DID YOU m ho w ts uden st The design eir record ose it as th this king ch play chess ey th e us ca attempt be make it.070 computers operating together across 56 countries.QPIGUVEJGUUOCTCVJQP Magne Sagafos and Joachim Berg-Jensen (both NOR) played for 40 hr 42 min in Stavanger. Belgium. The attempt was also a team-building exercise. professionally refereed in Copenhagen. players could take as long as they wanted to decide a move. The Russian (formerly Soviet) grandmaster Garry Kasparov (b. h break. After 112 games. Danish grandmaster Peter Heine Nielsen played ChessBrain: 2. Youngest World %JGUUǡ%JCORKQP Hou Yifan (CHN. a chess king measuring 5. The game.KXGБGXGPVCVVJG QRGPKPIQHVJG-WPVUGXQ2NC\C UJQRRKPIEGPVTGKP/QUEQY 4WUUKCDTGCMKPIVJGRTGXKQWU FC[ŨUTGEQTFD[ǡUGE correspondence chess in 1946. The Notting Hill Mystery by Charles Felix (UK) – first serialized in the magazine Once a Week between 1862 and 1863 – is published in its complete form. this was the fastest evaluation of board positions by a chess computer. First detective novel Opening with a murder.

Greece.CTIGUVEQNNGEVKQPQHEJGUUUGVU #UQHǡ.CP#MŠP)ȘM[C[ 674 QYPGFǡEJGUUUGVU JQWUGFKP#PMCTC6WTMG[#MŠPCNCY[GTCPFDWUKPGUUOCP UVCTVGFJKUEQNNGEVKQPKP6JGFGEQTCVKXGUGVUHTQOCTQWPF VJGYQTNFCTGOCFGHTQOFKXGTUGOCVGTKCNUŤKPENWFKPIYQQF OGVCNOCTDNGCPFƒUJDQPGUŤCPFEQXGTRQRWNCTVJGOGUUWEJ CU*CTT[2QVVGTCPFVJG(TGPEJECTVQQPEJCTCEVGT#UVGTKZ /QUVUKOWNVCPGQWUICOGU QHEJGUUD[CPKPFKXKFWCN On 8–9 Feb 2011. Ivan 1LNROLÉDQG*RUDQ $UVRYLÉ ERWK65%. after reigning world champion Bobby Fischer (USA) resigned his title • The term “checkmate” comes from the Persian Shah mat – “The king is dead” DID YOU KNOW? An extra ordinary ca 59 Norse che of chess pie ces.FAST FACTS Russia’s Anatoly Karpov won the 1975 World Chess Championship without playing a match. bea carved fr utifully om ivory . Iran. On 27 Nov 2011. seven were draws and the rest wins. Ehsan Ghaem Maghami (IRN). on 27–28 Feb 2001. was fou the Isle nd on of Lewis (UK) aro centurie und two s ago. . Of her 1.102 games. /QUVUKOWNVCPGQWUEJGUU YKPU DNKPFHQNFGF  A blindfolded player has to memorize all their opponent’s moves during a game. Anna-Maria Botsari (GRC) played the most consecutive games of chess. a grandmaster and nine-time Iranian national champion. the German master Marc Lang won 25 and drew 19 of 46 games in 21 hr. in Kalavryta. 5OCNNGUVOCEJKPGOCFGEJGUUUGV #EJGUUDQCTFǡOKETQPU ǡKP USWCTGŤVJGFKCOGVGT QHHQWTJWOCPJCKTUŤYCUETGCVGFD[UVWFGPVUCV6GZCU6GEJ 7PKXGTUKV[75#KP6JGRNC[CDNGEJGUUUGVJCUūOKETQ RKGEGUŬGPITCXGFCUVTCFKVKQPCNEJGUUƒIWTGUGCEJCDQWV ǡOKETQPU ǡKP USWCTG 100% 1Pǡ/CT/CNNC5KXC +0& RTGUGPVGFVJGsmallest hand-made chess set TKIJV  +VǡKUǡOO ǡKP USWCTG YKVJRKGEGUTCPIKPIHTQOǡOO ǡKP VQǡOO ǡKP  JKIJCUXGTKƒGFKP$KNCURWT %JJCVVKUICTJ+PFKC /QUVEJGUUOQXGU On 17 Feb 1989. Tw o of the kings are chess thought to be po likeness ssible es of the 12 th-centu Norweg ry ian king s Magnu sV and Sve rrir. played 135 chess games concurrently in Tehran.

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18 m (30 ft 1. by Sinners Domino Entertainment at the Wilhelm-LückertGymnasium in Büdingen.384 house bricks were toppled in an unbroken line in and around the city of Bremerhaven in Germany on 17 Jan 2004. The most dominoes stacked on one domino piece is 1. Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.17-m-high (30-ft 1-in) structure composed of 8. USA – successfully triggered a stick bomb made from 31. Remove one. phones his assistant in a nearby room to say. It was the last of a series of dominoes to be toppled by members of the Prudential in Charlotte.370 wooden tongue depressors. achieved by Liu Yang (CHN) at Citic Guoan Grand Epoch City in Beijing.197.57 m (15 ft) wide and 1.305 volunteers from the \RXWKͤUHGHSDUWPHQWV of Cuxhaven. The event was arranged by Röben Tonbaustoffe (DEU) and involved 1. this outsized domino stone was produced by Prudential Financial Inc. 1Pǡ. First telephone call In March. Massachusetts.&  at the BRICK exhibition in . USA. Germany.QPFQP7-QPǡ&GE Tallest domino structure Students Michael Hörmann and Philipp Zimmermann (both DEU) erected and toppled a 9. who had filed his patent for the telephone on 14 Feb 1876. USA. The event took place during the Frankfurt Book Fair in Germany QPǡ1EV6JGVGCOYJQJCXGVQRRNGFUGXGTCNQVJGTTGEQTFU UGGTKIJV EQPUKUVGFQH ǡRGQRNG+VVQQMVJGOCVNGCUVJTVQUGVWRVJGDQQMUYJKEJHGNNKPLWUVQXGTCOKPWVG 1876 146 Toys & Games Largest stickbomb Weave a number of flat sticks into a spring-loaded grid and you’ve got yourself a stick bomb. on 28 Apr 2013. for Domino Day 2009.267 people formed a record-breaking human domino line at the Ordos International Nadam Fair in Ordos City. The largest yet built comprised 100 modules. a team of 89 builders toppled 4. Longest human domino line On 12 Aug 2010.QPMOCP DQVJ0. and was erected by Maico Arts CPF$GP. Netherlands. Largest toppling domino stone Measuring 9. Netherlands. on 31 Dec 2011. “Mr Watson – come here – I want to see you. into the air. Milan.491.5 in) tall.25 m (4 ft 1. China.WPVJG0CVKEM High School Bomb Squad – comprising 15 students from Natick High School in Massachusetts. Most dominoes UVCEMGFǡKPǡǡUGEQPFU Serial record-breaker Silvio Sabba (ITA) built a column of 48 dominoes in 30 sec in Pioltello.” . the first intelligible phone call takes place in Boston. on 12 Aug 2014.044 dominoes in Buchloe.863 dominoes in the WTC Expo center in Leeuwarden. 4. Italy. Most bricks toppled A total of 165. on 6 Aug 2014. Largest Great Ball Contraption A Great Ball Contraption (GBC) is a series of modules – designed from LEGO® Technic – arranged in a loop so that a small plastic ball can pass from module to module.T 75# VQRRNGF FQOKPQGUCVVJG7PKXGTUKV[ QH2GPPU[NXCPKC75#QP ǡ/C[ŤDGCVKPIJKU QYPǡRGTUQPCNDGUVQH Most dominoes toppled On 13 Nov 2009. North Carolina. Germany. one after the other.055. on 21 Apr 2014. Most books toppled in a domino fashion DATELINE As part of the launch of the German edition of Guinness World Records 20165KPPGTU&QOKPQ 'PVGTVCKPOGPV &'7 CUUGODNGFEQRKGUQHVJGYQTNFŨUbest-selling annual and set them sprawling sequentially. and you kickstart a shockwave that launches the sticks. (USA). on 7 Nov 2008.5 in) thick. China. Alexander Graham Bell (UK). Longest time for continuous domino toppling A team of 60 people kept a domino circle toppling continuously for 35 min 22 sec at the Domino Day 2008 event in Leeuwarden. a group of 10. The most dominoes toppled by an individual is 321.CHAIN REACTIONS The “domino effect” made KVUǡGuinness World Records debut in 1977 after Bob 5RGECǡ.

000. 1. on 31 Mar 2012. USA. and the most complex yet seen in competition is the 300-step device built by the Purdue Society of Professional Engineers Rube Goldberg Team (USA). Its objective was to blow up and pop a balloon! . These diminutive dominoes OGCUWTGǡZZǡEO ZZKP  The term ely y deliberat refers to an ion nt ve in icated overcompl ple e very sim ev hi ac to created ter the af ed m na results. on 22 Jun 2013. Joseph Wilson Swan (UK) reveals his incandescent light bulb (also called an “electric lamp”) in a demonstration before a gathering at the Newcastle Chemical Society. Indiana. 1878 guinnessworldrecords. Largest Rube Goldberg A 382-step Rube Goldberg PDFKLQH VHHGHͤQLWLRQ below) was demonstrated in Székesfehérvár. )GTOCP[QP. (TPE) in Hualien. Most dominoes toppled KPC&R[TCOKF 1P. Germany. Chinese Taipei.WN-GXKP2ȘJNU &'7 MPQEMGFQXGT ǡFQOKPQGUVJCVJCFDGGPCUUGODNGFKPC& pyramid at a Pizza Express in Waren (Müritz). contraptio LARGEST RUBE GOLDBERG IN COMPETITION First incandescent light bulb On 18 Dec. Hungary. UK. Germany. on 23 Apr 2015 by a team of 11 from the Budapest University of Technology and Economics. Longest domino wall 1Pǡ. NOW? DID YO“RUubK e Goldberg” Most dominoes toppled in a spiral 5KPPGTU&QOKPQ'PVGTVCKPOGPVVQRRNGFCFQOKPQ spiral for the 1HƒEKCNN[#OC\KPI TV show in Büdingen.30 sec on the set of 9KT*QNGP&GP 4GMQTF0CEJ&GWVUEJNCPF at Europa-Park in Rust. Its many processes included dissolving salt into water to change its conductivity and pushing balls down slopes by means of pneumatic pistons. It burns out quickly.WN1PVJGUCOGFC[VJGUCOG VGCOǡUGVCPGYTGEQTFHQTVJGmost mini dominoes toppled: 2.com 147 DATELINE The building of Rube Goldberg machines has become a competitive pastime.508 mousetraps on 13 Sep 2013. Germany. Fastest time to topple ǡRQTVCDNGVQKNGVU Philipp Reiche (DEU) sent 10 portable loos toppling consecutively in 11. In fact.FAST FACTS Dominoes represent all of the possible throws of a pair of dice (plus blanks) • Domino spots are known as “pips” • The start of the domino-toppling craze can be traced back to a segment on The Tonight Show (USA) in 1976 Most mousetraps VTKIIGTGFǡKPCNKPG Synology Inc.509 traps were initially set but one failed to snap. It’s graduate satirist (and American rtoons ca se who engineer) nd of crazy ki is th ed featur n. It was activated at the National Rube Goldberg Machine Contest at Purdue University in Lafayette. set off a chain reaction involving 1.WN5KPPGTU&QOKPQ'PVGTVCKPOGPVEQPUVTWEVGF CPFVJGPMPQEMGFFQYPCYCNNQHFQOKPQGUǡO ǡHV ǡKP NQPIEQORTKUKPIFQOKPQGUCVVJG9KNJGNO Lückert-Gymnasium in Büdingen.

made in 1909–12. Modelled after the castle in Alfred Lord Tennyson’s poem The Lady of Shalott.900). on 24 Sep 2014. The dolls’ house weighs 800 lb (363 kg) and boasts a WRWDOͥRRUDUHDRI almost 30 sq ft (2.000. She is thought to have been a design experiment that was abandoned. UK.840.000 miniature items. the 9-ft-tall (2. North Yorkshire. including a grand piano ($7.000. on 27 May 2015.000 ($256. The life-like doll is a little girl dressed in white.750) at Bonhams in London. Most valuable FQNNUŨǡJQWUG The 29-room Astolat Dollhouse Castle was constructed over a period of 13 years (1974–87) by US artist Elaine Diehl and valued at $8. £1. He had been allowed to keep them after manufacturer Palitoy ceased trading in the 1980s.7-m) dolls’ house contains 10. an ornate desk ($5.5 m (£6 m). £4. realized £242.800) at Vectis Toy Auction House in Thornaby. . they had languished in the garage of retired toy-sales rep Doug Carpenter.500) and a tiny portrait painted with a single-bristle brush ($1.CTIGUVCEVKQPƒIWTGDTCPF $CUGFQPTGVCKNƒIWTGUHTQOǡ#WIVJGEWTTGPVNCTIGUVCEVKQPƒIWTGDTCPFKU2NC[OQDKN &'7  YKVJCRRTQZKOCVGN[ǡO cǡOŻǡO KPTGXGPWGKP2NC[OQDKNŨUENCUUKEVQ[ QTKIKPCNN[MPQYPCUCū-NKEM[ŬKUCEOVCNN KP JWOCPƒIWTGVJCVƒVUCJWIGCTTC[QHUEGPCTKQU ŤCUCPCUVTQPCWVMPKIJVRKTCVGRQNKEGOCPCPFUQQP6JGDTCPFYCUFGXGNQRGFD[)GTOCP KPXGPVQT*CPU$GEMCPFJCUDGGPUQNFYQTNFYKFGUKPEG6JGFGVCKNGFCPFKPXGPVKXGUGVVKPIU NKOKVGFGFKVKQPUPGYKPVTQFWEVKQPUCPFFKUEQPVKPWGFNKPGUCNQPIYKVJ2NC[OQDKN68UGTKGUƒNOU CPFTGCNUK\G(WP2CTMUJCXGETGCVGFCYKFG2NC[OQDKNEQOOWPKV[VJCVKPENWFGUCFWNVEQNNGEVQTU Most expensive collection QHǡƒIWTKPGU UKPINGǡCWEVKQP A sale of Action Man and Star WarsͤJXULQHVDQG accessories made £180.ACTION FIGURES & DOLLS Most expensive doll sold at auction A rare doll by Kämmer & Reinhardt (DEU). UK.500 ($395.290). Until then. The most expensive collection of Star Wars ̨JXULQHV VLQJOHDXFWLRQ. (£3.78 m²).

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600 pieces. Over the centuries other mathematicians. USA. and as a background to these pages. The next three perfect numbers are 28. featuring 33. The largest commercially available jigsaw puzzle by number of pieces is “Wildlife”.QTM9QTNF. without success.600 letters. worked on the word search for 10 years. including Pierre de Fermat and René Descartes. it is impossible to have a de finitive list of searchab le words. is part of a word search containing 10. Prof Sharma. 2003. First sold in Sep 2014. Largest commercially CXCKNCDNGLKIUCYRW\\NG Made by Ravensburger (DEU). pictured above is the corner of a jigsaw showing the ancient Inca citadel of Machu Picchu in the Peruvian Andes. back to Nicomachus of Gerasa LQWKHVWFHQWXU\ΑΌ and. the jigsaw is called “New York Window” and depicts an ultra-detailed view of the city skyline. Its popularity is likely a result of its small format and low price. on 25 Jul 2015. The highest opening score in a Scrabble tournament is 126. Highest score in Cǡ5ETCDDNGǡVQWTPCOGPV On 21 Jan 2012. He filled it with technical words – and also the names of various scientists and inventors – to teach these terms to his engineering students. First newspaper with a print run of 1 million Ushering in a new era for mass media. and the sum of these factors also comes to 6. an African panorama made by Educa (ESP) in 2014. The smallest is 6 – its factors (the whole numbers that divide into 6 exactly) are 1. 2008–09 and 2012–14.6 in x 6 ft 2. for MUZJIKS (with a blank for the U). 2005–06. UK.8 in). The puzzle was created by Ashish Dutt Sharma (IND) in Rajasthan. it . Florida. have attempted a solution.4 x 1. DID YOU K DATELINE NOW? Given the si ze of The W orld’s Largest Wor d Search Pu zzle. Created by Arthur Wynne (UK). Voigt’s last win came in London. Toh Weibin (SGP) scored 850 points in a tournament match against Rik Kennedy (UK) at the Northern Ireland Scrabble Championship in Belfast. China. 5YKV\GTNCPFQPǡ#RT'CEJRKGEGOGCUWTGFO ǡHVǡǡKP NQPIǡEO ǡHVǡKP YKFGCPFǡEOVJKEM Largest OWNVKUWFQMWǡRW\\NG Beijing Sudoku Association (CHN) created a multi-sudoku puzzle of 200 standard grids in Beijing. Principal of the Apex Institute of Engineering & Technology in Jaipur. according to some historians. 496 and 8. right back to Euclid. a crossword puzzle appeared in the Sunday “Fun” section of the US newspaper 0GYǡ. 2 and 3.PUZZLES 100% 5OCNNGUVEQOOGTEKCNN[ CXCKNCDNGLKIUCYRW\\NG ŤRKGEGU 6QOCZQH%JKPCRTQFWEGUCTCPIGQHRKGEGLKIUCYUOGCUWTKPI ZEO ZKP ŤVJGUK\GQHCP#UJGGVQHRCRGT The puzzles depict famous works of art and world heritage landmarks. The game was conducted under World English-language LARGEST WORD SEARCH PUZZLE Pictured below.9 m (17 ft 8. the largest puzzle measures 5. Th e words th were put in at deliberatel y are joined by hundre ds more th at formed by chance. 500 years earlier. Swiss construction company Foffa Conrad created the largest such puzzle – a six-piece challenge known as a “Devil’s Knot” – in Valchava. 1886 150 Toys & Games . All the perfect numbers discovered so far are even – but could a perfect number ever be odd? This puzzle perplexed the ancient Greeks. Scrabble Players’ Association (WESPA) rules and used the Collins Scrabble Wordlist. He took the gold medal in 2000–01. The event was part of the 2015 World Junior Sudoku Championship.CTIGUVLKIUCYRW\\NG 6JKUIKICPVKELKIUCYRW\\NGOGCUWTGFOq ǡUSǡHV  ŤNCTIGTVJCPCUQEEGTRKVEJŤCPFEQPUKUVGFQHRKGEGU &GXKUGFD[)TGCV'CUV#UKC5WTXG[QTU%QPUWNVCPVU%QKV was assembled by 777 people at the former Kai Tak Airport KP*QPIǡ-QPI%JKPCQPǡ0QX'CEJRKGEGOGCUWTGF CǡOCZKOWOQHZO ǡHVǡKPZǡHVǡKP  . UK. India.128. and verified on 18 Oct 2015. French daily Le Petit Journal surpasses the 1-million circulation mark. and the vast nu mber of po tential lett combinati er ons it offers .CTIGUVOGEJCPKECNRW\\NG A “mechanical” puzzle is an interlocking puzzle created from separate pieces (typically wooden). 'CEJǡRKGEGKUCDQWVQPGVJKTFQHVJGUK\GQHCTGIWNCTLKIUCYRKGEG Oldest unsolved PWODGTǡRTQDNGO A “perfect number” is a number that equals the sum of its factors excluding itself. Most wins of the World 2W\\NG%JCORKQPUJKR D[ǡCPǡKPFKXKFWCN Ulrich Voigt (DEU) has won the World Puzzle Championship 10 times.500 words hidden among 129. on 17 Aug 2014 at the 23rd annual championships. FIRST… %TQUUYQTFRW\\NG On 21 Dec 1913. It was played by Jesse Inman (USA) on 26 July 2008 at the National Scrabble Championship in Orlando. one of which holds the whole structure together.

took part in a mass session of sudoku at the nearby Shing Mun Valley Sports Ground. Hong Kong. 1888 guinnessworldrecords. Italy. non-cryptic clues and no blacked-out squares. Leeds. cerebral glucose metabolic rates soared. UK.” The ̨UVWFURVVZRUG made up entirely of cryptic clues appeared in 1925 in a Saturday edition of the British newspaper 9GUVOKPUVGT)C\GVVG. Oldest surviving film Using a single-lens camera and paper film.com 151 DATELINE Most wins . brain IXQFWLRQLQJDQGHͦFLHQF\ VLJQLͤFDQWO\LPSURYHGDQG success rates at the game rose sevenfold! /QUVRGQRNGRNC[KPI UWFQMWǡUKOWNVCPGQWUN[ 1Pǡ/C[CVQVCNQHUVWFGPVURCTGPVU teachers and alumni from Yan Chai Hospital Lim Por Yen Secondary School in Tsuen Wan. 6JG%TQUU9QTF2W\\NG$QQM ZDVWKHͤUVWSXEOLFDWLRQ by Dick Simon and Lincoln Schuster (both USA). Pictured CDQXGKUǡCRW\\NGHTQOVJG2W\\NG)TCPF2TKZ6YQQHVJGUGKOCIGUCTGKFGPVKECNCPFCNN [QWǡJCXGǡVQǡFQKUƒPFVJGO5GGJQYNQPIKVVCMGU[QWБ(QTVJGCPUYGTUGG5VQR2TGUU The ̨UVWFURVVZRUGERRN appeared in the USA in 1924. in new players. He is often called the inventor of the cryptic crossword. Edward Powys Mathers (UK) – who later set crosswords under the name “Torquemada” – used only cryptic clues. these record-breaking wordsmiths have all the right answers. China. Although cryptic elements had appeared within crosswords before.” The answer? “Sales. had simple. wins pictured above) AMERICAN CROSSWORD PUZZLE TOURNAMENT . VRWKHͤUVWFOXHZDVSODFHG at 2-across. currently based in the Czech Republic. it was an instant success and helped establish Simon & Schuster. on 10–11 Mar 2006. and was the only woman in the top 18. Dǡǡ0QX ǡ[GCTU /CT ǡFC[U Oldest winner Doug “The Iceman” ǡ[GCTU /CT *Q[NOCP 75#ǡ.QTM9QTNF. Richard Haier of the University of California at Irvine (USA) scanned the brains of 6GVTKU players.QP&GNƒP 75# 7 Ť 1995.WN ǡFC[U Ť0QX was based on a diamondshaped grid. The crossword had no 1-across. a compilation of crosswords from US newspaper 0GY .QPIGUVTWPPKPIRW\\NGYQTNFEJCORKQPUJKR The World Puzzle Federation. Needless to say.FAST FACTS The first crossword was originally called a “word-cross” • The construction of crosswords is termed “cruciverbalism” • Modern sudoku was invented by Howard Garns (USA). 5WFQMW9QTNF%JCORKQPUJKR 7KHͤUVW:RUOG6XGRNX Championship was staged by the World Puzzle Federation in Lucca. Haier discovered that. has organized an international RW\\NGEQPVGUVUKPEG#NNQHVJGEJCNNGPIGUEQPVGUVGFCVVJG9QTNF2W\\NG%JCORKQPUJKR are simple. who continue to produce crossword books. THE TIMES NATIONAL CROSSWORD CHAMPIONSHIP Title Holder Record Date(s) of win Most wins John Sykes (UK)  Ť  CPF  Ť Most consecutive Mark Goodliffe (UK. French inventor Louis Le Prince records a two-second. the ̨UVW crossword clue appeared in the same puzzle. Videogame to KORTQXGǡDTCKPǡHWPEVKQP In 1991. silent “home movie” of his family and friends in Roundhay Garden. The clue was “What bargain hunters enjoy. after playing daily for up to eight weeks. logic-based puzzles that can be understood irrespective of your language. 1999 CPFǡŤ Most consecutive Dan Feyer (USA) wins 6 Ť Youngest winner Tyler Hinman (USA. Accountant Jana Tylová (CZE) beat 85 players from 22 countries. . although he called it “Number Place” CROSSWORD CHAMPIONSHIPS When it comes to solving cryptic crosswords.

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is WKHROGHVWVXUYLYLQJPHWDO IUDPHGJODVVFXUWDLQZDOOHG EXLOGLQJFRPSOHWHGLQ .8 m (32 ft) thick.193 mi) of branches and spurs. part of it was blown up in order to make way for a dam. Some 51. most of the wall was constructed during the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644).278 sq ft). but they certainly came much closer than their rivals. India. /QUVYCNNUEQXGTGF D[ǡCǡOWTCN In 2014–15. The wall runs from Shanhaiguan. UK.280 US gal) of paint DQGWRRNPRQWKVWR complete with the help RIORFDOUHVLGHQWV6HHQ from afar it appears as a YLEUDQWVZLUOHGUDLQERZ with stripes running across houses. on the Gulf of Bohai. 162 Engineering & Architecture .150 mi) – nearly three times the length of Great Britain – plus 3.. are ǡOK ǡMO NQPICPFCTQWPFO ǡHV VJKEM6JG[ FKXKFGFVJGEQORGVKPI/GYCTCPF/CTYCTMKPIFQOUVJG HQTVYKVJKPYCUWUGFD[/GYCTTWNGTUCUCNCUVTGHWIG Street in Liverpool.000 litres (5. to Yumenguan and Yangguan. The ͤQLVKHGGHVLJQXVHG more than 20. such as the Mongols – began during the reign of Qin Shi Huang (221–210 BCE).WZDVGHVLJQHGE\ DUFKLWHFW:LOOLDP0LOIRUG 7HXORQIRU/RUGDQG/DG\ 2YHUVWRQHDVDGLVWLQFWO\ ̸PRGHUQ̹UHVLGHQFH%HKLQG WKH*UDGH. Although it was extended and rebuilt over the course of two millennia. Construction of the wall – which was erected to help keep out marauding nomadic tribes from the north. Historians are unsure if they reached the exact pole.OLVWHGKLVWRULFDO ID©DGHOLHDFHQWUDOKHDWLQJ V\VWHPJDVOLJKWLQJDQGD EXWOHU̵VOLIW First curtain-wall QHƒEGǡDWKNFKPI $̸FXUWDLQZDOO̹LVDQRQ VWUXFWXUDOEDUULHUDURXQG WKHRXWVLGHRIDEXLOGLQJ 2ULHO&KDPEHUVRQ:DWHU Longest fort walls Built during the 15th century by Rana Kumbha (IND). Robert Peary and Matt Henson (both USA) reach the North Pole. the walls at Kumbhalgarh Fort in Rajasthan. First people to reach the North Pole On 6 Apr.530 km (2.WZDVGHVLJQHGE\DUFKLWHFW 3HWHU(OOLVIRULWVRZQHUWKH 5HYHUHQG7KRPDV$QGHUVRQ LONGEST WALL The Great Wall of China has a main-line length of 3. art collective WKH*HUPHQ&UHZSDLQWHG EXLOGLQJZDOOVLQWKH 0H[LFDQFLW\RI3DFKXFD ZLWKDVLQJOHEULJKWO\ FRORXUHGSDWWHUQ(QWLWOHG El Macro Mural Barrio de Palmitas. the mural PHDVXUHGP2 (215. Its height varies from 4. having trekked from Ellesmere Island in Canada.5 to 12 m (15–39 ft) and it is up to 9.5 km (32 mi) of the structure has been destroyed since 1966.. and in Jul 1979.460 km (2.

FAST FACTS In 1979. Germany’s Eija-Riitta Eklöf-Berliner-Mauer “married” the Berlin Wall (her surname means “Berlin Wall”!) • In 2011.QPIGUVCPEKGPV4QOCPYCNN UWTXKXKPI 4WPPKPIHQTǡMO ǡOK *CFTKCPŨU9CNNYCUDWKNVCUCFGHGPUKXGCPFEWUVQOUDCTTKGTKPVJG4QOCP RTQXKPEGQH$TKVCPPKC PQYVJG7- /WEJQHKVUVKNNTWPUHTQOVJG5QNYC[(KTVJKPVJGYGUVVQVJG4KXGT 6[PGKPVJGGCUV6JGYCNNYCUNKMGN[DGIWPKPǡƩƫWPFGTVJGQTFGTUQH'ORGTQT*CFTKCP/QUVN[ OCFGHTQOUVQPGD[4QOCPNGIKQPPCKTGUKVYCUŤO ŤHV YKFGCPFŤO ŤHV VCNN . competitive wallpapering was contested at the UK’s National Painting and Decorating Show .QPIGUVYCNNQHƒTG 2Q0DU0DULQH Corps Community Services 86$.

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86 mi (2. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. USA. Created by former art publisher Franco Maria Ricci with architects Pier Carlo Bontempi and Davide Dutto (all ITA). Nawab of Awadh. South Korea.000 narrow passages.2 m) and opened on 1 Jun 2015. contains 489 identical doorways. This bewildering three-storey construction was intended to keep intruders away from a large central chamber containing the tomb of Asaf-ud-Daula. a maze (below left) has multiple routes. 164 Engineering & Architecture .. with right-angled paths in four interconnected quadrants. With four quadrants decorated by coloured markers.QPFQPCPF*GPT[9KUGCPFRNCPVGFKPWUKPIJQTPDGCO (Carpinus betulus +VEQXGTUCPCTGCQHǡJC ǡCETGU  Most identical doorways KPǡCOC\G The Bhul Bhulaiya maze at the Bara Imambara in Lucknow.8 ha) – more than 10 times the . London. but you will eventua lly find your wa y out. UK. the right-angled path maze promotes meditation and IRFXVHGLQZDUGUHͥHFWLRQ and takes about 30 min to walk around.000 ft (460 m) above St Louis in Missouri. near Parma. It includes several staircases and around 1. many variants exist and the terms are frequently interchanged. it didn’t take GWR adjudicator Shantha Chinniah NQPIǡVQIGVVQVJGOKFFNGQHKVŲ 1NFGUVJGFIGOC\G 6JGOC\GCV*CORVQP%QWTV2CNCEGKP5WTTG[7-YCUDWKNVHQT -KPI9KNNKCOǡ+++CPF/CT[ǡ++QH'PINCPF+VYCUFGUKIPGFD[)GQTIG . covers 17 acres (6. Fast-growing bamboo from more than 30 subspecies forms tall hedges reaching 5 m (16 ft 4 in) high. The labyrinth probably acted as a cult centre and meeting place for Egyptian rulers as well as Amenemhet’s tomb. 75#+VEQXGTGFCPCTGCQHCETGU ǡJC YJGPOGCUWTGFQPǡ1EVŤCūHQQVRTKPVŬ equivalent to the base of the Great Pyramid at Giza four times over! visited the site.CTIGUVVGORQTCT[EQTP OCK\G OC\G Cool Patch Pumpkins (USA) crafted this amazing maize maze at their premises in Dixon. Captain Albert Berry (USA) leaps from a biplane flying some 15. Most books in a labyrinth Created in Aug 2012 by Marcos Saboya and Gualter Pupo (both BRA) with production company HungryMan. DID YO DATELINE U KNOW If you are ? looking for a fail method -safe of reach ing the maze. measures some 18 x 18 m (59 x 59 ft). who /C\G The Labirinto Della Masone in Fontanellato.MAZES . TRIVIA Strictly defined. In practice. Ancient Greek historian Herodotus.CTIGUVJCPFFTCYPOC\G &CXKF#$QQM.382-sq-ft) installation was inspired by writer Jorge Luis Borges’ love of labyrinths and took the shape of the Argentinian DXWKRU̵VͤQJHUSULQWV VL]HRID86IRRWEDOOͤHOG – and has 1. had walls built from 250.000 books.T 75# FTGYCOC\GOGCUWTKPIǡO ǡHVǡǡKP NQPICPFO ǡHVǡKP YKFGCV%QXKPIVQP . 1912 First parachute jump from a moving aircraft On 1 Mar. some with dead ends and others with precipitous drops. Ancient Egyptian labyrinth The temple precinct built by Amenemhet III at Hawara LQ̰Ύ΍΋ZDV a complex architectural puzzle.9 km) of pathways. It dates from 1791.. described it as a labyrinth of identical courtyards connected by twisting corridors lined with false doors. India. $WFFJKUVRTC[GTOC\G The square prayer maze at the 15th-century Buddhist temple of Haeinsa in Gyeongsangnam-do. k end of a eep you r right h the wall and on as you m It might ove arou take you nd. LARGEST. California. and makes a safe landing on the grounds of Jefferson Barracks. the maze cost $11 m (£7. the aMAZEme labyrinth at the Royal Festival Hall in the Southbank Centre. a while. while a labyrinth (right) has just one path (with no dead ends or branches) from entrance to exit. may fin and you d that y ou are g oing back on yours elf. The maze has a Roman-style pattern. The 500-m² (5. Italy.KDTCT[KP9CUJKPIVQP75#QPǡ#WI$WVǡCU[QWECP see (right).

Here. Created by Anheuser-Busch. 1913 guinnessworldrecords.CTIGUV&YQQFRCPGNOC\G . At 9 m (29 ft 6 in) across and comprising 3.947 m² (42. passing workstations where specific parts are fitted until it is complete.com 165 DATELINE . USA. Glass Labyrinth is found in the Chianti Sculpture Park in Siena. Vice Chairman of the Al Rostamani Group. YLVLWRUVͤQGDQRUDQJHFXEH stool and a mirror with the word “self” set above their UHͥHFWLRQ .86 m² (6. all individually programmed to turn off when a player ran over them. Bandai Namco Games America and Mosaic (all USA). has an area of 3. the maze included four Power Pellets and 242 Pac-dots. At the centre. Pictured right is Hassan Abdulla Al Rostamani. Energy BBDO. Italy. for a Bud Light Super Bowl advertising spot on 7 Jan 2015. UAE. completed in Jan 2012 in Dubai. Italy. LARGEST VERTICAL MAZE The front façade of the Al Rostamani Maze Tower.FAST FACTS The word “maze” derives from an old English word meaning “delusion” or “bewilderment” • The largest temporary corn maze (below left) was so big that some visitors got lost in it and had to call 911 for assistance .CD[TKPVGPQPVJG&CPKUJKUNCPFQH5COU‡EQXGTU ǡOq ǡUSǡHV YKVJCO HV  RCVJ&GUKIPGFD['TKMCPF-CTGP2QWNUGPKVYCU ETGCVGFKP5GRǡCPFQRGPGFQPǡ/C[ PAC-ManOC\G A real-life PAC-Man maze covering 580.CTIGUVRGTOCPGPV VTGGOC\G Glass-block labyrinth Made in 2007 by British labyrinth historian Jeff Saward. from 800–700 Ύ΍΋.252 sq ft) – about the size of a basketball court – was built in Los Angeles.485 sq ft) – the size of 15 tennis courts. California. the car moves on a conveyor through the factory. the Ford Motor Company (USA) opens its factory in Highland Park.CD[TKPVJKCCV5KNMGDQTIKP&GPOCTMOGCUWTGUOq USǡHV CPFEQORTKUGUNCTEJYQQF RCPGNUUNQVVGFKPVQEQPETGVGRQUVU$WKNVKPCPFTGDWKNVKPKVJCUMO OK QHRCVJU /QUVXKUKVQTUVCMGCDQWVŤOKPVQTGCEJVJGHQWTEQTPGTUOCTMGFYKVJEQNQWTGFHNCIUCPFVJGP ƒPFVJGEGPVTCNN[RNCEGFGZKV6JQUGYJQEQORNGVGVJGOC\GCTGCYCTFGFCEGTVKƒECVG $WKNVQPCPQNFRNCPVCVKQPQH0QTFOCPPƒTVTGGU 5COU‡ǡ. First industrial moving assembly line On 7 Oct. as per the famous videogame. this octagonal labyrinth is a reconstruction of a stone design found in the Val Camonica valley in eastern Lombardy. The lines of the balconies on the front and rear façades form real mazes by acclaimed puzzle designer Adrian Fisher (UK). Michigan.600 blocks.

plunging riders into total darkness.WATER PARKS Longest water coaster Opened on 11 May 2012. and is located in Siam Park.389 sq ft.600 m2.36 ha (146.QFIG#FXGPVWTG%GPVGTKP 4KPEȕPFGNC8KGLC)WCPCECUVG%QUVC4KECKUǡO ǡHVǡKP NQPI4KFGTUGZRGTKGPEGCVJTKNNKPI LQWTPG[CUVJG[YGCXGVJTQWIJVJGPCVWTCNLWPINGGPXKTQPUYGCTKPICTWDDGTTKPIHQTUCHGV[ Tallest body slide The drop on the Kilimanjaro water slide at Águas Quentes Country Club in Barra do Piraí in Rio de Janeiro. interior ring l suntan du get a natura er park at w ge hu The to their stay.36 acres). the largest wave pool – often referred to DVDQDUWLͤFLDOVHD̰ covers 13. USA. or 3. MammothCV*QNKFC[9QTNF 5RNCUJKPŨ5CHCTKKP5CPVCǡ%NCWU+PFKCPC75#JCUCVQVCN VTCEMNGPIVJQHǡHV ǡO +VJCUVJGECRCEKV[HQT ǡTQWPFDQCVUGCEJFGUKIPGFVQECTT[UKZRGQRNG6JG ride includes seven drops and passes through enclosed tunnels.975-ft-long P. DVYHULͤHGRQ-XO Inflatable water slide Live More Awesome (NZ) created a 1. Brazil. It was built on top of a hill that was adapted to accommodate it. New Jersey. measures 49. KNOW?il DID YOU d fo constructe DATELINE A specially s allows ical Island roof at Trop h the ac re to light ultraviolet guests can at th so . Bangkok. the slide cleverly makes use of the local topography to achieve its record-breaking height. or 1. modate up can accom per day.9 m (163 ft 9 in). Thailand. Longest body slide The Jungle SlideŤCNUQMPQYPCUVJGEco SlideŤCV$WGPC8KUVC'EQ. Largest wave pool According to the World Waterpark Association. LONGEST… water slide at Action Park in Vernon.00 1916 Constructed in 2002. rs to si vi 0  6.

Ziyad Mazzawi Corporation and Monaco Business Development (all JOR) in Amman. It has a tractive force (the force exerted at the rim of the driving wheel) of 166.432 kg) working compound and 199.LQͥDWDEOH Slip and slide At 611. has a 66. Tropical Islands in Krausnick.000-m² (710. Water was sprayed along the length of the run to ensure slipperiness. hold the 5VCVWGQHǡ.300 lb (75. 700 – a triple-articulated six-cylinder 2–8–8–8–4 tank engine.006 ft 10 in). Jordan.KDGTV[UVCPFKPIWRTKIJVQTVJG'KHHGN6QYGTQP KVUUKFG1RGPGFKP6TQRKECN+UNCPFUKUƒVVGFQWVYKVJ COCPITQXGLWPINGRNCPVTCKPHQTGUVNCIQQPURC UCWPCU KPENWFKPIQPGYKVJKPCP#PIMQT9CVUV[NGūVGORNGŬ  and themed accommodation venues. on 16 Oct 2015. 166 Engineering & Architecture . Germany. It’s even possible VQǡIQHQTCDCNNQQPTKFGKPUKFGVJGFQOG Most powerful steam locomotive Baldwin Locomotive Works (USA) builds No.519 kg) working simple.7 m (2.560 lb (90.400-sq-ft) main hall – VGEJPKECNN[CPCTEJUWRRQTVGFOGODTCPGUVTWEVWTG+VǡKU EQPUVTWEVGFHTQOǡVQPPGU ǡ75ǡVQPU QH UVGGNCPFǡUVCPFUǡO ǡHV VCNN6JGKPVGTKQTURCEG is large enough to contain eight soccer pitches. the longest slip and slide was constructed by Orange Jordan. Largest indoor water park Originally an airship hangar.

169 ft) long. as a tester for the First Choice holiday company. China. Henan. includin surfing. the tower located at 6SODVK*DUGHQRQ5RNNď Island in Kobe. 9CVGTUNKFGUKPǡCǡUKPINGVQYGT Designed and constructed by WhiteWater West Industries Ltd (CAN) in Most visited water park %JKOGNQPI9CVGT2CTMKP)WCPI\JQW)WCPIFQPI %JKPCCVVTCEVGFXKUKVQTUKPCEEQTFKPI VQVJG)NQDCN#VVTCEVKQPU#VVGPFCPEG4GRQTVHQTVJG [GCTRTQFWEGFǡD[KPFWUVT[OQPKVQTU#'%1/CPF VJGǡ6JGOGFǡ'PVGTVCKPOGPV#UUQEKCVKQP 6'#  1991. Netherlands. measured 51. by Swiss youth group Jugendwerk in Münchenbuchsee. That makes it almost as tall as Niagara Falls. MOST… 9CVGTUNKFGUKPCYCVGTǡRCTM There are 59 water slides in Yinji Kaifeng Waterpark in Zhengzhou. which opened on 1 Jul 2015. USA. DVFRQͤUPHGRQ1RY 2010 on Guinness World Records Day. Japan.14 in) tall.38 m (168 ft 7 in) tall as of 18 Apr 2014.FAST FACTS The Mammoth water coaster is more than seven times longer than a 747 jumbo jet • The largest wave pool is 2. 1919 guinnessworldrecords.5 times larger than a US football pitch • In 2014. and som perform etimes tricks.4 m. Canada. 40 ft 8 in) level. . Switzerland. arding a n d snowbo Particip arding. Texas DID YO U KNOW Flowrid ? ing com bines asp of differe ects nt sport s. Sebastian Smith (UK) rode 186 water slides in Europe and North Africa. is 356. g skatebo wakebo arding. The slippery slide opened in May 2007 and was constructed by Klarer Freizeitanlagen AG (CHE). ants em ploy tech from all niques these act maintain ivities to  balance . 52 ft 6 in) or lower (12. /CIKEǡ'[G stands 22 m (72 ft 2.com 167 DATELINE Verrückt at Schlitterbahn Waterpark in Kansas City. Kansas. Water slides ridden KPǡUKZǡOQPVJU Between 1 May and 31 Oct 2013.32 m (1. on 30 Jul 2014. in a Vickers Vimy biplane. TALLEST WATER SLIDE First non-stop flight across the Atlantic Ocean On 14 Jun. Each slide swirled visitors down a different winding route. had 50 slides departing from either the upper (16 m. People to travel down CǡYCVGTUNKFGKPQPGJQWT Beerze Bulten (NLD) held an event in which 396 people descended on a water slide in an hour in Overijssel. visitors to the most visited water park outnumbered the population of Houston. It took more than two years to create the ride. o n an artificia l wave. John William Alcock and Arthur Whitten Brown (both UK) take off from St John’s in Newfoundland. on 21 Jun 2014. The most people down a water slide in four hours is 620. ending in one of seven pools. The pair land near Clifden in Ireland some 16 hr 12 min later. in Erding. Tallest flowriding wave #HNQYTKFKPIYCXGKURTQFWEGFD[FKTGEVKPICJKIJRTGUUWTG UJGGVǡQHYCVGTQXGTCEWTXGFUWTHCEG+VKUWUGFKPHNQYTKFKPI QTǡHNQYDQCTFKPI CDQCTFURQTVVJCVTGUGODNGUUWTƒPIQT YCMGDQCTFKPIǡ1Pǡ5GRVJGUWTHUKOWNCVQTDa Wave RTQFWEGFCHNQYTKFKPIYCXGOGCUWTKPIǡO ǡHVǡKP  VCNNǡCVǡ5RNCUJYQTNFKPǡ/QPVGWZ(TCPEG Tube/mat water slide /CIKEǡ'[G at Galaxy Erding. Germany.

baseball legend George Herman “Babe” Ruth (USA) smashes a 175-m (574-ft) home run for the New York Yankees against the Detroit Tigers at Navin Field in Detroit.000. (374./# EQORTKUGUǡJKIJRTGEKUKQP CPVGPPCGURTGCFQXGTFKUVCPEGUWRVQǡMO ǡOK CPFEQUVǡDP cǡO VQUGV WR5KVGFQPVJGOJKIJ HV %JCLPCPVQTRNCVGCWKPVJG%JKNGCP#PFGU#. the Grand Canyon Skywalk in Arizona. . USA. USA. The suspension bridge has a deck height of 336 m (1. engineers completed drilling for the 57-km (35-mi) Gotthard Base HIGHEST CANTILEVERED GLASS-BOTTOMED SKYWALK Opened on 28 Mar 2007. *KIJGUVEQPETGVGFCO )TCPFG&KZGPEGQPVJGTKXGT&KZGPEGKP5YKV\GTNCPFTKUGUǡO ǡHV JKIJŤǡCNOQUVVYKEGVJG JGKIJVQHVJG)TGCV2[TCOKFCV)K\CKP'I[RVŤCPFJCUCETGUVNGPIVJQHǡO ǡHV +VTGSWKTGF ǡO ǡEWǡHV QHEQPETGVGGPQWIJVQDWKNFCYCNNǡO ǡHV JKIJCPFǡEO ǡKP YKFGCNNCTQWPFVJG'SWCVQT+VUVTKCPIWNCTETQUUUGEVKQPFGƒPGUKVCUCūITCXKV[ŬFCOŤYKFG CVVJGDCUGPCTTQYCVVJGVQRŤOCMKPIKVCNUQVJGJKIJGUVITCXKV[ǡFCO6JKUFGUKIPCPFVJGFCOŨU VQPPG 75VQP YGKIJVŤVKOGUCUJGCX[CUVJG'ORKTG5VCVG$WKNFKPIŤ GPCDNGUVJG)TCPFG&KZGPEGVQYKVJUVCPFVJGRTGUUWTGQHǡǡOKNNKQPO ǡDKNNKQPEWHV QHYCVGT Tunnel.1 m (12.95 km2 .8 m (6. Michigan.000 m (6.033 ft).858 ft) and a total length of 1.000 tonnes (4. Kemper is KHUDOGHGDVWKHͤUVW̸FOHDQ coal” facility in the USA. It took 14 years to build and will carry 300 trains a day when it opens in 2016.409./# UVWFKGUNKIJVHTQOUQOGQHVJGWPKXGTUGŨUEQNFGUVQDLGEVU+VUOCKPCTTC[QHǡCPVGPPCG GCEJǡO ǡHV KPFKCOGVGTCEVUCUCUKPINGVGNGUEQRGŤCPKPVGTHGTQOGVGT6JGPGCT RGTHGEVUWTHCEGUQHVJGTCFKQFKUJCTTC[UGPCDNGOCZKOWOEQUOKENKIJVVQDGECRVWTGF 1921 Longest home run hit On 18 Jul. 90% of the toxic mercury. Conceived by Las Vegas businessman David Jin and realized by Lochsa Engineering. 168 Engineering & Architecture .531 ft) – the longest bridge span. the power station strips out most of the dust. the Skywalk can resist an 8. near Jishou in Hunan. The diverted CO2 is then used in enhanced oil recovery.DLN\ďURDGEULGJH linking Honshu and Shikoku in Japan has an overall suspended length. /QUVGZRGPUKXGITQWPFDCUGFVGNGUEQRG DATELINE 6JG#VCECOC. China.990. the structure consists of a 20-m-wide (65-ft) U-shaped and cantilevered glass-bottomed observation deck jutting out past the rim of the Grand Canyon.102 ft) above the Dehang Canyon. Located at Grand Canyon West on the Hualapai Indian Reservation.EPIC ENGINEERING Longest tunnel-to-tunnel bridge The Aizhai Bridge. Longest suspension bridge Opened in 1998. 99% of the hydrogen sulphide and 65% of the carbon dioxide emissions.534 m (5.831 ft 8 in). with two side spans. making it also the highest tunnel-totunnel bridge.CTIGUVICUKƒECVKQP CPFECTDQPECRVWTG power station As of 2016. so the bridge is hidden until drivers are already on it. It opened in 2012 as part of the Jishouto-Chadong expressway. has a tower-to-tower main span of 1. It covers some 969. Longest rail tunnel On 15 Oct 2010. Almost half of this consists of its main span of 1. has a maximum vertical drop of 250 m (820 ft). 2.0-magnitude earthquake and 160-km/h (100-mph) winds. of 3.CTIGUVCTVKƒEKCNKUNCPF The Flevopolder is an island in the Netherlands that was created by a vast land-reclamation project between 1955 and 1968. burns around 4. the $NDVKL.560 ft) beneath the Swiss Alps. the 582-MW Kemper Project in eastern Mississippi. USA. It can hold 120 people at any one time.5 sq mi) of what was once part of a shallow bay called the Zuiderzee and is separated from the mainland by a chain of lakes.CTIG/KNNKOGVGTUWDOKNNKOGVGT#TTC[ #.000 US tons) of local lignite coal annually. What makes this structure unusual is that it is approached by two tunnels that are carved into the mountainous terrain. In a major innovation.176 m (3.911.

Up to 87.  owing to limeston a lack of e for cem local ent. south-east of Mexico City. which closely follows the traditions of silent-era movies and will gross in excess of $133 m (£91 m) by Jan 2016. The Aztec structure is also the largest monument ever built. • Amphitheatre: Completed LQ΍΋.CMG0GWEJȅVGNKP5YKV\GTNCPF5QOGǡJKIJRTGUUWTGLGVU URTC[GFQWVYCVGTKPCEQPUVCPVUJCRGUJKHVKPIOKUVVQETGCVGVJGGHHGEV .FAST FACTS The first pyramid structures are thought to date from 5. DID YO U KNOW The gran ? ite block s of the section bridge of the Se g o v ia a are laid queduct without probably mortar. Italy.com 169 DATELINE 5VKNNKPWUGCHVGTEGPVWTKGUVJGCSWGFWEVCV5GIQXKCKP5RCKP VTCPURQTVUYCVGTOQTGVJCPǡMO ǡOK HTQOVJG(WGPVG (TȐCTKXGTVQ5GIQXKC#VKVUVCNNGUVVJGONQPI HV  DTKFIGUGEVKQPTGCEJGUǡO ǡHV JKIJCDQXGVYQTQYUQH ǡCTEJGUUWRRQTVGFQPRKNNCTUGCEJYKVJCFKHHGTGPVFGUKIP 2TQDCDN[FCVKPIHTQOVJGUVǡEGPVWT[ǡƩƫVJGU[UVGOHGCVWTGU OCP[UGVVNGOGPVVCPMUENGCPUKPIDCUKPUEJCPPGNUCPFDGPFU .000 SHRSOHZRXOGͥRFNKHUH to see gladiators and wild beasts in mortal combat. 1925 guinnessworldrecords.QPFQP7- Largest… • Ancient stadium: Until ΍΋DXGLHQFHVof 255.XGTFQPNGU$CKPUVJG$NWT$WKNFKPIYCUCUVGGNRNCVHQTO KPUGV GPENQUGFKPCP CTVKƒEKCNENQWFCDQXG.CTIGUVENQEMHCEG 6JG&QMCCGENQEMHCEGCVVJGVQRQHVJGUVQTG[/CMMCJ 4Q[CN%NQEM6QYGT*QVGN CMCVJG#DTCLCN$CKV*QVGN6QYGT KP /GEEC5CWFK#TCDKCKUǡO ǡHV YKFG+VKUUQOGUKZVKOGU NCTIGTVJCPVJGENQEMHCEGQPVJG'NK\CDGVJ6QYGT QHVGPYTQPIN[ ECNNGF$KI$GPYJKEJKUVJGDGNNKPUKFGVJGVQYGT KP. is 54 m (177 ft) tall and its base covers around 18.CTIGUV4QOCPCSWGFWEV Highest-grossing silent movie The Big Parade (USA) makes $22 m (£4. covers 2 ha (5 acres) – equivalent to three international soccer pitches. Italy.000 years ago in Mesopotamia • The Proserpina gravity dam in Spain. This it flexible makes enough to surviv small ea e rthquak es and buffetin g winds.96 m). . the Flavian amphitheatre or Colosseum in Rome. built by the Romans around the 2nd century CE.2 ha (45 acres). • Pyramid: The Quetzalcoatl Pyramid at Cholula de Rivadavia. 2011). is thought to be the oldest operational dam (KTUVCTVKƒEKCNHQIDWKNFKPI &GUKIPGFD[CTEJKVGEVU&KNNGT5EQƒFKQ 4GPHTQ 75# CUCRCXKNKQPHQTVJG5YKUU 'ZRQǡKP. The record will stand until the release of The Artist (FRA.000 watched chariot races. athletics and other spectacles at the 2.000-ft-long (610-m) Circus Maximus in Rome.

97 km/h) at Daytona Beach in Florida. USA.79 mph (327.DATELINE ARTS & MEDIA 1927 170 Arts & Media First land-speed record run to exceed 200 mph On 29 Mar. British racing driver Henry Segrave drives his Sunbeam 1000 HP – a twin-V12-engined monster known as Mystery – to a speed of 203. .

CONTENTS ARTS & MEDIA FACTOGRAPHIC 172 ART SALES 174 SHAKESPEARE 176 MUSIC 178 MOVIES 182 DISNEY 184 TV 186 VIDEO 188 Fastest movie to gross ǡOKNNKQPCVVJG75DQZQHƒEG First flight over Mount Everest Squadron Leader Douglas Douglas-Hamilton (UK) leads a flight of two open-cockpit biplanes over the summit of Mount Everest. 1933 guinnessworldrecords. they clear the peak by only 100 ft (30 m). Fighting the thin air and high winds.com 171 DATELINE 5EKƒDNQEMDWUVGTStar Wars VII: The Force Awakens 75#  VQQM c YKVJKPFC[UQHKVU75 TGNGCUGQPǡ&GECFFKPI[GVCPQVJGTDQZQHƒEGTGEQTFVQ KVUEQNNGEVKQP6JKUGSWCVGFVQCUVCIIGTKPICXGTCIGFCKN[ITQUUQH  c CPFOGCPVVJCVVJGOWEJCPVKEKRCVGF UGSWGNUVQTOGFCJGCFQHJurassic World 75# YJKEJVQQM ǡFC[UVQTGCEJVJGOOKNGUVQPG 0QVUWTRTKUKPIN[Star Wars VIICNUQENCKOGFVJG75DQZQHƒEG TGEQTFUHQTfastest movie to gross $100 million CPFfastest movie to gross $200 million%NGCTN[VJG(QTEGKUUVTQPIYKVJVJKUQPGŲ .

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MOST EXPENSIVE SOLD AT AUCTION 2CKPVKPI On 11 May 2015.000). before an rl ze it Basel. who bid by telephone.7 m) in an internet auction by Christie’s on 28 Nov 2012. US astronaut Alan Bean was lunar module pilot on #RQNNQǡ Ťǡ0QX CPFEQOOCPFGT QHǡVJG5M[NCDǡOKUUKQP ǡ. USA.129 mph (484.QW4GCF[HQT5QOG(QQVDCNN! DGNQY ǡFGRKEVU$GCP EJCUKPICP#OGTKECP HQQVDCNNQPVJG /QQP+VYCUUQNFVQ CPWPPCOGFDW[GT KPǡHQT c  2CKPVKPIUQNFQPNKPG October on Cape Cod (1946) by Edward Hopper (USA) W\SLͤHVWKHLVRODWLRQDQG solitude common to much of his work. USA. Sir Malcolm Campbell (UK) achieves a speed of 301. The name is more correctly spelled Monna Lisa (“My Lady Lisa”) in Italian.6 m (£6. sold for $179. It was a private sale from the collection of a retired Sotheby’s executive to an unnamed buyer. with a commission of just over 12%. 1935 174 Arts & Media MOST EXPENSIVE PAINTING Produced in 1892. USA.QJPUYCU UQNFRTKXCVGN[VQVJG JGFIGHWPFDKNNKQPCKTG 5VGXGP#%QJGP 75#  KPHQTCTGRQTVGF ǡO cǡO  Highest total from CǡUKPINGǡCTVCWEVKQP An evening auction of Post-War and Contemporary Art held by Christie’s in New York City. He bought it alongside a $200-m (£129. It is powered by a Rolls-Royce R V12 engine.8 m) from the sale of 167 of his works on 15–16 Sep 2008 at Sotheby’s in London. Les Femmes d’Alger 8GTUKQPǡ1 by Pablo Picasso (ESP). in Sw ded to sell chelin deci Rudolf Stae pensive ex t os ious m it. Jeff Koons (all USA) and Willem de Kooning (USA. UK.WNŤǡ5GR If We Could &Qǡ+V#NN1XGT#ICKPŤ#TG. KNOW?po DID YOU Ipoi Nafea Faa DATELINE s. US tycoon Ken Griffin reportedly paid $300 m for Willem de Kooning’s Interchange (1955). The auction featured works by artists such as Andy Warhol. First land-speed record to exceed 300 mph On 3 Sep.244. Nafea Faa Ipoipo (“When Will You Marry?”. by ’s royal ar at Q to which sold  m 11 for $250 family in 20 (£158. Seven months later. . The prev Players rd as The Ca ). The buyer. painting w zanne (FRA Cé ul Pa (1890s). at Christie’s in New York City.8-m) piece by Jackson Pollock (USA). dated 14 Feb 1955.CURGT. above) by French Post-Impressionist painter Paul Gauguin reputedly sold for around $300 m (£197 m) in Feb 2015. Number 17A (1948). It fetched $9.ART SALES Most GZRGPUKXG RCKPVKPID[ CǡNKXKPICTVKUV (NCI  QPGQHC series of paintings on VJKUVJGOGD[75ǡCTVKUV . on 12 Nov 2014 raised $852.000 (£598. /QUVGZRGPUKXGOQQPUECRGRCKPVKPI Now a best-selling artist. see below. For the most expensive painting sold at a private sale. For decade tmuseum to the Kuns was on loan d. b. driving the Campbell-Railton Blue Bird.3 m). /QUVOQPG[OCFGCV CWEVKQPD[CUKPINGCTVKUV Damien Hirst (UK) made £111 m ($200.3 m (£115 m). chose to remain anonymous.887. TRIVIA Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona Lisa once hung in the bedroom of French emperor Napoleon.62 km/h) at Bonneville in Utah. NLD). Roy Lichtenstein.

Below. Half-length. sold for $42. Portrait de Paulette Jourdain (1919). As the precise prices for private sales are not often made public.400) on 9 Dec 2009 at Christie’s in London. 5EWNRVWTGD[4QFKP A cast of the French sculptor’s work The Thinker realized $15. by the Renaissance artist Raphael (ITA). on 4 Nov 2015 from the sale of 69 artworks once owned by a billionaire real-estate developer. the value of their work can rise to dizzy heights.GHH -QQPU 75#TKIJV  ŤUQNFCV%JTKUVKGŨUKP 0GY. UK. UK. UK.1 m ($3 m).8 m (£27. by Amedeo Modigliani (ITA).5 m) at Christie’s in London. It is believed that Munch made 11 copies of the print altogether. But once they die. all values are approximate. stainlessUVGGNUEWNRVWTGD[. the print Young Woman on the Beach (1896) by Edvard Munch (NOR) sold for £2.7 m). we list the 10 most expensive paintings ever sold privately. USA. TITLE / DATE PAINTED ARTIST PRICE ǡO cǡO DATE SOLD =1 0CHGC(CC+RQKRQ  2CWN)CWIWKP (4# =1 +PVGTEJCPIG  .7 m) at Sotheby’s in New York City. $377 m (£264.FAST FACTS For 46 days in 1961. the Olympic Games included art competitions 2TKXCVGEQNNGEVKQP QHǡRCKPVKPIU In all. New York’s Museum of Modern Art hung Henri Matisse’s work Le Bateau upside down by mistake • Alan Bean has used real dust from the Moon in his paintings • From 1912 to 1948. With His Arms Akimbo (1658) sold by telephone to an anonymous bidder for £20 m ($28. Most GZRGPUKXG YQTMD[C NKXKPICTVKUV UQNFCV CWEVKQP $CNNQQP&QI 1TCPIG ŤCǡHVJKIJ O  orange-tinted. 2TKPV On 20 Mar 2013. at Christie’s on King Street in London.200.788. DID YO &TCYKPID[CP1NF/CUVGT Head of a Muse. on 8 Dec 2009. That’s three times the presale estimate of £700. sold for £29. on 7 May 2013. MOST EXPENSIVE PAINTINGS SOLD PRIVATELY Few artists make a fortune during their lifetime.3 m (£10.4 m) was raised at Sotheby’s in New York City. USA.000 ($1 m).000 ($47.QTM%KV[75#QP ǡ0QXHQTǡO cǡO 6JGUCNGYCU OCFGVQCPCPQP[OQWU VGNGRJQPGDKFFGT+VKU QPGQHƒXGū$CNNQQP &QIŬUEWNRVWTGUGCEJC FKHHGTGPVEQNQWTETGCVGF D[-QQPUKPVJGU 2CKPVKPID[4GODTCPFV Portrait of a Man.

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8 sec in Edinburgh. scene i of Hamlet. but in 2010 the 76-year-old Siân Phillips (UK) was cast in the role at the Bristol Old Vic. Hamlet speculates about whether it is better to endure life’s hardships stoically or to end them by killing oneself – although he fears that the“undiscover’d country” beyond death may hold supernatural terrors of its own. UK. The monologue. on 3 Jul. UK. FASTEST RECITAL OF HAMLET’S SOLILOQUY DATELINE Sean Shannon (CAN) recited Hamlet’s 260-word soliloquy “To be or not to be” in 23. near Essendine in Rutland. 1938 176 Arts & Media Fastest steam locomotive The London and North Eastern Railway “Class A4” No. a production of Othello that opened on Broadway in Oct 1943 ran for 296 performances.CIICTFCPF 'FYCTF$NQWPVKP1PG QHQPN[ƒXGEQRKGUQHVJGYQTM UQNFCV%JTKUVKGŨUKP0GY. the part is the capstone of a long career. This makes her the oldest professional actor to play Juliet. Juliet is played by a young actress who is older than 13. reflects on death. UK. Romeo’s friend Mercutio is given 43 lines to say on the subject of dreams in Act I. PDNLQJKLPWKHͤUVW$IULFDQ American actor to play Othello on Broadway. Youngest professional actor to play King Lear Shakespeare’s King Lear is an old man who gives up his kingdom to two of his daughters and disowns the other. RTKPVGFD[+UCCE.QPFQPŨU9GUV'PFVJGCVTGUKP JKUQYPTKIJV*QYGXGTVJG4GFWEGF5JCMGURGCTG%QORCP[ŨUVQPIWGKPEJGGMRTQFWEVKQP 6JGǡ%QORNGVG9QTMUQH9KNNKCO5JCMGURGCTG #DTKFIGF PQVEJGFWRRGTHQTOCPEGU HTQOKVUQRGPKPIPKIJVQPǡ/CTWPVKNKVENQUGFQPǡ#RT Best-selling playwright The plays and poetry of England’s William Shakespeare (1564–1616) are believed to have sold in excess of 4 billion copies in the 400 years since his death. 4468 Mallard reaches a speed of 125 mph (201 km/h) at Stoke Bank. on 30 Aug 1995 – a rate of 655 words per minute. she is just 13 years old when she meets Romeo. For most actors.QTM %KV[75#QP1EVHQT  c Ť VJGǡJKIJGUVRTKEGGXGTRCKF HQTǡCVJEGPVWT[DQQM . Longest-running 5JCMGURGCTGQPǡ$TQCFYC[ Directed by Margaret Webster. scene iv (lines 57–99). The play starred Paul Robeson in the title role.QPIGUVTWPPKPI5JCMGURGCTGUJQYKPVJG9GUV'PF 5WTRTKUKPIN[9KNNKCO5JCMGURGCTGJCUPGXGTOCFGKVDKIKP. but UK actor Nonso #PQ\KG Dǡ/C[ RNC[GFVJGRCTVKPCRTQFWEVKQPHQTVJG 4Q[CN5JCMGURGCTG%QORCP[KPYJGPJGYCUQPN[ Longest speech in Cǡ5JCMGURGCTGRNC[ In Romeo and Juliet. Usually. Most expensive literature by Shakespeare UQNFCVCWEVKQP The earliest collected edition QH5JCMGURGCTGŨURNC[UKU known as the “First Folio”. from Act III.SHAKESPEARE . In the play.

By 160 however. (KTUVFQEWOGPVGFTGHGTGPEG VQǡCǡ5JCMGURGCTGRNC[ DID YO U KNOW Built in ? 1587. Christop her Marl and Sha owe kespeare . Highest-grossing 5JCMGURGCTGOQXKG William Shakespeare’s Romeo + Juliet (USA. the BBC’s serial of Shakespeare’s history plays. Th e Rose (b was the elow) fifth purp playhou o se-built se in Lon don. The big-budget.600) on general release between 1 Nov 1996 and 14 Feb 1997.WFK&GPEJ 7- JCFYQPGKIJV1NKXKGT #YCTFU*GTNCVGUVYKPECOGHQT$GUV#EVTGUUKPC5WRRQTVKPI 4QNGHQTJGTRQTVTC[CNQH2CWNKPCKP5JCMGURGCTGŨU6JGǡ9KPVGTŨU 6CNG CDQXG 5JGJCUCNUQYQP1NKXKGT#YCTFUHQT appearances in /CEDGVJ  CPF#PVQP[CPF%NGQRCVTC   TRIVIA In 1890. from Peenemünde on the country’s Baltic coast. and The Hollow Crown (2012). The V-2 climbs to an altitude of 50 mi (80.CWTGPEG1NKXKGT#YCTFU YQPǡD[CPKPFKXKFWCN #UQHǡ#RT&COG. making him the PRVW̨OPHG author. 5. These include 106 versions of Hamlet. Most lines by one character in a Shakespeare play *CONGVFGNKXGTUNKPGUQHTWOKPCVKQPQPOQTVCNKV[CPF VJGJWOCPEQPFKVKQP5GGPCDQXGKU&CXKF6GPPCPV 7- YJQ RNC[GFVJGRCTVKPCŤRTQFWEVKQP#VǡNKPGUCPF ǡYQTFU*CONGV is the longest Shakespeare play. although traditionally it is regarded as 23 Apr 1564 – St George’s Day • Shakespeare’s name is spelled differently in each of the six surviving versions of his signature /QUV. 2015). as of Feb 2016. directed by Baz Luhrmann (AUS). 1942 guinnessworldrecords.QPFQP7-6JCVUCOG[GCT RNC[YTKIJV4QDGTV)TGGPGSWQVGFCNKPGHTQO one of the *GPT[8+RNC[UKPCRCORJNGVCPF Thomas Nashe wrote about a performance TGNCVKPIVQVJGUQNFKGT. took $147. starring Michael Fassbender and Marion Cotillard.542. The most recent adaptations LQFOXGHWKHIHDWXUHͤOPV Macbeth (UK/FRA/USA. 2015). 1996).030. high-octane adaptation starred Leonardo DiCaprio and Claire Danes as the “star-cross’d lovers”. 98 versions of Macbeth and 64 versions of Romeo and Juliet. (CUVGUVVKOGVQYCVEJ GXGT[ǡ5JCMGURGCTGRNC[ It took Dan Wilson (UK) just 328 days – between 27 Nov 2014 and 21 Oct 2015 – to see live performances of all 37 of Shakespeare’s plays. It st works b aged y some o f th e Elizabe era’s best than -known playwri such as ghts. . it was n o longer a workin g theatr e. Alas. which stages 14 deaths – including decapitations and suicides – alongside cannibalism.4 km) above Earth’s surface.FAST FACTS No one knows Shakespeare’s date of birth. Shakespeare has 1. Germany’s V-2 rocket has its third and most successful test launch to date. the starlings he released had a devastating effect on native birds and are widely seen as a menace.381 (£91. The goriest of his works is Titus Andronicus.121 ZULWLQJFUHGLWVRQͤOPDQG TV productions.com 177 DATELINE /QUVFGCVJUKP Cǡ5JCMGURGCTGRNC[ The Bard wrote 74 death scenes in his plays. Shakespeare fanatic Eugene Schieffelin began to try to introduce all the bird species mentioned in the Bard’s plays into North America. 6JGTGCTGPQTGEQTFUQHYJGPCP[QH5JCMGURGCTGŨUYQTMU YGTGƒTUVRGTHQTOGFDWVJKUVJTGG*GPT[ǡ8+RNC[UYGTG EGTVCKPN[VJGƒTUVVQDGYTKVVGPCDQWV1P/CT ūJCTGLVJGXKŬYCUUVCIGFCV6JG4QUGCRNC[JQWUG KP5QWVJYCTM. and Romeo and Juliet in Harlem (USA.QJP6CNDQVCOCKP EJCTCEVGTKPVJGƒTUVQHVJG*GPT[ǡ8+VTKNQI[ There is much debate about the CWVJGPVKEKV[QH5JCMGURGCTGŨURQTVTCKVU +VǡKUǡYKFGN[DGNKGXGFJQYGXGTVJCVVJG ū%JCPFQURQTVTCKVŬ DGNQY YJKEJFCVGU HTQOǡEǡŤYCURCKPVGFHTQONKHG First man-made object in space On 3 Oct.

Scottish DJ Calvin Harris (b. • Most streamed track in one week: “What Do You Mean?” by Justin Bieber (CAN) was streamed 30. In Mar 2015.KPǡQPG[GCT According to Forbes. shifting 2. making it the fastest-selling album on iTunes. according to Billboard. it was DͤUVWSUHVVLQJ of The Beatles’ 1968 charttopper.75 million times. • Most streams in one year: In 2015. The Grammynominated single topped charts in 19 countries. on 5 Dec 2015. with annual earnings of $146 m (£94.723.000 copies of 25 had been downloaded on Apple’s iTunes store. her third LP.000 GRZQORDGVLQLWVͤUVW week of release. (KTUVOCNGCTVKUVVQCEJKGXG VJTGGǡOKNNKQPUGNNKPIUKPINGU Three singles that feature Bruno Mars (USA. Best-selling FQYPNQCFUKPING KPǡVJG75#KPQPGǡYGGM “Hello” by Adele (UK.12 m) in the 12 months to 1 Jun 2015. They are the highestpaid celebrity couple.8 billion streams from 46 million listeners.000 (£522. more than 900. • Most streamed album in one week: Justin Bieber’s chart-topping album 2WTRQUG was streamed 205 million times on Spotify worldwide in the week after its release on 13 Nov 2015.MUSIC /QUV EQOOGPVUQP C9GKDQRQUV 9JGPRQRUVCT. Canadian rapper Drake (b. And on 30 Nov 2015. 25. Harris began dating US singer Taylor Swift. California. the fastest time for an album to sell 1 million copies in the UK.1 in). Peter Hernandez) have all sold in excess ofǡOKNNKQPEQRKGU worldwide: “Just the Way You Are” (2010). Released in 2015. /QUVGZRGPUKXGXKP[N TGEQTFUQNFCVCWEVKQP A mono copy of 6JGǡ$GCVNGU(aka the 9JKVG#NDWO) sold by ex-band member Ringo Starr (UK) fetched $790.W*CP %*0  RQUVGFCXKFGQCDQWVJKU HCXQWTKVGUQEEGTVGCO Manchester United.386 US tons). Only 24 hr after its release. an overall length of 263 m (863 ft).111 tonnes (78. Numbered 0000001. QP5GRNKVVNG EQWNFJGJCXGRTGFKEVGF the reaction it would URCTM$[ǡ#RT VJGRQUVJCFTGEGKXGF EQOOGPVU on the Weibo social PGVYQTM *KIJGUVRCKF&.WJCP CMC. b. as announced by Forbes in Jun 2015. b. it reached the million-selling mark on the UK albums chart.438) at Julien’s Auctions in Los Angeles. USA. . “Grenade” (2010) CPFū7RVQYP(WPMБŬ   SPOTIFY • Most streamed track in 24 hours: On 31 Jul 2015.000 units in four days from its release on 20 Nov.112. from 23 Oct to 29 Oct 2015.7 m (127 ft) and a full-load draught of 10. a beam of 38. Adam Wiles) earned $66 m (£43. THE RETURN OF ADELE DATELINE In 2011. Adele became the first female to have the biggest-selling album and single in the USA and UK in the same year.8 m (35 ft 5. Aubrey Drake Graham) attracted 1. Best-selling FKIKVCNǡUKPING “Call Me Maybe” by Carly Rae Jepsen (CAN) has sold an estimated 18 million copies worldwide since its release in 2011. Adele Adkins) had approximately 1.433. “Drag Me Down” by One Direction (UK/IRL) was streamed 4. 1942 178 Arts & Media Largest battleship The Japanese battleships Yamato and Musashi have a full-load displacement of 71.708 times between 28 Aug and 3 Sep 2015.2 m). soon became the fastest-selling pop album in the USA.

measures 2.KGŬUVCTYCUVJGƒTUV person on Facebook VQCVVTCEVǡOKNNKQP likes QPǡ. which was uploaded to YouTube on 22 Oct 2015. It was the 18th YouTube video to attract 1 billion views since 21 Dec 2012.6 x 0.QW6WDG Adele’s “Hello”. b.9 x 24 m (8 ft 6 in x 2 ft 11 in x 78 ft 9 in) and is used to calculate artillery trajectories. reached 1 billion views a mere 88 days later on 18 Jan 2016.ǡOcǡO  #HVGT2GTT[VJGJKIJGUVGCTPKPIOWUKEKCPUQP(QTDGUŨTKEJNKUVYGTG1PGǡ&KTGEVKQP 0Q ǡOcǡO EQWPVT[UKPIGT)CTVJ$TQQMU 75#0QǡOcǡO CPF6C[NQT5YKHV 0QǡOcǡO  First general-purpose electronic computer The US Army’s Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer (ENIAC) machine is built.WN  CPFKUVJGUGEQPFOQUV RQRWNCTEGNGDTKV[QPVJG UQEKCNOGFKCPGVYQTM DGJKPFUQEEGTRNC[GT %TKUVKCPQ4QPCNFQ YKVJ NKMGU  *KIJGUVCPPWCNGCTPKPIUGXGTHQTCHGOCNGRQRUVCT -CV[2GTT[GCTPGFǡO cǡO KPVJGǡOQPVJUVQ. It weighs 27 tonnes (59. by %CPCFKCP4$OWUKEKCP6JG9GGMPF D#DGN6GUHC[G YCUVJG OQUVUVTGCOGFCNDWOQP5RQVKH[DGVYGGPǡ&GECPFǡ&GE +VCVVTCEVGFCVQVCNQHǡOKNNKQPNKUVGPGTUKP • Most streams in one year (female): Rihanna’s (BRB.com 179 DATELINE /QUVUVTGCOGFCNDWO QP5RQVKH[KPQPG[GCT /QUVNKMGF HGOCNGQP (CEGDQQM (CUVGUVVKOGHQTCXKFGQ VQTGCEJǡDKNNKQPXKGYU QPǡ.525 lb).T 75#ǡOcǡO CPF/CPP[2CESWKCQ 2*. when PSY’s (KOR) “Gangnam Style” became the ̨UVWYLGHRWRUHFHLYH ELOOLRQYLHZV (after a period of 159 days). Robyn Rihanna Fenty) songs were streamed more than 1 billion times in 2015. superstar DJ Calvin Harris became the new “face” of Giorgio Armani underwear • At its peak.WPǡCEEQTFKPIVQ(QTDGU6JG UKPIGTYCUTCPMGFVJKTFQPVJGNKUVQHVJGū9QTNFŨU*KIJGUV2CKF%GNGDTKVKGUŬDGJKPFDQZGTU(NQ[F /C[YGCVJGT. Portuguese.Dǡ5JCMKTC+UCDGN /GDCTCM4KRQNN JCFDGGP NKMGFD[ HCPUCUQHǡ#RT 6JGū*KRU&QPŨV . 1946 guinnessworldrecords.FAST FACTS Shakira speaks Spanish. ́0RVWYLHZHGPXVLFFKDQQHO RQ<RX7XEH LQGLYLGXDO. • Most streamed act: Singer Ed Sheeran’s (UK) tracks had been streamed more than 3 billion times on Spotify as of 1 Dec 2015. Adele’s 25 was selling more than double the rest of Billboard’s top 100 YOUTUBE & VEVO 4GNGCUGFQPǡ#WIBeauty Behind the Madness.WUVKP Bieber (@justinbieber) – the most followers on Twitter (male)ŤCPFǡ6C[NQT5YKHV "VC[NQTUYKHV YKVJ CPFǡHQNNQYGTUTGURGEVKXGN[#UQHVJGUCOGFCVG 1PGǡ&KTGEVKQP "QPGFKTGEVKQP TGOCKPGFVJGmost popular OWUKEITQWRQPǡ6YKVVGTYKVJHQNNQYGTU 6JG(CEGDQQMRCIG QHUKPIGT5JCMKTC %1. /QUVHQNNQYGTUQP6YKVVGT #UQHǡ#RT-CV[2GTT[ 75#D-CVJGT[P*WFUQP "MCV[RGTT[ JCFCPCWFKGPEGQHQP6YKVVGT +PǡUGEQPFCPFVJKTFRNCEGUYGTGHGNNQYRQRUVCTU. Italian and English • In 2015.

the day after his death at the age of 69.: JustinBieberVEVO had 10. ́0RVWYLHZVIRUDQDFW on VEVO in 24 hours: Recordings by David Bowie (UK. David Jones) attracted 51 million views on the video-hosting platform VEVO on 11 Jan 2016.651. for the 120 videos uploaded to the channel since 25 Sep 2009. .389 views logged by 19 Apr 2016. b.478.

no act had held the top three positions in the same week until Justin Bieber (CAN) did so with “Love Yourself” (No. The Shad DATELINE Elvis Presle on and s. ously on th simultane ed down ck lo had But nobody Justin un Top 3 til the entire along.2 o.CPCPF ǡ#RT4QPUQPKUUJQYPCDQXG HCTNGHV CNQPIYKVJ/CTU (third from left) and his backing band The Hooligans. The highest placed was “Sorry”. Robyn Rihanna )HQW\. Of these. John Lenn The Beatle wood ly ol s to H Frankie Goe 1 and No.QPGU RNCEGFCNDWOU KPVJG6QRǡ6JGITQWPFDTGCMKPIOWUKEKCPYJQ UWEEWODGFVQECPEGTQPǡ.000 units.2) and “What Do You Mean?” (No. at No.1). In Jul 2015.1 on Billboard ’s Digital Songs chart. “Low” by Flo Rida (right) featuring T-Pain (both 75# CEJKGXGFVJGHGCVDGVYGGPǡ&GECPFǡ/CT ū7RVQYP(WPMБŬD[/CTM4QPUQP 7- HGCVWTKPI$TWPQ/CTU 75#  OCVEJGFVJCVTGEQTFKPVJTGGUGRCTCVGTWPUDGVYGGPǡ.CPQYPGFCSWCTVGT QHVJG7-6QRǡ*KUVJUVWFKQCNDWOBlackstar FGDWVGFCV0QYKVJUCNGUQHŤGPQWIJVQIKXG ū6JG6JKP9JKVG&WMGŬCVJEJCTVVQRRGTKPVJG7- (KTUVCEVYKVJOKNNKQP 4+##UKPINGEGTVKƒECVKQPU The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) issues gold records for sales of 500. b.MUSIC Most weeks at No. N ed pi cu have all oc e UK chart. the RIAA announced that Rihanna (BRB. e m ca er Bieb 1947 180 Arts & Media /QUVUKOWNVCPGQWUGPVTKGU QPǡVJG7-CNDWOUEJCTV 1PVJG1HƒEKCN#NDWOU%JCTVFCVGFǡ. Bieber had 17 tracks. the most simultaneous tracks on the US singles chart. “Sorry” (No. 13 tracks were new entries. FIRST ACT TO HOLD ALL TOP 3 PLACES  ON THE UK SINGLES CHART In the 65 years of the UK’s Official Singles Chart (1952– present). On the Billboard Hot 100 dated 5 Dec 2015. the most simultaneous new entries in the Hot 100 by a solo act. DID YOU ow y.1 on the 75ǡ&KIKVCN5QPIUEJCTV Two singles have spent a total of 13 weeks at No.CP &CXKF$QYKG 7-D&CXKF. KNOW?s.3) on the chart dated 14 Jan 2016. SODWLQXPUHFRUGVUHͥHFW sales of 1 million units.2.

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better known as the “Spruce Goose”.51 m) and is 218 ft 8 in (66. . USA. packed 100 songs. . makes its first – and only – flight. CHARTS . open-air Donauinselfest (“Danube Island Festival”) drew 3. all a little over 30 sec long. 1 Mar 1994) was 21 years 202 days old when “What Do You Mean?” debuted at No.3 million revellers to Vienna on 26–28 Jun 2015.1 on the Billboard +RWRQ6HS Most Billboard*QV GPVTKGUD[ǡCUQNQCTVKUV $VRI$SU86 rapper Lil Wayne had placed 129 different songs on the Billboard Hot 100. The band made the eclectic album to protest against the small royalties offered by the digital music industry for tracks longer than 30 sec. on to their Dec 2015 album 100x30. This colossal flying boat has a wing-span of 319 ft 11 in (97. His debut was “Back that 7KDQJ8S̹ in 1999.QWPIGUVOCNGUQNQCTVKUV VQFGDWVCV0QQP VJGǡBillboard*QV Justin Bieber (b.CTIGUVCVVGPFCPEGCVC OWUKEHGUVKXCN QPGNQECVKQP Austria’s free. Largest aircraft On 2 Nov. off the coast of California. the Hughes H-4 Hercules.65 m) long.

FAST FACTS David Bowie’s left pupil became permanently dilated following a fight during his schooldays • Rihanna is a mezzo-soprano. with a three-octave vocal range • It took Mark Ronson 82 takes to nail his guitar part for “Uptown Funk!” /QUVEQPUGEWVKXGYGGMUKP VJG7-6QR QPGUKPING (G6KHHUDQ̵V 8.

“This is purely about pushing our CTVCPFJCXKPIUQOGHWPŬ /%5JQVVCVQNFYGDUKVG 7-(ū#PKOCNŬRTGOKGTGF QPǡ$$%4CFKQ:VTCQP ǡ. b. The historic run comprised three singles: “Earned It” (7 Mar to 4 Jul 2015). It emits a 138-decibel wail that can be heard up to 25 mi (40 km) away. designed to warn the public in case of a nuclear attack. “Rap God” debuted CV0QQPVJG7-UKPINGU EJCTVQPǡ1EVCPF 0QQPVJG75Billboard *QVǡQPǡ0QX +PURKTGFD[ū4CR)QFŬ ū#PKOCNŬD[VJG*CTT[ 5JQVVC5JQY 7- EQPVCKPU ǡYQTFUKPǡOKPǡUGE QTYQTFURGTUGEŤVJG most words in a single. Abel Tesfaye) spent 45 weeks in the Top 10 of Billboard’s Hot 100 between 7 Mar 2015 and 9 Jan 2016 – the longest ever Top 10 streak by a solo male.1 on BillboardŨUǡ#TVKUVEJCTV /QUVYQTFU KPǡCJKVUKPING #UQHǡ#RT6C[NQT5YKHV 75# JCFVQRRGFBillboard ’s #TVKUVǡEJCTVHQTCTGEQTFDTGCMKPIVQVCNQHYGGMU 6JCVŨUǡYGGMUOQTGVJCPVJGUGEQPFOQUVUWEEGUUHWNCEV QPVJGEQWPVFQYP.̵V2ͦFLDO6LQJOHV&KDUW on 5 Jul 2014 and spent its 54th consecutive week in the Top 40 on 11 Jul 2015. New Y ich appe ork. wh d. “Can’t Feel My Face” (11 Jul to 14 Nov 2015) and “The Hills” (1 Aug and 29 Aug 2015 to 9 Jan 2016).̸7KLQNLQJ Out Loud” debuted on the 8. Most weeks at No.WUVKP$KGDGT %#0 5YKHVŨUFQOKPCPEG QHǡVJGHNGFINKPIEJCTVKPENWFGFǡUWEEGUUKXGYGGMUCVVJG VQRǡHTQOǡǡ0QXVQǡ. 1952 guinnessworldrecords. but sh r e d idn’t act wreck th ually e Shelby AC Cobra that she car attacks with a golf clu b.WP /QUVUWEEGUUKXGYGGMU KPVJG7-6QRǡ HQTǡCǡFGDWVCNDWO 1PVJG1HƒEKCN#NDWOU%JCTVHQTǡ5GR In the Lonely Hour  D[ 5COǡ5OKVJ 7- URGPVCVJUVTCKIJV YGGMKPVJG6QR+VU7-UCNGU GZEGGFOKNNKQPEQRKGU Loudest siren In March. /QUVXKGYGF OWUKEXKFGQ QPNKPG HGOCNG  Taylor Swift’s (USA) ū$NCPM5RCEGŬJCFTCEMGF up a viewer count of QPVJG video-hosting platform 8'81CUQHǡ#RT DID Y OU KNO The “Bla W? nk Space ” video w in two d as shot ays. American car maker Chrysler begins making a V8-engined air-raid siren. really did Swift stand on a white the vide horse fo o. .com 181 DATELINE /QUVEQPUGEWVKXGYGGMU KPǡVJG6QRQHVJG Billboardǡ*QVǡ OCNG The Weeknd (CAN. a rs in the 1941 mo classic vie Citiz en Kane.CP ū4CR)QFŬD['OKPGO 75# RCEMUYQTFU KPVQǡOKPǡUGEŤCXGTCIKPI ǡYQTFURGTUGEБ+PQPG UGEDWTUV'OKPGOURKVU QWVǡYQTFUŤǡYQTFU per sec. The ballad was No. most ly at Oh Castle in eka Long Isla n USA.1 for two weeks and spent 20 weeks inside the Top 10.

735.CTIGUV+/#:QRGPKPI On 3 Apr 2015. In his last three major films of this period – which include Avengers: Age of Ultron (USA. en ck th Mar 1941.918. on 29 May.com.005.WPǡVQ.4 m) worldwide over its threeday opening weekend of 12–14 Feb 2016.WP6JKUKPENWFGUJKUHGGHQTRNC[KPI Iron Man in the Avengers movie Age of Ultron KNOWy? DID YOU rb and Jack Ki Joe Simon ica. according to Forbes.848-m-high (29. Jennifer Lawrence was history’s most successful female action movie star. .1 m) by 13 Apr 2016. the global opening of (WTKQWUǡ (USA). 2014) – Evans grossed $181.79 bn) worldwide. who ptain Amer created Ca mic in co n ow s hi debuted in had a he . (WTKQWUǡ is also the highest-grossing car-chase movie.WP5JGKU VJGUGEQPFJKIJGUVGCTPKPICEVQTQPVJGNKUVUWTRCUUGFQPN[ D[4QDGTV&QYPG[.COGU$QPFƒNOSpectre (UK/USA.448 (£2.246.MOVIES /QUVXCNWCDNGXGJKENGUKPCOQXKGECTEJCUG +PQPGQHVJGEGPVTCNCEVKQPUGVRKGEGUQHVJGVJQHƒEKCN. .8 m) as of 18 Jun 2015.QPIGUVOQXKGVTCKNGT In Jul 2014.65) that he was paid. which will be released in 2020.987.76 bn) worldwide.687 (£537. .80 (£118) for every $1 (£0. 2016) grossed $260 m (£179.m. *KIJGUVQRGPKPIYGGMGPF ITQUUHQTCP4TCVGFƒNO Deadpool (USA. 2009) had grossed $2. TRIVIA British comedy actor Simon Pegg appears in two sci-fi institutions. The risqué superhero movie went on to become the highestgrossing R-rated movie ever. 1953 182 Arts & Media First ascent of Everest Edmund Percival Hillary (NZ) and Indo-Tibetan Tenzing Norgay reach the 8. 2015) and Captain America: The Winter Soldier (USA. played by en in 1944 the big scre k-andac bl a  l. on d un familiar ro . making $758. and Unkar Plutt (below) in the latest Star Wars episode. *KIJGUVDQZQHƒEG ƒNOǡITQUU As of 22 Sep 2015. saw screenings in a total of 810 IMAX locations. no other Hollywood actor has returned more profit relative to what they were paid than Captain America star Chris Evans (USA).T 75# YJQGCTPGFǡO cǡO  HTQO. *KIJGUVITQUUKPIHGOCNG CEVKQPOQXKGUVCT As of 8 Feb 2016.CIWCT%:ŤCPQVJGTURGEKCNN[ RTQFWEGFUWRGTECTYKVJCPGUVKOCVGFXCNWGQHǡO c 1XGTCNNVJGǡVYQǡXGJKENGU WUGFǡKPǡVJGEJCUGTGRTGUGPVCVQVCNOCTMGVXCNWGQHǡO cǡO  *KIJGUVCPPWCNGCTPKPIU HQTCƒNOCEVTGUUCPFCEVQT According to the Forbes list of the “World’s Highest-Paid Celebrities”. Ba an the th er shield rath triangular p first hit Ca e. the Hunger Games series (in which she plays Katniss Everdeen) and her two X-Men movies (in which she plays Raven/Mystique) have grossed $4. According to The-Numbers. Hunger Games star Jennifer Lawrence (USA) took JQOGǡO cǡO HQTVJG[GCTGPFKPIǡ. WKHVHYHQWKͤOPLQWKHFast & Furious franchise. according to The-Numbers. MOST PROFITABLE ACTOR FOR A HOLLYWOOD STUDIO (CURRENT) DATELINE In the year up to Jun 2015.982 (£1.com.029-ft) summit of the world’s highest mountain at 11:30 a.709 (£965. He plays Montgomery “Scotty” Scott (above) in the Star Trek franchise. Avatar (US/UK. The previous record of 760 IMAX screens was set in Nov 2014 by Interstellar (USA). Anders Weberg (SWE) unveiled a 72-min trailer for his forthcoming KUͤOPAmbiancé. With a global gross of $1.516.  $QPF RNC[GFD[&CPKGN%TCKI FTKXGUVJTQWIJVJGUVTGGVUQH4QOGCVURGGFUQHWRVQ ǡORJ ǡMOJ KPCRTQVQV[RG#UVQP/CTVKP&$6JKUPQPRTQFWEVKQPOQFGNQHYJKEJ QPN[ǡYGTGOCFGŤCNNGZENWUKXGN[HQTVJKUƒNOŤKUXCNWGFCVO cǡO $QPFKURWTUWGF D[VJGXKNNCKP/T*KPZ RNC[GFD[&CXG$CWVKUVC YJQFTKXGUC. in Dick Purcel h it w – white serial no shield.783.

As Mr White. It grossed $1.4 sec.000-strong crowd at Oxford University. and Moore made his debut in Live and Let Die (UK. 2012).83285.224 U S gal) of k e ro with 33 k sene g (72 lb 12  oz) of powder  explosiv es. &Tǡ0Q (UK.FAST FACTS Daniel Craig has starred in the three longest Bond films: Casino Royale (2006). in the Internet Movie Database. however. As of 4 Dec 2015. Spectre outruns all other movies in the Bond franchise. Jesper Christensen (DNK) has made the most appearances as a Bond YLOODLQ.4 US nes tons) of TNT equ were ign ivalent ited for the scen Erfoud. . with 007 outings each. 1954 guinnessworldrecords. Spectre’s basic production budget has been estimated at $245 m (£169 m). he appears in Casino Royale (2006). . 1962). Quantum of Solace and Spectre. many people had believed that this feat was impossible. Craig is seen on-screen wearing clothes and CEEGUUQTKGUYKVJCVQVCNTGVCKNXCNWGQHCVNGCUV c  OCMKPIJKU$QPFVJGOQUVGZRGPUKXGN[FTGUUGFOQXKGEJCTCEVGT #EEQTFKPIVQKPHQTOCVKQPRTQXKFGFD[)CT[2QYGNNEJKGHUVWPV coordinator on SpectreXGJKENGUYQTVJǡO cǡO YGTG FGOQNKUJGFFWTKPIVJGOCMKPIQHVJGƒNOVJGJKIJGUVXCNWGQH XGJKENGUFGUVTQ[GFKPVJGOCMKPIQHCOQXKG6JKUƒIWTGKPENWFGU UGXGPQHVJG#UVQP/CTVKP&$RTQVQV[RGUETGCVGFHQTVJGƒNO Sam Smith’s (UK) “Writing’s on the Wall”.QPIGUV.com 183 DATELINE U KNOW Spectre a lso featu ? red the film stu largest nt explo si on (pictu A total y red). 1973).9 million actors and actresses. The shortest %RQG̨OP is Quantum of Solace (2008) at 106 min. ield of 6 8. Connery DSSHDUHGLQWKHͤUVW%RQG movie. Spectre isn’t the highest-grossing Bond movie.47 ton (75. in front of a 3. Skyfall (2012) and Spectre (2015) • Robert Downey Jr’s Iron Man suit has around 450 parts • The Force Awakens is the first Star Wars movie not released in May .981 (£743. That honour goes to Skyfall (UK/ USA. who has the lowest score of 2. Up to this point. the most connected living movie star – that is. the person at the “Centre of the Hollywood Universe” – is Eric Roberts (USA). taken from Spectre. The record for the most appearances as James Bond is shared by Sean Connery and Roger Moore (both UK). &TGUUGFVQMKNN$QPFCPFSpectre &CPKGN%TCKIKUVJGJKIJGUVRCKFCEVQTVQJCXGRNC[GF.CTIGUVDQZQHƒEGYGGMGPF /QUVXKUWCNGHHGEVUUJQVUKPCƒNO As well as being the HCUVGUVOQXKGVQITQUUǡOKNNKQPCV VJGFQOGUVKEDQZQHƒEG UGGR VJGUGXGPVJStar Wars instalment The Force Awakens 75# GPLQ[GFVJGDKIIGUV FQOGUVKEYGGMGPFŤCPFQRGPKPIYGGMGPFŤQPKVUNCWPEJQXGT VJGYGGMGPFQHŤǡ&GEITQUUKPIǡO cǡO  6JGPWODGTQHFKIKVCNXKUWCNGHHGEVU 8(: UJQVUKPDNQEMDWUVGTOQXKGUEQPVKPWGUVQOWNVKRN[ +PVJKUTGURGEV+PFKCŨUƒNOKPFWUVT[JCUTCEGFCJGCFQH*QNN[YQQFKPTGEGPV[GCTU'HHGEVU UWRGTXKUQTUHQT5ǡ54CLCOQWNKŨUOGFKGXCNHCPVCU[GRKEBaahubali: The Beginning +0&  EQPƒTOVJCVVJGƒNOEQPVCKPUCTQWPFUGRCTCVG8(:UJQVU6JG[YGTGETGCVGFD[OQTG VJCPǡ8(:UVCHHYQTMKPIHQTFKHHGTGPVGHHGEVUUVWFKQUCETQUUƒXGEQWPVTKGU /QUVEQPPGEVGFNKXKPICEVQT The University of Virginia’s (USA) “Oracle of Bacon” is software – named after American actor Kevin Bacon – that maps the working ties between 2.110. became the ƒTUV$QPFVJGOGVQTGCEJ0QKPVJG7-EJCTVwhen KVFGDWVGFCVVJGVQRQPǡ1EV DID YO First person to run a mile in under four minutes On 6 May.418  litres (2. UK. as well as 1.9 million movies/ TV shows.8 m). 25-year-old Roger Bannister (UK) runs one mile in 3 min 59. e in Morocco : th e result detonati of ng 8.COGU$QPFOQXKG At 148 min. making it the most expensive Bond movie.COGU $QPF*KUUCNCT[HQTRQTVTC[KPICIGPVKPSpectre is estimated VQJCXGVQVCNNGFǡO cǡO  In the movie.526.

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8 HIGHEST-GROSSING OPENING WEEKEND FOR AN ORIGINAL MOVIE Inside OutCDTCPFPGYūƒTUVŬHTQOVJG &KUPG[QYPGF2KZCT5VWFKQUITQUUGFC VQVCNQH c YJGPKV QRGPGFKPǡ75VJGCVTGUQPVJGYGGMGPF QHŤǡ. $[ǡ/CTVJGƒNOJCFITQUUGF  c CEEQTFKPI VQǡ6JG0WODGTUEQO .WP6JGRTGXKQWUTGEQTF JGNFD[ǡAvatar  JCFUVQQFHQTCNOQUV UKZ[GCTUInside OutYCUCNUQCJKVYKVJVJG ETKVKEUYKPPKPIVJG1UECTHQT$GUV#PKOCVGF (GCVWTGCVVJGǡEGTGOQP[ First artificial satellite in orbit On 4 Oct. and its im . in USA. It now form age s part of Disney’s logo. 1957 guinnessworldrecords. Cin Castle. tow ers a 189 ft (5 7. bo asts the castle in tallest a theme park. USSR.WP 6JKUOGCPUKVKUCNUQVJGJKIJGUV ITQUUKPI&KUPG[OQXKG+PCNGUUQHƒEKCN EQORNKOGPVFrozenJCFǡOKNNKQPKNNGICN FQYPNQCFUKPCEEQTFKPIVQ)GTOCP RKTCE[OQPKVQTKPIEQORCP['ZEKRKQOCMKPI KVǡVJGOQUVRKTCVGFCPKOCVGFOQXKGVJCV[GCT 7 MOST VES AWARDS WON BY AN ANIMATION $KI*GTQǡ  UVCTTKPIKPHNCVCDNGTQDQV $C[OCZCPFJKUJWOCPEQORCPKQP*KTQ TGEGKXGFƒXGCYCTFUCVVJG8KUWCN'HHGEVU 5QEKGV[#YCTFUEGTGOQP[QPǡ(GD 6QDWKNFVJGƒNOŨUITQWPFDTGCMKPIFKIKVCN YQTNF&KUPG[5VWFKQUCUUGODNGFCENWUVGT QHǡEQORWVGTUURNKVQXGTHQWTUGRCTCVG NQECVKQPUYJKEJEQWNFTWPǡTGPFGTKPI CPKOCVKQP LQDUKPǡJTŤVJGOQUV EQORWVKPIRQYGTWUGFKPOCMKPICOQXKG.5 6 7 5 DID YOU KNOW? Disney’s Magic K ingdom Florida. 8 6 HIGHEST-GROSSING COMPUTER ANIMATION #EEQTFKPIVQ6JG0WODGTUEQOFrozen  CPFKVUTGTGNGCUGCUCUKPICNQPI XGTUKQPJCFINQDCNDQZQHƒEGTGEGKRVUQH  c D[ǡ. 6  m inspired ) tall and by vario was us real ca château stles. Its lifetime is believed to be 92 days. Sputnik 1 is launched by an inter-continental ballistic missile from the Baikonur Cosmodrome at Tyuratam in Kazakhstan.com 185 DATELINE 5 HIGHEST-GROSSING PUPPET MOVIE &GDWVKPIQPVGNGXKUKQPKPVJGU-GTOKV VJG(TQI/KUU2KII[CPFVJGTGUVQHVJG /WRRGVUJCXGJCFCNQPICPFUWEEGUUHWN ECTGGT6JKUJCUKPENWFGFGKIJVVJGCVTKECN TGNGCUGUCPFVYQ68OQXKGU6JGOQUV UWEEGUUHWNVQFCVGKPVGTOUQHDQZQHƒEG UCNGUKUVJG&KUPG[TGXCORThe Muppets. x and pa laces in opened Europe in 1971. a derella s it’s kno magical wn.

had a net worth of $3. Jerry Seinfeld (USA) earned $36 m (£25.5 m (£18.KOO[(CNNQP 75#CDQXGTKIJV". USA). and launched6JGǡ8QKEGQH Holland. .1 m) in the year from Jun 2014 – as did Sofía Vergara (COL) of Modern Family (ABC. Forbes put John de Mol’s (NLD) net worth at $1. each dressed in their own style.38 million. Created by two LEGO fan designers. 1960 186 Arts & Media Richest TV creator The “Queen of all Media”. networks and streaming services broadcast a record 409 dramas. star of The Big Bang Theory (CBS.TV Highest-rated TV series (current) 5GCUQPQHETKOGFTCOCFargo (:75# CEJKGXGF CǡOGVCUEQTGQHQP/GVCETKVKE TGRTGUGPVKPI ūWPKXGTUCNCEENCKOŬ HTQOTGXKGYU#UQH ǡ#RTKVJCFCWUGTTCVKPIQH Most scripted TV shows released in one year According to TV channel FX (USA).57 m) between Jun 2014 and Jun 2015.1 bn (£2.03 bn). CURRENT (MALE AND FEMALE) DATELINE According to Forbes. the Big Bang Theory LEGO® set was launched to amuse fans of both the show and plastic brick-building. above left. The Big Bang Theory lead. USA).797 ft) in the Challenger Deep section of the Mariana Trench. earned around $28.49 bn (£1. right).KOO[(CNNQP  TRIVIA In 2015.4 m). primarily from giving live performances. @TheEllenShow) was the OQUVRQRWNCT68RGTUQPCNKV[QP6YKVVGTCUQHǡ#RT YKVJǡHQNNQYGTU6JGHQTOGTUVCPFWREQOGFKCP JCUǡJQUVGFThe Ellen DeGeneres ShowUKPEG #UQHVJGUCOGFCVGVJGmost followers on Twitter for a TV personality (male)YCUHQT . Kaley Cuoco (USA. comedies and limited series in 2015. Jim Parsons (USA. Deepest manned descent On 23 Jan. Meanwhile. It recreates Sheldon and Leonard’s living room in detail. earned an estimated $29 m (£18. Most followers on Twitter for a TV personality Ellen DeGeneres (USA. The show’s “Opening Night Excitation” episode (inset) scored Nielsen’s largest live+7 audience for a TV show: a total of 24. Oprah Winfrey (USA). which became the international hit 6JG8QKEG.15 bn) in the Forbes 400 list of Apr 2016. HIGHEST-EARNING TV STAR. De Mol took the reality TV concept global with Big Brother. making him the richest TV creator (male) as of Apr 2016. with minifigures of the seven characters. best known for the talk show she created and hosted in 1986–2011. but also from syndicating his eponymous TV comedy series. thought to be the deepest point on Earth. Dr Jacques Piccard (CHE) and Lt Donald Walsh (USA) pilot the Swiss-built US Navy bathyscaphe Trieste to a depth of 10.911 m (35. Highest-earning comedian (current) According to Forbes. the concept originated from LEGO’s Ideas crowdsourcing community. second right).

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DATELINE SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 1964 190 Science & Technology First civilian in space Konstantin Feoktistov (RUS) makes his sole space flight. he helps design the Sputnik satellites as well as the Vostok. on 12–13 Oct. . but is not a member of the military. As an engineer. Voskhod and Soyuz capsules. in Voskhod 1.

5 km/h) in Bonneville. Craig Breedlove (USA) achieves a new land-speed record of 600. Utah. on 15 Nov.CONTENTS SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY FACTOGRAPHIC 192 3D PRINTING 194 CONSUMER TECH 196 ROBOTS 198 SMALL STUFF 200 LASERS 202 CUTTING-EDGE SCIENCE 204 Largest robot snake First car to exceed 600 mph Driving the jet-powered Spirit of America Sonic I. 1965 guinnessworldrecords.6 mph (966.com 191 DATELINE $WKNVDGVYGGPCPFOKIJV[ū6KVCPQDQCŬKUǡHV ǡO  NQPIǡHV ǡEO YKFGCPFYGKIJUǡND ǡMI +VYCU OQFGNNGFCUCNKHGUK\GTGRNKECQHVJGGZVKPEVTitanoboaUPCMG VJCVGZKUVUKPHQUUKNGXKFGPEG6JGTQDQVUNKVJGTUCNQPICVǡMOJ ǡORJ RQYGTGFD[NKVJKWODCVVGTKGUVJCVFTKXGCJ[FTCWNKEU[UVGO IWKFGFD[GKIJVOKETQEQPVTQNNGTU+VJCUǡCNWOKPKWOXGTVGDTCG UNKEMūCNNVGTTCKPŬDGNN[UECNGUCPFJ[FTCWNKEQKNūDNQQFŬ%TGCVGF CVVJGGCV#46NCDKP8CPEQWXGT%CPCFCD[CVGCOQHUEKGPVKUVU GPIKPGGTUCTVKUVUCPFVGEJPKEKCPU6KVCPQDQCKUTGIWNCTN[FKURNC[GF CVFGUKIPHCKTUKP0QTVJ#OGTKEC KPUGV +VCNUQRTQOQVGUENKOCVG EJCPIGGXGPVUCPFECWUGUCFCPEGHNQQTUGPUCVKQPCVHGUVKXCNU . USA.

app downloads and super-sharp photos. Flipped open. Presuming him dead. commonly known as the bucardo. Jurassic Park (USA. They then implanted these into surrogate mothers (far right). Sadly. For some.CP4QDGTV9KNNKCOU 75# DGECOGVJG ƒTUVǡJWOCPMKNNGFD[CTQDQV when he was accidentally struck in the head by the arm of a production-line robot at a Ford Motor %QORCP[ECUVKPIRNCPVKP(NCV4QEM/KEJKICP75#6JGTQDQV belonged to a system that moved parts around the factory. Added to his previous four missions. Consistent with Albert Einstein’s theories of relativity. and is fasc roid D inated avid 8 Lawre by the nce of movie Arabia which (UK . DID Y Vs Vs • (#%6&WTKPIVJG#RQNNQOKUUKQP ǡ. by means of his time machine the TARDIS (6KOG#PFǡ4GNCVKXG&KOGPUKQP+P5RCEG). above right) was orbiting the Moon in command module Endeavour while fellow astronauts David Scott and James Irwin (both USA) were at the Hadley base on the Moon’s surface.WNǡ injected nuclei from these specimens into goat eggs. Ű(+%6+10The Terminator (USA. Padalka JCUURGPVFC[UDG[QPF'CTVJŨUCVOQURJGTGŤVJGNQPIGUVEWOWNCVKXGVKOGKPURCEG. 2001: A Space Odyssey 75#7- HGCVWTGU CXQKEGEQPVTQNNGFEQORWVGTŤ*#. they enabled personnel on alien RNCPGVUVQEQPVCEVǡVJGETGYQPDQCTFVJG5VCTUJKREnterprise. an 800-g (1-lb Q\ DGJGOQVJFWDDGFūVJG$TKEMŬ*KUƒTUVECNNYCUVQJKU TKXCN.ŤCPFCWVQOCVKEFQQTUCTGOGPVKQPGFKP*ǡ)ǡ9GNNUŨ PQXGNThe Sleeper Awakes  %JGEMQWVVJGUGQVJGTGZCORNGUQHHWVWTKUVKEEQPEGRVUCPF VGEJPQNQI[HTQOUEKƒEWNVWTGCPFUGGJQYENQUGYGŨXGEQOGVQOCMKPIVJGOCTGCNKV[ SCI-FI VS SCIENCE FACTOGRAPHIC . his fellow astronauts NGCXGVJGRNCPGV%CP9CVPG[ƒPFCYC[QHUKIPCNNKPIVJCV he is still alive and survive until he is rescued? ALONE IN SPACE Ű(#%6 The Pyrenean ibex (Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica). he died instantly. Ű(+%6+10The 1960s TV series of Star Trek featured mobile communicators. REVIVING EXTINCT SPECIES Ű(#%6%QUOQPCWV)GPPCF[2CFCNMC 475CDQXGTKIJV VQWEJGFFQYPQP5GR after a 168-day-long mission in space. an astronaut who is separated from his crew on Mars in a raging storm. Padalka has also genuinely travelled through time. near right) imagines a world in which scientists clone dinosaurs from prehistoric DNA. Ű(+%6+10 Based on the novel by Michael Crichton.CDU QP#RT 6QFC[OQDKNGRJQPGUUWEJCUVJGK2JQPGǡU CDQXGTKIJV OCMG long-distance communication on the go commonplace.QGN'PIGN JGCFQHTGUGCTEJCV$GNN. 2015).WNŤǡ#WI  Alfred M Worden (USA. Only seven of the animals became pregnant. 1 he watc 962). and from the past to the future. Matt Damon plays Mark Watney (above left). 1984) introduced a terrifying E[DQTIMKNNGTRNC[GFD[#TPQNF5EJYCT\GPGIIGT CDQXGǡNGHV  sent from the future to assassinate a woman who will QVJGTYKUGIKXGDKTVJVQCNGIGPFCT[HTGGFQOƒIJVGT KILLER ROBOTS Vs Vs OU KN In Pro methe OW? us. hes wh are in ile the hyper c r ew s le ep. He lines f quotes rom th e film adopts and ev the s en lead ac ame hairsty le as tor Pete r O’To ole. HAND-HELD COMMUNICATORS Vs Ű(#%61Pǡ. above) travels effortlessly through space. 1993. TIME TRAVEL 5EKGPEGƒEVKQPJCUCJCDKVQHRTGFKEVKPIUEKGPEGHCEV5RCEGVTCXGNKUVJGOCKPVJGOGQH. became extinct in 2000. 5EKGPVKUVURTGUGTXGFEGNNUHTQOVJGNCUVMPQYPURGEKGUCPFKP. On the far side of the Moon. the Doctor (played in his latest incarnation by British actor Peter Capaldi. 9QTFGPYCUǡMO ǡOK CYC[HTQOVJGPGCTGUV living person. along with online access. as his internal body clock will have slowed down marginally KPEQORCTKUQPVQENQEMUDCEMQP'CTVJ(TQOJKURGTURGEVKXGJGJCUǡTGVWTPGFVQ CPǡ'CTVJVJCVJCUOQXGFHQTYCTFKPVKOGD[CTQWPFǡUGE Ű(+%6+10 In Doctor Who. the 2-kg (4-lb 8-oz) baby goat lived for only a very short time. being separated from your companions might be CPWPUGVVNKPIRTQURGEVŤDWVPQV#N9QTFGPū(KTUVQHH[QW wish them luck: ‘I hope you land okay!’” he recounted to VJGǡ$$%ǡKPū6JGUGEQPFVJQWIJVKUŧ)GG+ŨOINCF VJG[ŨXGIQPGDGECWUG+ŨXGIQVVJKURNCEGCNNVQǡO[UGNHŨŬ Ű(+%6+10 In The Martian (USA. from which the DNA had been extracted. Hit in the head.WNGU 8GTPGŨUPQXGNFrom the Earth to the Moon (1865).Ű(#%6/CTVKP%QQRGT 75# QH/QVQTQNCYCUKPURKTGFD[UEKƒ comic books to invent the ƒTUVEGNNWNCTRJQPG. and of these only one gave birth. making him history’s OQUVKUQNCVGFJWOCP. +VǡDGICPTWPPKPIUNQYN[UQ9KNNKCOUTGRQTVGFN[ENKODGF inside to retrieve parts.

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What’s more surprising.3D PRINTING Most 3D-printed 3D printer It’s now possible to 3D-print everything from car parts to medical devices.4 kg (5 lb R]. is that you can even 3D-print a 3D printer. perhaps.1c printer was made using 2. The open-source RepRap Snappy 1.

Because these parts bend and stretch without breaking. engineers at UC Berkeley (USA) built a robotic cockroach using 3D-printed components. a team from the Washington Open Object Fabricators (WOOF) group entered the competition with a 3D-printed boat that was 2 m (6 ft 6. Medical researchers are always interested in pain-free alternatives to administering medicine. who – along with Adrian Bowyer (UK). comprising an array of needles that measures 1 mm (0. DATELINE (KTUV&RTKPVGFǡRKNNU In Jul 2015.QECN/QVQTU 75# YJQEQORNGVGFVJG ECTŨUǡFGVCKNGFǡFGUKIPYKVJJGNRHTQO1CM4KFIG0CVKQPCN. The plastic used came from ground-up milk containers.9 kg) by living on tea and water. Angus Barbieri (UK) eats his first meal in 382 days. In Jun 2012.RISODVWLFͤODPHQW to print 86 of its 110 pieces. The result is cheaper hearing DLGVWKDWͤWWKHZHDUHU better than mass-produced models. . US hearing-aid manufacturers were so taken with 3D printing that 100% of them now use it. Each of the 25 needles in the instrument is only 20 micrometres wide – DͤIWKWKHGLDPHWHURI a human hair. and is intended to relieve symptoms associated with seizures. Fastest 3D-printed robot In May 2015. The technology allows for hearing aids to be tailored to an individual First 3D-printed car 6JGū5VTCVKŬFGUKIPGFD[/KEJGNG#PQȋ +6# YCURTKPVGFKPƒXGFC[UKP5GRCVVJG +PVGTPCVKQPCN/CPWHCEVWTKPI6GEJPQNQI[5JQYKP%JKECIQ+NNKPQKU75#1PN[JTKPVJGOCMKPI KVKUVJGƒTUVǡHWNN[FTKXCDNGECTYKVJC&RTKPVGFEJCUUKUCPFDQF[ RKEVWTGFKPUGVKUCFGVCKNQHVJG RTKPVGFNC[GTU +VYCUVJGDTCKPEJKNFQHETQYFHWPFGF. a pharmaceutical drug was 3D-printed for WKHͤUVWWLPH Spritam is made by Aprecia from New Jersey.CDCPFOCPWHCEVWTKPIEQORCP[5#$+% without extra expense. The company used its new Clonescan 3D machine.03 in) across. The design was created by Garth Minette (USA). the designer of the original RepRap – encourages people to freely share or modify the design so that they can 3D-print their own 3D printer. different doses can be 1966 194 Science & Technology Longest survival without food On 12 Jul. having lost around 293 lb (132. CHVVCNN O &EQNQWTUECPPGTVQEQORNGVGUGENQPI UECPUQHGCEJRGTUQP%QNQWT&OQFGNUQHVJGOYGTGVJGP uploaded to cloud-accessible storage in all popular 3D-printer ƒNGHQTOCVU'CEJQHVJGUECPPGFTGUKFGPVUTGEGKXGFVJGKTQYP OKPKCVWTGENQPGYKVJKPCYGGMQHVJGUECPPKPIGXGPV UGGKPUGV  Largest 3D-printed boat Seattle’s Seafair festival holds an annual contest for the best paddle boat made of recycled milk containers. VJG:8GNQEK4Q#%*ECP\KRCTQWPFCVǡOU ǡHVU  – that’s comparable to a speed between jogging and TWPPKPIHQTCPCXGTCIGCFWNVJWOCP 0QVHCTDGJKPFKUVJGEQOOGTEKCNN[CXCKNCDNG1NNKG HTQO1TDQVKZ PQY5RJGTQ KVTQNNUCTQWPFCVǡOU ǡHVǡKPU CPFKUCNUQOCFGHTQO&RTKPVGFRCTVU Most commonly &RTKPVGFǡOGFKECNFGXKEG More than 10 million of the world’s 16 million hearing aids are made using 3D printing. The formerly obese man had been taking part in an experiment looking at the health effects of starvation.7 in) long and weighed 18 kg (39 lb 10 oz). making it the smallest 3D-printed medical device. One example is the 3D-printed micro-needle. First village to 3D-print all of its residents 5RCPKUJEQORCP[)TWRQ5KEPQXCUECPPGFCNNTGUKFGPVUQH VJGUOCNNXKNNCIGQH6QTTGSWGDTCFKNNCKPVJGUQWVJQH5RCKPKP just one day. With 3D printing. USA.

TE Connectivity (USA) unveiled the world’s first 3D-printed motorcycle. instead of creating one size of pill for all. First 3D-printed laptop %TGCVGFKP&GEǡD[. The pill’s porous 3D structure allows it to dissolve in around 4 sec – far faster than standard over-the-counter medicines. He also posted clips of himself WHVWͤULQJWKHZHDSRQVRQ video website YouTube. The injector provides liquid hydrogen for the rocket to burn.GUUG. using 4. Multiple printers worked together for 1.com 195 DATELINE After 3D-printed cars.FAST FACTS Chuck Hull (USA) invented “stereolithography” (a technique of building up 3D objects in thin layers) in 1983 • Three 3D-printed models of an Aston Martin DB5 were made by Voxeljet (DEU) for the 2012 James Bond movie Skyfall cryogenic hydrogen per minute by spinning at a rate of more than 90.450 US gal) of DID YOU KNOW? It may b e a worl d -beating first. Spritam was recognized by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) – the ̨UVW'SULQWHG medicine to be approved for commercial release. 1967 guinnessworldrecords. NASA testͤUHGDURFNHWHQJLQHZLWKD fuel injector that had been 3D-printed from nickelchromium alloy powder.000 rpm. in Long Beach.32 mi (6. South African surgeon Christiaan Barnard completes the first successful heart transplant.Q\CPQCPF4[CP Dunwoody (both UK). The material was made from nylon particles and was comprised of interlocking rings like plastic chain mail. Rolls-Royce began testing jet engines using 3D-printed metal parts. tyres and mirrors could not be printed. The patient dies of pneumonia soon after. California. but for 18 days his new heart functions without external aid. and can supply almost 5. First 3D-printing conviction Yoshitomo Imura (JPN) was imprisoned for two years on 21 Oct 2014 for 3D-printing plastic guns. It is CXCKNCDNGCUCMKVQHRCTVU KPENWFKPIUETGGPDCVVGT[CPF EQPVTQNNGTDQCTF CPFFGUKIPƒNGUVJCVCNNQYCP[QPG YKVJCEQPXGPVKQPCN&RTKPVGTVQRTKPVVJGKTQYPNCRVQR Most powerful rocket YKVJǡ&RTKPVGFRCTVU In Aug 2013. bu t this Ha rley-Dav replica d idson oes have its limit – includ ations ing a top speed of 15 mph only (24 km/h ).500 litres (1. First dress made from 3D-printed material In Jun 2000. It’s un that any likely one will b e using on these 3D e of -printed motorcy to go on cles a road tr ip any time soo n… FIRST 3DPRINTED MOTORCYCLE First heart transplant On 3 Dec. Largest object 3D-printed in metal In mid-2015. Of the orange-and-blue bike’s 100 components. the “Pi-Top” is a 3D-printed laptop built around the Raspberry Pi 2 microcomputer. it was only a matter of time before motorcycle enthusiasts printed a two-wheeled wonder. The Trent XWB-97 engine uses the largest metal EQORQPGPVOCFGD[&ǡRTKPVKPIVJGHTQPVDGCTKPIJQWUKPIQHVJG LGVVJCVJQNFUCGTQHQKNU+VKUO ǡHVǡKP CETQUUCPFǡO ǡHVǡKP FGGRCPFKUOCFGHTQOPKEMGNWUKPICPGNGEVTQPDGCO OGNVKPIRTQEGUUFGXGNQRGFD[5YGFKUJDCUGFEQORCP[#TECO created for different needs.95 km) of ABS plastic filament as well as bronze and steel components. a total of 76 were 3D-printed. however. In Jul 2015. The electric motor. Dutch industrial engineer Jiri Evenhuis led a team to produce the “Drape Dress” from 3D-printed fabric. USA.700 hr of total print time to create the parts. During the test. the rocket generated almost 90 kilonewtons of thrust. as that technology doesn’t yet exist. . At 2015’s RAPID show.

1 bn).CONSUMER TECH NOW? r te DID YOrpUatK hy. And the brands shown here did the biggest business of all in 2014 – the latest year for which full sales figures are available – as confirmed by market-research company Euromonitor.CPCVQVCNQHRCTVKEKRCPVU NKPGFWRVQRJQVQITCRJVJGOUGNXGUKPCPGXGPV QTICPK\GFD[/GK\W6GEJPQNQI[%Q %*0 KP <JWJCK)WCPIFQPI%JKPC6JGUGNƒGUYGTG UPCRRGFFWTKPIVJGEQWTUGQHCVGEJPQNQI[HCKT CVYJKEJRTQFWEVUD[/GK\WYGTGGZJKDKVGF $GUVUGNNKPIGKIJVJIGP XKFGQICOGEQPUQNG With 39.500 units Tablet iPad (USA) 65. It’s the third consecutive year that Apple and Google KDYHWDNHQͤUVWDQGVHFRQG places. respectively.810. By the same date.QPIGUVTGNC[EJCKP QHǡUGNƒGU 1Pǡ. third of th dd  A 4.000 (£154.88 million units as of 13 Apr 2016.900 units Printer HP (USA) 22. This places it far ahead of second-placed Google on $120. LCD TV Samsung (KOR) 49.794.276 bn (£112. Ka Dr Andrej Stanford uate from science grad -mined ta da (USA). filters a border. e University termine th de to s te si ia social med findings? p to is H . Neil Alden Armstrong becomes the first man to set foot on the Moon. lfie” “perfect se flowing an with long 1. .000 units sold as of 6 Apr 2016. He is followed out of the lunar module Eagle by Buzz Aldrin (both USA).2 bn).600 units First men on the Moon During the Apollo 11 mission.929 backers. at 2:56 a.m.600. 2010) has more individual inputs than any peripheral in console history – even more than a standard PC keyboard. .267. the PS4’s closest rival – the Xbox One (Microsoft) – had sold 18.500 units Wearable electronics Smartphone Fitbit (USA) 11. a compu /QUVXCNWCDNGDTCPFǡPCOG According to Interbrand’s annual “Best Brands” ranking. the PlayStation 4 (Sony Interactive Entertainment) is not only the fastest- selling PlayStation to date but also the biggest-selling of the eighth-generation consoles. Your U 3. The best-selling hand-held videogame console is the Nintendo DS (released 2004). the wireless Fender Mustang PRO-Guitar controller released with 4QEM$CPFǡ (Harmonix/ MTV Games/EA. in the Interbrand report.000). having secured $10.008. a funding proposal for the Pebble: E-Paper Watch for iPhone and Android closed on the crowdfunding site Kickstarter. Electronics is big business. e frame.167.135. Most buttons on a XKFGQICOGEQPVTQNNGT With 113 different buttons representing every possible ͤQJHUSRVLWLRQRQD 17-fret guitar.468. 2. BEST-SELLING BRANDS We are surrounded by consumer electronics and gadgetry – from the ubiquitous smartphones we carry with us to the printers and monitors at work and laptops and TVs at home. In 2014.249. Be a wom fill one ld ou face sh se hair.266. the brand earned a record $239.240. $GUVUGNNKPITGOQVG TCFKQEQPVTQNVQ[DTCPF Air Hogs is a range of radiocontrolled toys including FDUVURFNHWVDQGIUHHͥ\LQJ helicopters produced by Spin Master (CAN).314 bn (£79. with total worldwide sales of 154.200 units In-car navigation DATELINE Garmin (CHE) 1969 196 Science & Technology 9. . /QUVOQPG[RNGFIGF HQTǡCǡ-KEMUVCTVGTRTQLGEV On 18 May 2012.000 units Samsung (KOR) 269. the world’s most valuable brand is currently tech giant Apple (USA). which grew 43% in 2015 to be worth an extraordinary $170.06 million units. and 15 sec GMT on 21 Jul 1969.845 (£6.610) from 68.

005. OLE are lit by D screen organic s light-em diodes. the crew of Apollo 13 were 254 km (158 mi) from the lunar surface. d the which p ro vides superior image quality. 1970 guinnessworldrecords.FAST FACTS Plasma displays employ minute gas cells set between two glass sheets.800 units Computer monitor Portable tablet (eReader) Portable player Laptop Kindle (USA) iPod (USA) Lenovo (CHN) 20.171 km (248.100 units 9. “O itting rganic” refers to layer of a thin carbon fi lm behin screen. These e backlig ht for th screen.100 units .900 units Farthest distance from Earth reached by humans At 00:21 a. on the far side of the Moon. putting them 400. GMT on 15 Apr 1970.740.WNKVǡJCF TGEGKXGF c KPHWPFKPIHTQODCEMGTU 6JGǡLCEMGVKUFGUKIPGFVQETGCVGCOQTGKOOGTUKXGGZRGTKGPEGHQT ICOGTUTGRTQFWEKPIVJGUJQEMUQHGZRNQUKQPUDWNNGVUUYQTFCVVCEMU CPFǡVJGǡNKMGVQǡOCMGVJGXKTVWCNHGGNǡOQTGTGCN DID YO U KNOW The abb reviatio ? n LED st “light-em ands for itting dio supply th d e ”. Each cell acts like a tiny fluorescent tube • In 2015.com 197 DATELINE Samsung (KOR) 9. Disney banned selfie sticks from its theme parks • “Nomophobia” is the fear of being without your mobile phone /QUVOQPG[ RNGFIGFHQTǡC JCRVKEFGXKEG QPǡ-KEMUVCTVGT .m.QPFQP7-QPǡ(GDVJG ƒNOŨUUVCT$GP5VKNNGT 75# RWNNGFJKUDGUVū$NWG5VGGNŬRQUGCPF VQQMCRJQVQITCRJYKVJCUGNƒGUVKEMOGCUWTKPIǡO ǡHV ǡKP NQPIŤVCNNGTVJCPCIKTCHHGQTCVJTGGUVQTG[DWKNFKPIБ 6JGǡDNWGECTRGVRJQVQHGCVWTGF5VKNNGTCPFVJGQVJGTUVCTUQH VJGǡEQOGF[OQXKGKPENWFKPI1YGP9KNUQP2GPȌNQRG%TW\ CPFǡ9KNN(GTTGNN2KEVWTGFKPUGVKU5VKNNGTTGEGKXKPIJKU QHƒEKCNǡEGTVKƒECVGHTQO)WKPPGUU9QTNF4GEQTFU CFLWFKECVQTǡ/CTMǡ/E-KPNG[ 6JGYQTFūJCRVKEŬŤHTQOVJG)TGGM ūVQVQWEJŬŤFGUETKDGUVGEJPQNQI[ VJCVCTVKƒEKCNN[TGETGCVGUVJGUGPUG QHǡVQWEJXKCXKDTCVKQPUQTRTGUUWTG 6QǡFCVGPQQVJGTJCRVKEVGEJPQNQI[ RTQLGEVQP-KEMUVCTVGTJCUTCKUGF OQTGOQPG[VJCPVJG-14(: ICOKPIXGUVOCPWHCEVWTGFD[ +OOGT\ 75# $[ǡ.698.655 mi) away from Earth.000 units 26. e display By contr ast.QPIGUVUGNƒGUVKEM #VVJGRTGOKGTGQHZoolander 2KP. OLED TV LG (KOR) 65.508.

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who is the founder of the creative team behind the robot.” said Tomlinson. but “it was something like ‘QWERTYUIOP’. It also has the ability to identify its owner’s moods by recognizing smiles and frowns. read emails and perform social-media interaction via voice commands and apps. and it can interact using a series of complex artificial intelligence (AI) routines. It is pictured here with Cynthia Breazeal (USA). Massachusetts.Q8QLPDWHZDV LQVWDOOHGLQD*HQHUDO 0RWRUVDVVHPEO\OLQH DWWKH. The final total raised was $3.505 (£2. USA. 1941–2016) sends the landmark electronic message in Cambridge.985) from 7. JIBO stands 11 in (28 cm) tall and weighs in at 6 lb (2.714.415. . a venture was launched on funding platform Indiegogo to finance production of a robot called JIBO. When the campaign started in July.QODQG)LVKHU*XLGH 3ODQWLQ(ZLQJ7RZQVKLS (KTUVFQOGUVKETQDQVEJGH #VVJG*CPPQXGT/GUUGVTCFGHCKTHQTKPFWUVTKCNVGEJPQNQI[ JGNFCPPWCNN[KP)GTOCP[/QNG[4QDQVKEU 7- FGOQPUVTCVGF VJGƒTUVEQPUWOGTVCTIGVGFTQDQVEJGHYJKEJRTGRCTGFC NQDUVGTDKUSWGHQTGZJKDKVKQPCVVGPFGGU6JGTQDQVEQORTKUGU CRCKTQHFGZVTQWUCTOUCPFJCPFUVJCVCTGKPVGITCVGFKPC YQTMVQREQQMGTUKPMWPKV+VKUCDNGVQFQYPNQCFTGEKRGUETGCVGF D[CRTQHGUUKQPCNEJGHXKCCPQPNKPGFCVCDCUGVJCVQRGTCVGUNKMG CEQQMGT[GSWKXCNGPVQHK6WPGU1PEGCTGEKRGJCUDGGPUVQTGF VJGTQDQVKUECRCDNGQHTGRGCVKPIKVCUQHVGPCUPGEGUUCT[ MOST CROWDFUNDED SOCIAL ROBOT DATELINE In 2014. JIBO is a social robot that has the capability to recognize owners’ faces. it attracted huge interest.422 supporters.EHIRUH UXQQLQJRXWRIVWHDP +PFWUVTKCNRTQFWEVKQPTQDQV . with funding soaring past the initial goal of $100.7 kg).000 in less than four hours. 1971 198 Science & Technology First email Computer engineer Ray Tomlinson (USA. The text was not preserved.

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The battery is formed by nanowires. 10 times faster than average. . researchers from McMaster University in Hamilton. It can also take a picture every 0. he phoned his rival. b. USA.000 times smaller than an AAA. while standing in the street. one half being the cathode and one half being the anode. Due to be installed in 2016 in France’s NeuroSpin centre.CPEG#DGTPGVJ[ 0< RTQFWEGFCHWNN[HWPEVKQPKPI &RTKPVGFEQTFNGUUFTKNNOGCUWTKPILWUVǡOO ǡKP JKIJ +VWUGUCPOONQPI KP VYKUVFTKNNCPFKURQYGTGF D[CǡJGCTKPICKFDCVVGT[.CPEGCNUQDWKNVCOCVEJKPIRQYGT UCYǡOGCUWTKPICOKPWUEWNGOO ǡKP KPNGPIVJ Fastest nanotech DNA diagnostic machine On 7 Oct 2015.CRCPKPǡ CPFKUCOGTGǡZǡOO 100% ǡZǡKP YJGPENQUGF +VUǡǡRCIGUŤGCEJQHYJKEJECP ƒVVJTQWIJVJGG[GQHCPGGFNGŤECTT[FTCYKPIUQH. giving a result in just 5 min. 0. Thermometer On 9 Aug 2007.300% 100% Smallest working power tool +P. Ontario. First cellular phone On 3 Apr.0000059 in) thick – 60.0000042 mm. Battery In 2011. engineers at Rice University in Houston.or 7-Tesla machines). published a paper on a thermometer made from green ͥXRUHVFHQWSURWHLQ – the substance that PDNHVMHOO\ͤVKJORZ The thermometer HPLWWHG̸ͥDVKHV̹ of light in direct relationship to its temperature.00000016 in) long – the size Smallest engineering truss framework 2TQHGUUQTQHOCVGTKCNUUEKGPEGCPFOGEJCPKEU. ZAF) is a 3D-printed UEWNRVWTGQHCYQOCPǡZǡZǡOKETQPUKPUK\G (the diameter of a human hair). It could be used in micro-surgical monitoring.0005 mm. the INUMAC (Imaging of Neuro disease 8VLQJKLJKͤHOG05DQG Contrastophores) has a PDJQHWLFͤHOGVWUHQJWKRI 11. The statue. inspired by VJGCTVKUVŨUƒTUVNQXGYCUXGTKƒGFQPǡ(GDCV VJGǡ-CTNUTWJG0CPQ/KETQ(CEKNKV[KP)GTOCP[ SMALLEST. unveiled a battery 0.CRCPGUGUETKRVUCUYGNNCUYKVJCP'PINKUJVTCPUNKVGTCVKQP 6JGDQQMRTKPVGFWUKPIVGEJPQNQI[WUWCNN[TGUGTXGFHQTCPVK HQTIGT[HGCVWTGUQPǡDCPMPQVGUYCUUQNFCUCUGVYKVJCPGPNCTIGF XGTUKQPǡCPFǡCǡOCIPKH[KPIINCUUHQTǡ. Most powerful MRI machine Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) detects disease by scanning inside the body.1 mm (0. A French-German project. It uses synthetic DNA tuned to respond to antibodies that indicate diseases such as arthritis and HIV.003 in). The protein is approximately 4.WNKC)TGGT 75# JCUKPXGPVGFCHTCEVCNPCPQVTWUUYKVJCYCNNVJKEMPGUUQH ǡPCPQOGVTGU ǡOOǡKP 6JGVTWUUGUHQTO nanostructures in a lattice framework..2 nanometres (0. it will help in studying and diagnosing brain conditions. 0. Using a base station on the roof of his office.1 sec. like that used in France’s 'KHHGN6QYGT6JG[ECPDGDWKNVKPXCTKQWURCVVGTPUVJCVCTGWR VQǡCKTDWVCUUVTQPICUUVGGN+HUECNGFWRVJG[OKIJVDG WUGFVQETGCVGVQWIJDWVNKIJVYGKIJVXGJKENGUCPFDWKNFKPIU Smallest printed book DATELINE Shiki no Kusabana (Flowers of the Four Seasons) was RTKPVGFKPCTWPQHǡEQRKGU by Toppan Printing Co..000019 in) high and an almostinvisible 150 nanometres (0. the two OCKPǡ. one-tenth of current imaging size. Joel Engel of AT&T. Texas. in $WPM[ɢ6QM[Q. an international team of scientists revealed their design for a nanometrescale DNA analysis machine.CRCPGUG HNQYGTUYKVJPCOGUǡIKXGPKPhiragana and katakana. Smallest sculpture of a human Trust by Jonty Hurwitz (UK. This enables it to image at a cube size of 0.00015 mm. 0.7 Tesla (compared to conventional 3.5 microns (0.SMALL STUFF 7. Canada.GP c  1973 200 Science & Technology of a cell – and is safe for use in humans. American engineer Martin Cooper makes the first ever call on his prototype Motorola DynaTAC cellular phone.

0.FAST FACTS A nanometre (nm) is one billionth of a metre. including the most famous one on Liberty Island in New York.785 mm (0. It carved out geographical features as small as 15 nanometres high (0.WNVJKUOKPWUEWNG JGCX[YGCRQPYCUJCPFOCFGD[/CTEWU*WNN #75 CPF OGCUWTGUǡOO ǡKP NQPIǡOO ǡKP YKFGCPF ǡOO ǡKP JKIJ+VƒTGUCUVGGNDCNNǡOO ǡKP  in diameter and uses red phosphorus as propellant.00000059 in). The sculpture. the world’s smallest version of “Lady Liberty”.0088 mm. to fit an ts! SMALLEST STATUE OF LIBERTY (KTGFKP/GNDQWTPG#WUVTCNKCQPǡ.157 mm (0.1 m (305 ft 5 in) high. 540% Motorized model car In 2003. The sculpture is crafted from a tiny speck of gold painstakingly hand-carved using tools made by Wigan himself. es and h ats.com 201 DATELINE Smallest working cannon There are a few Statues of Liberty around the world.0681 in) long.000015 mm. 7KLV̸QDQRFDU̹KDGD chassis. creating a sculpture that was just 8. It contained a tiny electric motor that propelled the car at a top speed of 0. At c. 1974 guinnessworldrecords. an unmanned electric aircraft. 0. The smallest model car was made in 2005 by scientists at Rice University (USA) from a cluster of carbon atoms less than 4 nanometres (0.5 mm (0. It will make another 27 flights before breaking up in heavy turbulence. two independent axles and four wheels made from buckminsterfullerene (a type of spherical carbon molecule). 3D map of Earth In 2010. Ion and Photon Beam Technology and Nanofabrication in Tampa. 0.00000015 in) across.200% DID YO U KN Wigan’s sculpture OW? in the ey s sit eith er e of a ne edle or o head of n the a pin.000 to the centimetre (or nearly 3. it is the smallest Statue of Liberty that exactly conforms to the dimensions of the New York original.000 RIWKHPFRXOGͤWRQDJUDLQ of salt.0003 in) long – more than 1. a 1-billionth-scale model of the USS Enterprise (NCC-1701-D) was created by Takayuki Hoshino and Shinji Matsui (both JPN) of the Himeji Institute of Technology in +\ďJR-DSDQ7KH\ used a 30-kV focused ion beam to etch the replica of the iconic Star Trek ship. a team of engineers from the Denso Corporation (JPN) created a motorized model of a 1936 Toyota AA sedan that was only 4. micro-s te re sted in culpture a s a five-yea when he r-old. . While that statue is an imposing 93.W2GK %*0 KPVJGUG working scissors are made from stainless steel CPFOGCUWTGǡOO ǡKP NQPICPF ǡOO ǡKP YKFG Chen also holds the record for the smallest china teapot.011 mph). began m aking ho then sho uses. fits within the eye of a needle. 5VCTUJKRǡEnterprise Aptly named Nano Trek. then rendered it in 3D using a technique called multiphoton lithography. USA. Jonty Hurwitz (see opposite page) created Fragile Giant – a life-like elephant that measured a mere 0.000 to the inch)! It won the Best Ion Micrograph prize at the 2003 conference on Electron. scientists at IBM made a detailed 3D map of Earth so small that 1. He applies his sculpting tools in between heartbeats to reduce the effects of hand tremor. Patterns of Earth’s continents were created with a silicon cutting tip WLPHVͤQHUWKDQD sharpened pencil.006 in) WDOO+HͤUVWPDGH a computer model from photographs of a real elephant.8 microns (0.02 in) in height.018 km/h (0. This VHWVͥXLG̸SODVWLF̹ in a process similar to 3D printing. by UK artist Willard Wigan. which OGCUWTGUǡOO ǡKP YKFGKPENWFKPI spout and handle. or about one 25-millionth of an inch • The smallest unit of measurement of length is the Planck. Florida. an d are cle visible o arly nly und er a mic Wigan b roscope ecame in . but on a micro scale. can perch on one ridge RIDKXPDQͤQJHUSULQW 14. which has features just a few thousandths of a millimetre across. takes off on the morning of 4 Nov using the power from solar panels in its wings. USA. at about a millionth of a billionth of a billionth of a billionth of a centimetre Smallest scissors %TGCVGFD[%JGP. First aircraft to fly on solar power The AstroFlight Sunrise. Animal sculpture In 2015.

LASERS Highest Earth– Moon bandwidth In Oct 2013. scientists at the National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California. LaserMotive and Lockheed Martin (both 86$. began operating an array of 192 powerful lasers designed to research nuclear HWUKQP6JGNCUGTUCTGHQEWUGFQPVQCƒPIGTPCKNUK\GFEQPVCKPGTMPQYPCUCJQJNTCWOJQNFKPIC RGNNGVQHJ[FTQIGPHWGNHQTHWUKQPGZRGTKOGPVU1Pǡ. USA. a team from NASA and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology sent signals to the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft orbiting the Moon. They achieved a FQYPNQCFFCVCTCVGQHǡOGICDKVU per sec. Engineers were able to download the spacecraft’s 1-GB UEKGPEGFCVCKPNGUUVJCPǡOKP Using conventional radio waves.CPTGUGCTEJGTUƒTGFVJGNCUGTCTTC[ HQTǡCHGYDKNNKQPVJUQHCUGEQPFCPFFGNKXGTGFQPGOGICLQWNGQHGPGTI[QPVQVJGJQJNTCWOVCTIGV 6JKUKUGSWKXCNGPVVQVJGGZRNQUKQPECWUGFD[ǡMI ǡQ\ QH606 occurred at the White Sands Missile Range in 1HZ0H[LFR86$ Longest flight powered by transmitted laser light In Jul 2012. KVǡYQWNFJCXGVCMGPVJTGGFC[U Highest laser energy shone on to a single target In Jun 2009.

DATELINE Highest altitude achieved by laser power On 2 Oct 2000. Lightcraft Technologies (USA) 1976 202 Science & Technology ͥHZDFPGLDPHWHU (4.ͥHZD6WDONHU8$9 for more than 48 hr using a ground-based laser and a receiver that converted the laser light into electricity.8-in) craft to a height RIP IW.

USA. The UHVXOWLQJH[SDQVLRQRIWKH superheated air provided WKHWKUXVW7KHVHWHVWͥLJKWV Longest laser communications link In May 2005.8-oz) craft. NASA’s Messenger spacecraft FRPPXQLFDWHGZLWK(DUWK using a laser beam from a distance of 24 million km (15 million mi). First hand-held electronic videogame Mattel (USA) release Auto Race. Daniel Black (UK) popped 55 balloons in 60 sec with a self-built laser at the Institute of Making at UCL in London. 2Q$XJKRZHYHU scientists at The University RI(OHFWUR&RPPXQLFDWLRQV in Tokyo. This H[SHULPHQWDOIRUPRI long-distance space communication is GHVLJQHGWRDOORZDKLJKHU rate of data return from interplanetary space than current methods of PLFURZDYHFRPPXQLFDWLRQ Shortest laser wavelength Lasers operate across DUDQJHRIZDYHOHQJWKV W\SLFDOO\EHWZHHQDQG 700 nanometres. ZKLFKUHͥHFWHGWKHOLJKW EDFNZDUGVWRDSRLQW just beneath it. the Linac Coherent Light Source at the Stanford Linear Accelerator in California. revealed that they had created an atomic X-ray laser also MOST BALLOONS BURST IN ONE MINUTE USING A LASER On 22 Sep 2014. They used a US Army 10-kW pulsed FDUERQGLR[LGHODVHURQ WKHJURXQGͤUHGXSZDUGV at the 51-g (1. Japan. . In 2009. Players have to navigate their car – represented by a large red dot on a tiny LED display – past their slower-moving competitors (smaller dots) to win the race. achieved a QDQRPHWUHZDYHOHQJWK ̰WKHͤUVWIUHHHOHFWURQ laser to emit hard X-rays. to absorb as much incident energy (the energy hitting the surface) as possible.SRZHUHG only by light. His laser had a wavelength of 445 nanometres. the first gaming toy with no moving parts. The balloons were black. UK.

scientists at the Wellman Center for Photomedicine at Massachusetts General Hospital. WKHͤUVWGHYLFHFDSDEOH of cancelling out a laser beam. Most powerful laser by output 1Pǡ. They could then compensate for this distortion when viewing QVJGTQDLGEVUKPURCEGETGCVKPIOWEJOQTGCEEWTCVGKOCIGU ZLWKDZDYHOHQJWKRIMXVW 0. It uses an optical Living laser In Jun 2011.4% of the laser light for DVSHFLͤFIUHTXHQF\$QWL lasers may have uses in the ͤHOGVRIRSWLFDOFRPSXWLQJ and medical imaging. Astronomers used this star to observe how much ūFKUVQTVKQPŬ'CTVJŨUCVOQURJGTGKPVTQFWEGFKPVQCVGNGUEQRGŨU image.(': HQTQPG trillionth of a second at a power of 2 petawatts. USA. the Apollo 11 astronauts used a laser to measure the distance from the Moon to Earth.KEM1DUGTXCVQT[CPF.WPUEKGPVKUVUCV. revealed that they had used a laser WRUHIULJHUDWHOLTXLGZDWHU by around 20°C (68°F). The team DUHQRZVHHNLQJWRPDNH such lasers more stable DQGFRKHUHQWZLWKSRWHQWLDO applications in medicine and particle physics. This prototype can absorb 99. USA.FAST FACTS The word “laser” stands for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation • In 1969. unveiled their anti-laser. USA. Anti-laser In Feb 2011. announced that they had used cells from a human kidney to FUHDWHWKHͤUVWODVHUOLJKW emitted by a living cell. USA) shot a laser beam KPVQVJGUM[VQETGCVGCPCTVKƒEKCNūUVCTŬQHINQYKPICVOQURJGTKE sodium ions. (KTUVCTVKƒEKCNIWKFGUVCT 1Pǡ.CYTGPEG Livermore National Labs (both in California. the result was accurate to within the width of a finger cavity made from silicon. 7KHNLGQH\FHOOZDVLQMHFWHG ZLWK'1$IURPOXPLQRXV MHOO\ͤVKZKLFKPDGHLWJORZ JUHHQZKHQERPEDUGHG ZLWKEOXHOLJKW%\XVLQJ PLUURUVWKHVFLHQWLVWVZHUH able to make the cell emit green laser light. ǡRGVCYCVVUKUYCVVU FIRST… Maser 7KHPDVHU 0LFURZDYH $PSOLͤFDWLRQE\6WLPXODWLRQ (PLVVLRQRI5DGLDWLRQ. %QQNKPIQHNKSWKFD[ǡNCUGT On 26 Nov 2015. scientists from Yale University. For reference.WNTGUGCTEJGTUCV1UCMC7PKXGTUKV[KP.CRCP ƒTGFVJG. scientists at the University of Washington.CUGTHQT(CUV+IPKVKQP'ZRGTKOGPV . ZKLFKWUDSVOLJKWHQHUJ\ and dissipates it as heat.15 nanometres.

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A S Jersey. with GWR CFLWFKECVQT5CO/CUQPYJQQXGTUCYVJGTGEQTFCVVGORV Highest box-office gross by a science-fiction film series Star Wars (USA) – later retitled Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope – is released. U Longest line of balloons popped using a laser The three presenters of ITV’s science and technology show +VŨUǡ0QV4QEMGV5EKGPEG (UK) burst a line of 200 balloons by means of an Nd:YAG laser in Borehamwood. 7RZQHVVKDUHGWKH Nobel Prize in Physics.324. It is the first movie in a franchise that will go on to gross $6. UK.513. are the trio Rachel Riley.com 203 DATELINE KNOW? DID YGOlaUser used to bursetd . 1977 guinnessworldrecords. ͤUVWFRQFHLYHGRILWLQ before putting the process into practice in 1954. at it inco strated crystal th e t d mon was firs r New se a in  l s e e ri Th aborato at Bell L 1964.357 (£4.000) worldwide as of Feb 2016.190. from left to right.452. Pictured above. in . on 23 Jan 2016. Romesh Ranganathan and Ben Miller (all UK). both for inventing the maser DQGIRUKLVODWHUZRUNRQ GHYHORSLQJWKHͤUVWODVHUV A nam The Nd:Y right) is ons (see ed o ll a b -d 0 ium op 20 neodym garnet after the m iu in alum yttrium rporates.

a process called interferometry. it would take more than 100 days to read out the 22. Canada in Winnipe 2015. Merckx also shares the record for the most Tour de France wins (5).5-mi) steel vacuum tubes. One The VSV-E Virus) Virus-Ebola Stomatitis d at the pe lo ve de first ratory vaccine was bo La y icrobiolog 03. down which lasers are fired. on si es impr (see artist’s r of such e behaviou studying th can “hear” ts is nt ie sc waves. Each houses two L-shaped. allowing tiny fluctuations in space-time to be studied.3 le . and published on 4 Feb 2016. It is located at two sites in the USA: Hanford in Washington and Livingston in Louisiana (below). Quantum entanglement occurs when particles are so fundamentally connected that they can theoretically LQͥXHQFHHDFKRWKHṴHYHQ across vast distances. cosmic even 1978 204 Science & Technology Most Tour de France stage wins Eddie Merckx (BEL) celebrates his 34th stage win in the Tour de France. Germany. Along with three other riders.910 atoms of rubidium (give or take 190 atoms). The lasers interfere with each other in detectors. By mapping the movements of these waves.CUTTING-EDGE SCIENCE KNOW? DID YOU ular BOV (Vesic First rocket-landing on Earth after deploying a payload in orbit 1Pǡ&GE5RCEG:UWEEGUUHWNN[NCPFGFVJGƒTUV UVCIGǡQHKVU(CNEQPǡTQEMGVCV%CRG%CPCXGTCN#KT(QTEG 5VCVKQPKP(NQTKFC75#6JGTQEMGVJCFDGGPNCWPEJGF VJGFC[DGHQTGCPFJCFFGRNQ[GFUCVGNNKVGUKPVQ'CTVJ QTDKV6JG(CNEQPǡTGCEJGFCPCNVKVWFGQHǡMO ǡOK  CHVGTYJKEJVJGTQEMGVŨUUGEQPFUVCIGVQQMKVURC[NQCFQH UCVGNNKVGUKPVQQTDKV6JGƒTUVUVCIGYJKEJKUǡO ǡHV  VCNNTGVWTPGFWPFGTKVUQYPRQYGTCPFNCPFGFXGTVKECNN[ 6JGǡHWNNLQWTPG[KUKNNWUVTCVGFKPVJKUVKOGNCRUGRJQVQ Most atoms quantum-entangled On 26 Mar 2015. masses – years away billion light ft). The detection was made by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration using the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO).618-digit number. USA. LIGO is the largest gravitational-wave detector. Reading two digits per second. co e os d cl who had ha d patients ha with Ebola d. scientists from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (USA) and the University of Belgrade (SRB) announced that they had quantumentangled 2. His first had come in 1969. te ea tr been attosecond is a quintillionth (10-18) of a second. . (KTUVGHHGEVKXG 'DQNCXCEEKPG 6JGGZRGTKOGPVCNXCEEKPG 858'$18JCUDGGPVTKCNNGF KP)WKPGCYKVJCUWEEGUUTCVG QHCVNGCUVCPFRQUUKDN[ HCTJKIJGT6JGTGUWNVUQHVJG XCEEKPGVTKCNUYGTGRWDNKUJGF KPVJGLQWTPCN6JGǡ. 5JQTVGUVRWNUGQHǡXKUKDNGǡNKIJV Scientists have created a light pulse lasting for just 380 attoseconds. Largest known RTKOGǡPWODGT On 7 Jan 2016. a computer volunteered by Dr Curtis Cooper (USA) at the University of Central Missouri. As of ar  M 23 n on le Trials bega 4.000 peop more than t ac nt Aug 2015. By around 1. 20 National M in . but they were not detected until 11 Feb 2016. DATELINE io The gravitat to have e believed by LIGO ar holes – of k ac bl om two  solar resulted fr 29 d ely 36 an approximat in a galaxy ng gi er m . 4-km (2. g. The number has a designation M74207281.207. scientists have a new way of analysing signals from the universe.CPEGV QP ǡ. The feat was achieved by Eleftherios Goulielmakis (GRC/DEU) and his team of researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics in Garching.338. They achieved this by trapping the supercooled particles between two slightly transparent mirrors and bombarding them with weak laser pulses. ts. discovered the Mersenne prime number 274.281-1.WN6JGƒTUVTGEKRKGPV QHVJGXCEEKPGYCU/QJCOGF 5QWOCJQH)WKPGCǡ CDQXG  JGYCUIKXGPVJGCNNENGCT VJTGGǡOQPVJUNCVGT FIRST DETECTION OF GRAVITATIONAL WAVES ? U KNOW DID YOna cted l waves dete Albert Einstein proposed the existence of gravitational waves in 1916. They are made when huge objects in space speed up or slow down. with victories in 1969–72 and 1974.

In that time. with an acceleration length of 1. existing No othe storage r mediu reliably ensure th m can so a t data w be access ill ible by fu ture generati ons. UK. a lander designed to analyse the comet’s surface. after nine years of marriage.CTIG*CFTQP%QNNKFGTCV %'40KP)GPGXC5YKV\GTNCPFCPPQWPEGFVJCVVJG[JCFEQNNKFGF VYQDGCOUQHNGCFKQPUVQIGVJGTCVǡVGTCGNGEVTQPXQNVU 6G8 6JKUOGCUWTGOGPVKUVJGGPGTI[GSWKXCNGPVVQVJCVQH CǡDWODNGDGGUVTKMKPI[QWTHCEG First object 3D-printed from extraterrestrial material Oldest person to get divorced On 21 Nov. the European Space Agency’s Rosetta spacecraft entered orbit around comet 67P/ Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P). 1Pǡ0QXUEKGPVKUVUWUKPIVJG. Rosetta had been orbiting 67P for 539 days. 101-year-old Harry Bidwell of East Sussex. -459. This X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) incorporates high-speed electrons moving through magnets. three research sites. The light detected by Hubble from this galaxy. As of 27 Jan 2016. helium becomes a liquid that flows against gravity • Scientists have developed a way of recharging mobile phones with urine • We share some of our DNA with bananas Most durable digital UVQTCIGǡOGFKWO Longest time for tardigrades VQǡUWTXKXGHTQ\GPKPKEG #VCTFKITCFGKUCJKIJN[TGUKNKGPVOKETQUEQRKEGKIJVNGIIGF CSWCVKEKPXGTVGDTCVG1Pǡ&GEUEKGPVKUVUHTQO. one n ? anostru glass dis ctured c has ha d the en Univers tire al Decla ration o Rights e f Human tched on to it (inse using an t left) ultra-fa st laser.67°F).5 billion electron volts and operates at a temperature of -271°C (-455.15°C. Longest X-ray HTGGGNGEVTQPǡNCUGT Located in Germany. around 400 million years after the Big Bang. a team of astronomers announced on 3 Mar 2016 their discovery of a galaxy in the Ursa Major constellation. it released Philae.CP PCPQUVTWEVWTGFINCUUOCFG D[TGUGCTEJGTUHTQOVJG7PKXGTUKV[ QH5QWVJCORVQPŨU1RVQGNGEVTQPKEU 4GUGCTEJ%GPVTG7-ECPTGOCKPUVCDNG CVTQQOVGORGTCVWTGHQTǡSWKPVKNNKQP [GCTU#V°% °( KVJCUCP GUVKOCVGFNKHGVKOGQHǡDKNNKQP[GCTU TQWIJN[VJGEWTTGPVCIGQHVJGWPKXGTUG  &CVCKUYTKVVGPVQVJGINCUUCUVJTGG NC[GTUQHPCPQUVTWEVWTGFFQVUWUKPICP WNVTCHCUVHGOVQUGEQPFNCUGTIKXKPIC UVQTCIGECRCEKV[QHǡ6$ VGTCD[VGU RGTFKUE (QTEQORCTKUQP VJGVGZVEQPVGPVQH VJGGPVKTG. On 12 Nov 2014.7 km (1.com 205 DATELINE 1Pǡ. The laser itself measures 2 km (1. divorces his 65-year-old wife.8°F).1 mi) and across U KNOW Incredib ly. the European XFEL stretches 3. dates back 13.CPCVVJG%QPUWOGT'NGEVTQPKEU5JQYKP.4 billion years. 1980 guinnessworldrecords. GN-z11.06 mi). He feels that she “wasn’t domesticated enough” and is soon seeking a new partner. Most distant object KPǡVJGǡWPKXGTUG Using data from the Wide Field Camera 3 on the DID YO Hubble Space Telescope. and is the longest orbital survey of a comet. It requires 17.CRCPŨU 0CVKQPCN+PUVKVWVGQH2QNCT4GUGCTEJCPPQWPEGFVJCVVJG[JCF TGXKXGFVYQCFWNVVCTFKITCFGUVJCVJCFDGGPHTQ\GPKPYCVGTKEG UKPEG0QXǡ#NUQMPQYPCUūYCVGTDGCTUŬQYKPIVQVJGKT CRRGCTCPEG CDQXG VJGETGCVWTGUYGTG VJCYGFKP/CTǡ0KEMPCOGF 5$CPF5$ UJQTVHQT ū5NGGRKPI$GCWV[Ŭ  VJG[DGICPOQXKPI CHVGTVJG[FGHTQUVGF 1PN[5$HWNN[TGEQXGTGF DWVYGPVQPVQIKXGDKTVJVQ[QWPI CDQXG  Highest-energy ion collisions KPǡCǡRCTVKENGEQNNKFGT #EEQTFKPIVQTGUWNVURWDNKUJGFQPǡ.650% When cooled to absolute zero (-273.2 mi) long.4 km (2.KDTCT[ QH%QPITGUUKU GSWKXCNGPVVQǡ6$ First spacecraft to orbit CǡEQOGV On 6 Aug 2014. the expansion of the universe means that GN-z11 is now some 32 billion light years from Earth.CUǡ8GICU 0GXCFC75#2NCPGVCT[4GUQWTEGUCPF&5[UVGOU DQVJ75#  TGXGCNGFCǡ&RTKPVGFOQFGNQHCURCEGETCHVRCTV OCFGHTQOOGVGQTKVGOGVCNU6JGHGCVKUC UWEEGUUHWNRTQQHQHEQPEGRVVJCVUJQWNF CNNQYHWVWTGOKUUKQPUKPVQVJG5QNCT 5[UVGOVQETGCVGGSWKROGPV CPFǡRCTVUHTQOCUVGTQKFU . Lucy.FAST FACTS 14.

.

.DATELINE SPORTS 1981 206 Sports First car to sell 20 million units On 15 May. at Volkswagen de México’s factory in Puebla. the 20-millionth Volkswagen Beetle rolls off the assembly line. Production of the car in Germany had ceased three years previously.

CONTENTS SPORTS FACTOGRAPHIC 208 AMERICAN FOOTBALL/ BASEBALL 210 BASKETBALL / ICE HOCKEY 212 BOXING / MARTIAL ARTS 214 CRICKET / GOLF 216 EXTREME SPORTS / STREET SPORTS 218 AUTO SPORTS / CYCLING 220 RUGBY / TENNIS 222 CLUB SOCCER / INTERNATIONAL SOCCER 224 TRACK / FIELD 226 SWIMMING / WATER SPORTS 228 SPORTS ROUND-UP 230 SPORTS REFERENCE 232 Highest annual earnings HQTǡCPǡCVJNGVGGXGT Youngest player in a FIFA World Cup On 17 Jun.CU8GICU0GXCFC75#QP ǡ/C[ITQUUGFCTGRQTVGFǡO cǡO  HTQORWTEJCUGUOCMKPIKVVJGhighestselling pay-per-view boxing match .WPǡCEEQTFKPIVQ(QTDGU#PFKPVJGKPUGVRKEVWTGCDQXG NGHVJGǡRTQWFN[JQNFUCNQHVJKU)94EGTVKƒECVGVQEQPƒTOKV /C[YGCVJGTCNUQGPLQ[UVJGhighest career pay-per-view sales for a boxerCTGRQTVGFǡDP cǡO HTQOǡOKNNKQP 228DW[UHQTǡƒIJVUDGVYGGPǡ.WPCPFǡ5GR *KUYGNVGTYGKIJVVKVNGƒIJVCICKPUV/CPP[2CESWKCQ 2*.T 75#HCTNGHV  GCTPGFǡCMPQEMQWVǡO cǡO HTQO. Norman Whiteside appears for Northern Ireland vs Yugoslavia at La Romareda stadium in Zaragoza. The game finishes goalless. aged 17 years 41 days.com 207 DATELINE 9JGPKVEQOGUVQƒPCPEKCNOWUENGQPGURQTVUOCPTGOCKPU WPFKURWVGFEJCORKQP(NQ[F/C[YGCVJGT. NGHV CVVJG/)/)TCPFKP. Spain.WPǡVQ . 1982 guinnessworldrecords.

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2 bn 2TK\GYKPPKPIU 1.GTT[4KEJCTFUQP 75# .CMGTUYGTG XCNWGFCVCTQWPFǡVKOGU VJKUCXGTCIGKP(QTDGUŨ NKUV#DQXG.2 bn TIGER WOODS’ EARNINGS 8.4 bn 'XGT[[GCT(QTDGURWDNKUJGUKVUNKUVQHVJG ǡYGCNVJKGUVVGCOU6JKUKUVJG6QRHTQO VJGKTNCUVQHƒEKCNNKUVRWDNKUJGFKP.QU#PIGNGU. Real Madrid (ESP) Soccer $3. New England Patriots (USA) American football $2.WPKQT$TKFIGOCP 75#   #TPQNF2CNOGT 75#  &CXKF$GEMJCO 7- 1 4.16 bn 9JGPKVEQOGUVQIQNH VJGTGŨUYC[OQTGOQPG[ OCFGQHHVJGITGGPVJCP QPKV+Pǡ[GCTUCUC RTQHGUUKQPCNIQNHGT9QQFU JCUYQPOKPRTK\G OQPG[0QVDCFDWVKVŨU FYCTHGFEQORCTGFVQVJG DPRNWUJGŨUGCTPGFKP URQPUQTUJKRFGCNUFWTKPI VJGUCOGRGTKQF =6. Washington Redskins (USA) American football $2. . =2. Dallas Cowboys (USA) American football $3.CPVJGXCNWGQHVJG CXGTCIG0$#VGCOVQRRGF ǡDPHQTVJGƒTUVVKOGGXGT 6JG.6 bn RICHEST RETIRED ATHLETES 2015 =2.756 Cheerleader: $100 2GTICOG0CVKQPCN$CUMGVDCNN#UUQEKCVKQP 0$#  RNC[GTUGCTPQPCXGTCIGPGCTN[VKOGU VJGUCNCT[QHCP0$#EJGGTNGCFGT +P. A fortunate – and highly talented – few are able to carry on earning long after retirement courtesy of endorsements. Manchester United (UK) Soccer $3.QTFCP 75#TKIJV 0#/'0#6+10#.5 bn 'PFQTUGOGPVU =6.26 bn HOLY COW! NBA EARNINGS Player: $59.CMGTUNGIGPF -QDG$T[CPVYJQRNC[GFJKU ƒPCNICOGQP#RT NBA VALUE NBA average: $1.WNǡ =9.4 bn /KEJCGN.1 bn SPORT +0%1/' $CUMGVDCNN ǡO ǡO ǡO /QVQTURQTV )QNH ǡO $CUMGVDCNN ǡO ǡO )QNH O #OGTKECPHQQVDCNN ǡO ǡO O $CUMGVDCNN )QNH 5QEEGT $CUMGVDCNN 4GCN/CFTKFGCTPGFǡOKP ICVGǡTGEGKRVUKPDWVǡDP HTQODTQCFECUVKPI  'TXKPū/CIKEŬ.6 bn 9KVJCPGVYQTVJDGNKGXGFVQDGKPVJGTGIKQPQHOVGPPKU CEG4QIGT(GFGTGTKUCOQPIVJGYGCNVJKGUVURQTVUOGPKPVJG YQTNF1HVJGOCP[RTK\GUJGJCURKEMGFWRQXGTVJG [GCTURGTJCRUVJGOQUVWPWUWCNKU. Los Angeles Dodgers (USA) Baseball $2.QJPUQP 75# 9  4QIGT2GPUMG 75# .+6.CEM0KEMNCWU 75# 5JCSWKNNG1Ũ0GCN 75# 5 6 7 )CT[2NC[GT <#( Source: Forbes 5. but that isn’t necessarily the case for sportsmen. New York Knicks (USA) Basketball $2. Los Angeles Lakers (USA) Basketball $2.25 bn Lakers: $2. FC Barcelona (ESP) Soccer $3.WNKGVVG CEQYJGYCUIKHVGFCHVGTYKPPKPIJKUƒTUV 9KODNGFQPVKVNGDCEMKP .6 bn They say you have to be in it to win it.TOP 10 RICHEST TEAMS Source: Forbes =9. licensing and personal appearances. New York Yankees (USA) Baseball $3.

This represents the most times passing and running for touchdowns in the same NFL game – a record 31. Peyton Manning of the Denver Broncos gained 35 yards First quarterback to win the Super Bowl with two different teams Peyton Manning led the Indianapolis Colts to a 29–17 victory over the Chicago Bears in Super $QYNǡ:. 31 Aug 1983) of the Arizona Cardinals caught his 1.871 passing yards – the NFL’s all-time record.000 receptions At 32 years 97 days old. Manning is also the ̨UVWSOD\HUWRZLQ JDPHVDV1)/ VWDUWLQJTXDUWHUEDFN LQFOXGLQJ MOST RUSHING TOUCHDOWNS BY AN NFL QUARTERBACK DATELINE Cam Newton has run for 43 touchdowns in 78 games for the Carolina Panthers since 2011. Youngest NFL player to reach 1.AMERICAN FOOTBALL Most consecutive pass completions Miami Dolphins quarterback Ryan 6CPPGJKNNOCFGǡRCUU completions over two NFL games: seven straight against the 6GPPGUUGG6KVCPUǡQP ǡ1EVCPFǡ against the Houston 6GZCPUQPǡ1EV All teams and players are USA. This equals the record set by Steve Young in 169 games over 15 seasons. Larry Fitzgerald (b. Most passing yards in an NFL career On 15 Nov 2015. Newton also threw two touchdown passes and ran for two touchdowns in a 38–10 victory over the Tampa Bay Buccaneers on 3 Jan 2016. playing for the Tampa Bay Buccaneers and San Francisco 49ers from 1985 to 1999.+QPǡ(GDCPFPKPG[GCTUNCVGTIWKFGFVJG&GPXGT$TQPEQUVQCŤYKPQXGTVJG %CTQNKPC2CPVJGTUKP5WRGT$QYNQPǡ(GD6JGNCVVGTXKEVQT[OCFG/CPPKPICVVJGCIG QHǡVJGoldest quarterback to win a Super Bowl5GGDGNQYHQTOQTG/CPPKPITGEQTFU passing in a game against the Miami Dolphins to reach 71.000th pass on 6 Dec 2015. 1983 210 Sports SRVWVHDVRQ.

playing the Dallas Cowboys. Most games gaining 200 yards rushing in an 0(. New Orleans Saints’ Drew Brees (below). threw a touchdown pass to C J Spiller for a 26–20 win in 13 sec of overtime. on the Kola Peninsula of Arctic Russia.261 m (40. .226 ft) when work stops owing to a lack of funds. Minnesota Vikings in a 30–14 win over the Oakland Raiders on 15 Nov 2015. It was Peterson’s sixth 200yard game. equalling the mark set by O J Simpson. Most combined touchdown passes in an NFL game #VQVCNQHVQWEJFQYPRCUUGUYGTGVJTQYPFWTKPI 0GY1TNGCPUŨŤXKEVQT[QXGTVJG0GY. playing for the Indianapolis Colts and Denver Broncos between 1998 and 2015. The depth reached is 12.QTM)KCPVU6JGRTGXKQWUOCTMQH ǡVQWEJFQYPRCUUGUJCFUVQQFHQTǡ[GCTU Deepest penetration into Earth’s crust Excavation ceases on a geological exploratory borehole near Zapolyarny..ǡECTGGT Adrian Peterson gained 203 yards rushing while playing for the Shortest regular season overtime game On 4 Oct 2015.QTM)KCPVU QPǡ0QX5GXGPYGTGD[&TGY$TGGU CDQXG QH VJG0GY1TNGCPU5CKPVUCPFUKZYGTGD['NK/CPPKPI QHVJG0GY. He won 186 regular season games and 14 postseason games.

pictured) from 2008 to 3 Aug 2015. he hi Houston A a double s. Chicago’s homerun hitters were Starlin Castro (DOM). unless otherwise stated. for the Texas Rangers.WP*GJCUVYKEGYQPVJG#OGTKECP . Dexter Fowler. Daniel Murphy hit a home run in six successive playoff games in the 2015 postseason. the Chicago Cubs hit six home runs in an 8–6 victory over the St Louis Cardinals. for the Oakland Athletics. the winning pitcher for the New York Mets against the Cincinnati Reds. The greatest number of times this has been done in a career is three: by John Reilly from 1883 to 1890 (including twice in seven days). Chicago White Sox. Alex Rodriguez has recorded 25 since 1994. Beltré. 7 Apr Adrián Beltr he hit s old when was 36 year for the d) re tu ic e (p for the cycl ainst the Playing ag third time. New York Yankees. The Cardinals hit two home runs in the same game for a combined total of eight – the PRVW KRPHUXQVKLWLQRQH SRVWVHDVRQJDPHE\ERWK WHDPV. Most at-bats without recording CǡJKVǡVQǡUVCTVCECTGGT Playing for the Boston Red Sox. Cleveland Indians and Atlanta Braves). of the Texas Rangers. t a triple stros. Most valuable shipwreck found Treasure-hunter Mel Fisher (USA.GCIWG)QNF)NQXG#YCTFHQTƒGNFKPIKPCPF Highest National Baseball Hall of Fame vote percentage -GP)TKHHG[. The ship sank in 1622. Most runs batted in D[CRKVEJGTKPJKUƒTUVICOG On 28 Jun 2015. Most home runs in one postseason game by a team On 12 Oct 2015. Most grand slam home runs in an MLB career A grand slam home run is one hit when all the bases are occupied. Most games to feature CǡTKIJVCPFNGHVJCPFGF home run by the same player Two players have each hit a home run left-handed and another right-handed in the same game on 14 occasions. double. Anthony Rizzo. Most consecutive matches in MLB YKVJQWVCPGTTQTKPVJGQWVƒGNF 1WVƒGNFGT0KEM/CTMCMKUYGPVǡICOGUYKVJQWVCPGTTQT YJKNGRNC[KPIHQTVJG$CNVKOQTG1TKQNGUCPF#VNCPVC$TCXGUHTQO ǡ#WIVQǡ. Murphy signed with the Washington Nationals.BASEBALL Longest Major League Baseball (MLB) World Series game (innings) Most consecutive postseason games hitting a home run (individual) Playing for the New York Mets. Playing for KNOW?) DID YOU 1979 é (b. Jason Heyward and Stephen Piscotty each connected for the Cardinals. Texas Rangers and New York Yankees. triple and home run (in any order) in the same game. Oakland Athletics and Chicago Cubs from 16 Jun 2006 to 6 Jul 2015. In Jan 2016. with a cargo of 40 US tons (36. 1922–98) finds the Nuestra Señora de Atocha off the Florida coast on 20 Jul. Jorge Soler (CUB) and Kyle Schwarber.QTM /GVUŤKPǡKPPKPIU Their record equalled that of the Chicago White Sox vs Houston Astros in 1EVǡCPFVJG$QUVQP Red Sox vs Brooklyn &QFIGTUKP1EVǡ . ng ni in in the first in the nd. Jon Lester had the longest KLWOHVVGURXJKWRͦFLDO regular season at-bats. batted in four runs. Bob Meusel from 1921 to 1928. secured his third cycle in a 12–9 victory against the Houston Astros. 1985 guinnessworldrecords. Atlanta Braves. All teams and individuals are USA. in the fifth the Seattle Mariners. They are Mark Teixeira (since 2003. “Babe” Herman from 1931 to 1933.TYCU elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame KPYKVJVJGJKIJGUV ever percentage of XQVGU*GCRRGCTGFQP  QT QHVJG DCNNQVUECUV)TKHHG[ QHVJG5GCVVNG/CTKPGTU EQOOGPVGFū6QIGVVJG ECNNKUWPDGNKGXCDNGŬ MOST TIMES HITTING FOR THE CYCLE The cycle is a rare baseball feat in which a batter hits a single. Kris Bryant. Los Angeles Angels and New York Yankees) and Nick Swisher (since 2004. Steven Matz.2 tonnes) of gold and silver and some 70 lb (32 kg) of emeralds. in Game Three of the National League Division Series. a single in the seco n ru e m ho third and a . and Adrián Beltré (DOM.com 211 DATELINE 1Pǡ1EVVJG Kansas City Royals FGHGCVGFVJG0GY.

playing in 11 All-Star games from 2005 to 2016. The same year.680. which stands 15 ft 6 in (4. This matched the total set by the Los Angeles Lakers on 18 Apr 1985 and Dallas Mavericks on 4 May 1986.COGU$T[CPVKUVJGQPN[0$#RNC[GTYKVJOQTGVJCP ǡRQKPVUCUUKUVUCPFTGDQWPFU MOST THREE-POINT FIELD GOALS BY A TEAM IN A SEASON DATELINE The Houston Rockets set an NBA record by scoring 933 three-point field goals during the 2014/15 season. he recorded the most points scored by an individual in an NBA game: 100. *KIJGUVUEQTKPI #NN5VCTǡ)COG On 14 Feb 2016. Bob Chandler (USA) builds the monstrous Bigfoot 5. /QUVEQPUGEWVKXGNQUUGU 7KH3KLODGHOSKLDHUVORVW 28 games in a row from 0DUWR1RY 2015. Each of its tyres measures 10 ft (3 m) off the ground. . the Rockets also registered the most three-point field goals attempted by a team in a season: 2.CMGTUŨ -QDG$T[CPVKUVJGyoungest player to start a game CV ǡ[GCTUǡFC[U CPFyoungest player to score 25. Most points scored by CǡVGCOKPCP#NN5VCTǡ)COG The West All-Stars scored 196 points in the All-Star Game held on 14 Feb 2016. the two All-Stars sides scored a combined 369 points. All teams and individuals are USA. 1986 212 Sports DID YOU KNOW? James H arden’s prodigio perform us ances du 2011/12 ring the season sa w him b the seco ecome nd-youn gest win the prest ner of igious N B A Sixth of the Y Man ear Awa rd.QU#PIGNGU. In the course of achieving that milestone.BASKETBALL The most points scored in NBA All-Star games is 291 by LeBron James (USA).235 kg). He set the record on 27 May 2015. Most points scored by CǡVGCOKPVJGƒTUVSWCTVGT QHǡCRQUVUGCUQPOCVEJ The Houston Rockets scored SRLQWVLQWKHͤUVWTXDUWHU of their postseason match against the Golden State Warriors on 25 May 2015. Austin Rivers played under Los Angeles Clippers coach Doc Rivers against the Cleveland Cavaliers.000 lb (17. by Wilt Chamberlain in 1962. The most points scored by a player in an All-Star Game is 42. /QUVVJTGGRQKPVƒGNFIQCNU KPǡCǡRQUVUGCUQPD[CPKPFKXKFWCN 5VGRJGP%WTT[EQPXGTVGFVJTGGRQKPVƒGNFIQCNUHQTVJG)QNFGP 5VCVG9CTTKQTUFWTKPIVJG0$#RNC[QHHU6JG9CTTKQTU UGVCPGYTGEQTFHQTVJGbest season start KP0$#JKUVQT[YKVJ ǡEQPUGEWVKXGXKEVQTKGUVQDGIKPVJGUGCUQP All records relate to the National Basketball Association (NBA). The West All-Stars beat the (DVWVTXDG̰ (KTUVHCVJGTUQP RNC[GTEQCEJVCPFGO For 11 min on 16 Jan 2015. They also share the record for most consecutive losses to start a season (18) with the 1HZ-HUVH\1HWV Kobe Bryant 6JGUGCUQPUGGUVJGGPFQHCTGOCTMCDNG0$# ECTGGT#OQPIJKUOCP[TGEQTFUVJG. Not b someon ad for e who h as suffe red from asthma a ttacks si nce childhoo d… Largest monster truck Over the summer.G$TQP.7 m) tall and tips the scales at 38. James Harden (right) performed the most turnovers in a postseason game by an individual – 13 – while playing for the Rockets in a 104–90 loss to the Golden State Warriors. during Game 5 of the team’s playoff series.000 points CVǡ[GCTUǡFC[U *GCNUQUJCTGUVJGTGEQTFHQT the OQUVƒGNFIQCNUOCFGKP0$##NN5VCTICOGU  YKVJ .

CTQOȐT.8-mph NPK.CPQWVUVTKRRKPIVJGIQCNTGEQTFUGVD[VJG NGIGPFCT[%CPCFKCPTKIJVYKPI)QTFKG*QYG All records relate to the National Hockey League (NHL) contested in the 75#ǡCPF%CPCFC Fastest ice hockey shot Zdeno Chára (SVK) delivered a 108.QPIGUV UJQQVQWV 6JG(NQTKFC2CPVJGTU VQQMTQWPFUVQ FGHGCVVJG9CUJKPIVQP %CRKVCNU DQVJ75# Ť QPǡ&GE1VJGT TGEQTFUUGVFWTKPIVJG ICOGKPENWFGVJGmost shootout goals by both teams  CPFVJGmost shootout goals by a team UKZD[(NQTKFC  /QUVECTGGTICOGYKPPKPIIQCNU .ȄIT %<' ǡJCFUEQTGFǡICOGYKPPKPIECTGGTIQCNU CUQHǡ.ICE HOCKEY .

USA. Canada. Team Toews beat Team Foligno ̰ ERWK&$1. on 29 Jan 2012. *KIJGUVUEQTKPI #NN5VCTǡ)COG In total.VODSVKRW for the Boston Bruins (USA) during the All-Star Game’s Skills Competition in Ottawa. Ontario. 29 goals were scored in WKH1+/ All-Star Game at Columbus in Ohio.

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a goalie stops the opposing team from scoring for the whole game. The Edmonton Oilers’ Ben 6FULYHQV ERWK&$1.LQ /QUVUCXGUKPCUJWVQWV In a shutout.

the US stock market has dropped by 22. /QUVRQKPVUD[CVGCO YKVJQWVTGCEJKPI VJGǡRNC[QHHU The Boston Bruins earned 96 points in the standings GXULQJWKHVHDVRQ \HWVWLOOIDLOHGWRTXDOLI\IRU the postseason. /QUVUJQQVQWVIQCNUKPCECTGGT #UJQQVQWVVCMGURNCEGKPCICOGVJCVKUVKGFCHVGTCPQXGTVKOG RGTKQF$[VJGGPFQHVJGUGCUQP. Zach Parise (USA.5% and the UK stock market by 26. with 23 consecutive home wins during the 2011/12 season. set by the Pittsburgh Penguins (USA) between 9 Mar and 10 Apr 1993. The Detroit Red Wings recorded the longest home winning streak by a team. far left) and Mikko Koivu (FIN. first accomplished by the Detroit Red Wings during the 2005/06 season and matched by the Minnesota Wild (both USA) in 2014/15. left) celebrate as the Wild tie the score at 1–1 against the Los Angeles Kings on 16 Oct 2015. 1987 guinnessworldrecords. .4%.PDGH VDYHVLQD̰ZLQRYHU the San Jose Sharks (USA) on 29 Jan 2014. the Canadian stock market by 22.68%. Pictured. The Bruins ͤQLVKHGZLWK̰̰IRU their points. By the end of the month. The longest winning streak overall by a team is 17 games.QPCVJCP6QGYU %#0CDQXGNGHV JCFPGVVGFǡUJQQVQWVIQCNUHQTVJG%JKECIQ $NCEMJCYMU 75# *GKUUGGPJGTGEQORGVKPIHQTVJGRWEMYKVJ 5JCPG&QCP %#0 QHVJG#TK\QPC%Q[QVGU 75# QPǡ(GD LONGEST ROAD WINNING STREAK BY A TEAM Greatest collapse of global stock markets On 19 Oct – “Black Monday” – stocks begin a dramatic worldwide decline.com 213 DATELINE /QUVUJQVUDNQEMGF KPǡCUGCUQP Kris Russell blocked 283 shots for the Calgary Flames The longest unbroken run of wins away from home is 12 games.

) . 43 of his 49 ͤJKWVZHUHE\NQRFNRXWV or stoppages. aged 48 years 67 days. Mayweather won on points.QG9CTFKPVJGƒPCNUKP&QJC3CVCT HIGHEST REVENUE FROM TICKET SALES FOR A BOXING MATCH A welterweight title fight between Floyd Mayweather Jr (USA) and Manny Pacquiao (PHL) earned $72. on 2 May 2015.219 tickets. in 2011.843. (For more on the Voyager spacecraft’s incredible – and still ongoing – journey. who also retired with a 49–0 record. Until then. The fight took place at the MGM Grand in Las Vegas.0 00 pay a set $2 come ve ha to fee that was s r’ ne in out of his w purse. 2013 and 2015.QGǡ. USA. ? U KNOW DID YOan e at un rt fo un DATELINE There was er’s Mayweath epilogue to cquiao. above) was crowned WBO champion QPǡ1EV9KVJJKUYQTNFVKVNGƒIJVQPǡ0QX JGUGVCPGYTGEQTFQHHQTVJGOQUVYQTNFJGCX[YGKIJV title bouts. Most world heavyweight title bouts Wladimir Klitschko (UKR. He won ͤJKWVE\NQRFNRXW Oldest boxing world champion (female) Bettering her own record set in 2013. which he set between 11 Oct 1996 and 12 Sep 2015. /QUVIQNFOGFCNUYQPKPǡVJG AIBA World Boxing Championships (light heavyweight) Julio César La Cruz (CUB) won three consecutive AIBA titles.931) (£ 00 . NASA’s Voyager 1 takes a picture of Earth from a distance of almost 6. aka Rocco Francis Marchegiano (USA). La Cruz is pictured above.QWKU 75# YJQDGECOGEJCORKQPQPǡ. in New York. 1990 214 Sports Most distant image of Earth On 14 Feb. ZRQHYHU\ͤJKWRIKLV professional career. This feat was equalled by Floyd Mayweather Jr (USA).WP CPFǡJCFJKUVJCPFƒPCNUJQVCVVJGVKVNGQPǡ5GR Jamaican-American boxer Alicia Ashley (b. defeating +TGNCPFŨU.24–25. 23 Aug 1967) defeated Christina McMahon (IRL) to regain the WBC Female Super Bantamweight title.000. in blue.387) from the sale of 16.000 (£657. USA.251) to produce.BOXING Most expensive boxing championship belt The World Boxing Council (WBC) Emerald Belt awarded to Floyd Mayweather Jr (USA) on 2 May 2015 cost $1. see pp. a FKDPSLRQDFURVVͤYHZHLJKW divisions.5 billion km (4 billion mi).500 (£46. Most bouts undefeated by a world champion boxer in a career Legendary heavyweight champion Rocky Marciano.198. Klitschko had matched the record set D[. on 29 Oct 2015. Mayweather received the belt following his defeat of the Philippines’ Manny Pacquiao (see below). His Pa t ns ai victory ag m just two ken from hi title was ta ld Boxing or W e r by th months late failing to r n (WBO) fo Organizatio 130. In all. Nevada. with 49 victories between 17 Mar 1947 and 21 Sep 1955 (he announced his retirement on 27 Apr 1956).

b. LONGEST TOTAL FIGHT TIME IN A UFC CAREER The greatest aggregate time spent in the octagon (the eight-sided enclosure where UFC bouts take place) by a UFC fighter is 5 hr 37 min 51 sec by Frankie Edgar (USA). Most medals won in the Karate 1 Premier League Alisa Buchinger and Bettina Plank (both AUT) each won 14 Karate 1 Premier League medals from 2013 to 2015. 2008. 2012. breaking the record set by Georges St-Pierre (CAN). Youngest competitor KPǡCǡ-CTCVG Premier League event Cengizhan Koca (TUR.WN *GǡVQQMVJGTGEQTFHTQO-CKɢ*KTQ[WMKQPǡ/C[YJGP JGǡHQWIJVJKUVJDQWV*GKUUGEQPFQPN[VQɡshio.20 KPVGTOUQHVJGmost sumo wrestling career bouts. aka -GPLK*CVCPQ . Most wins of the World Judo Championships (male) Guadeloupe-born Teddy Riner (FRA) has won eight titles at the World Judo Championships – seven in the +100 kg (heavyweight) division (2007. between 3 Feb 2003 and 11 Dec 2015. in 2002.QU#PIGNGUǡ%CNKHQTPKC75#QPǡǡ(GD Most top-division sumo bouts -[QMWVGPJɢ/CUCTW /0) EQPVGUVGFVQRFKXKUKQP (makuuchi UWOQYTGUVNKPIDQWVUHTQOVQǡ. In 2009. 2009–11. Switzerland. who had achieved a time of 5 hr 28 min 12 sec across 21 bouts in 2013. he won 86 bouts out of the 90 . Edgar defended the title three times before losing to Benson Henderson in 2012. Most wins of the World Judo Championships team competition (female) The Japanese women’s team has taken the top spot at the World Judo &KDPSLRQVKLSVͤYH times. 2013 and 2015. First website On 6 Aug in Geneva. computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee (UK) launches the website he has built to demonstrate the World Wide Web: http://info. and again in 2010. A UFC lightweight champion in 2010. ɡUJKQHQWIJVDQWVUVQ-[QMWVGPJɢŨU UHJXODWLRQͤJKWVWKDWWRS rikishi (sumo wrestlers) contest annually – the most wins in a calendar year. 2013–15) and one as a member of the French men’s team in 2011. Edgar is shown below (left) during his defeat of fellow American Urijah Faber on 16 May 2015 in the Philippine capital of Manila. 7 Oct 1998) was 16 years 333 days old when he fought at the Karate 1 Istanbul 2015 event on 5 Sep 2015. had won 35 top-division sumo championships.MARTIAL ARTS First athlete to win boxing and MMA world titles 6JGƒTUVCVJNGVGOCNGQTHGOCNGVQDGDQVJDQZKPIYQTNF EJCORKQPCPFCP//# OKZGFOCTVKCNCTVU YQTNFEJCORKQP KU*QNN[*QNO 75#TKIJV YJQDGECOG9$# 9QTNF$QZKPI Association) welterweight champion in 2006 and held YQTNFVKVNGUWPVKN5JGDGECOG7(% 7NVKOCVG(KIJVKPI %JCORKQPUJKR DCPVCOYGKIJVEJCORKQPD[FGHGCVKPI4QPFC 4QWUG[ 75#NGHV D[YC[QHUGEQPFTQWPFMPQEMQWVKP /GNDQWTPG#WUVTCNKCQPǡ0QX 'CTNKGTKPVJG[GCT 4QWUG[JCFUGVJGTQYPYQTNFTGEQTFJQYGXGTCEJKGXKPIVJG HCUVGUV7(%VKVNGƒIJVXKEVQT[D[UWDOKUUKQPKPLWUVǡUGE YJGPUJGFGHGCVGF%CV<KPICPQCV7(%UVCIGFCVVJG 5VCRNGU%GPVGTKP.cern. Edgar attained his feat in 18 UFC fights. 1991 guinnessworldrecords.com 215 DATELINE Most top-division sumo championships won $VRI-XO+DNXKď 6KďDND0¸QNKEDW\Q Davaajargal (MNG).ch/.

First animal cloned from an adult cell On 5 Jul.4 km/h (99. ew Guin ea. Highest partnership in a 6YGPV[ǡ 6 +PVGTPCVKQPCN /QUVTWPUUEQTGFD[ VGCOUǡKPCP1&+UGTKGU England (1. playing against Australia in his ͤQDO7HVWPDWFK1HZ FASTEST BALL BOWLED IN A TEST MATCH Zealand captain Brendon McCullum smashed a 54-ball hundred. series. who weathered the storm and went on to make 290 – the highest Test score by a visiting batsman in Australia. Ass ICC mem ociate bers wit h ODI statu Afghanis tan. Joe Root (2) and Eoin Morgan. Starc is only the fourth bowler – after Shoaib Akhtar (PAK.41 mph) or more in the history of international cricket. The left-armer’s yorker was defended by New Zealand batsman Ross Taylor.CP0GY<GCNCPFQRGPGTU/CTVKP)WRVKNN NGHV CPF -CPG9KNNKCOUQPCEJKGXGFCPWPDTQMGPUVCPFQHǡTWPUKPC6 +PVGTPCVKQPCNCICKPUV2CMKUVCPCV5GFFQP2CTMKP0GY<GCNCPF )WRVKNN PQVQWVQHHDCNNU CPF9KNNKCOUQP PQVQWVQHH ǡDCNNU UCYVJGJQUVUJQOGKPQXGTUYKVJDCNNUVQURCTG First day–night Test match On 27–29 Nov 2015. Fastest Test match hundred On 20 Feb 2016. playing against England in the ICC World Twenty20 tournament. As and and of 24 Oct the 2015. With this experiment in starting and ͤQLVKLQJWKHPDWFKODWHUWKH International Cricket Council (ICC) hoped to enable more people to watch Test cricket.534) together scored 3.4 km/h a ball at 160. including tons from England’s Jos Buttler. Dolly the Sheep is born in the UK to a surrogate mother. Australia and New Zealand contested a day–night Test. Scotl UAE.151 runs in their One-Day International (ODI) series in England in Jun 2015. 2003).617) and New Zealand (1. /QUVTWPUKP6GUVOCVEJGU DGVYGGPFKUOKUUCNU From 10 Dec 2015 to 14 Feb 2016. Dolly is successfully cloned from the cell of an adult Finnish Dorset sheep. who scored the most runs by a WHDPLQD̨YHPDWFK2'. /QUV FKUOKUUCNU D[CYKEMGV MGGRGT in a T20 +PVGTPCVKQPCN /QJCOOCF5JCJ\CF #() OCFGƒXG FKUOKUUCNUCICKPUV1OCP CV5JGKMJ<C[GF5VCFKWO KP#DW&JCDK7#'QP ǡ0QX*GVQQM VJTGGECVEJGUCPFOCFG VYQUVWORKPIUVQJGNR JKUVGCOYKPD[TWPU 1Pǡ. DID YO U KN There are 10 full IC OW? (Test-pla C memb ying nati ers ons). beating Zimbabwe 3–2 in Oct 2015. Hon s are Papua N g Kong. 1996 216 Sports (CUVGUVƒXGYKEMGVJCWNKP Cǡ6GUVǡOCVEJ DCNNUDQYNGF 1Pǡ#WI'PINCPFŨU5VWCTV$TQCF CDQXGTKIJV VQQMDCNNUCPF ǡOKPVQFKUOKUUƒXGQH#WUVTCNKCŨUVQRQTFGTKPVJG(QWTVJ#UJGU 6GUVCV6TGPV$TKFIG7-*GGSWCNNGFVJGTGEQTFD['TPKG6QUJCEM #75 YJQVQQMƒXGYKEMGVUHQTVYQTWPUKPGKIJVDCNNQXGTU CICKPUV+PFKCCV$TKUDCPG%TKEMGV)TQWPF#WUVTCNKCQP&GE (KTUV1&+UGTKGUYKPHQT CPǡCUUQEKCVG+%%OGODGT CICKPUVCHWNNOGODGT $IJKDQLVWDQZRQWKHͤUVW ODI series against a Testplaying nation. *KIJGUVUEQTGKP CNKOKVGFQXGTUOCVEJ OKPQTETKEMGV  On 3 Nov 2014. England. Ireland. 15-year-old Sankruth Sriram (IND) smashed 486 not out playing for JSS International School against Hebron School. on 15 Nov 2015. Australia. and New Zealand’s Ross Taylor (2) and Kane Williamson. in Ooty (Ootacamund). This equalled the record set in 2007 by Yuvraj Singh (IND). New Zealand. . She will give birth to lambs by natural means and reach the age of six. McCullum has also hit the most sixes in a Test match career: 107 in 176 innings. The feat took 79 min at Hagley Oval in Christchurch. Brett Lee (AUS.66 mph) during a Test match between Australia and New Zealand at the WACA in Perth. featuring 16 fours and four sixes. (CUVGUVƒHV[ in a T20 match Chris Gayle (JAM) UHFRUGHGDEDOOͤIW\IRU the Melbourne Renegades DATELINE Australia’s Mitchell Starc delivered 160. at the Adelaide Oval in Australia. India. 2010) – to achieve a bowling speed of 160 km/h (99. with a pink ball (to increase visibility). 2005) and Shaun Tait (AUS. Afg had won hanistan six of th e ir first 2 against 0 ODIs Test-pla ying nations. won the series 3–2. Adam Voges (AUS) scored 614 runs.CRICKET against the Adelaide Strikers in Australia on 18 Jan 2016.

com 217 DATELINE Largest EQOGDCEM in the 5QNJGKO%WR On 20 Sep 2015.QYGUVUEQTG VQRCTKP CǡOGPŨU IQNHǡOCLQT /QUVYKPUQHVJG2TGUKFGPVU%WRD[CVGCO 6JG75#JCUYQPVJGDKGPPKCNVQWTPCOGPVPKPGVKOGUKP CPF6JG2TGUKFGPVU%WRKUEQPVGUVGFD[VJG75#CPFCPKPVGTPCVKQPCNVGCOOCFGWR QHǡRNC[GTUYJQCTGKPGNKIKDNGVQRNC[KPVJG4[FGT%WRŤVJCVKUVJGTGUVQHVJGYQTNFNGUU'WTQRG +PǡKVYCUJGNFKP+PEJGQP5QWVJ-QTGCCPFVJG75#YQPD[|VQ|RQKPVU . She was also of setting this record. In so doing. USA. 1) and a ck chieved wins of the most Most recently it the LPG A Cham four. 24 Apr golfer ranked number one in Évian-les-Bains. the USA stormed to victory by 14½ to 13½ – the smallest winning margin in the Solheim Cup.851. on 11–14 Jun 2015. surpassing Tiger Woods by one place in the Forbes list. New York. 1997 guinnessworldrecords.960) in earnings.QYGUVUEQTGVQRCT KPCYQOGPŨUIQNHOCLQT Five golfers in three different majors have UHFRUGHG. aged 22 years 62 days.030. Other than the standard PGA earnings. France.020) in the Black Rock Desert. at the age Jordan Spieth (USA. he became the youngest player to win the FedEx Cup. Tseng and Park.CUQP&C[ #75  CEJKGXGFCVVJG VJǡ2TQHGUUKQPCN )QNHGTUŨ#UUQEKCVKQP 2)# %JCORKQPUJKR QPǡVJG5VTCKVU%QWTUG QHǡ9JKUVNKPI5VTCKVUPGCT -QJNGT9KUEQPUKP75# &C[ŨURGTHQTOCPEG UGEWTGFJKOJKUƒTUV OCLQT*GƒPKUJGFYKVJ  ŤŤŤ  . Clinching this and the Tour Championship returned Spieth to his position as world No. Andy Green (UK) pilots the jet-powered Thrust SSC to a speed of 1. and by Cristie Kerr DID YO (USA) and Yani Tseng Mickey W U KNOW? right (U SA) was (TPE) at the 2010 first to w the in the LP Champio and 2011 LPGA GA nship ba (1960–6 ck-to-ba championships. 1997) was aged 18 years (aged 17 years 283 days on on 13 Sep 2015. 27 Jul 1993) dominated the 2015 PGA of 15 years 124 days. Championship in Harrison. Canada. KOR.CFKGU2TQHGUUKQPCN)QNH under par in the LPGA #UUQEKCVKQP%JCORKQPUJKRVJTGGVKOGUVYKEGD[RNC[QHHCPFQPEG Championship. Germany.GOLF .18-m) bonus by winning the Tour’s finale. on IN A PGA SEASON 26 Aug 2012. the USA trailed 6–10 to Europe. USA. For Kerr. Nevada.4 m). Tour and received $12. D[ƒXGUVTQMGU5JGGSWCNNGFVJGTGEQTFUGVD[#PPKMC5ȘTGPUVCO 59' KPŤ5GGNGHVHQTCPQVJGTQH2CTMŨUTGEQTFU . At the time 142 days when she won the 1 Feb 2015). at the start of the third DQGͤQDOGD\RI play at the Golf Club St Leon-Rot in Baden-Württemberg. Ko the youngest LPGA Tour HYHQWZLQQHU – of the CN Canadian Women’s Open HIGHEST EARNINGS in Vancouver. the FedEx Cup. It is the first car to break the sound barrier.227. /QUVEQPUGEWVKXGYKPU QHVJG.035 mph). Mach 1.2)#%JCORKQPUJKR No one had ever won more than $11 m prior to Spieth’s lucrative season. Making a spectacular comeback of four points. b. This was matched by Karen Stupples (UK) at the 2004 British Open. right) (four) w ith Betsy Ra at the LPGA wls (UK). Sh pionship e also sh was achieved : ares the for the m record by Inbee Park ost US W o m O e n p ’s en titles (KOR.465 (£7.985 km/h (763. 1PŤǡ#WI . b. he also picked up a $10-m (£7. Land-speed record On 15 Oct. these records also marked the lowest score +PŤ+PDGG2CTM -14 YQPVJG. *KIJGUVCPPWCNGCTPKPIU HQTCIQNHGT EWTTGPV[GCT In Jun 2014–Jun 2015. Phil Mickelson (USA) earned an estimated $51 m (£32.WZDVͤUVW achieved by Dottie Pepper (USA) at the 1999 Kraft Nabisco Championship.QWPIGUVIQNHGTVQYKP CYQOGPŨUOCLQTIQNH EJCORKQPUJKR was already the youngest 2015 Evian Championships Lydia Ko (NZ.1.

Farthest flight by CǡRCTCINKFGT OCNG Three paraglider pilots covered a straight distance of 514 km (319.3 mi) in the same trip. Marcelo Prieto and Donizete /HPRV DOO%5$. Frank Brown.EXTREME SPORTS The aviation records on this page were either sourced from the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) or set at FAI-accredited events.

on 9 Oct 2015. Brazil.ͥHZIURP Tacima to Monsenhor Tabosa in Paraíba. Seiko Fukuoka-Naville (FRA. b. JPN) achieved the IDUWKHVW̩LJKWE\D SDUDJOLGHU IHPDOH.

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FRYHUHGNP PL. 2000 218 Sports /QUVYKPUQHVJG4GF$WNN %NKHHǡ&KXKPI9QTNF5GTKGU HGOCNG  Rachelle Simpson (USA) has won the Red Bull Cliff Diving World 5GTKGUVYKEGKPCPF$TKVCKPŨU)CT[*WPVJCUƒXGYKPU overall.73 sec. France. The fastest 15 m speed climb (female) is 7. on 12 Sep 2014. Spain. on 11 Jul 2015.6 sec to scale 15 m (49 ft 2 in) at the International Federation of Sport Climbing (IFSC) World Championships in Gijón. in 2010–12 and 2014–15. by Iuliia Kaplina (RUS.74-sec climb. The competition began in 2009. above) at the IFSC World Cup in Chamonix. breaking the previous record – which she had also set – by 0.53 sec.11 sec. Kaplina had also set a world record two months earlier with a 7. He beat Russian rival Stanislav Kokorin to win the World Championships title and break the record just weeks after Libor Hroza (CZE) had established a new world mark of 5.7KH\ERWK FASTEST 15 M SPEED CLIMB DATELINE Ukraine’s Danylo Boldyrev (right) took just 5. the most wins of the Red Bull Cliff Diving World Series (male).

Russia. /QUVYKPUQHVJG4GF$WNN #KT4CEG%JCORKQPUJKR Paul Bonhomme (UK) has won the Red Bull Air Race championship three times. but after winning his third title he announced his retirement from air-racing. Bonhomme took part in all 66 races between the championship’s founding in 2003 and 2015. (CUVGUVMOKEGUYKO OCNG  2Q0DU&KULVWRI Wandratsch (DEU) swam 1 km (0. Renata 1RY£NRY£ &=(. ZLWKͥLJKWVWKDWVWDUWHGDQG ended in Bugsdorf. in 2009.6 mi) in PLQH[DFWO\DWWKH International Ice Swimming Association (IISA) World &KDPSLRQVKLSV7KH event was held in the near-freezing waters of /DNH6HPHQRYVNR\HLQ Murmansk. Namibia. 2010 and 2015. 2QWKHVDPHGD\DQG at the same event. on 18 Dec 2015.

after months of optimistic valuations and exuberant investment.48 sec to cover 5 km (3. . A similar fate awaits many other companies as the dot-com technology bubble bursts. (CUVGUVMODCTGHQQV QPǡKEGQTUPQY Latvia’s Edgars Rencis took just 21 min 28. Latvia. His toe-numbing record was achieved on the race track of the Daugava Stadium in Riga. on 24 Jan 2015.UHFRUGHG the IDVWHVWNPLFHVZLP E\DIHPDOHVZLPPHU. losing 54% of its value in 24 hr.1 mi) in the deep snow of the Latvian winter. the share price of Yahoo! Japan goes into freefall. Largest change in share price (24 hr) On 27 Mar. in a time of 14 min 21 sec.

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20 Aug 1999) took part in the Off-Road Truck Racing event in Austin. b.WN MOST CONSECUTIVE GOLD MEDALS AT THE SUMMER X GAMES Most individuals killed in a terrorist act Two aircraft are deliberately flown into the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York City. :)COGU /QUV5WOOGT:ǡ)COGU OGFCNUYQP )URPWR-XQ skateboarder Bob Burnquist (BRA) secured 29 medals.FRPSOHWHG DWRWDORIIRXUEDFNͥLSV at Pastranaland in 'DYLGVRQYLOOH0DU\ODQG USA. There were two X Games held in 2013. E\1\MDK+XVWRQ (USA) in 2011–15. 2001 guinnessworldrecords. USA.GVKEKC$WHQPK $4# ƒPKUJGF0QKPVJG9QTNF%WR5MCVGDQCTFKPI YQTNFTCPMKPIUHQTUVTGGVUMCVKPICVQVCNǡQHǡHQWTǡVKOGUDGVYGGP CPF5JGKUCVJTGGVKOG:)COGUEJCORKQP (USA. QPǡ. Texas. hence the reason Bestwick’s nine consecutive gold medals came in an eight-year span. TheOQUVUMCVGDQCTFKPI UVTGGVIQNFOGFCNUYQP CVVJG5WOOGT :ǡ)COGUis six. USA. on 8 Jun 2014. . on 11 Sep. Danny Way (USA) performed a O HVǡKP CKT on a quarterpipe in Alpine. +HͤQLVKHGLQQLQWKSODFH . Most wins of the (TGPEJǡ%KV[2TQ6QWT Eric Malavergne (FRA) has ZRQWKH)UHQFK&LW\3UR7RXU – France’s long-running annual urban street-golf competition – twice.753 fatalities. USA. which also earned him the record for the most consecutive BMX Vert gold medals won at the Summer X Games. He represented the Los Golfos team in 2012 and 2015. including those who died from subsequent health complications. on 12 Jul 2015. /QUVYKPUQHVJG9QTNFǡ%WR 5MCVGDQCTFKPIUVTGGV YQTNFǡTCPMKPIU HGOCNG . All his golds came in the BMX Vert event. The official death toll stands at 2. California. His incredible run finally came to an end in Jun 2015.QWPIGUV:)COGU RCTVKEKRCPVKP CǡOQVQTK\GFǡURQTV $JHGMXVW\HDUV GD\V*DYLQ+DUOLHQ Highest air on a UMCVGDQCTF SWCTVGTRKRG After several terrifying failed attempts. when he finished second to Vince Byron (AUS) – by one point.com 219 DATELINE Jamie Bestwick (UK) picked up nine consecutive gold medals at the Summer X Games from 2007 to 2014.

Germany’s André Lotterer recorded a 3-min 17.QPIGUVVKOGDGVYGGP +PFKCPCRQNKUǡYKPU 6JGITGCVGUVNCRUGQHVKOGDGVYGGPYKPUQHVJG+PFKCPCRQNKUǡ KU[GCTUFC[UD[. Fastest average URGGFCVC9QTNF4CNN[ %JCORKQPUJKRGXGPV Jari-Matti Latvala (FIN) averaged 125. This was equalled by Mercedes (DEU) during the 2014 season and again during the 2015 season. on 14 Jun 2015. on 2 Aug 2015. He won 12 more times in the 500 cc class before it was rebranded as MotoGP in 2002.475-sec lap in the famous 24-hour race in Le Mans. Mercedes has also registered the most one-two ̨QLVKHVE\DFRQVWUXFWRULQ DQ)VHDVRQ. Rossi’s first 500 cc championship win came at the British Grand Prix in 2001. France.GYKU*COKNVQP 7- NGF(QTOWNC ( TCEGUKPCTQY HTQOǡ. He has ridden for Honda. with 12 from 15 Mar to 29 Nov 2015.AUTO SPORTS Most consecutive F1 races led . Red Bull Racing (AUT) became the ͤUVWFRQVWUXFWRU to achieve 18 pole positions in an F1 season.887 sec in a Porsche 919 Hybrid. . Both planes fire missiles at each other.WN*COKNVQPDTQMGVJGTGEQTFUGV KPD[. MOST WORLD CHAMPIONSHIP CAREER RACE WINS IN MOTOGP (500 CC) DATELINE Italy’s Valentino Rossi has secured 86 World Motorcycle Championship race wins in the MotoGP (500 cc) class. riding for Honda.CEMKG5VGYCTV 7- YJQNGFUVTCKIJVTCEGUHQT CVNGCUVQPGHWNNNCR*COKNVQPŨUTWPGPFGFCVVJG*WPICTKCP )TCPF2TKZFGURKVGDGKPIKPRQNGRQUKVKQPJGYCUQXGTVCMGP QPVJGƒTUVNCRD[GXGPVWCNTCEGYKPPGT5GDCUVKCP8GVVGN Most consecutive NASCAR starts Most consecutive F1 )TCPFǡ2TKZUVCTVUHTQOFGDWV Nico Rosberg (DEU) made 189 F1 Grand Prix starts racing for Williams and Mercedes. 2002 220 Sports . Giacomo Agostini (ITA) has 122 wins overall compared to Rossi’s 112. *GYQP JKUƒTUV+PFKCPCRQNKUQPǡ/C[DWVFKFPQVUEQTGC UGEQPFXKEVQT[KPVJGKEQPKE+PF[%CTTCEGWPVKNǡ/C[ First aerial battle involving a drone In December. Ducati and Yamaha.94 mph) at the Neste Rally Finland in Jyväskylä. /QUVRQNGRQUKVKQPUD[C constructor in an F1 season In 2011. but “only” 68 came in the 500 cc class.WCP2CDNQ/QPVQ[C %1. Neel Jani (CHE) lapped the course in 3 min 16. The MiG-25 eventually wins the dogfight. Three days earlier saw the IDVWHVWSUDFWLFHODSIRU WKH/H0DQVKRXUUDFH. from 12 Mar 2006 to 1 May 2016.44 km/h (77. an American MQ-1 Predator is attacked by an Iraqi MiG-25 while on a surveillance mission. but the drone’s is diverted by the Iraqi jet’s own missile. Jeff Gordon (USA) made 797 NASCAR (National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing) starts for Hendrick Motorsports QXGTǡ5RTKPV%WR5GTKGUUGCUQPUHTQOǡ0QXVQǡ0QX )QTFQPTGVKTGFKPJCXKPIPGXGTOKUUGFCTCEGQXGT ǡ[GCTUKPJKU5RTKPV%WR5GTKGUECTGGT+P5GRJGDTQMG 4KEM[4WFFŨU 75# ū+TQPOCPŬTGEQTFQHEQPUGEWVKXGUVCTVU Fastest lap in the .WNVQǡ.Gǡ/CPUǡJQWTTCEG Driving an Audi R18 e-tron Quattro. Finland. Since then he has won 73 Grand Prix races – including four in the 2015 season.

Fastest average speed in CǡUVCIGQHVJG6QWTFG(TCPEG Rohan Dennis (AUS) averaged 55. Competi ride and tors carry th eir bicycl over both e road an country d crosssections.45 km/h) at the World Human Powered Speed Challenge in Nevada.65 mph (139.2 km/h) on 18 Sep. USA. 6JGƒTUVE[ENKUVVQJQNF VJG7%+4QCF%[ENQ ETQUUCPF/QWPVCKP$KMG 9QTNF%JCORKQPUJKRU CVQPEGKU2CWNKPG (GTTCPF2TȌXQV (4#  5JGYQPVJG7%+4QCF 9QTNF%JCORKQPUJKRU KP5RCKPQPǡ5GR CPFVJG%[ENQETQUU 9QTNF%JCORKQPUJKRU KPVJG%\GEJ4GRWDNKE QP(GD(KPCNN[ UJGUGEWTGFVJG /QWPVCKP$KMG9QTNF %JCORKQPUJKRU%TQUU %QWPVT['NKVGVKVNGKP #PFQTTCQPǡ5GR Fastest speed on a JWOCPRQYGTGFXGJKENG *28 D[CǡUKPINGTKFGT Team Aerovelo’s Todd Reichert (CAN) reached 86.93 km/h) on 17 Sep and 86. hitting 85. They mu also com st plete m ultiple la the cours ps of es while  n egotiati sand pit ng s. hurdle s and other ob stacles. In fact.5 mph (139. he broke the record three times.CYCLING DID YO U KNOW Pauline ? Ferrand -Prévot’ sport of s (left) cy unique ch clo-cross prese nts allenges.446 km/h PSK.71 mph (137. on 19 Sep 2015.

Netherlands.6 m) from the Banco Central in Fortaleza. bettering a record unbroken since 1958.882 km (29. set only one month before.526 km (33. robbers steal some $69. FARTHEST DISTANCE IN A ONE-HOUR UNPACED STANDING START (MALE) /QUVUVCIGYKPUQHVJG 6QWTFG5WKUUGE[ENKPIGXGPV 6JG6QWTFG5WKUUGJCUTWPCPPWCNN[ DCTCJKCVWUKP9QTNF9CTǡ++  UKPEG6JGITGCVGUVPWODGTQHUVCIGYKPUKPVJGGXGPV KUCHGCVƒTUVCEJKGXGFD[5YKV\GTNCPFŨU(GTFKPCPF-ȜDNGT DGVYGGPCPFCPFGSWCNNGFD[HGNNQY5YKUU*WIQ -QDNGVHTQOVQ6JGCEJKGXGOGPVYCUOQUVTGEGPVN[ OCVEJGFD[2GVGT5CICP 58-CDQXG DGVYGGPCPF /QUVUWEEGUUHWN EQWPVT[CVVJG 7%+ǡ6TCEM9QTNF %JCORKQPUJKRU France has won a total of 365 medals at the World Championships: 138 gold. Greatest bank heist On 6–7 Aug. UK. 107 silver and 120 bronze. Adam Hansen (AUS) achieved 13 *UDQG7RXUͤQLVKHVLQDURZ from 11 Sep 2011 to 13 Sep 2015.com 221 DATELINE 2CWNKPG (GTTCPF 2TȌXQV . Most consecutive )TCPFǡ6QWTƒPKUJGU The Grand Tours in cycling are the Tour de France. Bridie O’Donnell (AUS) claimed the female record on 22 Jan 2016. held for amateurs in 1893. The wins were UHFRUGHGEHWZHHQWKHͤUVW event. 2005 guinnessworldrecords.8 m (£38. he bettered Alex Dowsett’s (UK) 52. on 4 Jul 2015. Sir Bradley Wiggins (UK. Giro d’Italia and Vuelta a España. the authorities have only recovered in the region of $9 m (£5 m) of the haul. in 2013–15.131 mi) in one hour at the Adelaide Super-Drome in Australia. To date. covering 46. /QUVYKPUQP the UCI World 6QWTD[CVGCO The Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) World Tour is the leading road tour race for elite male riders.881 mi) in one hour at the Olympic velodrome in London. Movistar Team (ESP) won the tour three times. On 7 Jun 2015. right) cycled an aggregate distance of 54. and Feb 2015. Brazil. In doing so.937 km (32.893 mi).LQWKHͤUVW stage of the Tour in Utrecht.

on 29 Aug 2015 (see above). Bryan Habana (ZAF) also shares the title. UK.CTIGUVCVVGPFCPEG at a rugby union 9QTNFǡ%WRǡOCVEJ A crowd of 89. Cowley. Italy (two).m.” His microblogging and social-networking tool allows users to post text messages of up to 140 characters via the world wide web or SMS. Australia. three against Georgia and three against France. UK. on 27 Sep 2015. UK. It reads “Just setting up my twttr. . UK. on 19 Sep 2015. Wales. 2006 222 Sports Youngest player in a TWID[ǡWPKQPǡ9QTNFǡ%WR 5ETWOJCNH8CUKN. was making his Pro12 debut as a winger. 73. . on 30 Oct 2015.267 watched the Ireland vs Romania pool match in London. aged 18. ͤQDODW:HPEOH\6WDGLXPLQ London. in an all4XHHQVODQGͤQDOWKH1RUWK Queensland Cowboys beat the Brisbane Broncos 17–16 at the ANZ Stadium in Sydney.QPIGUVVKOGDGVYGGP YKPUǡKPVJGTWID[WPKQP World Cup After a barren 24 years 340 days. Japan beat South Africa in a thrilling last-minute victory at the Brighton Community Stadium in Brighton. at Old Trafford in Manchester.CTIGUVEQOGDCEM KPǡCǡTWID[WPKQP 9QTNFǡ%WRǡOCVEJ On 6 Oct 2015. scoring against Samoa (four). On 10 Oct 2015. PST on 21 Mar.RUGBY Most tries by a player in a NGCIWG%JCNNGPIG%WRƒPCN 1Pǡ#WI6QO$TKUEQG 7-NGHV QHVJG. Romania made up 15 points after halftime to beat Canada 17–15 in their pool match at Leicester City Stadium. UK. . UK.GTQ[4KXGVVJCFUVQQFUKPEG Most rugby union World Cup wins 0GY<GCNCPFJCXGYQPVJG9QTNF%WRVJTGGVKOGUKP CPF6JG[DGCV#WUVTCNKCŤKPVJGƒPCN DQVJVGCOUJCXKPIYQPVJGVQWTPCOGPVVYKEGDGHQTG6JKUYCU CNUQǡVJGJKIJGUVUEQTKPIƒPCNKPVGTOUQHCIITGICVGUEQTG First father and son VQǡRNC[ǡVQIGVJGTKPC 2TQǡTWID[ǡWPKQPOCVEJ Regan King and Jacob Cowley (both NZ) played for the Scarlets against the Newport Gwent Dragons at Parc y Scarlets in Llanelli.QPFQP7-6JGRTGXKQWUTGEQTFQH HQWTD[VJG4JKPQUŨ. He equalled the record first set in 1999 by fellow New Zealander Jonah Lomu (1975–2015).512 people witnessed Leeds Rhinos’ victory over Wigan Warriors – the largest attendance at a Super League Grand Final. First National Rugby League (NRL) Grand Final FGEKFGFD[CIQNFGPRQKPV On 4 Oct 2015.CTIGUVOCTIKPQH XKEVQT[KPCNGCIWG %JCNNGPIG%WRƒPCN Leeds Rhinos defeated Hull Kingston Rovers 50–0 in the MOST TRIES BY A PLAYER IN A WORLD CUP TOURNAMENT DATELINE The All Blacks’ Julian Savea scored eight tries in the 2015 rugby union World Cup: two against Namibia.QD\JCPKF\G Dǡ1EV YCUCIGF ǡ[GCTUǡFC[UYJGPJGRNC[GFHQT)GQTIKCCICKPUV6QPIC CV-KPIUJQNOKP)NQWEGUVGT7-QPǡ5GR)GQTIKCŨU ŤǡXKEVQT[OCTMGFVJGKTVJKTFGXGTYKPKPVJG9QTNF%WR First tweet Twitter founder Jack Dorsey (USA) creates the first tweet at 9:50 p. Scotland and France (two). England. .GGFU 4JKPQUUEQTGFƒXGVTKGUCICKPUV*WNN-KPIUVQP4QXGTUCV 9GODNG[5VCFKWOKP. USA (two) and Argentina (two) in 2007. . who scored his eight tries in five games: against Tonga (two).

Djokovic has won nine matches. /QUVCEGUKPCPǡ#62ǡECTGGT . Novak Djokovic won his sixth singles title at the Australian Open.TENNIS /QUVEQPUGEWVKXG[GCTU VQǡYKPǡCP#62VKVNG 4QIGT(GFGTGT %*' JCUYQPCVNGCUVQPGVKVNGQPVJG #UUQEKCVKQPQH6GPPKU2TQHGUUKQPCNU #62 9QTNF6QWT HQTEQPUGEWVKXG[GCTU Ť 6JGVKOG)TCPF 5NCOEJCORKQPUWTRCUUGF+XCP.YR. Novak Djokovic (SRB) and Roger Federer had met 15 times in Grand Slam tournaments. Most Australian Open singles VKVNGUYQP QRGPǡGTC  On 31 Jan 2016.GPFNŨU 75#D%<'  CEJKGXGOGPVQHEQPUGEWVKXG[GCTUYKVJCP#62VKVNG Ť YJGPJGYQPUKZOQTGVQWTVKVNGUKP /QUV)TCPF5NCO OGGVKPIU UKPINGU As of the 2016 Australian Open.DUORYLϖ +59.

r w.1 98 gs (f s) of $ e of earnin h d c t a s ma st ahe double 95.68 points.KUKEMKCNUQJQNFUVJGHGOCNGTGEQTFHQT HCUVGUVUGTXGǡORJ ǡMOJ JKVQPǡ. ju eer r a c . by Roger Federer in 2012–13. 9DQGHZHJKHZRQ̰̰ but said afterwards of the 35-sec interview: “I don’t remember a thing I said.385. 2008 guinnessworldrecords. The most prize money won in a tennis season (female) is $12. earned by Roger Federer in 2014–15. . I don’t even remember what she [Shriver] asked.com 223 DATELINE Oldest player to win a OCKFGP)TCPF5NCOUKPINGU VKVNG HGOCNG On her 49th attempt to net a Grand Slam. on 12 Sep 2015. /QUVCEGUUGTXGFKPC96#OCVEJ 5CDKPG. Dead serious. • Male (current): $67 m (£42.6 m). New York City. the Dow Jones stock-market index suffers a record drop of 777. Ninovak en 3A As of mi Op r a’s Mia total caree Florid d and a s h le ic g v in Djoko both s . aged 33 years 199 days.9 ’s er (£68 Feder 81 . 0 earn 0 . US Open).410). won the US Open at Flushing Meadows in New York City.WN Ťǡ[GCTUFC[UNCVGT6JCVCNUQOCMGU5GTGPC Dǡ5GR VJGQNFGUV)TCPF5NCO UKPINGUYKPPGT HGOCNG  ENCKOKPIJGTNCVGUVXKEVQT[CVVJGCIGQHǡ[GCTUǡFC[U Highest annual earnings HQTǡCVGPPKURNC[GT Forbes’ annual earnings (versus seasonal earnings – see below) factor in both match winnings and sponsorship/endorsement.548 m 9 o 9 r . which included Grand Slam titles (Australian Open.7 m).200) in the 2015 season.572 (£7.5 m (£46. She announced her retirement after the match.3 54 (£68. (KTUVOKFOCVEJKPVGTXKGY CVC)TCPF5NCOOCVEJ &RFR9DQGHZHJKH answered two questions from Pam Shriver for ESPN DWWKHHQGRIWKHͤUVWVHWRI KHUͤUVWURXQGPDWFKDJDLQVW fellow American Sloane Stephens at the US Open in Flushing Meadows. • Female (current and ever): $29.6 m).QPFQP7-QPǡ.855. the most ATP Masters 1000 titles won in a season (six) and the most ATP Masters 1000 finals in a season (eight).QPIGUVURCPQH)TCPF5NCOUKPINGUVKVNGU QRGPGTC . • Male (ever): $71.8 Roger of $97 s g in ).700). USA.519 aces in 567 singles matches on the ATP World Tour as of 20 Apr 2016.145 (£14.KDG served up an incredible 10.” 5GTGPC9KNNKCOU 75# YQPJGTXGT[ƒTUV)TCPF5NCOUKPINGUVKVNGCVVJG751RGPQPǡ5GR *GTUVCPFOQUVTGEGPV5NCOECOGCVVJG9KODNGFQP%JCORKQPUJKRUKP.646.1 Novak Djokovic earned $21.600. amassed by Maria Sharapova (RUS) in 2014–15.7 World No.WN MOST PRIZE MONEY WON IN A TENNIS SEASON (MALE) OW?ing n OU KafN Y e D t I D pr 2016. as Congress votes on the US government’s “bail-out bill” to protect taxpayers and the financial markets. b. Wimbledon.KUKEMK &'7 UVTWEMǡCEGUKPǡUGTXKEGICOGUFWTKPI CUGEQPFTQWPFOCVEJCICKPUV$GNKPFC$GPEKECVVJG#GIQP %NCUUKEKP$KTOKPIJCO7-QPǡ. 25 Feb 1982).510.WP +VŨUPQUWTRTKUGVJCV. Largest points fall on the Dow Jones Industrial Average On 29 Sep.5 m (£18. recorded by Serena Williams in 2013. on 31 Aug 2015. Flavia Pennetta (ITA.

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716 ft 6 in) tall and was developed by Emaar Properties and the architects Skidmore. UAE. Tallest building The Burj Khalifa (Khalifa Tower) officially opens in Dubai. from 6 Sep 2006 to 17 Nov 2007. It is 828 m (2. Le n for Eu wandow ro ski open account ed his with fou r goals in 7–0 thra Poland’s shing of Gibralta scored a r and 4-min h at-trick against Georgia in 2015. David Healy first achieved this feat. for Northern Ireland. left) netted 23 goals from 14 Oct 1998 to 4 Sep 2015. He has scored in every qualifying campaign since Euro 2000. Robbie Keane (IRL. Owings & Merrill LLP. VFRUHGJRDOV LQ%HDFK6RFFHU :RUOG&XSV IURP0D\ WR-XO  /QUV#HTKEC%WRQH0CVKQPUVKVNGU YQPYKVJFKHHGTGPVEQWPVTKGU EQCEJ  *GTXȌ4GPCTF (4# JCUYQPVYQ#HTKEC%WRQH0CVKQPUVKVNGUYKVJ FKHHGTGPVEQWPVTKGU+PJGIWKFGF<CODKCVQCYKPQXGT+XQT[ %QCUVQPRGPCNVKGU6JTGG[GCTUNCVGTJGTGRGCVGFVJGHGCVYKVJ +XQT[%QCUV CDQXG YJQDGCV)JCPCKPCRGPCNV[UJQQVQWV MOST GOALS SCORED IN UEFA CHAMPIONSHIPS QUALIFIERS DID YOU KNOW? David H ealy sco re d 13 out of his si de’s 17 g oals duri Northern ng Ireland’s unsucce qualifyin ssful g campa ig 2008. on 4 Jan. The most goals scored in a single UEFA Championships qualifying tournament is 13. with his best tally in a tournament being seven in Euro 2012. Robert Lewandowski equalled it between 7 Sep 2014 and 11 Oct 2015.com 225 DATELINE /QUVIQCNUKPC(+(#9QOGPŨU 9QTNF%WRƒPCND[CPKPFKXKFWCN Most goals KPǡ(+(# Women’s 9QTNF%WR ƒPCNU . 2010 guinnessworldrecords.

2013 and 2015). 2011. The Economist estimates the financial loss to the country at $210 bn (£130 bn).C%QTWȓC5RCKP QPǡ. on 7 Feb 2016. 2013 and 2015. in 2012. 2009. Isis Holt (AUS) ran the fastest T35 200 m (female). 1999 and 2001. (CUVGUV6ǡO OCNG The 2015 International Paralympic Committee (IPC) Athletics World Championships in Doha.05 sec.61 sec. right) in 2009. T35-class DWKOHWHVKDYHLVVXHVZLWK dynamic balance. then had TV g in ch around wat slept for n nuggets. At the IPC Grand Prix in Canberra.6 bn) is insured.TRACK Most IAAF Athletics 9QTNFǡ%JCORKQPUJKRU ǡOYKPU HGOCNG Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce (JAM) has won the women’s 100 m at the Athletics World Championships three times. Bolt is the first athlete to win the 100 m and 200 m sprints at successive Olympic Games – Beijing in 2008 and London in 2012.” DATELINE Three athletes have each won three men’s 100 m races at the IAAF World Athletics Championships. Bolt also recorded the most gold medals at the IAAF Athletics World Championships (male). Finally. Usain Bolt (JAM. some chicke t back en w then two hours… more e m so t go and nuggets. ’t have ack: “[I] didn fairly laid-b . in 2009. Six days earlier. 2013 and 2015. The speediest 100 m in the T44 class (single below-knee DPSXWDWLRQRUHTXLYDOHQW impairment) is 10. in 2009–15. saw a wealth of new records. 1987 and 1991. They are Carl Lewis (USA) in 1983. . (CUVGUV6 ǡO OCNG 6JG6ENCUUKƒECVKQP KUHQTCVJNGVGUYKVJ CPKORCKTOGPVVJCV CHHGEVUVJGKTCTOUQT NGIUCPFKPENWFGU CORWVGGU6JG URGGFKGUVǡOKPVJG 6ENCUUKUǡUGE D[4KEJCTF9JKVGJGCF 7- KPDQVJVJGUGOK ƒPCNandƒPCNQHVJG+2% 9QTNF%JCORKQPUJKRU QPǡŤǡ1EV Costliest natural disaster An earthquake strikes off the Pacific coast of Tōhoku. sat 11 at woke up breakfast. 2007. (CUVGUVǡMO TQCFYCNM HGOCNG China’s Liu Hong completed CǡMOTQCFYCNMKPCVKOG QHǡJTǡOKPǡUGECVVJG )TCP2TGOKQ%CPVQPGUFG /CTEJCKP. with 11 wins from 2009 to 2015. Omara Durand (CUB) ran the fastest T12 400 m (female) in 53. of which only $35 bn (£21. Qatar.WP . MOST IAAF ATHLETICS WORLD CHAMPIONSHIPS 100 M WINS (MEN) 2011 /QUVEQPUGEWVKXG#VJNGVKEU 9QTNF%JCORKQPUJKRU ǡZǡǡOTGNC[YKPU OCNG LaShawn Merritt (left) has enjoyed six 4 x 400 m ͤQDOZLQVDW the IAAF World Championships (2005. /QUVYKPUQHVJG+##( 4CEG9CNMKPI%JCNNGPIG HGOCNG Liu Hong (CHN) has won the IAAF Race Walking Challenge three times.38 sec. 2014 and 2015. 226 Sports /QUVEQPUGEWVKXGYKPU of the IAAF World Cross %QWPVT[%JCORKQPUJKRU D[ǡCEQWPVT[ HGOCNG Kenya won the IAAF World Cross Country &KDPSLRQVKLSVͤYH times. on 11 Mar. T12 denotes DWKOHWHVZLWKYLVXDO impairment. Maurice Greene (USA) in 1997. most recently. His 13 medals (11 golds and two silvers) in the competition from 2007 to 2015 represent the most medals won at the IAAF Athletics World Championships (male). Most IAAF Athletics World %JCORKQPUJKRUǡOOGFCNU OGP . Australia.C5JCYP/GTTKVV 75# JCUYQPƒXGOGFCNUKPVJGOGPŨUǡO CVVJG+PVGTPCVKQPCN#UUQEKCVKQPQH#VJNGVKEU(GFGTCVKQPU +##(  9QTNF#VJNGVKEU%JCORKQPUJKRUKPCPF *GKUCFQWDNGYQTNFEJCORKQPVCMKPIIQNFKPCPF ? U KNOW DID YOin 0 m g a new 10 Prior to sett ng e 2008 Beiji record at th feeling as w lt Bo Usain Olympics. Japan. and. in 28. by Richard Browne (USA) on 29 Oct 2015.

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/DYLOOHQLHKDVDOVRVFRUHG the most points in the Diamond League (male). from 39 km (24 mi) – the highest freefall parachute jump at the time. Yuriy Sedykh (USSR.#/ #NN[UQP(GNKZ 75# $CTDQTCŠRQVȄMQXȄ %<' CPF5CPFTC2GTMQXKʹ %41CDQXG  MOST POINTS SCORED IN A DECATHLON (MALE) Since taking an Olympic gold in 2012. Fastest speed in freefall Felix Baumgartner (AUT) falls at 1. now RUS) produced a throw of 86. /DYLOOHQLHVKDUHVWKH record for most wins in Diamond Race athletics events by an individual ZLWK6DQGUD3HUNRYLʹ (HRV. with 32 disciplines in total (16 for men and 16 for women).#/ KPVJGǡO JWTFNGU+PǡƒXGOQTGCVJNGVGUYQPVJGKTHQWTVJVKVNG&CYP *CTRGT0GNUQP 75# 5JGNN[#PP(TCUGT2T[EG .com 227 DATELINE (CTVJGUVJCOOGTVJTQY HGOCNG as the premier annual DWKOHWLFVHYHQW.357. Both athletes had 27 wins from 2010 to 11 Sep 2015. record goes way back. from May to September. The youngest person to score points at a Diamond League athletics meeting LV/£]DUR0DUW¯QH] &8% E1RY. 2YHUDOOKRZHYHUWKH most points scored in a Diamond League career LVE\3HUNRYLʹin the discus in 2010–15.6 mph). France’s Renaud /DYLOOHQLHZRQVL['LDPRQG 5DFHWLWOHVLQWKHSROHYDXOW from 2010 to 2015. Eaton scored a total 9. China. Germany.74 m (284 ft 7 in) on 30 Aug 1986 in Stuttgart. By the end of the 2015 season. he bettered his own record. set in 2012.WLVKHOG in 14 different locations. he had 135 points. decathlete Ashton Eaton (USA) has gone from strength to strength. 2012 guinnessworldrecords. At the 15th IAAF World Championships held in Beijing. on 29 Aug 2015. /QUV&KCOQPF4CEG CVJNGVKEUVKVNGUYQP OCNG The Diamond League was inaugurated in 2010 to replace the Golden League /QUV&KCOQPF4CEGVKVNGU HGOCNG 0QHGOCNGCVJNGVGJCUYQPOQTGVJCPHQWT&KCOQPF4CEGVKVNGU /KNECJ%JGOQU%JG[YC -'0 ƒTUVCEJKGXGFVJGHGCVKPVJGǡO UVGGRNGEJCUGKPŤ+PUJGYCUOCVEJGFD[8CNGTKG #FCOU 0< KPVJGUJQVRWVCPF-CNKGUG5RGPEGT . /QUVYKPUQHVJG+##( JCOOGTVJTQYEJCNNGPIG HGOCNG Betty Heidler (DEU) DFKLHYHGWKUHHZLQVLQ the IAAF hammer throw challenge from 2010 to 2012.045 points across the 10 disciplines (javelin and long jump pictured). Her feat was then equalled by Anita :ĄRGDUF]\NEHWZHHQ 2013 and 2015. right).6 km/h (843. His stratospheric drop also makes him the first person to break the sound barrier in freefall. In doing so. by six points to win gold at the World Championships for the second time.

which is one more than both Marion Jones and Sanya Richards (both USA). Hicham El Guerrouj (MAR) is the most successful IAAF Golden League athlete in terms of KDYLQJZRQWKHMDFNSRW RU a share of the jackpot) the most times: four. China. on 18 May 2014.ZKRSODFHG second in the triple jump HYHQWDJHG\HDUV 196 days in Shanghai. in 1998 and 2000–02. The Golden League was replaced by the Diamond League in 2010. .

In 2014.QPFQP7-QPǡ#RT2GCV[CEJKGXGFVJGfastest long EQWTUGǡODTGCUVUVTQMG OCNG ƒPKUJKPIKPǡUGE Youngest participant in the FINA World Swimming Championships (female) #N\CKP6CTGS $*4Dǡ#RT EQORGVGFKPVJGǡO DWVVGTHN[GXGPVCIGF[GCTUFC[UCVVJGVJ(+0#9QTNF 5YKOOKPI%JCORKQPUJKRUKP-C\CP4WUUKCQPǡ#WI +TQPKECNN[CNVJQWIJUJGEQWNFEQORGVGKPVJGUGPKQTEQPVGUV UJGYCUVQQ[QWPIVQVCMGRCTVKPVJG.12 sec. Simone Manuel and Missy Franklin) completed the long course 4 x 100 m freestyle in a time of 3 min 23.64 sec at the 16th FINA World Swimming Championships on 3 Aug 2015. in 2 min 6. Nathan Adrian.SWIMMING Fastest long course 50 m breaststroke (male) #FCO2GCV[ 7- UYCOVJGǡODTGCUVUVTQMGKPCVKOGQHLWUVǡUGECV VJGǡVJǡ(ȌFȌTCVKQP+PVGTPCVKQPCNGFG0CVCVKQP (+0# 9QTNF5YKOOKPI%JCORKQPUJKRU KPǡ-C\CP4WUUKCQPǡ#WI#PFJGŨULWUVCUIQQFCVFQWDNGVJGFKUVCPEGCVVJG$TKVKUJ 5YKOOKPI%JCORKQPUJKRUKP. Hosszú also recorded the fastest long course 200 m medley (female). (CUVGUVNQPIǡEQWTUGǡTGNC[ ǡZǡǡOǡHTGGUV[NG OKZGF The USA (comprising Ryan Lochte. on 3 Aug 2015. (CUVGUVNQPIEQWTUGǡO DWVVGTHN[ HGOCNG Sarah Sjöström (SWE) won the women’s long FRXUVHPEXWWHUͥ\ event in a time of 55.WPKQT5YKOOKPI9QTNF %JCORKQPUJKRUYJKEJJCUCOKPKOWOGPVT[CIGQH Most gold medals won KPǡVJG(+0#5YKOOKPI World Cup (female) Hungary’s Katinka Hosszú won 152 golds in the World Cup from 2012 to 2015.05 sec at the 16th FINA World Swimming Championships on 8 Aug 2015. The most gold medals won in the FINA Swimming World Cup (male) is 85. by Chad le Clos (ZAF) from 2009 to 2015. she swam the fastest long course 50 m EXWWHU̩\ IHPDOH. at the 16th FINA World Swimming Championships in Kazan. Russia.

2013 228 Sports DID Y OU KNO Notably W? .43 sec in Borås. On 3 Aug 2012. Ledecky (b. gold at th winning e 2008 O lympics in Beijin g in 8 m in 14. At the FINA World Swimming Championships in Kazan. on 17 Jan 2016. only Rebecca Adlingto swum fa n had ster in th e event. in 15 min 25. .63 sec..48 sec. She won in 8 min 14.68 sec at the Arena Pro Swim Series in Austin. Switzerland. Russia. she had recorded the fastest long course 1. on 8 Aug 2015. Texas. aged 15 years 139 days. Sweden. im in At the ti the UK’s me. FASTEST LONG COURSE 800 M FREESTYLE (FEMALE) DATELINE Katie Ledecky (USA) won the 800 m freestyle in 8 min 6. two experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva. First proof of the existence of the Higgs boson On 14 Mar.10 se c. USA.500 m freestyle (female). at the London Olympics. confirm the existence of the (hitherto only theorized) Higgs boson particle. in a time of 24. 17 Mar 1997) became the youngest Olympic 800 m freestyle gold medallist (female). Ledeck y’s feat London at the 2012 Oly mpics (s also ma ee left) rked the second-f women’s astest 800 m fr eestyle sw sporting history.

2010–11 and 2013–15. Montenegro and Croatia have won all of the men’s tournaments.DL &+1. Serbia won the Water Polo World League 2015 Super Final against Croatia. in 2005–08.WATER SPORTS /QUV(+0#9CVGTǡ2QNQ World League wins (men) Serbia’s water polo team has won the World League nine times. Serbia. Since 2005. 9–6. to complete their third successive win of the tournament. Most gold medals in the FINA 9QTNF%JCORKQPUJKRUǡO platform diving event (male) )TGI.QWICPKU 75# YCUVJGƒTUVOCNGFKXGTVQCEJKGXGVJTGG IQNFOGFCNUKPVJG(+0#9QTNF%JCORKQPUJKRUǡORNCVHQTO FKXKPIGXGPVYKVJYKPUKPCPF*KUHGCVYCU NCVGTǡGSWCNNGFD[3KW$Q %*0CDQXG KPCPF Most gold medals in the same FINA 9QTNFǡ%JCORKQPUJKRU diving event (male) 4LQ.

22 Dec 1993) won the 2009 Maresia Surf International. Ishchenko won the most synchronized swimming FINA World Championships gold medals by an individual – 19 – between 2005 and 2015. in Olympic years. Russia. Luo Yutong (2011) and He Chong (2013). Brazil’s Gabriel Medina (b. Most ICF Canoe Slalom World Championships IQNFǡOGFCNUKPVJGUCOG event (male) The International Canoe Federation (ICF) Slalom World Championships are held annually except Most ICF Canoe Sprint World Championships medals in the women’s -ǡǡOGXGPV Maryna Litvinchuk (BLR) took gold in 2015.ZRQͤYHJROGV in the 3 m synchronized springboard event.38 sec at Varese in Italy. Youngest winner of CǡUWTƒPI9QTNF3WCNKH[KPI Series event On 12 Jul 2009. 2011. but had previously won gold with Wang Feng (2007. MOST CONSECUTIVE SYNCHRONIZED SWIMMING WORLD CHAMPIONSHIPS GOLD MEDALS Largest Ebola outbreak The deadly Ebola virus disease (EVD) spreads across the African nations of Guinea. in 1997. The British pair set the UHFRUGLQWKHVHPLͤQDOV of the World Rowing Cup.com 229 DATELINE Russia won 19 gold medals in in a row in synchronized swimming FINA World Championships between 23 Jul 2009 and 26 Jul 2015. Fastest row double sculls lightweight class (female) On 20 Jun 2015. he became the secondyoungest world champion ever. 2003. Great Britain (Charlotte Taylor and Katherine Copeland) Most points scored in a WSL 5WTƒPI9QTNF%JCORKQPUJKR season (female) +P*CYCKKCP%CTKUUC/QQTG CDQXG YQPJGTVJKTFYQTNF VKVNGCPFUEQTGFRQKPVUDTGCMKPIVJGTGEQTFUGVD[ 5VGRJCPKG)KNOQTG #75 YJQGCTPGFRQKPVUKP recorded a time of 6 min 48. Michal Martikán (SVK) has won eight golds in the C1 Team event. Liberia and Sierra Leone. Pictured here is Natalia Ishchenko (RUS) at the World Championships in Kazan. 2009).300 lives by Jan 2016. 2009–11 and 2013–15. 2014 guinnessworldrecords. 2014) and a bronze (2010). in 2015. at 20 years 362 days. . 2009. It will claim more than 11. aged 15 years 202 days in Florianópolis. In 2014. 2013 and 2015. adding to two silver medals (2011. in 2007. He was partnered by Cao Yuan in 2015. Brazil.

1996. set by Adrian Lewis in 2011. 2011–12 and 2014–15.CP. #0<ǡ%JCORKQPUJKR Three teams have won netball’s Australia and New Zealand (ANZ) Championship twice. . 2011 and 2015.1). or 1. 1967. 1974–75. UK – 307 times between 14 May 1673 and 16 May 2015. Scotsman onal the Professi Scot to win orld W n io at or Darts Corp ship. NOW? DID YOlyUcaKlled himself He original y Gary y”. DATELINE EHF Handball %JCORKQPUǡ. in 1991– 92. in 1867. Robert Fulford (UK) has won 11 times. Anderson won the World Championship. 1957. 2006–09. Most career points in /CLQTǡ. and 1°C (1. He threw 19 maximums to surpass the previous tournament record of 60. 1932–33. 1969. 1909. 1996–2000. but toda “Dreambo own kn er tt is be Anderson ng e “The Flyi m na ck ni by the  e first th is e H ”. beating 16-time champ Phil Taylor 7–6 in the final. UK.KPFUG[8QPP 75# YQPVJG(ȌFȌTCVKQP+PVGTPCVKQPCNGFG5MK (+5  9QTNF%WR5WRGT)TCEGVKOGU#UYGNNCUVJGmost FIS Alpine Ski World Cup race winsŤŤ CEJKGXGFDGVYGGPǡ&GECPFǡ&GE8QPPCNUQENCKOGFVJGmost FIS Alpine Ski World Cup women’s downhill winsYKVJCVJXKEVQT[QPǡ(GDCV%QTVKPCFŨ#ORG\\QKP+VCN[ 1NFGUVURQTVUǡVTQRJ[ The Antient Scorton Silver Arrow is 342 years old and is still competed for to this day. 1972.CETQUUG Casey Powell (USA) scored 504 points from 7 Jun 2001 to 25 Jul 2015. They are: Adelaide Thunderbirds in 2010 and 2013. MOST 180s IN A DARTS PDC WORLD CHAMPIONSHIP BY A PLAYER The greatest number of maximums scored by a player in a Professional Darts Corporation (PDC) World Championship is 64. 2015 230 Sports Warmest year on record According to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). 1963. the global average temperature in 2015 was 0. 1979. 1939. on 10 Oct 2015 lasted 100 min 24 sec. 1947. between 18 Dec 2014 and 4 Jan 2015. 1922. 1998. Germany. 2003–04. 1935. Melbourne Vixens in 2009 and 2014. UK. by Gary Anderson (UK) at Alexandra Palace in London. 2005.QPFQP(ȌFȌTCVKQPDZSWGUVTG +PVGTPCVKQPCNG ('+ 9QTNF%WRCV1N[ORKC. 2006–08 and 2014–15.QPFQP7-QP ǡ&GE1PVJGRTGXKQWUFC[UJGTGEQTFGFVJGhighest dressage Grand Prix scoreŤŤCVVJGUCOGGXGPV /QUV(+5#NRKPG5MK9QTNF%WR5WRGT)TCEGYKPU (TQOǡ/CTVQǡ. in 1991. 1911– 13. $TKVKUJ1RGP%TQSWGV %JCORKQPUJKRU The British Open Croquet Championships were instituted at Evesham. 1982–83. 1992–93. MOST WINS OF THE… #NN+TGNCPF*WTNKPIƒPCNU Kilkenny (IRL) has won the All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship 36 times: 1904–05.GCIWG FC Barcelona Handbol (ESP) have won the European Handball Federation (EHF) Champions League nine times. above that for 1961–90.8°F) above the worldwide mean for the pre-Industrial Age. and Queensland Firebirds (all AUS) in 2011 and 2015. 2000. Champion Longest frame in a RTQHGUUKQPCNUPQQMGTOCVEJ The sixth frame of a match between Barry Pinches and Alan McManus (both UK) at the Ruhr Open in Mülheim.76°C (+/ 0. 2002–03. It has been the prize in the Antient Silver Arrow Competition – an archery tournament held in the village of Scorton in Lancashire. 1907.GCIWG.3°F.SPORTS ROUND-UP *KIJGUVFTGUUCIG HTGGUV[NGǡUEQTG 4KFKPI8CNGITQ%JCTNQVVG&WLCTFKP 7- UEQTGFKP FTGUUCIGHTGGUV[NGKPVJG.

France won *KIJGUVVQVCNUEQTGKP ƒIWTGUMCVKPI OCNG .com 231 DATELINE • Female. 9QOGPŨU*QEMG[%JCORKQPU 6TQRJ[D[CPKPFKXKFWCN Argentina’s Luciana Aymar (above left) has been on the winning side in all six of her team’s record-equalling wins of the Women’s Hockey Champions Trophy. 2005.#/DGNQYNGHV JCU UEQTGFǡIQCNUKPCP#0<%JCORKQPUJKRPGVDCNN OCVEJQPVYQQEECUKQPUHQT5QWVJGTP5VGGN XU%CPVGTDWT[6CEVKZ DQVJ0< KPVJG ū5QWVJGTP&GTD[Ŭ6JGƒTUVVKOGYCUKP %JTKUVEJWTEJ0GY<GCNCPFQPǡ/CT VJGUGEQPFYCUKP&WPGFKP 0GYǡ<GCNCPFQPǡ.WNǡ .WNVQǡ1EV • Male'OCPWGN4GIQ $4# YQP$GCEJ8QNNG[DCNN9QTNF 6QWTIQNFUDGVYGGPǡ.W\WTW*CP[WUEQTGFǡRQKPVUCVVJG +PVGTPCVKQPCN5MCVKPI7PKQP +57 )TCPF2TKZ(KPCN ŤKP$CTEGNQPC5RCKPQPǡ&GE 6JKUEQODKPGURQKPVUHQTVJGUJQTVCPFNQPI RTQITCOOGU*CP[WDTQMGTGEQTFUKPDQVJ CEJKGXKPIVJGJKIJGUVUEQTGKPƒIWTG skating – short programme (male)ǡYKVJ ǡRQKPVUCPFNQPIǡRTQITCOOG (male)YKVJǡRQKPVU /QUV9QOGPŨU*QEMG[ %JCORKQPUǡ6TQRJ[YKPUD[CVGCO 6JTGGVGCOUJCXGGCEJYQPVJG9QOGPŨU*QEMG[%JCORKQPU 6TQRJ[UKZVKOGU6JGHGCVYCUƒTUVCEJKGXGFD[#WUVTCNKCYKVJ YKPUKPCPF+VYCUGSWCNNGF D[VJG0GVJGTNCPFUYJQYQPKPŤ CPF/QUVTGEGPVN[VJKUTGEQTFYCUOCVEJGFD[#TIGPVKPC CDQXG YJQYGTGEJCORKQPUKPŤCPF /GPŨU*QEMG[ %JCORKQPUǡ6TQRJ[D[CVGCO Australia have won the Hockey Champions Trophy 13 times: 1983–85.WPCPFǡ.CRCPŨU. 1993. but only at the 1900 Olympics in Paris. Most goals UEQTGFǡKPǡCP #0<ǡ%JCORKQPUJKR OCVEJD[ǡCPKPFKXKFWCN .JCPKGNG(QYNGT4GKF . with 10 wins. the LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration confirm that they have recorded gravitational waves at two sites in the USA.FAST FACTS The average speed of a dart in flight is 40 mph (64 km/h) • Figure skaters can spin at more than 300 revolutions per minute • Croquet was an Olympic sport. 1989–90. 2016 guinnessworldrecords. Germany are second. 2008–12.CTKUUC(TCPȊC $4# YQP(ȌFȌTCVKQP +PVGTPCVKQPCNGFG8QNNG[DCNN (+8$ IQNFUQPVJG$GCEJ 8QNNG[DCNN9QTNF6QWTHTQOǡ. 1999.WP /QUV(+8$ǡ$GCEJ8QNNG[DCNN 9QTNF6QWTIQNFǡOGFCNU First gravitational waves detected Proving right a prediction made by physicist Albert Einstein 100 years earlier.

SPORTS REFERENCE ATHLETICS: TRACK/ULTRA #PCUVGTKUM .

Netherlands 31 May 2004 10. Belgium 7 Sep 2012 400 m hurdles 46.21 Yordanka Donkova (BGR) Stara Zagora.43 Kenya (Joseph Mutua.C6CUJC. Warren Weir.000 m 2:11. Carmelita Jeter) London.15 Tirunesh Dibaba (ETH) 1UNQ0QTYC[ 6 Jun 2008 10.60 Marita Koch (GDR) Canberra. .28 Jarmila Kratochvílová (CZE) Munich. Russia 8 Aug 2003 4 x 100 m relay 40.QJPUQP Stuttgart. Bahamas 24 May 2014 4 x 400 m relay 2:54.22 TIME/DISTANCE DATE 100 m 10.000 m 5:25.517 m 6 Oct 1985 Tegla Loroupe (KEN) Borgholzhausen. Allyson Felix. Usain Bolt. UK 8 Jul 1994 3. China 17 Aug 2008 20 Aug 1988 3.63 Jamaica (Yohan Blake.000 m 56:26.82 United States (Tianna Madison. UK 11 Aug 2012 4 x 200 m relay 1:18.96 Noah Ngeny (KEN) Rieti. USA 3 Jun 2011 Saif Saaeed Shaheen (QAT) Brussels.58 24 May 2014 .07 Genzebe Dibaba (ETH) Fontvieille.60 1 hour Mercy Cherono.000 m 4:44. Their time of 16:33. Italy 14 Jul 1998 1 mile 3:43. Germany 7 Sep 1999 3.58 YCUUQOGǡUGEHCUVGTVJCP VJGRTGXKQWUTGEQTFYJKEJ YCUCNUQUGVD[CVGCOHTQO Kenya.00 Hicham El Guerrouj (MAR) Rome. Maria Pinigina.500 m 3:50.00 Haile Gebrselassie (ETH) Ostrava. Germany 30.285 metres Haile Gebrselassie (ETH) Ostrava.000 m 12:37. FGPQVGUVJCVCTGEQTFKUUVKNNCYCKVKPITCVKƒECVKQPD[VJGURQTVŨUIQXGTPKPIDQF[CVVJGVKOGQHIQKPIVQRTGUU ATHLETICS – OUTDOOR TRACK EVENTS MEN (CUVGUVǡO Usain Bolt (JAM) sped to a PGYYQTNFTGEQTFKP$GTNKP )GTOCP[QPǡ#WI TWPPKPIVJGOGPŨUǡOKP ǡUGE6JKUDTQMGJKUQYP TGEQTFQHǡUGEUGVCVVJG Beijing Olympics in China Cǡ[GCTRTGXKQWUN[VQVJGFC[ 1Pǡǡ#WI$QNVRTQXGF JGŨUCYQTNFDGCVGTCVFQWDNG the distance too.17 USSR (Tatyana Ledovskaya. *GNNGPǡ1TKDK Nassau.000 m 14:11.000 m 7:20. Belgium 25 Aug 2006 Kenya (Collins Cheboi.49 200 m 21. in Apr 2014. Lyudmila Borisova. Belgium 26 Aug 2005 20. USA 30. Czech Republic 27 Jun 2007 27 Jun 2007 9 Aug 2012 1 Sep 1996 1 hour 21. Australia 800 m 1:53.000 m steeplechase 8:58. Nesta Carter) London. Belgium 3 Sep 2004 3.34 Yuliya Pechonkina (RUS) Tula. Bahamas 25 May 2014 NAME & NATIONALITY LOCATION (NQTGPEG)TKHƒVJ. Italy 7 Jul 1999 2.81 6 Jun 2003 100 m hurdles 12.000 m 1:26:47.78 Kevin Young (USA) Barcelona. Bahamas 4 x 1.18 Michael Johnson (USA) Seville. Germany 26 Jul 1983 1. China 13 Sep 1993 5.19 Usain Bolt (JAM) Berlin.11 Wang Junxia (CHN) Beijing. Bulgaria 400 m hurdles 52. Monaco 17 Jul 2015 1 mile 4:12.56 Svetlana Masterkova (RUS) <WTKEJ5YKV\GTNCPF 14 Aug 1996 2.GTOCKPGǡ$TQYP Nassau. Italy 5 Sep 1999 1.500 m 3:26. 232 Sports Reference DATE Usain Bolt (JAM) Berlin. Czech Republic 12 Jun 2008 3 Sep 2000 21 Sep 2002 25.67 Daniel Komen (KEN) Rieti. Asbel Kiprop) Nassau. South Korea 400 m 47.000 m 2:28. LOCATION 9. Silas Kiplagat. Spain 6 Aug 1992 4 x 100 m relay 36.29 75# #PFTGY8CNOQP3WKPE[9CVVU*CTT[ǡ4G[PQNFU /KEJCGNǡ. Irene Jelagat. Olga Nazarova.35 Kenenisa Bekele (ETH) Hengelo. Bianca Knight.000 m 26:17. Belgium 23 Aug 1996 1. Nickel Ashmeade. Lyubov Gurina. Germany 20 Aug 2009 400 m 43.Q[PGT 75# Indianapolis.000 m 8:06. China 8 Sep 1993 20. UK 1.36 Sonia O’Sullivan (IRL) Edinburgh. Germany 22 Aug 1993 4 x 800 m relay 7:02.500 m relay 14:22. Irina Podyalovskaya) /QUEQY4WUUKC 5 Aug 1984 Kenya (Mercy Cherono. South Korea 1 Oct 1988 4 x 800 m relay 7:50. Czech Republic 25. 9KNHTGFǡ$WPIGK Brussels.78 Wang Junxia (CHN) Beijing.00 Tegla Loroupe (KEN) Warstein.80 Aries Merritt (USA) Brussels.000 m 1:27:05.40 Moses Cheruiyot Mosop (KEN) Eugene. Irene Jelagat. He ran the fastest 200 mKPǡUGEŤ CICKPDTGCMKPIJKUQYP TGEQTF QHǡUGE UGV KPǡ$GKLKPIGZCEVN[C[GCT before to the day.90 Tegla Loroupe (KEN) Mengerskirchen.40 Moses Cheruiyot Mosop (KEN) Eugene. Ismael Kombich.98 Svetlana Masterkova (RUS) Brussels.53 Kenenisa Bekele (ETH) Brussels. UK 10 Aug 2012 4 x 200 m relay 1:27.79 Hicham El Guerrouj (MAR) Berlin.QPGU Philadelphia. Spain 26 Aug 1999 800 m 1:40.46 7PKVGF5VCVGUū$NWGŬ . William Yiampoy.91 David Lekuta Rudisha (KEN) London. Italy 5.000 m steeplechase 7:53. Michael Frater.000 m 1:05:26.000 m 1:12:25.GPMKPU.13 Hicham El Guerrouj (MAR) Rome. Faith Kipyegon.000 m 29:31. James Kiplagat Magut.84 Jamaica (Yohan Blake. Germany 16 Aug 2009 200 m 19. Germany )WNPCTC5COKVQXC)CNMKPC 475 Beijing.58 WOMEN Fastest 4 x OTGNC[ HGOCNG TIME/DISTANCE NAME & NATIONALITY 100 m 18.Q[PGT 75# Seoul.34 (NQTGPEG)TKHƒVJ.63 3 Jun 2011 110 m hurdles 12. USA 16 Jul 1988 29 Sep 1988 4 x 1.500 m relay 16:33.000 m 1:45:50. 1NICǡ$T[\IKPC Seoul. Germany Dire Tune (ETH) Ostrava. USA 29 Apr 2000 4 x 400 m relay 3:15.17 USSR (Nadezhda Olizarenko.C6CUJC%QNCPFGT 4KEJCTFUQP0CPEGGPǡ2GTT[/CTKQPǡ. Faith Kipyegon and Hellen Oribi (all KEN) proved WPECVEJCDNGKPVJGYQOGPŨU ǡZOTGNC[VCMKPIRNCEG CVVJG6ǡ4QDKPUQP5VCFKWOKP 0CUUCW$CJCOCUQPǡ/C[ 2014.

USA 24 hours 303. France Ť/C[ 6 days 883. Australia Ť/CT 13 days 1:54:02 Eleanor Robinson (GBR) Nanango.GMCVGTKPC/CTV[PQXC'NGPC-QHCPQXC#PPC$CNCMUJKPC /QUEQY4WUUKC 18 Feb 2011 Claudia Stef (ROM) Bucharest.20 Ayanleh Souleiman (DJI) 5VQEMJQNO5YGFGP 1.58 Cornelia Oschkenat (GDR) Berlin. Hungary 5.37 4WUUKC .92 Frankie Fredericks (NAM) Liévin. UK 100 km 07:14:06 Norimi Sakurai (JPN) 8GTQPC+VCN[ 100 miles 13:52:07 Mami Kudo (JPN) Chinese Taipei 1.000 m 2:14.000 m walk 11:40. USA 12 Mar 2005 800 m 1:42. Australia TIME/DISTANCE WOMEN Ethiopia’s Genzebe Dibaba ran the indoor mile in 4:13. Romania 30 Jan 1999 3.851 km (645.06 mi) 5CPFTC$CTYKEM 0< %CORDGNNVQYP#WUVTCNKC Ť0QX guinnessworldrecords. Germany 10 Feb 2008 4 x 200 m relay 1:32.60 Genzebe Dibaba (ETH) 5VQEMJQNO5YGFGP 6 Feb 2014 5.500 m 3:55.60 Kenenisa Bekele (ETH) Birmingham.31 Genzebe Dibaba (ETH) 5VQEMJQNO5YGFGP 17 Feb 2016 3.000 m 14:18.86 Genzebe Dibaba (ETH) 5VQEMJQNO5YGFGP 19 Feb 2015 50 m hurdles 6.000 m 12:49.000 miles 6 hours 97.11 )TGCV$TKVCKP0QTVJGTP+TGNCPF .631 km (549.77 mi) Zach Bitter (USA) Phoenix.75 mi) Inagiki Sumie (JPN) Surgères. France 1.30 Colin Jackson (GBR†) 5KPFGNƒPIGP)GTOCP[ 6 Mar 1994 4 x 200 m relay 1:22.82 .000 m 7:24. Spain ǡ(GD DATE 60 m 6.17 Genzebe Dibaba (ETH) Karlsruhe.000 km 7 days 1:28:29 Eleanor Robinson (GBR) Nanango.13 75# -[NG%NGOQPU&CXKF8GTDWTI-KPF$WVNGT+++%CNXKP5OKVJ Sopot. Poland 9 Mar 2014 4 x 800 m relay 5. Italy 7 Mar 1982 800 m 1:55. UK 9 Mar 1997 17 Feb 2016 2 Feb 1997 12 Feb 1997 6 Feb 1998 20 Feb 2004 50 m hurdles 6.56 Donovan Bailey (CAN) Reno.103 km (246.000 m 8:16.QPGU&CXKF6QTTGPEG&WCPG5QNQOQP'TKMǡ5QYKPUMK Boston.92 Irina Privalova (RUS) Madrid.31 at the Globe Arena KPVJG5YGFKUJECRKVCNQH 5VQEMJQNOQPǡ(GD ǡFC[U ǡFC[U DATE 7 Jun 1980 12 hours 6 days Fastest KPFQQTOKNG HGOCNG  TIME/DISTANCE Ť0QX NAME & NATIONALITY LOCATION 50 km 03:18:52 %CTQN[P*WPVGT4QYG )$4 Barry. Australia Ť1EV 48 hours 473.87 Merlene Ottey (JAM) Liévin. Japan 5 Mar 1986 60 m hurdles 7.000 miles 6 hours 83. France Ť/C[ 1.2 km (60. UK London.33 ATHLETICS – ULTRA LONG DISTANCE MEN NAME & NATIONALITY LOCATION 50 km 02:48:06 Jeff Norman (GBR) Timperley.59 Jarmila Kratochvílová (CZE) Milan.25 Mark McKoy (CAN) Kobe.57 Kerron Clement (USA) Fayetteville.495 km (294.90 Daniel Komen (KEN) Budapest.59 mi) Yiannis Kouros (GRC) Adelaide.2 km (57.com 233 .785 km (101.68 Susanna Kallur (SWE) Karlsruhe. Australia Ť/CT Norimi Sakurai (JPN) 8GTQPC+VCN[ Ann Trason (USA) *C[YCTF75# 1.WNKC)WUJEJKPC1NIC-QVN[CTQXC1NIC<C[VUGXC1NGU[Cǡ-TCUPQOQXGVU )NCUIQY7- 28 Jan 2006 4 x 800 m relay 8:06.QNCPFC$CVCIGNL 580 8KGPPC#WUVTKC 3 Mar 2002 9 Feb 1995 1.6 km (91.506 km (188.08 75##NN5VCTU 4KEJCTF.303 km (158.51 mi) Yiannis Kouros (GRC) Colac. UK 28 Oct 1978 14 Dec 2013 1. Germany 20 Feb 1988 60 m hurdles 7.24 6GCO/QUEQY #NGMUCPFTC$WNCPQXC. Yulia Gushchina) )NCUIQY7- 29 Jan 2005 4 x 400 m relay 3:23.21 mi) Yiannis Kouros (GRC) Surgères.69 mi) 12 hours 147.KPHQTF%JTKUVKG&CTTGP$TCKVJYCKVG#FG/CHG.96 Irina Privalova (RUS) Madrid. Belgium 3. Spain 11 Feb 1993 200 m 21.500 m 3:31.038. UK Yiannis Kouros (GRC) Colac.000 km 1.000 m 2:30. Germany 25 Feb 1999 1 Feb 2014 1 mile 4:13.ATHLETICS – INDOOR TRACK EVENTS MEN TIME NAME & NATIONALITY LOCATION DATE 50 m 5.67 Wilson Kipketer (DNK) Paris.39 mi) 28 Oct 1978 20 Oct 2002 0QXŤ&GE Ť/CT 163. Germany 1 mile 3:48. USA 3 Mar 2001 200 m 19. France 18 Feb 1996 400 m 44.41 Russia (Yekaterina Kondratyeva. France 13 Feb 1993 400 m 49. as per IAAF listings WOMEN TIME NAME & NATIONALITY LOCATION 50 m 5.18 Hicham El Guerrouj (MAR) Stuttgart.94 Maria de Lurdes Mutola (MOZ) 5VQEMJQNO5YGFGP 1. Spain 3 Feb 1998 Atlanta.45 Hicham El Guerrouj (MAR) Ghent. USA 9 Feb 1996 60 m 6.11 18:07. Irina Khabarova.QJP4GIKU )NCUIQY7- 3 Mar 1991 4 x 400 m relay 3:02. Australia Peter Silkinas (LTU) Nanango. Yuliya Pechonkina. USA Mikhail Shchennikov (RUS) /QUEQY4WUUKC 8 Feb 2014 14 Feb 1995 †GBR = Great Britain.39 Maurice Greene (USA) Madrid.000 m walk 7:13. Australia Donald Ritchie (GBR) London. UK 100 km 100 miles 06:10:20 11:28:03 Donald Ritchie (GBR) Oleg Kharitonov (RUS) London.63 mi) Mami Kudo (JPN) Chinese Taipei Ť&GE 48 hours 397.71 mi) DATE 3 Mar 1996 27 Sep 2003 10 Dec 2011 27 Sep 2003 Ť#WI 24 hours 255.

QUGRJCV0FCODKTK/CTVKPǡ/CVJCVJK&CPKGN/YCPIK Mekubo Mogusu. Edwin Kibet Koech (both KEN) and Sisay Lemma (ETH. Turkey 10 Mar 2012 WOMEN DISTANCE/POINTS NAME & NATIONALITY LOCATION High jump O HVKP -CLUC$GTISXKUV 59' Arnstadt.QTM75##UQH #RTǡ5WJTKUCNUQǡVJG reigning Olympic champion. Onesmus Nyerere.KCPI$Q&QPI.GPPKHGT5WJT 75# $TQEMRQTV75# 30 Jan 2016 Long jump O HVKP *GKMG&TGEJUNGT )&4 Vienna. Amos Choge Kipruto. to vault over 5 m ǡHVǡKP 5JGFKFUQƒTUV KPYKVJCXCWNVQHO ǡHVǡKP 6JTGG[GCTU later.CP Triple jump O HVKP 6GFF[6COIJQ (4#  Paris.WN 20.K0C $GKLKPI%JKPC (GD *5VKNNCYCKVKPITCVKƒECVKQPCVVJGVKOGQHIQKPIVQRTGUU ATHLETICS – RACE WALKING MEN TIME NAME & NATIONALITY LOCATION  $GTPCTFQ5GIWTC /': $GTIGP0QTYC[ ǡMO TQCF  .QU#PIGNGU75# . Portugal 21 Mar 2010 Half marathon  <GTUGPC[6CFGUG '4+ Lisbon.000 m  .QTM%KV[75# .GYKU 75# 0GY. Turkey *5VKNNCYCKVKPITCVKƒECVKQPCVVJGVKOGQHIQKPIVQRTGUU DATE /CT ŮǡOǡUGE 6 Mar 2011 NQPILWORǡO UJQVO JKIJLWORǡO ǡOJWTFNGUǡUGE RQNGXCWNVǡO ǡOǡOKPǡUGE DATE (GD ŮŮOJWTFNGUǡUGE /CT 9 Mar 2012 JKIJLWORǡO UJQVǡO NQPILWORǡO ǡOǡOKPǡUGE .GPPKHGT5WJT 75# KUQPN[ the second woman in JKUVQT[ǡCHVGT4WUUKCŨU.CPOGK<JCQ(GPIVKPI/Cǡ<CKLKG .GOOC '6* &WDCK7#' 22 Jan 2016 Marathon 2:02:57 Dennis Kipruto Kimetto (KEN) $GTNKP)GTOCP[ 5GR 100 km 6:13:33 Takahiro Sunada (JPN) Tokoro.GNGPC Isinbayeva. Spain 6 Jun 2015 ATHLETICS – INDOOR FIELD EVENTS MEN DISTANCE/POINTS NAME & NATIONALITY LOCATION High jump O HVKP . Switzerland #WI NAME & NATIONALITY LOCATION 0CFG\JFC4[CUJMKPC 7554 5GCVVNG75# .SPORTS REFERENCE ATHLETICS & CYCLING ATHLETICS – ROAD RACE (CUVGUVǡMO road race While running the 2016 Dubai Marathon on 22 Jan.000 m WOMEN Highest RQNGǡXCWNV HGOCNGKPFQQTU . France Shot O HVKP 4CPF[$CTPGU 75# .000 m  20.WCP2WGTVQ4KEQ 23 Feb 2003 DATE 15 km  Florence Jebet Kiplagat (KEN) $CTEGNQPC5RCKP 15 Feb 2015 20 km  Florence Jebet Kiplagat (KEN) $CTEGNQPC5RCKP 15 Feb 2015 Half marathon 1:05:09 Florence Jebet Kiplagat (KEN) $CTEGNQPC5RCKP 15 Feb 2015 25 km 1:19:53 Mary Jepkosgei Keitany (KEN) $GTNKP)GTOCP[ 9 May 2010 30 km  Mizuki Noguchi (JPN) $GTNKP)GTOCP[ 25 Sep 2005 Marathon 2:15:25 2CWNC4CFENKHHG )$4 . Japan 25 Jun 2000 Road relay  %JKPC . Czechoslovakia 19 Feb 1977 Pentathlon†† 5.013 points 0CVCNKC&QDT[PUMC 7-4 Istanbul.QJCPP&KPK\ (4# Zurich. Germany Pole vault* O HVKP . Italy 50. Japan 30.CXKGT5QVQOC[QT %7$ $WFCRGUV*WPICT[ Pole vault O HVKP 4GPCWF.000 m  Maurizio Damilano (ITA) Cuneo.20 Nomi.QJCPP&KPK\ (4# 4GKOU(TCPEG 12 Mar 2011 MO TQCF  .WP Road relay 1:57:06 -GP[C . Japan . Austria (GD Triple jump O HVKP 6CV[CPC.000 m  1NKORKCFC+XCPQXC 475 $TKUDCPG#WUVTCNKC 6 Sep 2001 MO TQCF  Liu Hong (CHN) La Coruña.CP Heptathlon† RQKPVU #UJVQP'CVQP 75# Istanbul.KZKP. Japan 23 Nov 2005 6 May 2012 WOMEN TIME NAME & NATIONALITY LOCATION 10 km 30:21 2CWNC4CFENKHHG )$4 5CP. she improved her RGTUQPCNDGUVD[EO ǡKP  at the Golden Eagle Multi CPFǡ+PXKVCVKQPCNKP$TQEMRQTV 0GYǡ.WUWMG5W\WMK .CPǡ. Portugal 21 Mar 2010 25 km  Dennis Kipruto Kimetto (KEN) $GTNKP)GTOCP[ 30 km* 1:27:20 Amos Choge Kipruto (KEN) Edwin Kibet Koech (KEN) 5KUC[ǡ. John Kariuki) Chiba. above) all reached the 30-km point KPǡCǡTGEQTFVKOGQHǡJT ǡOKPǡǡUGE MEN TIME NAME & NATIONALITY LOCATION 10 km  Leonard Patrick Komon (KEN) 7VTGEJV0GVJGTNCPFU 26 Sep 2010 DATE 15 km  Leonard Patrick Komon (KEN) 0KLOGIGP0GVJGTNCPFU 21 Nov 2010 20 km 55:21 <GTUGPC[6CFGUG '4+ Lisbon.QPFQP7- 13 Apr 2003 100 km 6:33:11 Tomoe Abe (JPN) Tokoro. having won gold at London 5JGYQPCUKNXGTOGFCN CVVJG1N[ORKEUUVCIGF KP$GKLKPI%JKPC 234 Sports Reference TIME DATE /C[ 15 Mar 2015 3 Oct 1992 DATE 10.CXKNNGPKG (4# &QPGVUM7MTCKPG (GD Long jump O HVKP %CTN.GDGFGXC 475  $WFCRGUV*WPICT[ Shot O HVKP Helena Fibingerová (CZE) Jablonec.

WN Long jump O HVKP /KMG2QYGNN 75# Tokyo. Japan 30 Aug 1991 Triple jump O HVKP .CXKGT5QVQOC[QT %7$ Salamanca.QPFQP7- 3 Aug 2012 7 Jun 2015 O HN[KPIUVCTV  O HN[KPIUVCTV 6GCOO UVCPFKPIUVCTV 1 hour WOMEN MO $TCFNG[9KIIKPU )$4 . Germany 25 May 1996 Decathlon† RQKPVU #UJVQP'CVQP 75# $GKLKPI%JKPC 29 Aug 2015 WOMEN DISTANCE/POINTS NAME & NATIONALITY LOCATION High jump O HVKP 5VGHMC-QUVCFKPQXC $)4 4QOG+VCN[ DATE #WI ŮŮǡOJWTFNGU Pole vault O HVKP .XGNKPGU France (GD #IWCUECNKGPVGU/GZKEQ 11 May 2010 /C[ 6 Dec 2013 MO UVCPFKPIUVCTV  5CTCJ*COOGT 75# 6GCOMO UVCPFKPIUVCTV  Australia (Amy Cure.GPKPITCF4WUUKC .WN Hammer O HVKP #PKVC9QFCTE\[M 21. Italy .KUQXUMC[C 7554 /QUEQY4WUUKC .C2C\$QNKXKC  )GTOCP[ . Germany 5GR Heptathlon†† 7. Annette Edmondson.XGNKPGU (TCPEGQPǡ(GD guinnessworldrecords. Switzerland #WI Long jump O HVKP )CNKPC%JKUV[CMQXC 7554 .GNGPC+UKPDC[GXC 475 Zurich.QPCVJCP'FYCTFU )$4 Gothenburg.QCEJKO'KNGTU4GPȌ'PFGTU 4QDGTV(ȘTUVGOCPP #IWCUECNKGPVGU/GZKEQ 5 Dec 2013 MO UVCPFKPIUVCTV  (TCPȊQKU2GTXKU (4# #IWCUECNKGPVGU/GZKEQ 7 Dec 2013 MO UVCPFKPIUVCTV  . Australia 2 Feb 2011 6GCOMO UVCPFKPIUVCTV  )TGCV$TKVCKP 'FYCTF%NCPE[2GVGT -GPPCWIJ)GTCKPVǡ6JQOCU5VGXGP$WTMG .67 %QNWODKC75# 15 Apr 2005 7 Aug 1995 1 Aug 2015 NQPILWORǡO UJQVǡǡOJKIJLWOR ǡOǡOǡUGE ǡOǡJWTFNGUǡUGE FKUEWUǡORQNGǡXCWNV ǡOLCXGNKPǡO ǡOǡOKPǡǡUGE ǡUGEJKIJLWOR ǡOUJQVǡO ǡOǡUGENQPI LWORǡOLCXGNKP ǡOǡOǡOKP ǡUGE ŮŮŮOǡUGE NQPILWORǡO UJQVǡǡOJKIJLWOR OǡOǡUGE ǡOJWTFNGUǡUGE FKUEWUǡORQNGXCWNV ǡOLCXGNKPǡO ǡOǡOKPǡUGE CYCLING – ABSOLUTE TRACK MEN TIME/DISTANCE NAME & NATIONALITY LOCATION (TCPȊQKU2GTXKU (4# #IWCUECNKGPVGU/GZKEQ  %JTKU*Q[ )$4 . Poland Javelin O HVKP $CTDQTCɵRQVȄMQXȄ %<' Stuttgart.KPLKG)QPI6KCPUJK<JQPI 5CKPV3WGPVKPGP.CESWGNKPG. Cetniewo.CEM$QDTKFIG #75 Sydney.ATHLETICS – OUTDOOR FIELD EVENTS MEN DISTANCE/POINTS NAME & NATIONALITY LOCATION High jump O HVKP .WP Triple jump O HVKP +PGUUC-TCXGVU 7-4 Gothenburg.ȜTIGP5EJWNV )&4 Neubrandenburg. Annette Edmondson. 5CKPV3WGPVKPGP.WP Hammer O HVKP . #UJNGG#PMWFKPQHHCPF Melissa Hoskins completed VJGǡMOVGCORWTUWKVKPǡOKP ǡUGEFWTKPIVJG7%+ Track Cycling World Cup meet KP5CKPV3WGPVKPGP.Q[PGT-GTUGG 75# Seoul.QU#PIGNGU75# 20 May 1990 Discus O HVKP .XGNKPGU #UJNGG#PMWFKPQHH/GNKUUC*QUMKPU France 19 Feb 2015 'XGN[P5VGXGPU 75# 27 Feb 2016 (CTVJGUVǡJT WPRCEGF UVCPFKPIUVCTV 5KT$TCFNG[9KIIKPU )$4  E[ENGFǡMO ǡOK  at the Olympic velodrome in .WTK[5GF[MJ 7554 Stuttgart.QPFQP7- TIME/DISTANCE NAME & NATIONALITY LOCATION DATE 13 May 2007 DATE 7 Dec 2013  -TKUVKPC8QIGN &'7 #IWCUECNKGPVGU/GZKEQ O HN[KPIUVCTV  1NIC5VTGNVUQXC 475 /QUEQY4WUUKC O UVCPFKPIUVCTV  #PPC/GCTGU #75 #IWCUECNKGPVGU/GZKEQ 6GCOO UVCPFKPIUVCTV  %JKPC .QPFQP7-QPǡ. South Korea 5GR Decathlon††† RQKPVU #WUVTC5MWL[Vȴ . Sweden 10 Aug 1995 Shot O HVKP 0CVCN[C. Spain 27 Jul 1993 ŮOǡUGE DATE Pole vault O HVKP 5GTIGK$WDMC 7-4 Sestriere. Germany .WP +VǡKUCOCTMQHVJGCFXCPEGU KPǡDQVJCVJNGVKEƒVPGUUCPF cycling technology that YJGPǡVJGTGEQTFYCUƒTUV GUVCDNKUJGFŤQP/C[ D[*GPTK&GUITCPIG (4# Ť the distance achieved was ūQPN[ŬǡMO ǡOK  MO %QNQTCFQ5RTKPIU75# +P#UJVQP'CVQP 75#  UEQTGFǡRQKPVUVQVCMG VJGIQNFOGFCNCVǡVJG+##( 9QTNF%JCORKQPUJKRUHQTVJG UGEQPFVKOG*GDGVVGTGFJKU QYPTGEQTFD[UKZǡRQKPVUKP CǡUVWPPKPIRGTHQTOCPEG 6 Dec 2013 O HN[KPIUVCTV 1 hour /QUVRQKPVU KPǡCǡFGECVJNQP (CUVGUVǡMO VGCORWTUWKV YQOGP 6JG#WUVTCNKCPVGCOQH#O[ Cure. Sweden Shot O HVKP 4CPF[$CTPGU 75# .CPʒGNG\Pȝ %<' Jena. Germany #WI Javelin O HVKP .291 points .com 235 . Germany .WP Discus O HVǡKP )CDTKGNG4GKPUEJ )&4 Neubrandenburg.

WEGTPG5YKV\GTNCPF /C[ #WI . UYCOǡO ǡHVǡKP KP$TPQ%\GEJ 4GRWDNKEQPǡ0QX 9KNNKCO6TWDTKFIG 0< 6JG$CJCOCU &GE 5VCXTQU-CUVTKPCMKU )4% Kalamata.Q[EG #KIWGDGNGVVGNG. Greece DISTANCE MEN'S STATIC APNEA Duration LOCATION #NGZG[/QNEJCPQX 475 O ǡHVǡKP O HVKP 9KVJQWVƒPU NAME & NATIONALITY 0QX DATE O HVKP 0CVCNKC/QNEJCPQXC 475 &CJCD'I[RV Variable weight O HVKP 0CPLCXCPFGP$TQGM 0.QJP5OKVJ.CTUGP9KPVJGT #OUVGTFCO0GVJGTNCPFU #WI Eights**  )GTOCP[ #NVGPC&CJNMG-QDQT5VQORQTQYUMK/GNIGU/ȇT\ $WEJJGKV8QPǡ9CTDWTI-CUMC /QPVTGCN%CPCFC #WI <QG/E$TKFG 0< EQORNGVGF the women’s single sculls NKIJVYGKIJVENCUUTQYKPǡOKP ǡUGECVVJG9QTNF 4QYKPI%WRTGICVVCKP8CTGUG +VCN[QPǡ.WP O HVKP Mateusz Malina (POL) $TPQ%\GEJ4GRWDNKE TIME NAME & NATIONALITY LOCATION DATE OKPUGE $TCPMQ2GVTQXKE 54$ &WDCK7#' 1EV DEPTH NAME & NATIONALITY LOCATION 0CVCNKC/QNEJCPQXC 475 Kalamata.WECU6TCOGT #OUVGTFCO0GVJGTNCPFU #WI Coxless fours  &GPOCTM $CTU‡G.COGU6TKIIU*QFIG)TGIQT[ . Greece 5GR NAME & NATIONALITY LOCATION 0CVCNKC/QNEJCPQXC 475 %CINKCTK+VCN[ 5GR .KPF . PQƒPU In this event.WP#IGF LWUVCVVJGVKOG/E$TKFG broke a record that was set DGHQTGUJGYCUDQTPFWTKPI VJGUGOKƒPCNQHVJGTGICVVC .WP Free immersion O HVKP WOMEN'S DYNAMIC APNEA DISTANCE 9KVJƒPU O HVKP 9KVJQWVƒPU O HVKP WOMEN'S STATIC APNEA TIME Duration 9 min 2 sec 0CVCNKC/QNEJCPQXC 475 $GNITCFG5GTDKC NAME & NATIONALITY LOCATION 0CVCNKC/QNEJCPQXC 475 $GNITCFG5GTDKC DATE DATE .WN DATE .WP Quadruple sculls**  0GVJGTNCPFU 9QGTPGT2CWNKU-TCCKLMCOR*GCF #OUVGTFCO0GVJGTNCPFU #WI Coxless pairs**  #WUVTCNKC 'NK\C$NCKT.WN LIGHTWEIGHT TIME NAME & NATIONALITY LOCATION Single sculls**  /CTEGNNQ/KCPK +6# #OUVGTFCO0GVJGTNCPFU #WI Double sculls  5QWVJ#HTKEC .CE(TCPEG Single sculls 236 Sports Reference WOMEN TIME DATE NAME & NATIONALITY LOCATION  4WO[CPC0G[MQXC $)4 5GXKNNG5RCKP Double sculls  5CNN[-GJQG1N[ORKC#NFGTUG[ #75 #OUVGTFCO0GVJGTNCPFU #WI Quadruple sculls  )GTOCP[ #PPGMCVTKP6JKGNG%CTKPC$ȇT.WP Double sculls  )TGCV$TKVCKP %JCTNQVVG6C[NQT-CVJGTKPG%QRGNCPF 8CTGUG+VCN[ .QPFQP7- Coxless fours  )TGCV$TKVCKP 4GGF.KUC5EJOKFNC #OUVGTFCO0GVJGTNCPFU #WI Coxless pairs  )TGCV$TKVCKP *GNGP)NQXGT*GCVJGT5VCPPKPI #OUVGTFCO0GVJGTNCPFU #WI Coxless fours**  0GY<GCNCPF 2TGPFGTICUV2TCVV)QYNGT$GXCP #OUVGTFCO0GVJGTNCPFU #WI Eights  75# 4GICP2QNM5P[FGT5KOOQPFU.WEGTPG5YKV\GTNCPF NAME & NATIONALITY LOCATION <QG/E$TKFG 0< 8CTGUG+VCN[ LIGHTWEIGHT TIME Single sculls** 7:24.WNKC. Greece 5GR /C[ O HVKP %QPUVCPVYGKIJVYKVJQWVƒPU 5GR 9KNNKCO6TWDTKFIG 0< WOMEN'S DEPTH DISCIPLINES %QPUVCPVYGKIJVYKVJƒPU Kalamata.‡TIGPUGP.000-m course) MEN NAME & NATIONALITY LOCATION Single sculls  TIME /CJȌ&T[UFCNG 0< 2Q\PCɛ2QNCPF DATE Double sculls  %TQCVKC 8CNGPV5KPMQXKȦ/CTVKP5KPMQXKȦ #OUVGTFCO0GVJGTNCPFU #WI Quadruple sculls  7MTCKPG /QTQ\QX&QXIQFMQ0CFVQMC/KMJC[ #OUVGTFCO0GVJGTNCPFU #WI Coxless pairs  0GY<GCNCPF 'TKE/WTTC[*COKUJ$QPF .WP ROWING (All events take place over a 2.46 DATE 5GR .& 5JCTOGN5JGKMJ'I[RV 1EV No limit O HVKP 6CP[C5VTGGVGT 75# 6WTMUCPF%CKEQU+UNCPFU #WI 0CVCNKC/QNEJCPQXC 475 Kalamata.CVGTQPKPUJGYQP VJGǡIQNFOGFCNCVVJG9QTNF 4QYKPI%JCORKQPUJKRUKP #KIWGDGNGVVGNG.WEGTPG5YKV\GTNCPF /C[ Coxed pairs**  0GY<GCNCPF %CNGD5JGRJGTF'TKE/WTTC[*COKUJ$QPF #OUVGTFCO0GVJGTNCPFU #WI Coxed fours**  )GTOCP[ 7PIGOCEJ'KEJJQN\9G[TCWEJ4CDG&GFGTFKPI 8KGPPC#WUVTKC #WI Eights  %CPCFC $TQYP$GTIGP/E%CDG%UKOC2TKEG)KDUQP $[TPGUǡ%TQVJGTUǡ*QYCTF .SPORTS REFERENCE DIVING & ICE SKATING FREEDIVING MEN’S DEPTH DISCIPLINES DEPTH %QPUVCPVYGKIJVYKVJƒPU O ǡHVǡKP %QPUVCPVYGKIJVYKVJQWVƒPU Variable weight O HVKP  O HV No limit O HVKP Free immersion MEN'S DYNAMIC APNEA 9KVJƒPU Longest freedive (dynamic apnea. the diver has to swim the greatest distance WPFGTYCVGTYKVJQWVƒPUQT breathing aids.KGT.WUVKPG. Greece 0QX *GTDGTV0KVUEJ #76 5RGVUGU)TGGEG .91 5YKV\GTNCPF 5KOQP0KGROCPP.CE(TCPEG ** Denotes non-Olympic boat classes 5GR .COGU6JQORUQP #OUVGTFCO0GVJGTNCPFU #WI Fastest row in the single sculls lightweight ENCUU HGOCNG Quadruple sculls**  )TGGEG /CIFCPKU)KCPPCTQU'-QPUQNCU)-QPUQNCU #OUVGTFCO0GVJGTNCPFU #WI Coxless pairs** 6:22.WE\CM4QDDKPU 5EJOGVVGTNKPIǡ1RKV\ǡ.WP #RT 6JG$CJCOCU NAME & NATIONALITY LOCATION )QTCPȫQNCM *48 $GNITCFG5GTDKC DATE DATE . Mateusz /CNKPC 21.

& 5CNV.000 m RQKPVU /KEJGN/WNFGT 0.17 DATE (GD /GT[N&CXKU%JCTNKG9JKVG 75# 5QEJK4WUUKC (GD )CDTKGNNC2CRCFCMKU)WKNNCWOG%K\GTQP (4# $QUVQP75# /CT Highest score KPǡHTGGUMCVKPIŤ long programme HGOCNG 'XIGPKC/GFXGFGXC 475  UEQTGFCVVJG+57 9QTNFǡ%JCORKQPUJKRUKP $QUVQP/CUUCEJWUGVVU 75#ǡQPǡ#RT*GT QWVUVCPFKPIRGTHQTOCPEG secured her the gold medal CVǡVJGEQORGVKVKQPGXGP though she had come only VJKTFǡKPVJGUJQTVRTQITCOOG guinnessworldrecords.20 $CTEGNQPC5RCKP &GE Combined total  Short programme  Free skating 219.000/1.000 m  5XGP-TCOGT 0.000 m 6:42.000 m  5JCPK&CXKU 75# 5CNV.CMG%KV[75# 500/1.000 m 1:26.CMG%KV[75# 3.500/10.500 m 2:16.000/500/1.4Ŭ%GNUMK 75# %CNICT[%CPCFC DATE 1EV 1.KPM[W -14 5JCPIJCK%JKPC &GE 3.66 /CQ#UCFC .89 Free dance 118.W\WTW*CP[W .000 m 1:12.500 m  5JCPK&CXKU 75# 5CNV.CMG%KV[75# 0QX 2 x 500 m  2CXGN-WNK\JPKMQX 475 5CNV.000 m relay  %CPCFC /KEJCGN)KNFC[%JCTNGU*COGNKP (TCPȊQKU*COGNKPCPF1NKXKGT.000 m  'UMKN'TXKM 014 %CNICT[%CPCFC 0QX 5.500/5.KPM[W -14 9CTUCY2QNCPF /CT 5.48 NAME & NATIONALITY LOCATION WOMEN Combined total POINTS DATE DATE  Kim Yuna (KOR) 8CPEQWXGT%CPCFC (GD Short programme 78.CP$NQGOGP %#0D0.CMG%KV[75# 0QX 1EV WOMEN 500 m TIME  ǡ(GD DATE 1.000 m TIME/POINTS .CP RQKPVU DATE 500/1.CMG%KV[7VCJ75# SPEED SKATING – SHORT TRACK MEN 500 m TIME NAME & NATIONALITY LOCATION  .66 /CTVKPC5ȄDNȐMQXȄ %<' 5CNV.000/1.18 $TKVVCP[$QYG 75# 5CNV.000 m RQKPVU %KPF[-NCUUGP %#0 %CNICT[%CPCFC Ť/CT 500/3.CMG%KV[75# Team pursuit (eight laps) WOMEN  0QX NAME & NATIONALITY LOCATION  .QJPū.661 5JKO5WMJGG -14 %CNICT[%CPCFC 1. Germany 1.& %CNICT[%CPCFC Ť#WI 500/5.WPI'WPLW -14 *CTDKP%JKPC /CT 3.GG5CPIJYC -14 5CNV.000 m relay  5QWVJ-QTGC 2CTM5GWPIJK-KO#NCPI 5JKOǡ5WMJGG%JQ*CTK Kolomna.CMG%KV[75# 0QX 2 x 500 m  .000 m  5GOKQP'NKUVTCVQX 475 Dresden.17 6CVKCPC8QNQUQ\JCT/CZKO6TCPMQX 475 5QEJK4WUUKC (GD 1EV Free skating  6CVKCPC8QNQUQ\JCT/CZKO6TCPMQX 475 &GVTQKV75# ICE DANCE POINTS NAME & NATIONALITY LOCATION Combined total  /GT[N&CXKU%JCTNKG9JKVG 75# 5QEJK4WUUKC Short dance 78.CMG%KV[75# %CNICT[%CPCFC Ť0QX Ťǡ0QX 1.000 m  0QJ.000 m TIME/POINTS  DATE 6GF.CMG%KV[75# Ť0QX 1.500 m  *GCVJGT4KEJCTFUQP$GTIUOC 75# 5CNV.CMG%KV[75# (GD *GCVJGT4KEJCTFUQP$GTIUOC 75# %CNICT[%CPCFC .000/3.CMG%KV[75# 500/3.SPEED SKATING – LONG TRACK MEN NAME & NATIONALITY LOCATION  2CXGN-WNK\JPKMQX 475 5CNV.000 m  .500/1. Russia 0QX (GD FIGURE SKATING MEN POINTS NAME & NATIONALITY LOCATION .CPI %*0 5CNV.CMG%KV[75# &GE 3.20 5CKVCOC.GCP %CNICT[%CPCFC 1EV NAME & NATIONALITY LOCATION (CP-GZKP %*0 5CNV.000 m RQKPVU 'TDGP9GPPGOCTU 0.000 m  %KPF[-NCUUGP %#0 %CNICT[%CPCFC /CT 5.& %CNICT[%CPCFC 0QX 0QX 500 m 10.QPIǡRTQITCOOG  'XIGPKC/GFXGFGXC 475 $QUVQP75# NAME & NATIONALITY LOCATION PAIRS Combined total Short programme POINTS #RT DATE  6CVKCPC8QNQUQ\JCT/CZKO6TCPMQX 475 &GVTQKV75# 1EV 84.500 m  0QJ.W\WTW*CP[W .CMG%KV[75# /CT 1.000 m RQKPVU 5JCPK&CXKU 75# %CNICT[%CPCFC Ť/CT 0GVJGTNCPFU $NQMJWKLUGP-TCOGT8GTYGKL 5CNV.GG5CPIJYC -14 5CNV.000/500/1.CRCP /CT Free skating/ .CMG%KV[75# 0QX 3.CP 500 m 500/1.& 5CNV.000 m RQKPVU %KPF[-NCUUGP %#0 %CNICT[%CPCFC Ť/CT %CPCFC -TKUVKPC)TQXGU%JTKUVKPG0GUDKVV $TKVVCP[5EJWUUNGT %CNICT[%CPCFC &GE Team pursuit (six laps)  (CUVGUVǡO speed skating HGOCNG 1Pǡ0QX*GCVJGT 4KEJCTFUQP$GTIUOC 75#  TGEQTFGFCVKOGQHǡOKP ǡUGEKPVJGYQOGPŨU ǡOURGGFUMCVKPI EQPVGUVCVCP+575RGGF 5MCVKPI9QTNF%WRGXGPVKP 5CNV.com 237 .20 $CTEGNQPC5RCKP &GE .W\WTW*CP[W .20 $CTEGNQPC5RCKP &GE .CMG%KV[75# 0QX 1.500/5.000/1.729 <JQW.

COCIWEJK .WN  5WP.GFGEM[ 75# #WUVKP75#  -CVKG.WN 4 x 100 m freestyle relay  4 x 200 m freestyle relay  %JKPC .QPFQP7- #WI 50 m breaststroke  4ʀVC/GKNWV[Vȴ .CRCP 5GR 1Pǡ.WN +PFQKPIUQUJGDTQMGJGT QYPTGEQTFQHUGE UGVǡLWUVHQWTFC[UGCTNKGT 238 Sports Reference .QPFQP7- #RT 200 m breaststroke  #MKJKTQ.WN 200 m freestyle  2CWN$KGFGTOCPP &'7 4QOG+VCN[ .KP %*0 4QOG+VCN[ .CP 800 m freestyle 1.WN 200 m freestyle  (GFGTKEC2GNNGITKPK +6# 4QOG+VCN[ 400 m freestyle  -CVKG.WN 800 m freestyle  <JCPI.WN 200 m breaststroke  4KMMG/‡NNGT2GFGTUGP &0- $CTEGNQPC5RCKP #WI 200 m medley  -CVKPMC*QUU\Ț *70 -C\CP4WUUKC #WI 400 m medley  .KPCP%JKPC 1EV 50 m backstroke  <JCQ.67 $CTEGNQPC5RCKP .KPI2CPIǡ.WN 50 m backstroke  .GFGEM[ 75# )QNF%QCUV#WUVTCNKC #WI .WN .KPI %*0 4QOG+VCN[ .500 m freestyle 4 x 100 m freestyle relay  4 x 200 m freestyle relay  DATE #WI #WI 75# /KEJCGN2JGNRU4KEM[ǡ$GTGPU&CXKFǡ9CNVGTU4[CPǡ.WN .QPFQP7- 75# /KEJCGN2JGNRU)CTTGVV9GDGT)CNG%WNNGP.QPFQP7- .KC[KPI 4QOG+VCN[ 50 m butterfly  5CTCJ5LȘUVTȘO 59' $QTȈU5YGFGP .WN #WI .CPI.WN #WI #WI WOMEN TIME NAME & NATIONALITY LOCATION 50 m freestyle  $TKVVC5VGHHGP &'7 4QOG+VCN[ #WI 100 m freestyle  $TKVVC5VGHHGP &'7 4QOG+VCN[ .GFGEM[ 75# -C\CP4WUUKC #WI #WUVTCNKC $TQPVG%CORDGNN/GNCPKG5EJNCPIGT'OOC/E-GQP %CVG%CORDGNN )NCUIQY7- .67 $CTEGNQPC5RCKP #WI 100 m breaststroke  4ʀVC/GKNWV[Vȴ .CPI %*0 .CUQPǡ.20 )KHW.500 m freestyle DATE .KCO6CPEQEM )$4 4QOG+VCN[ #WI Fastest long course 4 x ǡOHTGGUV[NG TGNC[ HGOCNG 100 m backstroke  #CTQP2GKTUQN 75# +PFKCPCRQNKU75# 200 m backstroke  #CTQP2GKTUQN 75# 4QOG+VCN[ 50 m breaststroke  #FCO2GCV[ )$4 -C\CP4WUUKC 100 m breaststroke  #FCO2GCV[ )$4 .WN 100 m butterfly  5CTCJ5LȘUVTȘO 59' -C\CP4WUUKC #WI 200 m butterfly  .WN #RT 100 m butterfly  /KEJCGN2JGNRU 75# 4QOG+VCN[ #WI 200 m butterfly  /KEJCGN2JGNRU 75# 4QOG+VCN[ .QPFQP7- #WI Fastest long EQWTUGǡO OGFNG[ HGOCNG -CVKPMC*QUU\Ț *70  EQORNGVGFVJGNQPIEQWTUG ǡOOGFNG[KPLWUVǡOKP ǡUGEǡCVVJGVJ(+0#9QTNF 5YKOOKPI%JCORKQPUJKRUKP -C\CP4WUUKCQP#WI 5JGUJCXGFQHCUGEQPF QHHVJGRTGXKQWUTGEQTFYJKEJ YCUUGVCVVJG9QTNF#SWCVKEU %JCORKQPUJKRUKP .WN 100 m backstroke  )GOOC5RQHHQTVJ )$4 4QOG+VCN[ .QEJVG 75# 5JCPIJCK%JKPC 400 m medley  /KEJCGN2JGNRU 75# $GKLKPI%JKPC 4 x 100 m medley relay  75# #CTQP2GKTUQN'TKE5JCPVGCW/KEJCGNǡ2JGNRU &CXKFǡ9CNVGTU 4QOG+VCN[ Fastest NQPIǡEQWTUG ǡOHTGGUV[NG HGOCNG )GTOCP[ŨU$TKVVC5VGHHGP TGEQTFGFCVKOGQHǡUGE KPVJGYQOGPŨUNQPIEQWTUG OHTGGUV[NGCVVJG9QTNF #SWCVKEU%JCORKQPUJKRUJGNF KP4QOG+VCN[QPǡ.WN 400 m freestyle  2CWN$KGFGTOCPP &'7 4QOG+VCN[ .G5JKYGP %*0 .KWǡ.W<JW3KCP9GK.SPORTS REFERENCE SWIMMING SWIMMING – LONG COURSE (50 M POOL) MEN TIME NAME & NATIONALITY LOCATION 50 m freestyle  %ȌUCT%KGNQ(KNJQ $4# 5ȆQ2CWNQ$TC\KN &GE 100 m freestyle  %ȌUCT%KGNQ(KNJQ $4# 4QOG+VCN[ .WN 200 m backstroke  /KUU[(TCPMNKP 75# .WN#WUVTCNKC $TQPVG%CORDGNN%CVG %CORDGNN'OOC/E-GQP CPF/GNCPKG5EJNCPIGT YQP VJGǡYQOGPŨUNQPIEQWTUG ǡZǡOHTGGUV[NGTGNC[KP ǡOKPǡUGE6JGTGEQTF DTGCMKPIUYKOVQQMRNCEG CVVJG%QOOQPYGCNVJ )COGUKPǡ)NCUIQY7- #DQXG$TQPVG%CORDGNN ITGGVUJGTUKUVGT%CVGCU VJGKTǡVGCOOCVGUNQQMQP 200 m medley  4[CP.QEJVG 4QOG+VCN[ 50 m butterfly  4CHCGN/WȓQ\ '52 /CNCIC5RCKP .G\CM $GKLKPI%JKPC 1.WN 4 x 100 m medley relay  75# /KUU[(TCPMNKP4GDGEEC5QPK&CPC8QNNOGT #NNKUQPǡ5EJOKVV  .WN  -CVKG.QPGU .KW<KIG %*0 .

QEJVG 75# &WDCK7#' &GE 4 x 100 m medley relay  4WUUKC 5VCPKUNCX&QPGVU5GTIG[ǡ)G[DGN'XIGP[-QTQV[UJMKP 5V2GVGTUDWTI4WUUKC &CPKNC+\QVQX &GE &GE WOMEN TIME NAME & NATIONALITY LOCATION 50 m freestyle  4CPQOK-TQOQYKFLQLQ 0.QDKPVUGX&CPKNCǡ+\QVQX'XIGP[.GXGCWZ (4# 4KLGMC%TQCVKC &GE 200 m freestyle  2CWN$KGFGTOCPP &'7 $GTNKP)GTOCP[ 0QX 400 m freestyle  .CIWPQX #NGZCPFGTǡ5WMJQTWMQX &WDCK7#' &GE 0QX 50 m butterfly  5VGHHGP&GKDNGT &'7 $GTNKP)GTOCP[ 100 m butterfly  %JCFNG%NQU <#( &QJC3CVCT &GE 200 m butterfly  %JCFNG%NQU <#( 5KPICRQTG5KPICRQTG 0QX 50 m backstroke  (NQTGPV/CPCWFQW (4# &QJC3CVCT 100 m backstroke  /CVV)TGXGTU 75# +PFKCPCRQNKU75# 200 m backstroke  /KVEJ.SWIMMING – SHORT COURSE (25 M POOL) MEN TIME NAME & NATIONALITY LOCATION 50 m freestyle  (NQTGPV/CPCWFQW (4# &QJC3CVCT 100 m freestyle  #OCWT[.CTMKP EQORNGVGFVJGUJQTVEQWTUG ǡODCEMUVTQMGKPǡOKP ǡUGEKP5[FPG[ #WUVTCNKCQPǡ0QX .500 m freestyle DATE &GE 4 x 100 m freestyle relay  0GVJGTNCPFU (GOMG*GGOUMGTM+PIG&GMMGT 4CPQOKǡ-TQOQYKFLQLQ/CWFXCPFGT/GGT &QJC3CVCT &GE 4 x 200 m freestyle relay  0GVJGTNCPFU (GOMG*GGOUMGTM+PIG&GMMGT 4CPQOKǡ-TQOQYKFLQLQ5JCTQPXCP4QWYGPFCCN &QJC3CVCT &GE 50 m butterfly  6JGTGUG#NUJCOOCT 59' 5KPICRQTG5KPICRQTG 100 m butterfly  5CTCJ5LȘUVTȘO 59' &QJC3CVCT 200 m butterfly  /KTGKC$GNOQPVG '52 &QJC3CVCT &GE  'VKGPG/GFGKTQU $4# &QJC3CVCT &GE 100 m backstroke  -CVKPMC*QUU\Ț *70 &QJC3CVCT &GE 200 m backstroke  -CVKPMC*QUU\Ț *70 &QJC3CVCT 50 m breaststroke  .GUUKEC*CTF[ 75# $GTNKP)GTOCP[ 0QX  4ʀVC/GKNWV[Vȴ .CTMKP #75 5[FPG[#WUVTCNKC 0QX 50 m breaststroke  %COGTQPXCPFGT$WTIJ <#( $GTNKP)GTOCP[ 0QX 100 m breaststroke  200 m breaststroke  &GE &GE %COGTQPXCPFGT$WTIJ <#( $GTNKP)GTOCP[ 0QX &ȄPKGN)[WTVC *70 &WDCK7#' #WI 100 m medley  /CTMWU&GKDNGT &'7 &QJC3CVCT 200 m medley  4[CP.67 /QUEQY4WUUKC 1EV #NKC#VMKPUQP .500 m freestyle DATE &GE .WN 4 x 100 m freestyle relay  75# 0CVJCP#FTKCP/CVV)TGXGTU)CTTGVVǡ9GDGT)CNG /KEJCGNǡ2JGNRU  /CPEJGUVGT7- &GE 4 x 200 m freestyle relay  4WUUKC 0KMKVC.QEJVG 75# +UVCPDWN6WTMG[ &GE 400 m medley  4[CP.& 'KPFJQXGP0GVJGTNCPFU +PFKCPCRQNKU75# #WI &GE 100 m freestyle  %CVG%CORDGNN #75 5[FPG[#WUVTCNKC 0QX 200 m freestyle  5CTCJ5LȘUVTȘO 59' &QJC3CVCT 400 m freestyle  /KTGKC$GNOQPVG '52 $GTNKP)GTOCP[ #WI  /KTGKC$GNOQPVG '52 $GTNKP)GTOCP[ #WI  /KTGKC$GNOQPVG '52 5CDCFGNN5RCKP &GE 800 m freestyle 1.#/ &QJC3CVCT 4GDGEEC5QPK 75# /CPEJGUVGT7- 50 m backstroke 100 m breaststroke 200 m breaststroke  &GE &GE &GE &GE  -CVKPMC*QUU\Ț *70 &QJC3CVCT &GE 200 m medley  -CVKPMC*QUU\Ț *70 &QJC3CVCT &GE 400 m medley  /KTGKC$GNOQPVG '52 &QJC3CVCT 4 x 100 m medley relay  75# %QWTVPG[$CTVJQNQOGY-CVKG/GKNK-GNUK9QTTGNN 5KOQPGǡ/CPWGN +PFKCPCRQNKU75# #VVJG#WUVTCNKCP5JQTV %QWTUGǡ%JCORKQPUJKRUKP 5[FPG[QPǡ0QX%CVG %CORDGNN #75 DTQMGVJG ǡOHTGGUV[NGTGEQTFFWTKPI CǡOGZJKDKVKQPUYKO*GT URNKVVKOGCVOYCUENQEMGF CVǡUGEUGEHCUVGT VJCPVJGRTGXKQWUTGEQTF /CVV)TGXGTU 75# UYCO VJGǡUJQTVEQWTUGǡO DCEMUVTQMGKPǡUGEKP +PFKCPCRQNKU+PFKCPC75# QPǡ&GE)TGXGTU DTQMGVJGTGEQTFFWTKPIVJG &WGNKPVJG2QQNEQORGVKVKQP DGVYGGPVJG'WTQRGCP #NN5VCTUCPFVJG75# 0QX 100 m medley Fastest UJQTVǡEQWTUG ǡOHTGGUV[NG HGOCNG Fastest short EQWTUGO backstroke &GE &GE Fastest short EQWTUGǡO backstroke #WUVTCNKCŨU/KVEJ.com 239 .CPPKEM#IPGN (4# #PIGTU(TCPEG 0QX 800 m freestyle  )TCPV*CEMGVV #75 /GNDQWTPG#WUVTCNKC  )TCPV*CEMGVV #75 2GTVJ#WUVTCNKC #WI 1.CTMKPUGVVJGTGEQTFCV VJGǡ#WUVTCNKCP5JQTV%QWTUG %JCORKQPUJKRU guinnessworldrecords.

KPIDKCQ %*0 MI CATEGORY MI NAME & NATIONALITY %NGCPLGTM 6QVCN MI MI 6QVCN WOMEN MI WEIGHT MI DATE 1EV %NGCPLGTM MI 0WTECP6C[NCP 674 #PVCN[C6WTMG[ 6QVCN MI .KLWP%JGP %*0 *QWUVQP75# 0QX 6QVCN MI .CPI.QPFQP7- #WI 6QVCN MI +N[C+N[KP -#< .4 $GKLKPI%JKPC #WI 0QX 5PCVEJ MI #MCMKQU-CMKCUXKNKU )4% #VJGPU)TGGEG %NGCPLGTM MI +N[C+N[KP -#< .KW%JWPJQPI %*0 $GKLKPI%JKPC #WI 6QVCN MI .4 %JKCPI/CK6JCKNCPF 5GR %NGCPLGTM MI <JCPI.KW%JWPJQPI %*0 $GKLKPI%JKPC #WI %NGCPLGTM MI .KCQ*WK %*0 9TQECY2QNCPF 1EV 6QVCN MI .KW%JWPJQPI %*0 $GKLKPI%JKPC #WI 5PCVEJ MI 0CVCN[C<CDQNQVPC[C 475 $GNIQTQF4WUUKC &GE %NGCPLGTM MI -KO7PLW 24-  +PEJGQP5QWVJ-QTGC 5GR 6QVCN MI 0CVCN[C<CDQNQVPC[C 475 $GNIQTQF4WUUKC &GE 5PCVEJ MI 6CVKCPC-CUJKTKPC 475 #NOCV[-C\CMJUVCP 0QX %NGCPLGTM MI 6CVKCPC-CUJKTKPC 475 #NOCV[-C\CMJUVCP 0QX 6QVCN MI 6CVKCPC-CUJKTKPC 475 #NOCV[-C\CMJUVCP 0QX ǡMI ENGCPǡǡLGTM 9GK&GPIQH%JKPCCEJKGXGF CǡNKHVQHǡMIKPVJGYQOGPŨU ENGCPLGTM ǡMIYGKIJV ENCUU CVVJG+9(9QTNF %JCORKQPUJKRUKP*QWUVQP 6GZCU75#QPǡ0QX9GK VQQMIQNFKPVJGǡMIUPCVEJ ENGCPLGTMCPFEQODKPGF GXGPVUCVVJG%JCORKQPUJKRU .K2KPI %*0 )WCPI\JQW%JKPC 0QX 0QX 1EV %NGCPLGTM MI <WNƒ[C%JKPUJCPNQ -#< #NOCV[-C\CMJUVCP 6QVCN MI *UW5JWEJKPI 62' +PEJGQP5QWVJ-QTGC 5GR 5PCVEJ MI $Q[CPMC-QUVQXC #<' *QWUVQP75# 0QX %NGCPLGTM MI 3KW*QPIOGK %*0 6CKŨCP%JKPC #RT 6QVCN MI $Q[CPMC-QUVQXC #<' *QWUVQP75# 0QX 5PCVEJ MI 5XGVNCPC6UCTWMCGXC 475 2CTKU(TCPEG 0QX %NGCPLGTM MI 9GK&GPI %*0 *QWUVQP75# 0QX 6QVCN MI .Ȝ:KCQLWP %*0 9TQECY2QNCPF 1EV 5PCVEJ MI #PFTGK4[DCMQW $.SPORTS REFERENCE WEIGHTLIFTING.CPI.KCQ*WK %*0 #NOCV[-C\CMJUVCP 0QX %NGCPLGTM MI . SPORTS MARATHONS & WATERSKIING WEIGHTLIFTING MEN CATEGORY MI 5PCVEJ MI MI MI MI ǡMIUPCVEJ The heaviest weight lifted KPǡVJGOGPŨ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Ȝ:KCQLWP %*0 9TQECY2QNCPF 1EV %NGCPLGTM MI 1NGI2GTGRGVEJGPQX 475 6TGPȬȐP5NQXCMKC #RT 6QVCN MI .QPFQP7- #WI 5PCVEJ MI #PFTGK#TCOPCW $.KCQ*WK %*0 #NOCV[-C\CMJUVCP 0QX 5PCVEJ MI .KP6\WEJK 62' +PEJGQP5QWVJ-QTGC 5GR 5PCVEJ MI .KLWP%JGP %*0 *QWUVQP75# 0QX 5PCVEJ MI .KPIDKCQ %*0  CVVJG+9(9QTNF9GKIJVNKHVKPI %JCORKQPUJKRUKP*QWUVQP 6GZCU75#QPǡ0QX *KUHGCVDTQMGC[GCT QNFTGEQTF6JGRTGXKQWU JQNFGT*CNKN/WVNW 674  JCFNKHVGFǡMIKP#PVCN[C 6WTMG[QP0QX MI MI  MI  MI ǡMIVQVCN $Q[CPMC-QUVQXC #<'  NKHVGFǡCYGKIJVQHǡMIKP VJGǡǡMIECVGIQT[CVVJG +PVGTPCVKQPCN9GKIJVNKHVKPI (GFGTCVKQP +9( 9QTNF 9GKIJVNKHVKPI%JCORKQPUJKRU KP*QWUVQP6GZCU75# QPǡǡ0QX 1PVJGUCOGFC[UJGCNUQ TGEQTFGFVJGheaviest weight NKHVGFKPVJGǡMIUPCVEJ ECVGIQT[ HGOCNG ǡMI +PǡCNNPKPGTGEQTFUYGTG DTQMGPFWTKPIVJCV[GCTŨU EJCORKQPUJKRU 240 Sports Reference 0QX DATE 1O.

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10.com 241 . 58.7 m jump ** 3@11. 71.0 m jump #WI 5GR DATE /C[ (CTVJGUV FKUVCPEG YCVGTUMKHN[KPI (TGFF[-TWGIGT 75# EQXGTGF ǡHV ǡO KP)TCPF 4CRKFU/KEJKICP75#QP ǡ#WI1Pǡ/C[ JGJCFOCFGVJGHCTVJGUV YCVGTUMKLWORǡHV ǡO  guinnessworldrecords.25 m.730 tricks.25 m. 0CVCNKC$GTFPKMQXC $.740 tricks. 9.4 )TQXGNCPF75# /C[ * 5@11.

WN 242 X Games TOM SCHAAR Youngest person to wi n a Summer X Games gold medal 6QO5EJCCT Dǡ5GR YCULWUV[GCTUǡFC[UQNF YJGPJGYQPVJG/KPK/GICECVGIQT[CVVJG:ǡ)COGU #UKCKP5JCPIJCK%JKPCQPǡ#RT*GCNUQJQNFUVJG TGEQTFHQTVJGƒTUVRGTUQPVQRGTHQTOC VJTGGHWNN TQVCVKQPUYJKNGCKTDQTPG YJKEJJGUGVCV9QQFYCTF9GUV KPǡ6GJCEJCRK%CNKHQTPKCQPǡ/CT .S CO BONPECIA NT U L EN S T JAMIE BESTWICK Most consecutive gold medals at the Summer X Games GTCPF CFC[QWPI PU6JG J U C J U G O HHGEVKQ RKE)C VJG1N[O QWPIURQTVUHCPUŨC KOOGFKCVG     G E KP [ 5 T KVU V[GCTCPF OGTKXCNHQ VGT OQTG:VTG COGUMKEMGFQHHVJC VGTRCTVVYQ[GCTUNC P ) G W KN : 5WOOGTǡ RCYPGFCYKPVGTEQ MKKPIQTUPQYOQD U U : V[ / TK NC $ RQRW Ų MCVKPI KIJVRNCEG NNGPEGKPU +HǡKVŨU:EG [QWŨXGEQOGVQVJGT T [QWŨTGǡCHVG .WE)CIPQP %#0 YQPUGXGP5MCVGDQCTF 8GTVEQORGVKVKQPUCVVJG5WOOGT:)COGUHTQO VQ1PGQHVJGCNNVKOGUMCVKPIITGCVUJG JCUYQP:)COGUOGFCNU KPENWFKPIPKPGǡIQNFU  CETQUUǡHQWTǡFKUEKRNKPGU Largest attendance at the Summer X Games 5WOOGT:)COGU8JGNFKP5CP(TCPEKUEQ %CNKHQTPKCYCUCVVGPFGFD[XKUKVQTUQXGT KVUǡPKPGFC[FWTCVKQPHTQO. PIERRE-LUC GAGNON Most men’s X Games Skateboard Vert wins 2KGTTG.COKG$GUVYKEM 7- YQPPKPG$/: 8GTVIQNFOGFCNUKPCTQYCVVJG 5WOOGT:)COGUDGVYGGP CPF6YQ:)COGUYGTGJGNFKP JGPEGVJGTGCUQPJGYQPPKPG EQPUGEWVKXGIQNFOGFCNUKPCPGKIJV [GCTURCP+P.WPVQ.WP$GUVYKEMŨU TGEQTFDTGCMKPITWPƒPCNN[ECOGVQ CPǡGPFYJGPJGƒPKUJGFUGEQPFVQ 8KPEG$[TQP #75 ŤD[QPGRQKPV $OOLQGLYLGXDOVDUHb86$ unless otherwise stated.

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• Most minutes played LQDbFDUHHUD[ -CTGGOǡ#DFWN. .S CO BONPECIA NT U L EN S T MOST WINS IN AN NBA SEASON The best-ever regularseason record by an NBA team is 73 wins and 9 losses by the Golden State Warriors in the 2015/16 season. Last year. he broke the previous record with 286 three-pointers. b. Stephen Curry – aka Wardell Stephen “Steph” Curry II – had clocked up a remarkable 402 three-pointers during the season – his third consecutive season breaking this record.#. Charlotte Hornets (1994–96) and Chicago Bulls (1996–97).GPPKPIU Dǡǡ5GR CIGFǡ[GCTUǡFC[U 1891 “Basket Ball” KPXGPVGFD[&Tǡ. Curry became the only player to hit 300 three-pointers in a single season. between 27 Oct 2015 and 13 Apr 2016.QYGNN/# 1940 (QTFJCO XU7PKXGTUKV[QH 2KVVUDWTIJDGEQOGU VJGͧUVWEDVNHWEDOO JDPHDLUHGRQ79 QPǡǡ(GD 1949 6JG0$# KUHQTOGFYJGP VJGǡ$CUMGVDCNN #UUQEKCVKQPQH #OGTKECCPF 0CVKQPCN$CUMGVDCNN . ted CAN) inven h (USA. eived to it m is a N s conc Jame KPVGT e originally rs since Dr It’s 125 yea asketball – a pastim JGOUGNXGUƒVKPVJGY itors b d f V e o R s G rt G rt o M o p IVQ the s WR sp UUQOGVJKP day.COGU 0CKUOKVJWUKPIUQEEGT DCNNUCPFRGCEJ baskets. Andrew Bynum (b.CP MOST GAMES PLAYED IN AN 0$#ǡ%#4''4 Robert Parish played 1.611 regular-season games from 1976 to 1997.GCIWGOGTIG .CMGTUKP #NNVGCOUCPFKPFKXKFWCNUCTG 75#WPNGUUQVJGTYKUGUVCVGF MOST THREE-POINT FIELD GOALS IN AN NBA SEASON By the end of 2015/16. ͧUVWJDPH RIbEDVNHWEDOO played KP5RTKPIƒGNF/# 244 125th Anniversary of Basketball 1896 )LUVWbJDPHRIFROOHJH EDVNHWEDOORNC[GF DGVYGGPVJG 7PKXGTUKVKGUQH +QYCǡCPF%JKECIQ 1902 *CTT[ū$WEM[Ŭ . the G m the IKXGCVJNGVG this landmark bir th reaking players fro CFG -b te O rd ra G o b ŨX c Q le To ce [Б YJ on of re ports. “The Chief” played for the Golden State Warriors (1976–80). eir selecti UGUNKVGTCNN present th IKCPVU KPUQOGEC lectrif ying of team s G e U t Q s J o V m Ť 0$ # n this t impact o the bigges • Best season start: ǡEQPUGEWVKXGYKPUD[ VJG9CTTKQTUCVVJGUVCTV QHVJGUGCUQP • Consecutively: D[ VJG.GY NGHV DGEQOGUVJG ͧUVW$IULFDQ$PHULFDQ WRbSOD\SUREDVNHWEDOO YJGPJGǡUKIPUHQT 2CYVWEMGVXKNNG#VJNGVKE %NWDǡKP. 27 Oct 1987) entered a game for the Los Angeles Lakers against the Denver Nuggets at the age of just 18 years 6 days. With this achievement.CP • In a quarter:D[-NC[6JQORUQP .CDDCT • Most minutes played LQbDVHDVRQ D[9KNVǡ%JCODGTNCKP   • Most minutes played LQbDbJDPHD[&CNG 'NNKU ǡ0QX YOUNGEST PLAYER IN THE NBA On 2 Nov 2005. Boston Celtics (1980– 94). • In a career:D[4C[#NNGP • In a half:D[%JCPFNGT2CTUQPU . BASKETBALL TIMELINE ̀7RVWDUWDJDPH-QDG$T[CPV D#WI CIGF ǡ[GCTUǡFC[U • To score 50 points in a match: $TCPFQP.

Cleveland Cavaliers and Boston Celtics from 1992/93 to 2010/11. MOST TRIPLEDOUBLES IN #ǡ%#4''4 Oscar Robertson achieved 181 tripledoubles from 1960 to 1974.5 rebounds and 11.com 245 .ǡ#0ǡ+0&+8+&7#. San Francisco Warriors. LA Lakers.045 games between 1959 and 1973. Miami Heat.8 points.QDͧQDOJDPHD[-QDG$T[CPV #RT 1992 6JGǡ75 OGPŨU1N[ORKE DCUMGVDCNNū&TGCO 6GCOŬ NGHV DGEQOGU VJGƒTUV1N[ORKE VGCOVQǡHGCVWTG OQUVN[ǡ0$#ǡRNC[GTU 1998 1Pǡǡ/CTVJGOCVEJ DGVYGGPVJG%JKECIQ $WNNUCPF#VNCPVC *CYMUFTCYUVJGVJGP NCTIGUVCVVGPFCPEGCV CP0$#ICOG 2016 6JGǡ)QNFGP5VCVG 9CTTKQTUTGEQTFVJG PRVWZLQVLQDQ1%$ VHDVRQXKEVQTKGU CPFFGHGCVU UGG QRRQUKVGRCIG  guinnessworldrecords.G$TQP . • In a season:D[9KNV%JCODGTNCKP  ̀.457 attempts.4 assists.2'4%'06#)' $.330 of 19.924 rebounds in 1. ̀0RVWYRWHVIRUUHJXODUVHDVRQ093 QWVQHC RQUUKDNG ƒTUVRNCEGXQVGUHQT5VGRJGP%WTT[KP ŤVJGǡͧUVWXQDQLPRXVYRWHIRUDQ093 *+)*'56(+'.QDJDPHD[9KNV%JCODGTNCKP /CT ̀.&)1#. Phoenix Suns. While playing for the Orlando Magic.5 Michael Jordan.582 by Shaquille O’Neal. He’s also the only player to average a tripledouble for a season (1961/62): 30. Kareem Abdul-Jabbar (b.387 points – an average of 24. O’Neal converted 11.QDJDPHD[ 9KNVǡ%JCODGTNCKP ǡ0QX • In a season:  D[ǡ9KNV%JCODGTNCKP  /156/82#9#4&5+00$#(+0#. playing for the Chicago Bulls (1991–93 and 1996–98).+0#%#4''4 7KH1%$UHJXODUVHDVRQUHFRUGIRUKLJKHVW̧HOGJRDO percentage is . Ferdinand Lewis Alcindor Jr) scored an incredible 38. won six Most Valuable Player awards. playing for the Philadelphia Warriors. ̀. Philadelphia 76ers and LA Lakers. • Consecutively: D[ 9KNVǡ%JCODGTNCKP Ťǡ/CT ̀<RXQJHVW.CPYJGP +PFKCPCRQNKU1N[ORKCPU DGCV4QEJGUVGT4Q[CNU ŤKPǡOKP YKVJ UKZQXGTVKOGU  1951 6JGƒTUV#NN5VCT )COGKUUVCIGFCV$QUVQP )CTFGPQPǡ/CTVJG'CUV VGCOFGHGCVUVJG9GUV D[ǡǡRQKPVUYKVJ'F /CECWNG[PCOGFCU ƒTUVǡ#NN5VCT/82 /15621+0655%14'&+0#00$#ǡ%#4''4 Between 1969 and 1989.6 points per game. 12.COGUCIGF[GCTU FC[U • Oldest:-CTN/CNQPG CIGF[GCTUFC[U 1951 6JGORQJHVW JDPHRIEDVNHWEDOO is RNC[GFQPǡ.MOST REBOUNDS +0#%#4''4 Wilt Chamberlain logged 23.

112. 225 ENKHHUFKXKPI LWORKPI climbing: mountains 76. . 212. ants 49 comebacks: golf 217. prosthesis 74–75 brand names 196 breakfast in bed 94 DTGCUVUVTQMG DTGYGTKGU bricks: plastic see LEGO®. common names 53. broken 131. races 204. man’s 25 androids 109. on foot 110. 93 crocodilians 52. Buzz (astronaut) 10–11 algal blooms 43 All-Star Games 212. driving 111. chocolate bars 90. 111. spoons 120. UGGCNUQKPFKXKFWCN KPFGZGPVTKGU CPKOCVGFOQXKGUŤ Annapurna 109 anti-lasers 203 Ants 48–49 CRRNGU CRRU CSWCVKECPVU CSWGFWEVU arcade cabinets 154 archery 230 arches. ŤHCVJGTUQP RNC[GTEQCEJYKVJ impairments 226. 100–101 bioluminescence 51 biomes 40. 22. 115. 122 ūCTQWPFVJGYQTNFŬVTKEMU 103. eggs 120 cryovolcanism 21. tennis balls bananas 120 bands: band members 76. 131. Bond XKNNCKPUOWTFGTGTU TQDQVUUVQNGP CTVYQTMU crochet hooks 100 Crocodiles 54–55. 165 correspondence chess 144 EQUOQU %QURNC[ 96–97 EQVVQP country codes 253 EQWTIGVVGU EQYU crackers: cream crackers TKEGETCEMGTU crashes. collections 92. 68ŤXKFGQ ŤUGGCNUQ art. driverless 193. earnings 209 amphitheatres 169 ancestors.CWTGPEG1NKXKGT#YCTFU 177. analogue 75. 77 ceratopsians 63 Chain reactions 146–147 EJCKPUCYU EJCKTUHQNFKPITQEMKPI 100 EJGGUGUEWNRVWTG EJGGUGUNKEGTU EJGHUTQDQVU68EJGHU  chemistry lessons 95 EJGTTKGU Chess 144–145 chess sets 144. movieOCMKPI CONCACAF Gold Cup 225 EQPETGVGFCOU cones 122 confectionery brand sales 91 %QPUVTWEVKQPVQ[U 152–153 %QPUWOGTVGEJ 196–197 %QPVTKDWVQTUŤ cookery lessons 95 Copa América 225 coprolites 63. J[DTKFUǡ $KI/CEU $KIUVWHH 98–99. humanRQYGTGFTQYKPI UCKNKPI via both Poles 110 circuses 126 EKVKGUYCNNGF clean sheets (soccer) 224. UGGCNUQ golf balls.WRKPVJG6JKTF 92. private collections 175. WPFGTYCVGT unicycles 95. extraterrestrial material 205.  Aldrin. tightrope YCNMKPI DNWGYJCNGU BMX biking 219 board games: chess 144–145. 113. octopuses 51. ŤYCNNUŤ UGGCNUQ castles. 41 bionic body parts 74–75 birds: egg clutches 56. YCVGTDCNNQQPU DCNNUDQYNKPIDCNNU juggling 124. 114. earnings MPGGNKPI UJQVUDCEMYCTFU marathons 241. valuable YJGGNKGU UGGCNUQ driving ECTVQQPUCYCTFU cartoon character VCVVQQU68 ECUJGYVTGGU cast-iron domes 160 castles 90. toppling 146 botanical gardens 111 DQVVNGIQWTFU boules 241 bounces: basketball 123. 109. clones 192. 92 EQTCNCVQNNUFKGQHH TGGHUŤ EQTMUETGYU corn (maize) mazes 164. piggy banks 99 $CTDKGFQNNU DCTTKGTTGGHUŤ Baseball 211. 110. UGGCNUQ Mass participation ETQYFHWPFKPI ETQYPHNCUJGU crushing. 200 EGPVGPCTKCPUUKDNKPIU supercentenarians 76. 112. Stone Age 40. 114. 37. 116. UGGǡCNUQ sculpture Art Sales 174–175 arteries 70 #465/'&+# 170–189. 111. 66. sales ŤUVQNGPCTVYQTMU 163. earnings HGOCNGDQZGTU RC[RGTXKGY brains. in movies RWNNGF restrained 130. 3D Earth map 201 3D printing 194–195. venomous 45. paper 124. ping-pong balls 125. LEGO® 153 carnivores 47. sieges 114. rolling UVGCORQYGTGF stunts 130. chess games 145. 201. home runs OCTCVJQPU DCUKN Basketball 123. Oscars 8KUWCN'HHGEVU 5QEKGV[#YCTFU UGGCNUQ medals B DCDQQPU backflips: bicycle 219. zoos 134. labyrinth installation RTKPVGF Shakespeare’s plays 176. 5VCT 9CTU5YCOR 6JKPIVQ[UQNFKGTU colonies. 111. ping-pong balls 103. 53 croquet 230 ETQUUDQYU ETQUUYQTFRW\\NGUŤ ETQYFCVVGPFCPEGUURQTVU matches 222. 122 CTTGUVUTQDQVU CTTQYJWOCP art: lessons 95. LEGO® 153. desktop 199. TQDQVKEǡǡ 246 Index “around the moon” tricks 103. 167 CVQNNUCTEJKRGNCIQU 39. faces 169. Rubik’s Cube 124. orbits of 205 comic books 135. OWUKEŤ Shakespeare 176–177. UGGCNUQTQYKPI sailing bobble hats 9 $QF[GZVTGOGU 80–81 $QF[OQFKƒGTU 72–73 body painting 94 $QF[RCTVU 70–71 DQF[RKGTEKPIU body slides 166 bodybuilders 77 DQIUPQTMGNNKPI bones 70. 54. mountain biking 221. frisbee/flying disc 122. motorcycle riding 131 baked beans 121 DCNCPEKPIEJCKPUCYU eggs 120. predators 52. BOLD CAPITALS indicate an entire chapter. palaces 104. bank heists 221. 134 bunny hops 123 DWTIGTU$KI/CEU buses 130 DWVVGTHN[UVTQMG C ECDDCIGU caber tossing 94 ECEVK candles 9. ice-cream UEQQRUUQEEGTDCNNU 122. tennis balls YCVGTDCNNQQPU 122 cats 93. YJKVG %JQRUVKEMUGCVKPIYKVJ UQTVKPIOQXKPIYKVJ EJTQOQUQOGU churches. natural 37. 3D-printed laptop 195. 235. LEGO® 152. 216.QW6WDGǡ comets 122. 92 cannon 201 cannonball concretions 36 canoeing: slalom 229. robots 199. 91 $QZKPI 214. 117. combined: motherFCWIJVGTRCTGPV EJKNFǡUKDNKPIU AIBA World Boxing 214 CKTETCHVETCUJGUǡ helicopters 112. RGPFWNWOENQEMU clogs 100 clones 192. 54. 117. 37 archipelagos 39 arms: dinosaurs 63. 212 DCVQPVYKTNKPI batteries 74. chocolate 91 EQNGWU EQNNCTFU Collections 92–93 collections & memorabilia: #EVKQP/CP$CTDKG dolls 149. DQYNKPIDCNNU EJCKPUCYUFKCDQNQ 123. crocodiles 55 $K\CTTGIGQNQI[ 36–37 Black holes 26–27 blind mountain climbers 112 blindfolded: assembling Mr Potato Head 124. 71. implants 74. UGGǡCNUQǡRobots #PINQ5CZQPVTGCUWTG ANIMALS 44–67. loop-theloops 131. Movies assassinations 113 #UUCUUKPŨU%TGGF$TQVJGTJQQF 155 #UUCUUKPŨU%TGGF4GXGNCVKQPU 155 #UUCUUKPŨU%TGGF++ 155 assembly lines 165 astronauts 77. BMX biking 219. captive 52. 123. 241 crime: 3D printing conviction 195. dioramas 149. road races 234 #VJNGVKEUE[ENKPI 234–235 #VJNGVKEUVTCEMWNVTC 232–233 Atlantic Ocean crossings 76. 37 cream crackers 120 cremated remains 20 Cricket 216. feline 47 carnivorous plants 42–43 ECTTQVU cars: 3D printed 194. 200 DCVVNGUPCXCN DCVVNGUJKRU beach soccer 225 beach volleyball 231 DGCPDCIU DGCPU DGCTFU beehive hairstyles 94 DGGTDTGYGTKGU beer-bottle opening 136 DGGVTQQV bells. zumba 95 dancing mania 103 FCPFGNKQPU &CTM'[G 92 darts 230. transatlantic 117 canopy rafts 40 ECPVCNQWRGOGNQPU canyons 20.INDEX Bold entries in the index indicate a main entry on a topic. 149. indoor track GXGPVUQWVFQQTƒGNF events 235. &QEVQT 9JQ 92. 52–53. exercise bikes 127. 49. medicine DCNNU5YKUUDCNNU 127. outdoor track GXGPVUTCEGYCNMKPI 234. 193. 241 Darvaza Crater 29 . monolithic 96 circumnavigation: aerial 109. dinosaurs 63. RKNQVURWNNGF 137. soccer balls. 113. sculpture 201. YouTube subscribers UGGCNUQ /WUKE DCPFYKFVJ banks: heists 221. Monopoly 143. books 176. sprint 229. 145 chickens 93 EJKNNKGU Chocolate 90–91. 177 adoptees 79 adoptive parents 79 Adventurers Grand Slam 112 aerobics 241 Africa Cup of Nations 225 CHTQJCKTUV[NG age. spinning 102. animal trails 24. circumnavigation 116. ETQUUYQTFDQQMU detective novels 144. URGGFENKODKPI  ENKODKPIYCNNU clocks 60. three-pointers 102. 202. cosplay 96 communications distance 24. URCEGYCNMU 22–23 athletes: earnings 207. 37 car production factories TQDQVUŤ caravans. reefs 39 ATP (Association of Tennis Professionals) 223 auctions: art 174–175. 113. sugar cubes 120 Ball skills 102–103 ballooning 113 balloons: popping 122. Nickelodeon Kids’ %JQKEG#YCTFU Nobel prizes 154. drinks 90. paper aircraft 124. assassinations 113. jetRQYGTGFNCPFURGGF records 191. 111. vinyl TGEQTFU Australian Open 223 authors 177 #WVQURQTVU 220 autographs 54 autopsies 99 CXQECFQU CYCTFU')16YKPPGTU 'OO[#YCTFU . by balloon 113. 143. team pursuits 235. parachute jumps 164. DCUMGVDCNNUJQVU catching things 121. DNKPFHQNFGF bounces 123. 5ETCDDNG6YKUVGT boats & ships: 3D printed CTVKƒEKCNTGGHU DCVVNGUJKRU UJKRYTGEMU8KMKPI YCVGTUMKGTVQYKPI 134. slam dunks 102. 202 composers 125 computer classes 9 computers 179. RTGJKUVQTKEYGKIJV YKPIURCPU 57. microlights 112. cycling 116. 216 %NQWFU 34–35 %NWDUQEEGT 224 EQDYGDU code-breaking 139 coins 125. implants 74 A ABBA impersonators 9 abseiling 76 abundant species: OQPMG[UǡQYNU aces (tennis) 223 Acknowledgements 250–251 #EVKQPƒIWTGUFQNNU 148–149 #EVKQP/CP actors & actresses: movies  theatre 176. man-killers 52–53. circumnavigation FTKXGPQPVYQYJGGNU 130. 215. juggling 124. 116. UGGCNUQKPFKXKFWCN KPFGZGPVTKGU DKTVJSWCFTWRNGVU UKDNKPIDKTVJYGKIJVU ”test-tube dogs” 65 DKVGHQTEGCPVUDKIECVU 52. car EJCUGUECTUCNGU 206. rugby 222 EQOGFKCPU EQOGF[UJQYU . pantomime animals 94. chocolate 91 Big cats 47. big cats 52–53 %CVUFQIU 64–65 cattle 66 ECVYCNMOQFGNNKPI ECWNKHNQYGTU caves 37 ECXKV[YCNNKPUWNCVKQP EGNGDTKV[EQWRNGU EGNGT[ cellular phones 192. female 22. 22. URCPUUWURGPUKQP DTKFIGUVWPPGNVQ VWPPGNDTKFIG $TQCFYC[RNC[U $TQCFYC[UJQYU DTQEEQNK brooding periods 50–51 DWDDNGYTCRRQRRKPI buildings: domes 160–161. fantastic beasts 66–67. plane 55 craters 21. JGKIJVŤ 225. rock 36. 109. see CNUQKPFKXKFWCNURQTVU CVJNGVKEUKPFQQTƒGNF events 234. 123. 213 alligators 54 CNRJCDGVU Alpine Ski World Cup 230 CNVKVWFGNCUGTRQYGTGF craft 202. theme parks  catches: blindfolded 121. OKETQUEQQVGTYJKNG UYQTFUYCNNQYKPI backstroke 229 DCEMYCTFUDCUMGVDCNN shots 102. spiders 61 COCTCPVJWU Amazon River 116 American football 210. 53. 5M[NCPFGTU 93. Tour de France 204. internet auctions 174. methane craters 29. history books 69. 114. toppling 146 bridges 64. RQYGTUVCVKQPU skyscrapers 100. spears 137. unpaced standing start 235 cyclones 33 cypress trees 57 D FCHHQFKNU Daleks 96 FCOU dance: line dancing 9. 25 ET[RVKEETQUUYQTFU EWEWODGTU EWRECMGOQUCKEU curling 241 EWTVCKPYCNNU %WVVKPIGFIGUEKGPEG 204–205 %[ENKPI 221. 221. Red Bull Air Race %JCORKQPUJKR UQNCTRQYGTGF UGGǡCNUQ flight airships 175 albums & album charts 77. churches DWNNGVCPVU bulls 66 Bundesliga 224 bungee jumping 133. ants 49 EQNQWTKPIDQQMU columns. Buzz Aldrin Ť%JTKU*CFƒGNF 12–13. &CTM'[G 92. tattoos 73 books: auctions 176. 142. tennis balls 123 DQYNKPIDCNNU DQYNKPIETKEMGV DQYNU DQZQHƒEG CPKOCVGF ƒNOU boxes of chocolate 90. model cars 142. collections 93. model 142.

the 97 JWOCPRQYGTGFXGJKENGU (HPVs) 221 *7/#05 68–81. VGPPKURNC[GTU 68UGGCNUQ DQZǡQHƒEGYGCNVJ GCTUGCTJCKTHNGUJ tunnels 72. hybrids 66.QPGU+PFWUVTKCN Average 223 &TCIQP$CNN 96 dragons 92 dressage 230 FTGUUKPIWRŤ cosplay 96–97 drinking: ketchup 121. UGGCNUQ circumnavigation. human 73. 225 ƒIU ƒIWTGUMCVKPI ƒNOUsee Movies FINA World Championships  ƒPIGTPCKNU ƒTGŤECPFNGU diving into 133. ice hockey 213. 36. impacts on 161. fruit XGIGVCDNGUŤ UWTXKXCNYKVJQWVsee CNUQ eating CPFKPFKXKFWCN KPFGZGPVTKGU foosball 143 football: table football 143. gamers IQNHGTU 217. holding in one. dinosaurs 63. murders TQCFVTCHƒE Shakespeare plays 177. volcanic 32 Ligue 1 224 NKOGU line dancing 9 lions 52. crops 42. Earth-like planets 19. hanging judges 121.UHGOCNG pop stars 179.')1QNQI[ 140–141 Factographic – The Moon 16–17 (CEVQITCRJKEŤ/QXKGOQPG[ 172–173 (CEVQITCRJKEŤ2KEVWTGVJKUБ 84–85 (CEVQITCRJKEŤ5EKƒXU science 192–193 Factographic – Sport’s big hitters 208–209 ū(CKNXKFGQŬEJCPPGN families: adoptees 79. 241. triple jump 234. long-burning UWTƒPIYJKNGQP ƒTGVQTEJGU YCNNQHƒTG ƒTGENWDU ƒTGYKEMU ƒTGDTGCVJKPI ƒTGRTQQHRNCPVU ƒUJTQDQVU flags. onions 121.GIGPFQH<GNFC6JG154 LEGO® 125. OQXKGUVWPVU 'ZVTCUQNCTRNCPGVU 18–19 'ZVTGOGURQTVU 218 G[GUQEMGVUNKHVKPIYGKIJVU 136 G[GDTQYJCKT eyes: bionic 75.5 104–117. 122 LWORKPICETQUUDGVYGGP 5YKUUDCNNUCPVU 49. 235 deep notes 27 deep-sea creatures 51 deforestation 41 detective novels 144 diabolo 123 diamond dust 34 Diamond Race 227 diamonds 157 digital storage 205 &KPQUCWTU62–63 dioramas 149 discus 235 dismissals (cricket) 216 &KUPG[Ť FKXKPIENKHHFKXKPI competitive 229. CVJNGVGUŤ EGNGDTKV[EQWRNGU EJGHUEQOGFKCPU &. tardigrade survival YJGGNKGUQPKEG ice ages 20 +EGJQEMG[ 213. galactic collisions 27 gaming: consoles 196. cats 64. 77 'PIKPGGTKPI 158–159 '0)+0''4+0) #4%*+6'%674' 156–169. fruit & vegetables ŤITGGPYCNNU mazes 164. driverless cars 193. 3D-printed CTVKƒEKCNDQF[ GZVTGOGUŤDQF[ OQFKƒECVKQPUŤ body parts 70–71. medical miracles 74–75 hurdles 232. 3D-printed 195 face: facial piercings 72. 112. tennis balls 123 handball 230 JCPFURTQUVJGVKE rotating balls on back of 103 JCPIINKFKPI hanging judges 121 haptic devices 197 Harry Potter 96 hatchlings 54 head spins 9 heading balls 102. 130. ramp jumps 130. Ť/KPKƒIWTGU  NGOQPU leopards 52. pulling YGKIJVUYKVJ '#46* 28–43. 134. ”stone forests” 36 HQTVYCNNU HQTYCTFHNKRU HQUUKNUEQDYGDU coprolites 63. crocodilians 54. UGGCNUQ American football. Easter eggs 91 ')16YKPPGTU elements 30 elephants 93 GOCKNU 'OO[#YCTFU empires 67. 140–141. peas 121. 3D Earth map 201. octopuses 50. footprints 36 horns: cattle 66. 22 JCKTDGCTFUGCT JCKTG[GDTQYJCKT OQWUVCEJGU hamburgers 93 Hamlet 176 JCOOGTVJTQYU videogames 155 hamsters 66 hand.1740'. 225 goats 66 gold 30 )QNH 217GCTPKPIU 217. likes 179 Factographic – Animals 46–47 (CEVQITCRJKEŤ$QF[RCTVU 70–71 (CEVQITCRJKEŤ'CTVJ 30–31 (CEVQITCRJKEŤ'PIKPGGTKPI 158–159 (CEVQITCRJKEŤ'XGTGUV 106–107 (CEVQITCRJKEŤ. micro scooters 123. /KPGETCHV 155. national 117 flapping 9 flared slopes 36 flesh tunnels 72 flight: circumnavigation 109. nitrogen 25 G. reducedITCXKV[HNKIJV transatlantic 167. soccer 224. 37. full-body DWTPŤ hoops 133. marathons 241 ice plumes 25 ice storms 33 KEGUYKOOKPI KEGETGCOUEQQRU +/#: implants 74 KPXKVTQ fertilization 65 Indian Ocean crossings 112.U DNA diagnostic machines 200 &164. rocking horses 143 JQTUGUJQGU JQVFQIU JQWUGUFQNNUŨJQWUGU geodesic 160. polar expeditions judo 215 juggling: balls 124. parachute jumps 164. farthest humans from 197. LEGO® DTKEMURWNNGF hula hoops 9. FINA World Championships 229. pogo stick 122. 235 JGTDKXQTQWUOQPMG[U herbivorous spiders 60–61 hexagons 24 hexapus 51 *KIIUDQUQP JKPFNGIYCNMKPIFQIU horses 67 history books 69 hockey 231. domino structure 146. controllers 196. 229 'FKVQTŨUNGVVGT 4–5 education. 53 lip plates 72 lipstick sculpture 9 NK\CTFU llamas 67 loop-the-loops 131. autographed 92. 3D-printed 195 Lasers 202–203.I. mountains 106. 117. killer robots 192. geology 36–37. QYNU geodesic domes 160 geology 36–37 geysers. rice 121. 53 lessons 9. mazes ŤYCNNUŤ YCVGTRCTMUŤsee CNUQ buildings engineering truss HTCOGYQTM English Channel 76 'RKEGPIKPGGTKPI 168–169 espresso machines 104 Everest see /QWPV'XGTGUV excrement. domes 160–161.COGU$QPFOQXKGU LCXGNKPVJTQYKPI jelly babies 120 jelly beans 120 Jenga 125. long jump 234. reserves 40.  NCPIWCIGUCNRJCDGVU YTKVVGP laptops. 132. 115 Indianapolis 500 220 KPUGEVUCPVUŤUVKPIU VCVVQQU internal combustion engines 155 internal decapitation 75 International soccer 225 internet auctions 174 KPVGTXKGYUOKFOCVEJ ion collisions 205 KUNCPFUCTVKƒEKCNCVQNNU  J jade 92 jaguars 52 . 54.deaths: animal attacks 52. mustard 121 driving: circumnavigation 111. 95 life-saving 65 ligers 52 light bulbs 147 light pulses 204 lightning rods 124 lightning. zerogravity flight 76–77. lessons 95. spaceflight flips: bicycles 219. UGGCNUQ +EGJQEMG[ *QNN[YQQF9CNMQH(COG JQOGTWPU DCUGDCNN  211 homelessness 33 hominids 33. goats 66. trampolines 123 floorball 241 HNQYGTU HNQYTKFKPIYCXGU fluorescence 42 flybys 25 fog buildings 169 Food 86–87. 3D-printed 195 LKIUCYRW\\NGU John O’Groats to Land’s 'PF . see CNUQ aircraft. 142 love songs 59 LPGA Championship 217 NWPEJDQZGU . stunts 130. distant images of 214. interactive gaming toys 6YKVEJXKFGQU UGGCNUQKPFKXKFWCN KPFGZGPVTKGUHQTICOGU gamma-ray bursts 26–27 gape 69 garbage clear-ups 106 )CTFGPIKCPVU 88–89 gardens: botanical gardens 111. assassinations 113. 111. ice UYKOOKPITWPPKPI QPUYKOOKPIWPFGT 135.CWTGPEG1NKXKGT#YCTFU Le Mans 24-hour race 220 leap-year generations 79 leapfrog 9 NGGMU . lemons 121. terrorist acts 219 decathlons 227. 165 ICTNKE ICUYCTHCTG genus: ants 49. HCOKNKGUŤJQOKPKFU 33. X-ray freeelectron lasers 205 . movie 173 freefall parachute jumping 227 HTGGUV[NGUYKOOKPI 229 French City Pro Tour 219 fringing reefs 39 frisbee/flying disc 122 frogs 93 HTWKVU HWEJUKC HWNNDQF[DWTPUŤ 132 fungi 43 G galaxies 205. 233 hurling 230. UJCNNQYFKXKPI WPFGTKEGYCVGTHCNN diving 134 &KXKPIKEGUMCVKPI 236–237 divorce 205 &. netball 231. dinosaurs 63 exercise bikes 127 'ZRNQTCVKQPŤ Explorers Grand Slam 113 explosions: methane 37.com 247 . UGGCNUQ cars. movie actors 172. 113. bungee jumping 133. sheep 66 horses 93. 122 Hulk. earthquakes 112. penetrations of Earth’s crust 210. mass 95 egg clutches 56 eggs 120. cliff jumps JKIJLWOR llamas 67. eyeball RTQVTWUKQPURKFGTU F F1 races 220 fabrics. scuba diving 135. 235. soccer balls 103. $KIǡ/CEUETGCO crackers 120. soccer footprints 36 forests: rainforests 40–41. Ferrero Rocher 121. EQODKPGFCIGU HCOKN[DWUKPGUUGU leap-year generations NKXKPIIGPGTCVKQPU UKDNKPIUUGGCNUQ married couples (COKN[XCNWGU 78–79 Fantastic beasts 66–67 feathered dinosaurs 63 HGCVWTGƒNOU fecundity 50 FedEx Cup 217 HGGVDGGTDQVVNGQRGPKPI TQVCVKQP Ferrero Rocher 121 FIFA Beach Soccer World Cup 225 FIFA marathons 154 FIFA Women’s World Cup 225 FIFA World Cup 207. 152 jet engines. 227. crocodiles 54. spiders 60 franchises.6*+5#6*1/' 118–127 &QVT[VJKUCVJQOGKP[QWT DCEM[CTF 122–123 &QVT[VJKUCVJQOGKP[QWT bedroom 124–125 &QVT[VJKUCVJQOGKP[QWT I[O 126–127 &QVT[VJKUCVJQOGKP[QWT kitchen 120–121 &QEVQT9JQ 92 doctorates 132 dodgeball 241 FQIUUEQQVKPI UMCVGDQCTFKPI YCVGTTGVTKGXKPI FQNNU FQNNUŨJQWUGU Domes 160–161 domino effect 146–147 dominoes 146. pasta 121. RGQRNGRNCPVU helicopters 112. flesh tunnels 72 Facebook 42. UYGGVEQTP Ebola 204. 131. 165 lacrosse 230 land-speed records 155. diabolo ƒTGENWDURKPI pong balls 103. 66 I IAAF Athletics Golden League 227 IAAF Athletics World Championships 226 KEGDCTGHQQVTCEKPIQP diving under 135.WRKPVJG6JKTF 92 NWRKPU guinnessworldrecords. images from space 24. Joe 149 giraffes 93 glaciers 21 glass dome hotel rooms 160 INCUUURQPIGTGGHU glass-block labyrinths 165 INWVGPHTGGRK\\CU goals: basketball 212. 241 hurricanes 33 hybrid animals 52. HTGGFKXKPIKPVQƒTG 133. YQOGPŨU golf balls 124. David Liaño (mountain climber) 107 IQQUGDGTTKGU Grand Prix 220 Grand Slam (tennis) 223 Grand Tours (cycling) 221 grandmasters 144 ITCRGHTWKVU grapes 9 ITCXKVCVKQPCNYCXGU ITCXKV[ITCXKV[FCOU TGFWEGFQT\GTQ Great Ball Contraption (GBC) 146 Great Wall of China 162 green flash mirage 32 ITGGPYCNNU IWPUVQ[RKUVQNƒIJVU 143 )94&C[ 8–9 H *CFƒGNF%JTKU CUVTQPCWV  12–13. motorsport drones 220 drought-resistant animals  dumbbells 126 E earnings: artists 174. 197 Killer plants 42–43 King Lear 176 MKVGUWTƒPI kneeling basketball shots 102 K’Nex sculpture 152 knitting needles 100 Komodo dragons 44–45 korfball 241 L La Liga 224 labyrinths 164. M&Ms/Smarties 120. hits on a golf club 102 golf tees 100 González. 236. 53. dressage JKPFNGIYCNMKPI 67. 103 heart transplants 195 hedge mazes 164 JGKIJVCPKOCNU DWKNFKPIUŤ 225. parallel parking 9. YCVGTUMKLWORU K MCNG karate 215 MCVCDCVKEYKPFU MGVEJWR kettlebells 127 Kickstarter pledges 196.6*+5#6*1/' 128–137 &QPŨVVT[VJKUCVJQOG ƒTGǡ132–133 &QPŨVVT[VJKUCVJQOG performers 136–137 &QPŨVVT[VJKUCVJQOG vehicles 130–131 &QPŨVVT[VJKUCVJQOG water 134–135 &QY. GCTN[ NCUGTRQYGTGFQXGT Everest 172. street golf 219. 114 heptathlon 234. YGCVJGTŤ earthquakes 226. 147 &10Ũ664. death tolls 112 Easter eggs 91 eating: baked beans 121.

116. 110. tributaries 41 TQCFYCNMKPI roads: Pan-American *KIJYC[TQCFVTCHƒE deaths 145 roars: big cats 53. K’Nex 152. 109. 43. 37. 3D printing 194–195. 116. plants 43. 112. RNCPGVUUCVGNNKVGU  QTEJKFU organs. franchises 173. paper 92. Triple Seven Summits 117 mousers 64 mousetraps: released on tongue 147. hula hoops 122 TQYKPIEKTEWOPCXKICVKQP 109. 20–21 pogo sticks 122 poison: animals 45. 117. 115 paintings 174–175 palaces 104 2CP#OGTKECP*KIJYC[ pandemics 101 pantomime animal races 94 RCRC[CVTGGU paper aircraft 124 paper money 92 parachute jumps 164. 93 P 2#%/CP maze 165 2CEKƒE1EGCPETQUUKPIU 112. 179. 196 TCFKUJGU TCKNVWPPGNU rainfall 33. social PGVYQTMUsee6YKVEJ 6YKVVGT8KPG9GKDQ neutral buoyancy pools 23 0GY9QTNFEKXKNK\CVKQPU 0GY9QTNFOQPMG[U PGYURCRGTRTKPVTWPU NFL (National Football League) 210 Niagara Falls 142 Nickelodeon Kids’ Choice #YCTFU PKIJVOQPMG[U Nobel prizes 154 0QKUGOQPMG[UTQCTU 53. dinosaurs 62 netball 230. 13. 113. juggling RKPIRQPIDCNNUYKVJ OQWVJECVEJKPIYKVJRKPI pong balls 125 mouth. grapes 9 OQXKGCEVQTUGCTPKPIU GZRGPUKXGN[FTGUUGF YQTMKPIVKGU /QXKGOQPG[ 172–173 Movies 182–185. 111. UGGCNUQ '#46* plants: carnivorous 42–43. 112. prime 204 O ocean crossings: aerial 167. 93. IAAF Athletics World Championships 226. 190–205. 131 raptors 63 rats 93 reading 9 reading glasses 105 4'%14&1. 116. sibling competitors 79 Mount Everest 30. lasers 202–203. onions 121 RGPFWNWOENQEMU penguins 9. box QHƒEG ECT EJCUGUEQORWVKPI RQYGTWUCIG digital visual effects &KUPG[Ť GCTN[HGCVWTGƒNOU 160. by boat 76. see CNUQCYCTFU medical devices.INDEX M M&Ms 120 macroscopic organisms 21 OCIC\KPGU magic 95 mailboxes 101 mammals 46 mammoths 153 man-killing animals: big cats 52–53. trees 42 polar expeditions: North Pole 110. hominids 33. chocolate 91 radar experiments 21 radio patents 153 radio-controlled toys 142. 109. 44 Premier League 224 Presidents Cup 217 primates 59 prime numbers 204 prosthetics 74–75 RWDNKECVKQPUOCIC\KPGU PGYURCRGTRTKPVTWPU 150. piggy banks 99 /QPMG[U 58–59. 55. 143. OCTKPGǡ restaurants 123 TGXKGYUOQXKGU rice 121 TKEGETCEMGTU rings. albums & CNDWOEJCTVU EQORQUGTU HGUVKXCNUOQXKG VJGOGUQPIUUKPINGU UKPINGUEJCTVU UVTGCOKPI 179. Summer X Games 219. density 30. exercise bikes 127. 109. 142. 113. 110. Three Poles Challenge 112. long-distance journeys 111. DNKPFENKODGTU 112 mountains: Annapurna 109. candles 9. 137. 71 /WUKE 178–181. UCI Track World Championships 221. life-size statues 73. 231. videos 12. YCNMKPI margin of victory (soccer) 224 marine reserves 39 /CTKQ5QPKECVVJG1N[ORKE )COGU 155 OCTOQUGVU married couples: CIITGICVGCIGDQF[ OQFKƒECVKQPUFKXQTEG 205. 113. 212 monuments 169 The Moon 16–17. UGGCNUQ assassinations muscles 70. shouting 119. lemons 121. earnings 209. 106–107. South Pole 109. 233. extrasolar planets 19 marathons: chess 144. 153. UGNƒGTGNC[EJCKPsee CNUQETQYFCVVGPFCPEGU matchsticks 9 maths lessons 95 Mazes 164–165 Meccano 153 mechanical puzzles 150 medals: AIBA World Boxing Championships 214. ocean crossings 76. 36. UKTGPUURKFGTU XQNECPKEGTWRVKQPU North Pole 110. UGGCNUQ 1NFGUV Serie A 224 sesamoid bones 71 Seven Summits 110. 196. crocodilians 55 sabre-toothed cats 52 sailing: circumnavigation URGGF transatlantic 111. 44. YCVGTUMKKPIR[TCOKFU 134 Robin Hood 96 Robots 198–199. 199 4WID[ 222. 49. 93 pentathlon 234 RGRRGTU periodicals 119 pétanque 241 Peter Pan 97 RGVWPKCU PGA Championship 217 pharaohs 56 pharmacology 40 photographs 136. running 234. river basins 40–41. cheese UEWNRVWTGEJQEQNCVG 90. coins 125. 76. 109. tyre sculpture 101 UGCYCNNU seas. planetary 24 rivers 41. Auguste (sculptor) 175 4QOCPYCNNU TQUGU Rosie the Riveter 96 rotations. +/#:UETGGPKPIU . bodily 70. 111. 116. 195 1UECTU ostrich dinosaurs 62 overcontact binaries 27 Owls 56–57. sprinting 226. 25 moonscape paintings 174 mortar and pestle 99 OQUCKEUEWRECMGU M&Ms 120 MotoGP 220 motorcycles: 3D-printed 195. 162. HNQYGTUHTWKV XGIGVCDNGUŤ ITGGPYCNNUJGKIJV QTEJKFU pharmacological 40. food crops 42. 71. UGGǡCNUQ books pull-ups 9 RWNNGFRQTM pumas 52. cosplay 97 UCVGNNKVGU UCWUCIGU scalp transplants 74 5EJOKFV5VKPI2CKP+PFGZ 5EKƒXUUEKGPEG 192–193 5%+'0%'6'%*01. 114. androids 109. 4WDKMŨU%WDGYQTNF championships 151 2W\\NGU 150–151 pyramids 55. marathons 241 PGVYQTMKPIEJGUU computers 144. 114 pole positions 220 pole vault 234 RQNGUKVVKPI pool 241 popes 120 portable toilets 147 possums 66–67 posters 99 RQVCVQGU pottery kilns 45 RQYGTUVCVKQPU RQYGTVQQNU prayer mazes 164 predators 52 RTGFCVQT[UVTKMGU prehistoric life: art 40. transplants 74. UGGCNUQ sprinting 4WPUDCUGDCNN cricket 216 Q S qasars 27 quad bikes 132 SWCFTWRNGVU quantum entanglement 204 quarterpipes 130. microscopic 201.1). freefall 227 RCTCINKFKPI parallel parking 9 Paralympics 226 parliaments 91 parrots 67 RCTUNG[ RCTUPKRU particle colliders 205 passes: American football UQEEGT5YKUU ball 127 pasta 121 patents 153 RC[RGTXKGY peace treaties 62. coral reefs ŤOCPPGFFGUEGPVU  1EVQRWUGU 50–51 oils 19 1NF/CUVGTFTCYKPIU 1NF9QTNFOQPMG[U 1NFGUV 76–77 Olympic Games 65 One-Day International (ODI) series 216 QPKQPU QTDYGCXGTURKFGTU orbits: of comets 205. 177 manatees 66 OCPIQGU mangrove forests 40 mantles 50 maps: 3D Earth map 201. dry 34 5GIYC[ UGNƒGUTGNC[EJCKPU UGNƒGUVKEMU KPǡURCEG senior citizens: body RKGTEKPIU EGPVGPCTKCPU tattoos 72. 93 248 Index Monopoly boards 143 OQPQYJGGNU OQPUVGTVTWEMU 130. 3D-printed 194–195 pilots 76 RKPGDQCTFUDTGCMKPI ping-pong balls 103. periodicals 119. OQPQYJGGNU quarterpipes 130. green HNCUJOKTCIGUGNƒGU 11. RNCPGVCT[TCPIGU 5GXGP5WOOKVU 110. 201 modelling balloons: LEGO®/KPKƒIWTGU sculpture 152. red rain 32 Rainforests 40–41 rallies (tennis) 102 ramp jumps 130. 112. sports 233. 13 musical instruments: prehistoric 39. competitive 229. plastic bricks 152. 109. GZVTCUQNCTŤ planetary missions 20. 112. 131 motorsport 220.COGU$QPFOQXKGU 1UECTURKTCVGF RTQƒVCDKNKV[RTQNKƒE RTQFWEVKQPTGXKGYU UEKGPEGƒEVKQP Shakespeare movies 177. 112. 197 RJQVQU[PVJGUKU 2KEVWTGVJKUБ 84–85 RKGTEKPIU piggy banks 99 pigs 93 pills. 113. crocodiles 54 man-made objects in space 112. donors 74. 112. FTGUUKPIWRŤ human domino line 146. 106–107. mile TQCFTCEGU treadmills 126. 117. WMWNGNGU OWUKECNU mustard 121 N NASCAR 220 National Baseball Hall of Fame 211 natural disasters 226 PCXCNDCVVNGU necks. 219 R rabbits 67. 3D-printed 194–195 OGNQPU OGOQTKCNYCNNU meteoroids 161 methane craters 29. motor-racing circuits 9. 76. 111. spiders 60. robotic solution 142. 3D-printed parts 195. CTTGUVGFEJGHU industrial production TQDQVUŤMKNNGT robots 192. sibling competitors 79 4WPPKPIQPCNNHQWTU marathons 234. musical instruments 39. 95. footprints 36. poisonous 42. 24. 111. 115 “sailing stones” 36 UCNVYCVGTETQEQFKNGU sand angels 94 UCPFYKEJGU Santa Claus: chocolate 90. 115. Pluto 20–21. 112. UGGCNUQ Robots UEKGPEGƒEVKQPOQXKGU scissors 201 UEQQVKPI Scrabble 150 scuba diving 135 sculpture: animal 201. 77. 75. roses UGGCNUQ trees plastic bricks: sculpture 152. 234. 117 . 53 RWORMKPU punchbags 127 RWRRGVOQXKGU push-ups 127 puzzle-solving: codeDTGCMKPIETQUUYQTF puzzles 150–151. 153 money: coins 125. FINA World %JCORKQPUJKRU 229. RNCPGVCT[TKPIU 24. 171. landings 10. 77. 241. 236. 114. animations ŤDNCEMJQNGU portrayal of 26. 60. silent movies UQWPFVTCEMU UVWPVUVTCKNGTU XKFGQU8KUWCN 'HHGEVU5QEKGV[#YCTFU  Mr Potato Head 124 MRI machines 200 murals 162 murderers 116.  mountain biking 221 mountain climbing 76. mother-daughter team 113. 115. 193.  OWUKEXKFGQU in space 12. 111. tunnels QHƒTGYJGGNKGU 130. UGGCNUQ LEGO® plastics 143 playing cards 125 2NC[OQDKNƒIWTGU plays 176–177 RNC[YTKIJVU plesiosaurs 62 RNWOU 2NWVQ 15. art sales 175. quadrupeds 4WDKMŨU%WDG solving by 142. cosplay 96–97. Everest 30. 114. 91. 125 pinnipeds 47 RKTCVGFOQXKGU RKTCVGF68UJQYU pitcher plants 43 pitchforks 100 RK\\CUINWVGPHTGG planets 15. 112. 109. 117 TQYKPIOCEJKPGU Rube Goldberg machines 147 Rubik’s Cube 124. birds FKPQUCWTU 62–63. lipstick 9. UPCMGUUQEKCNKP URCEGYCNMKPI rockets 16. dominoes 147.1). 114. 162 PQUGURTKOCVGU spinning balls on 102 NRL (National Rugby League) 222 PWENGCTRQYGTGFURCEGETCHV 24 number problems 150 numbers. 12. landings 204 rocking chairs 100 rocking horses 143 Rodin. siblings 79 marsupials 66–67 Martial arts 215 maser 203 Mass participationŤ 94–95. HCOKNKGU(+(# 154. 3D-printed 194. UYKOOKPI Rembrandt 175 remote-controlled model vehicles 142. table football 143. 111. 37 mice 93 micro scooters 123 microlights 112 mimicry 50 /KPGETCHV minerals 30 MLB (Major League Baseball) 211 MLS (Major League Soccer) 224 moas 153 model vehicles 142. modelling balloons 152. RWPEJDCIUTQYKPI machines 126. triggering 147 moustache clouds 35 OQWUVCEJGU mouth: gape 69. consumer technology 196–197. human 200. riding DCEMYCTFUVKIJVTQRG crossing 136. 169. 112. 199. ŬYCNMKPIŬ 111 oceans 36. 102 RGCEJGU RGCTU peas 121 pedal boats 112 peeling: bananas 120. 196 reserves: forest 40. 110. holding in the: apples 136. polar expeditions 113. 196 moons 20. 82–103 Red Bull Air Race %JCORKQPUJKR Red Bull Cliff Diving World 5GTKGU red rain 32 Reefs 38–39CTVKƒEKCN relay races: running 234. 232. 3D-printed 194 medical diagnostic machines 200 Medical miracles 74–75 medicine balls 127 medicines. 107. 113.

226. sports teams 209. espresso machines in 104. remote-controlled model vehicles 142. portable toilets 147 tornadoes 33 tortellini 121 VQWEJFQYPU #OGTKECP football) 210 Tour de France 204. bricks 146.  VQOCVQGU VQPIWGUNGPIVJ mousetraps released on 136. Shakespeare plays 176–177 VJGOGRCTMU thermometers 200 thermotolerance 49 VJKUVNGU Three Poles Challenge 112. OCPPGF planetary missions 19. YCNMKPIYKVJDCNNQP head 103 sociability: big cats 53. rolls around the face 103. puzzles 150–151. UGGǡCNUQ stunts tries (rugby) 222 Triple Seven Summits 117 trophies. collections 93. GCTPKPIU marathons 241. EQORGVKVKXGŤ cross-Channel 76. dogs 65 5VCT6TGM 96 5VCT9CTU UVCTUCTVKƒEKCN stargazing 95 Starship 'PVGTRTKUG 201 statues: life-size 73. hand-held 202. treading 102 YCVGTDCNNQQPU YCVGTEQCUVGTU 9CVGTRCTMU 166–167 YCVGTRQNQ YCVGTUNKFGU 9CVGTURQTVU 229. domes 161. UGGCNUQ ECPQGKPIFKXKPITQYKPI UWTƒPISwimming YCVGTHCNNU0KCICTC (CNNUYCVGTHCNN diving 134 YCVGTOGNQPU YCVGTUMKKPIR[TCOKFU VQYKPIYCVGTUMKGTU 134 YCXGRQQNU YCXGNGPIVJUNCUGT YCXGUHNQYTKFKPIYCXGU 167. transplants 74. eruptions 79. see CNUQVQYGTU stadiums 169. spinning 122. 241 tails: dinosaurs 62. movie VTCKNGTU surfboards 94 UWTƒPIQPƒTGMKVG UWTƒPITKXGTDQTG 135. 200. uncontacted 41 tributaries 41 tricks: cats 64. on 5YKUUDCNNU 9GKIJVNKHVKPI5RQTVU /CTCVJQPU9CVGTUMKKPI 240–241 YGNFKPI 9GUV'PFUJQYU YJGGNDCTTQYUTCEKPI YJGGNEJCKTDCUMGVDCNN YJGGNKGU YJGGNU 9JGTGŨU9CNN[!Ť YJKVGEJQEQNCVG YJKVGNKIGTU YJKVGNKQPU YKEMGVU ETKEMGV  YKFQYURKFGTU YKHHNGDCNN YKNFECVU 9KNFYGCVJGT 32–33 YKPFEJKOGU YKPFUMCVCDCVKE planetary 19. polar expeditions 111. 233 stacking: coins 125. geological features seen from 36. Spacewalks space hoppers 122 space probes 24 space stations 12 spacecraft 16. dogs 65. straitjacket escapes XKGYKPIFQOGU YCNMKPI unicycles 95. '0)+0''4+0) #4%*+6'%674' stunts: cars 130. 111. model aircraft 142. speed skating 237 skeleton costumes 94–95 skiing 230. isolated humans 192. race YCNMKPI WPFGTYCVGTQP YCVGT 9CNNU 162–163 YCTUFTQPGUICU YCTHCTGOGOQTKCN YCNNUPCXCNDCVVNGU RGCEGVTGCVKGU 102. VTGRCPCVKQP UWURGPUKQPDTKFIGU 5YCOR6JKPI 93 UYGCVKPITQDQV UYGFGU UYGGVRQVCVQGU UYGGVEQTP Swimming 228. 25. 24. juggled 103. table soccer 241. 75. 112. GZRNQUKQPUOQXKGU  UWDYC[VWPPGNU sudoku 150. 24–25. control on a slackline 103. earnings 154. 77 superheroes 96–97. humanRQYGTGFXGJKENGU *28U  221. 49. 25 UQNFKGTUVQ[ Solheim Cup 217 soliloquies 176 soliton clouds 35 somersaults 123 sound barrier 227 UQWPFVTCEMU South Pole 109. lessons 9. 60 vertebrates 25 8'81 Video 188–189. sieges 114 YCVGTŤRNCPGVCT[ 230. 147. YCVGTUMKKPI skin.com 249 . black holes 26–27. 25. piercings 72 VQQNUUVQPG toothpicks 9 toppling: books 146. 131. ŬCTQWPFVJGYQTNFŬVTKEMU 103. brain function 151. 8Q[CIGT and 8Q[CIGT 24–25 spaceflight: flybys 25. dumbbells 126. cats 64. music XKFGQUUGNƒGU 11. 221 Tour de Suisse 221 VQYGTU. balanced on shin 103. monster trucks 130. 122. ƒTGJQQRUJGCF spinning and texting 9. 47. cumulative time in 192. transfer fees 224 soccer balls: “around the moon” tricks 103. 131 truffles. 224. lightning 32. dogs 65. marathons 241. spinning basketballs YJKNG surgery: patients 76. 195. 238–239. sugar cubes 120. spider 61 UKPINGUUKPINGUEJCTVU YQTFEQPVGPV  UKTGPU UMCVGDQCTFKPIFQIU long-distance 115 UMCVKPIƒIWTGUMCVKPI 237. UGGCNUQ VKIJVTQRGYCNMKPI slam dunks 102 UNKEKPINKOGUQPKQPU Slinkys 143 slip and slides 166 slot canyons 37 5OCNNUVWHH 200–201 5OCNNVQYPDKIUVWHH 100–101 Smarties 120 UPCMGUTQDQVUPCMGU snooker 230 UPQYDCTGHQQVTCEKPIQP  UPQYNGQRCTFU UPQYDQCTFKPI UPQYOQDKNGU soccer 224–225. YCVGTDCNNQQPU 6KFFN[YKPMU VKIJVTQRGYCNMKPI blindfolded 136 timekeeping devices 50. fruit & veg RGQRNG YGKIJVNKHVKPID[G[G sockets 136. 232. dogs 65. 111. UGGCNUQ Moon. gravitational 204 YGCNVJCVJNGVGUVGCOU 209. XKFGQICOGU Z ziggurats 63 zombies 97 zoos 134 zorbing 94 zumba 95 guinnessworldrecords. freefall 227. 24. cats 64. 113. soccer balls 122 splits 133 URQPIGU spoons 120 URQTVUVCEMKPI Sports 206–241. Ebola 204 Valentine’s Day 90 XGIGVCDNGUŤUVGYU venom glands 61 venomous animals 45. ENKODKPIETQEQFKNGU 55. share RTKEGU stolen objects 163 ”stone forests” 36 UVQPGVQQNU Stop press 254–255 storm surges 32 straitjackets 136 stratus clouds 34 UVTCYDGTTKGU UVTCYUFTKPMKPIVJTQWIJ 121. sailing 135. sports 230 tropical forest reserves 40 VTWEMUOQPUVGT 212. 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Statue of Liberty 201 steam engines 127 steam locomotives 166. 116. 151 UWICTECPG sugar cubes 120 suits of armour 110 UWOQYTGUVNKPI UWPFGYU UWPHNQYGTU sunglasses 92 5WRGT$QYN 5WRGT5OCUJ$TQU$TCYN 155 supercentenarians 76. 75. cosplay 97. domes 161 stair-climbing.GPIC. kettlebells 127. ƒXGCUKFG international soccer 225. music videos 179. 115. 235 shouting 119 UKDNKPIUDKTVJYGKIJV EGPVGPCTKCPU EQODKPGFCIGU sibling marriage 79. 196. URCEGETCHV 16. interactive gaming toys 142. 114. see CNUQ earnings YGCVJGTŤ YGDU YGDUKVGU 9GKDQ Weight: birds 35. rainforest trees 41. 72–73. man-made objects in 177. cellular phones 192. educational ICOKPIOQXKGU OWUKE VTCKNGTUsee CNUQ YouTube videogame consoles 196 videogame controllers 196 Videogames 154–155. UWDUETKDGTU 68UJQYU WPDQZKPIEJCPPGNU video channels 139. UGGCNUQ KPFKXKFWCNKPFGZGPVTKGU Sport’s big hitters 208–209 5RQTVUTQWPFWR 230–231 5RQVKH[ sprinting 77. aces 223. 142 skyscrapers 100. volcanic rocks 14 volleyball 241.5)#/'5 138–155. chocolate 91 VWDGOCVYCVGTUNKFGU tunnel-to-tunnel bridges  VWPPGNUQHƒTGHNGUJ tunnels 72. tree-cover loss 41 VTGRCPCVKQP tribal peoples. dinosaurs 63. tyre sculpture 101 U UCI Track World Championships 221 UEFA Champions League 224 UEFA Europa League 224 UEFA European Championships 225 WMWNGNGU Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) 215 umbrellas 99 WPFGTYCVGTE[ENKPI spear catching 137. 25 YKPFUWTƒPI YKPIUFKPQUCWTU YKPIURCPU YKPPKPIUVTGCMU YQQFRCPGNOC\GU YQQN YQTFUGCTEJRW\\NGU YQTMGTCPVU World Cup (rugby) 222 World Cup Skateboarding 219 World Puzzle Championship 150 World Rally Championship 220 YTKVVGPNCPIWCIG X X Games 219 X-rays 27. 149. 115. 112. spikes 62 tardigrades 205 tattoos 52. sports competitors 79 sieges 114 silent movies 169 silk. . beach volleyball 231 8Q[CIGT 24–25 W YCNMKPIEKTEWOPCXKICVKQP JKPFNGIYCNMKPI NQPIFKUVCPEG 110. under ice 135 5YKUUDCNNU UYQTFUYCNNQYKPI synagogues 76 U[PEJTQPK\GFUYKOOKPI T table football 143 table tennis 199. 113. GZVTCVGTTGUVTKCN 21. 77 tea glass holders 93 teapots 201 teeth: dinosaurs 62. club soccer GCTPKPIU FIFA World Cup 207. beach soccer 225. 123 VTCPUCVNCPVKEECDNGU transfer fees 224 Transformers 149 transplants 74. indexes 223. VTCPUCVNCPVKEECDNGU VGNGUEQRGU temperate rainforests 40 Tennis 223. headers 102. transplants 74 5M[NCPFGTU 93. UGGCNUQ astronauts Spacewalks 22–23 spears 137 speeches 176 speed: ants 49. polar expeditions 113. videogames 154–155. dominoes 146. 137 units of measurement 201 universe: distant objects in 205. extreme URQTVUŤHCVJGT and son team-mates 222. civilians in 190. control at height 102.QW6WDGXKFGQU TV remote controls 99 6YGPV[ 6  International 216 VYGTMKPI 6YKUVGTICOG 6YKVEJ 6YKVVGTHQNNQYGTU  tyres 140. ramp jumps 130. octopuses 50 UQEKCNOGFKC6YKVEJ 6YKVVGT 8KPG9GKDQ UQNCTRQYGT Solar System 20. lessons 95. 176 steeplechase 232 steers 66 stegosaurs 62 step boards 127 Stern. radiocontrolled toys 142.Shakespeare 176–177 UJCTGRTKEGU shearing 67 UJGGRJQTPUYQQN ships see boats & ships UJKRYTGEMU UJQRRKPIOCNNU shot 234. ice UYKOOKPIQRGP YCVGTU[PEJTQPK\GF 229. 113. hula hoops 122. UGGCNUQ 52#%' WPKXGTUKVKGU Utility Terrain Vehicles (UTVs) 130 V vaccination 129. playing cards 125. planets. X-ray freeelectron lasers 205 Y yo-yos 101. golf balls URQTVUVCEMKPI 125. land-speed records  217. Ť UM[YCNMU slacklines: soccer ball control on 103. bionic 74 skipping 122. spaceflight. marathons 233. CEVKQPƒIWTGUFQNNU ŤEQPUVTWEVKQP toys 152–153. Ferrero Rocher 121. rail tunnels UWDYC[VWPPGNU VWTPKRU TV 186–187CYCTFU ECTVQQPUEQOGF[ UJQYURKTCVGF UJQYUUGTKGU UJQYETGCVQTU .')1® 125. 122. marathons 241. dominoes 146.QW6WDGEJCPPGNU 8KMKPIDQCVU 8KPG XKP[NTGEQTFU Visual Effects Society #YCTFU volcanoes: cryovolcanoes 21. rallies 102 VGPPKUDCNNU tennis rackets 93 VGPRKPDQYNKPI terrorism 219 Test matches 216 ”test-tube dogs” 65 texting 9 theatres 66. racing 219. mazes 165. 122. sugar cubes 120 VQ[RKUVQNƒIJVU 6Q[UDQCTFICOGU 142–143 61. passes 122. 123 skull: implants 74. 114 VJTQYKPIEJCKPUCYU frisbee/flying disc 122. full-volley rebounds 103. ƒTGVQTEJVGGVJKPI pulling vehicles 130 telephones: calls 146. moving jelly beans YKVJ UVTGCOKPI Street sports 219 street golf 219 UVTGPIVJ structures see buildings.

K #EEQWPV/CPCIGT%JNQG.KDTCT[ UK: 978-1-910561-3-24 US 10: 1-910561-33-9 US 13: 978-1-910561-33-1 Middle East: 978-1-910561-51-5 Canada: 978-1-897553-48-0 6JKUDQQMKUFGFKECVGFVQVJGOGOQT[QHǡ-GPPGVJ %TWVEJNQYHQWPFGTQHVJG1EGCPǡ4QYKPI5QEKGV[ 4GEQTFUCTGOCFGVQDGDTQMGPŤKPFGGFKVKUQPGQH VJGMG[ETKVGTKCHQTCTGEQTFECVGIQT[ŤUQKH[QWƒPF CTGEQTFVJCV[QWVJKPM[QWECPDGCVVGNNWUCDQWVKV D[OCMKPICTGEQTFENCKO#NYC[UEQPVCEVWUDGHQTG OCMKPICTGEQTFCVVGORV %JGEMYYYIWKPPGUUYQTNFTGEQTFUEQOTGIWNCTN[HQT TGEQTFDTGCMKPIPGYURNWUXKFGQHQQVCIGQHTGEQTF CVVGORVU. Al Diaz. including photography. Sue Michniewicz.QTGP\Qǡ8GNVTK. Paul Michael Hughes. Ranald Mackechnie.WE[#EƒGNF &GUKIPGT4GDGEEC$WEJCPCP5OKVJ . James Ellerker. 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Adam Millward Jenny Langridge.GQOCP 4GEQTFU%QPUWNVCPVU5COǡ/CUQP 6QOǡ+DKUQP Global Brand Strategy 582)NQDCN$TCPF5VTCVGI[5COCPVJCǡ(C[ Global Product Marketing 82)NQDCN2TQFWEV/CTMGVKPI-CVKGǡ(QTFG &KTGEVQTQH)NQDCN68%QPVGPV5CNGU 4QD/QNNQ[ 5GPKQT68&KUVTKDWVKQP/CPCIGT2CWNǡ)N[PP 5GPKQT68%QPVGPV'ZGEWVKXG .GX[ 2WDNKUJKPI5CNGU/CPCIGT.KOO[ǡ%QIIKPU /KEJCGNǡ'ORTKE JAPAN 82.GICN$WUKPGUU#HHCKTU 4C[OQPFǡ/CTUJCNN .WPKQT&GXGNQRGT.KUCǡ*QHHOCP 'ZVGTPCN4GNCVKQPU/CPCIGT&QPIǡ%JGPI 4GEQTFU/CPCIGT2TQLGEV%QQTFKPCVQT (C[ǡ.KOKVGF ECPPQVDGJGNFTGURQPUKDNGHQTCP[GTTQTUEQPVCKPGF KPVJKUYQTM(GGFDCEMHTQOQWTTGCFGTUQPCP[RQKPV QHCEEWTCE[KUCNYC[UYGNEQOGF )WKPPGUU9QTNF4GEQTFU. API Laminates Ltd (Steven Emsley). or used in any information storage or retrieval system without a licence or other permission in writing from the copyright owners.WPKQT&GUKIPGT'FYCTF&KNNQP 2TQFWEV/CTMGVKPI#UUKUVCPV8KEVQTǡ(GPGU EMEA & APAC SVP EMEA APAC: 0CFKPG%CWUG[ 82%TGCVKXGPaul O’Neill 250 Acknowledgements Printing & Binding MOHN Media Mohndruck GmbH.KEGPUKPI/CPCIGT2WDNKUJKPI 'OOCǡ&CXKGU *GCFQH%QOOGTEKCN#EEQWPVU .KOKVGFJCUCXGT[ VJQTQWIJCEETGFKVCVKQPU[UVGOHQTTGEQTFU XGTKƒECVKQP*QYGXGTYJKNGGXGT[GHHQTVKUOCFGVQ GPUWTGCEEWTCE[)WKPPGUU9QTNF4GEQTFU.uk Roger Hawkins.KOKVGFWUGUDQVJOGVTKE CPFKORGTKCNOGCUWTGOGPVU6JGUQNGGZEGRVKQPUCTG HQTUQOGUEKGPVKƒEFCVCYJGTGOGVTKEOGCUWTGOGPVU QPN[CTGWPKXGTUCNN[CEEGRVGFCPFHQTUQOGURQTVU FCVC9JGTGCURGEKƒEFCVGKUIKXGPVJGGZEJCPIG TCVGKUECNEWNCVGFCEEQTFKPIVQVJGEWTTGPE[XCNWGU VJCVYGTGKPQRGTCVKQPCVVJGVKOG9JGTGQPN[C[GCT FCVGKUIKXGPVJGGZEJCPIGTCVGKUECNEWNCVGFHTQO ǡ&GEQHVJCV[GCTū1PGDKNNKQPŬKUVCMGPVQOGCP QPGVJQWUCPFOKNNKQP #RRTQRTKCVGCFXKEGUJQWNFCNYC[UDGVCMGPYJGP CVVGORVKPIVQDTGCMQTUGVTGEQTFU2CTVKEKRCPVU WPFGTVCMGTGEQTFUGPVKTGN[CVVJGKTQYPTKUM )WKPPGUU9QTNF4GEQTFU.GKNCǡ+UUC %QOOGTEKCN#EEQWPV/CPCIGT/'0# -JCNKFǡ.QPCVJCPǡ9JKVVQP &KIKVCN2TQFWEV/CTMGVKPI/CPCIGT 8GTQPKECǡ+TQPU Online Editor: -GXKP.GUUKǡ. 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Germany #VVTCEVKQPU&GXGNQROGPV/CPCIGT .COGUǡ'FYCTFU &GXGNQRGT%GPM5GNKO .[PEJ 5QEKCN/GFKC/CPCIGT&CP6JQTPG &KIKVCN8KFGQ2TQFWEGT/CVV/WUUQP Online Writer: 4CEJGN5YCVOCP $TCPF%QPUWOGT2TQFWEV/CTMGVKPI /CPCIGT. mechanical.WEKGǡ2GUUGTGCW.KW &KIKVCN$WUKPGUU/CPCIGT. 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the year 2015 saw 98 unprovoked shark attacks against humans. . on 27 Jun 2015. USA. USA. The ISAF is compiled annually by the Florida Museum of Natural History at the University of Florida.CTIGUVEQNNGEVKQPQH /LWWOHb0HUPDLGmemorabilia Jacqueline Granda (ECU) owns 874 items relating to The Little Mermaid (USA. /QUVUJCTMCVVCEMU KPǡQPGǡ[GCT According to the International Shark Attack File (ISAF). under the auspices of the American Elasmobranch Society. China. . Indiana.STOP PRESS The following new entries were approved and added to our records database after VJGQHƒEKCNENQUKPIFCVGHQT this year’s submissions. on 11 Jan 2016. Most people showering CVǡQPEG UKPINGXGPWG A group of 331 individuals showered simultaneously in an event held by Delta Faucet (USA) in Crawfordsville. /QUVFTKPMECPURNCEGF QPǡVJGJGCFWUKPICKTUWEVKQP Jamie Keeton (USA) “suctioned” eight drink cans to his head on the set of CCTV – Guinness World Records Special in Beijing. Jamie appears to have a rare skin condition that makes his skin pores function like suction cups. each equipped with their own solar oven.CTIGUVUQNCTQXGP EQQMKPIǡENCUU A group of 4. on 12 Jan 2016. India.780 people. assembled for a cooking class in an event organized by 6LPSOLͤHG7HFKQRORJLHV for Life and Chamber of Marathwada Industries & Agriculture (both IND) in Aurangabad. from a total of 164 reported incidents. .

with his owner. (CUVGUVOTQRGǡUMKRRKPI Rohollah Doshmanziari (IRN) skipped 100 m in a time of 14. 6CNNGUVUVCEMQHRCPECMGU On 8 Feb 2016. Sunshine was the world’s oldest cockatiel as of 27 Jan 2016. /QUVRNC[GTUKPC PGVDCNNǡGZJKDKVKQPOCVEJ England Netball (UK) assembled 1. Joonas Mäkipelto (FIN) performed 5. Largest snow dome igloo Sponsored by Volvo (SWE). Maharashtra. who acquired him in Colorado in 1983. India. USA. on 30 Jan 2016. Switzerland. Largest handball lesson Ravindra Gaikwad (IND) organized a handball lesson with 678 players in Solapur. 254 Stop Press Most slender tower The British Airways i360 is 160.322 netball players for an exhibition match in London. Longest EQPVKPWQWUǡXQECNǡPQVG $OSDVODQ'XUPXġ 785. Jordan.43 sec in Iran’s Shahid Beheshti Stadium in Bushehr on 21 Jan 2016.DVYHULͤHGLQ4XLWR Ecuador.050 chin-ups at Ideapark shopping centre in Lempäälä. UK.15 WR̰DVYHULͤHGRQ-DQ 2016 in Brighton. Longest marathon hosting CǡTCFKQVCNMUJQY VGCO From 2 to 4 Feb 2016. Vickie Aranda (USA). on 15 Feb 2016.47 m tall by 3. the 18-person-strong Iglu-Dorf building crew (CHE) constructed a snow dome igloo with an internal diameter of 12. Finland. He lives in Albuquerque. on 16 Jan 2016.9 m (42 ft 4 in) in Zermatt. 1NFGUVEQEMCVKGN At 32 years old.01-m-tall (3-ft 4-in) stack of pancakes in Rufford. Center Parcs Sherwood Forest (UK) raised a 1. Newark. Sunshine has been moving around with Vickie ever since. on 28 Feb 2016.9 m wide (526 ft 5 in x 12 ft 9 in) – a slenderness ratio of 41. UK. UK. James Haywood and Dave Nicholls (both UK) made and stacked the 213 pancakes. /QUVEJKPWRUKPJQWTU On 6–7 Feb 2016. New Mexico. Jessy Abu Faysal (LBN) and Amjad Hijazin (JOR) hosted a radio talk show for 60 hr 52 min 8 sec at Sawt El Ghad studios in Amman.

43 sec. Puerto Rico. The event was arranged by Bing (USA) in Bellevue. The Publican Awards (UK) saw 1. 19.22-mi (3. On the same day. /QUVLGYGNUQPCIWKVCT Aaron Shum Jewelry Ltd (HKG) set 16. /QUVRNC[GTUKPCP KEGǡJQEMG[GZJKDKVKQPOCVEJ Loblaw Companies Ltd (CAN) staged an exhibition match with 433 players at Richcraft Sensplex (Ottawa East) in Ottawa. (CUVGUVVKOGVQEQORNGVG the Iditarod Trail 'DOODV6HDYH\ 86$.37 mi) – longer than 20 American IRRWEDOOͤHOGV. Largest beer tasting On 15 Mar 2016. DVYHULͤHGLQ%DVHO Switzerland.LSGDġ0¾KHQGLVOLN HQJLQHHULQJRͦFH.58-km) burnout on a 2017 Victory Octane at Orlando Speed World Dragway in Florida.607 runners took part in the Nagoya Women’s Marathon in Nagoya. on 13 Mar 2016. and at the same location. /QUVRGQRNGƒNNKPIQWV CǡURQTVUVQWTPCOGPV DTCEMGVUKOWNVCPGQWUN[ On 15 Mar 2016. Largest women’s marathon In all. a total RISHRSOHͤOOHGRXWD sports tournament bracket – a tree diagram showing the progression of games in a knockout tournament – concurrently. on 29 Feb 2016.VWDQEXO Turkey. a total of 1.033 jewels on a Fender Jazz Bass. on 3 Mar 2016.WZDV opened on 2 Mar 2016. Mitchell ran the fastest 100 m in clogs in a time of just 14. on 11 Mar 2016. Longest OQVQTE[ENGǡDWTPQWV Joe Dryden (USA) achieved a 2. Longest zip wire The Monster is a zip wire at Toro Verde Adventure Park in Orocovis.205 km (1.KHOG a note for 1 min 52 sec at WKH. Aichi. with a single unbroken span of 2. . Canada. France. Ontario. USA. Washington. USA. Japan. Mongolia. /QUVTWID[RCUUGU KPǡCǡOKPWVG RCKT Drew Mitchell and Matt Giteau (both AUS) made a total of 98 rugby passes in 60 sec for Sky Sports Rugby in Toulon.236 individuals gather to taste beer in London. on 9 Feb 2016. UK.108 people completed a camel race organized by the Administrative 2ͦFHRIWKH*RYHUQRURI Ömnögovi Aimag (MNG) in Dalanzadgad.CTIGUVECOGNTCEG On 7 Mar 2016. on 8 Feb 2016.

18 bn (£829.49 sec in London. Fastest time to RWORǡWRǡCǡDKE[ENGV[TG On 20 Mar 2016. /QUVRWNNWRUKP QPGǡJQWTǡ HGOCNG Eva Clarke (AUS) performed 725 pull-ups in one hour at Al Wahda Mall in Abu Dhabi.2 g on his ride. ͤQLVKHGD[PXQLF\FOH hurdle relay in 1 min 33. USA.68 mph) around a Wall of Death on the set of Channel 4’s Guy Martin’s Wall of Death: Live (North One TV. UK. She was 19 years old at the time.94 km/h (26.000).32-mi) paper chain during the Riding High Together Festival at Sha Tin Racecourse in Hong Kong. on 28 Mar 2016. UK. Mike Taylor and Rob Terry (all UK). Pennsylvania. . according to Forbes. on 15–16 Mar 2016. on 15 Mar 2016. Philippines. USA.218 people in Bataan. 6CNNGUVJQWUGQHECTFU DWKNVǡKPJQWTU LG Electronics (KOR) and Bryan Berg (USA) collaborated to raise a 48-level house of cards in 12 hr in Seoul.16 m² (346. UK. “Voodoo Unicycles”. Norway’s Alexandra Andresen had an estimated wealth of $1. and at the same location. South Korea. Most people dressed as 'RFWRU:KREJCTCEVGTU On 19 Mar 2016. Longest rail grind ski On 27 Mar 2016. Steven Smith (UK) took MXVWVHFWRLQͥDWHWKH inner tube of a bicycle tyre with a hand pump. UAE.CTIGUVFCPEGƒVPGUUENCUU Balanga City (PHL) set up DGDQFHͤWQHVVFODVVIRU 16. . on 26 Mar 2016. . Simon Berry.16 sq ft) at the Kurobe International Cultural Center (JPN) in Toyama.15 mph) on a self-built “bitsa” motorcycle with a BSA engine. . Flags for Managing and Organizing Exhibitions and Conferences (KWT) unveiled a 194. . (CUVGUVǡZǡO WPKE[ENGǡJWTFNGTGNC[ On 20 Mar 2016. Tom Wallisch (USA) performed a 422-ft 1-in-long (128. On the same date.QPIGUVRKEPKEVCDNG On 11 Mar 2016. TV channel Syfy Latinoamérica (MEX) assembled 491 people dressed as Doctor Who characters at La Mole Comic-Con in Mexico City. Guy Martin (UK) achieved the highest speed on a Wall of Death – 125. He experienced forces of 5. Alaska.CTIGUVEQPHGVVKOQUCKE Kurobe International Cultural Center (JPN) created a confetti mosaic measuring 32.65-m) rail grind on skis at the Seven Springs Mountain Resort in Seven Springs. on 10 Mar 2016. . on 18 Mar 2016. *KIJGUVDKE[ENGURGGF QPǡCǡ9CNNQH&GCVJ Shanaze Reade (UK) cycled at 42. aka Jason Auld.77 km/h (78. .QPIGUVNKPGQHRQUVECTFU The Shanghai Town & Country Club (CHN) lined up 11. China.QPIGUVRCRGTEJCKPOCFG KPQPGJQWTD[CVGCO A team from the Hong Kong Jockey Club (HKG) produced a 3. in London.QWPIGUVDKNNKQPCKTG EWTTGPV As of 16 Mar 2016.7-m (638-ft 9-in) picnic table at Kuwait Shooting Club in Kuwait City.ͤQLVKHG the Iditarod Trail sled-dog race in 8 days 11 hr 20 min 16 sec in Nome.863 postcards in Shanghai on 19 Apr 2016.800. UK) in Louth.74-km-long (2. Japan on 21 Mar 2016.

128 game shows in Los Angeles.69-m-tall (15-ft 4. Florida. 1NFGUVECVNKXKPI Scooter (b. It was created by scenic prop shop Dino Rentos Studios for the Applied Underwriters LQVXUDQFHͤUP ERWK86$.000 ͥRZHUVLWZDVFUDIWHG in Marina Square Atrium. Manchester City and Everton between 2 May 1998 and 11 May 2016 Answer VQǡRW\\NG QPǡR /QUVICOGUJQYURTQFWEGF Harry Friedman (USA) had produced 11.FAST FACTS The most starts for a Premier League football (soccer) player is 572 and was achieved by Gareth Barry (UK) playing for Aston Villa. Consisting of 60. .16 m (26 ft 9. Singapore. Gail Floyd (USA). USA. on 2 Apr 2016. LQ0DQVͤHOG7H[DV86$ Largest bobblehead A 4.CTIGUVHNQTCNEJCPFGNKGT National Parks Board (SGP) FUHDWHGDͥRUDOFKDQGHOLHU 16. He lives with his owner.84 m (55 ft 2. USA. California.3 in) tall.75-in) bobblehead of a St Bernard dog was unveiled on 8 Apr 2016 in Orlando. . 26 Mar 1986) was 30 years 13 days old as of 8 Apr 2016. on 1 Apr 2016.CTIGUVJWOCPƒPIGTRTKPV Storebrand Livsforsikring (NOR) arranged 313 people into the whorled shape of DͤQJHUSULQWLQ)RUQHEX Norway.29 m (33 ft 9 in) wide and 8.8 in) long by 10. as of 31 Mar 2016.

Canada. Most people sewing UKOWNVCPGQWUN[ On 9 Apr 2016. Grégory Havret and Romain Wattel (all FRA) took just 34. on 12 Apr 2016.CTIGUVXGICPECMG Essentis Biohotel Berlin (DEU) made a 388. California. Ontario.CTIGUVEJQEQNCVGǡDCT ÎRNRODGQLFD&XNUÏHN 691. *GCXKGUVXGJKENGRWNNGF YKVJǡCPCTOYTGUVNKPIOQXG Kevin Fast (CAN) pulled a 31.9-kg (857-lb 6-oz) vegan cake in Berlin. It took 31 people 26 hr to complete it. USA. . on 13 Apr 2016. Malaysia.470-kg) ͤUHWUXFNPRUHWKDQLQ (30. on 9 Apr 2016.87 sec to play the 4th hole of the Valderrama Golf Course in Sotogrande. . on 12 Apr 2016. Mike’s Hard Lemonade (USA) lit 50. Germany.900-lb (14. (CUVGUVJQNGQHIQNH VGCOǡQHHQWT Raphaël Jacquelin. a group of 606 people gathered to sew in an event organized by Mostwell Sdn Bhd (MYS) at the Auditorium Cempaka Sari in Putrajaya. Alex Lévy. Spain. USA. /QUVNKVECPFNGUQPCECMG On 13 Apr 2016.151 candles on a cake in Los Angeles.4 cm) with his arm – while resting his elbow on an arm-wrestling table – in Cobourg. in New York City.

Uova Pascolo Fantoni and Crespi (all ITA). Largest spring mattress Lijun Hou and his team (all CHN) have built a spring mattress 20 m x 18.4 in x 59 ft 7. which was measured in Radovljica.18 m (65 ft 7. Despar. . USA. Slovenia. China. Heilongjiang. ball on a golf club in 30 sec in Jamaica. in collaboration with Etica Del Gusto. USA.9-sq-ft) bar of chocolate. prepared a 142. . on 16 Apr 2016.32-m² (1. Nevada. Osteo Bi-Flex (USA) organized an event in which 252 people took part in a merengue lesson at the Fremont Street Experience in Las Vegas.CTIGUVRTQƒVGTQNG Associazione Cons. unveiled a 150-kg OER]. New York City.erva.75 in) in size. on 15 Apr 2016. It was measured in Harbin. on 15 Apr 2016.CTIGUVOGTGPIWGNGUUQP The merengue is a Dominican dance. on 15 Apr 2016.531.

(CUVGUVǡOYCNMKPIQP JCPFUYKVJCUQEEGTDCNN between the legs Zhang Shuang (CHN) covered 50 m (164 ft) while inverted and clenching a soccer ball between his legs in 26. . .76 oz) in Toronto. (CUVGUVVKOGVQTWPVJG . tubes of various length are struck in order to produce melodies. Heidi arrived at 9:05 a. Professor of Psychology and Director at the Twin Studies Center in California 6WDWH8QLYHUVLW\FRQͤUPHG that the twins were identical. Oldest message in a bottle It was announced on 20 Apr 2016 that a message in a bottle found at Amrum Island. the teams comprised students from primary school to university level. a group of 423 people on Huntington Beach in California. Jo followed at 10:45 a. Iowa. 86$. First twins born in FKHHGTGPVǡEQWPVTKGU Katherine Joanne Baines (née Roberts) and Heidi Hilane Gannon (both UK) were born on 23 Sep 1976. USA.QPIGUVWUCDNGIQNHENWD On 9 Apr 2016. Ontario. He attempted the record at the China West Normal University in Nanchong. 7KHIHDWZDVFRQͤUPHG at the 2016 World Surf League Big Wave Awards gala at the Grove Theater in Anaheim. The event was arranged by Miura Beach 900 Challenge Executive Committee (JPN). Largest naan bread Loblaw Companies Ltd (CAN) produced a naan bread weighing 32 kg (70 lb 8.26 m (4 ft 1. USA. on 24 Apr 2016.CTIGUVUKOWNVCPGQWUHN[KPI FKUEVJTQY On 16 Apr 2016. held from 20 to 23 Apr 2016. after their mother had been moved to the Royal Shrewsbury Hospital in England. having been set adrift in the North Sea by the UK’s Marine Biological Association (MBA) on 20 Nov 1906. on 18 Apr 2016. Japan. UK. Poland.CTIGUVYCXGUWTHGF RCFFNGKP The tallest wave surfed without a tow was 19. Hailing from 30 countries. Longest marathon YCVEJKPIǡVGNGXKUKQP Alejandro “AJ” Fragoso (USA) watched TV for 94 hr /QUVJKVUQHCIQNHDCNNQP CǡIQNHENWDKPUGEQPFU Ashrita Furman (USA) achieved 94 hits of a golf Most people making UŨOQTGUUKOWNVCPGQWUN[ On 21 Apr 2016. USA. The naan measured 4. It had been in operation for 118 years 348 days. on 30 Apr 2016. . on 19 Apr 2016.27 in) long and 1. New York City. (KTUVRGTUQPVQENKOD VJGǡ5GXGP5WOOKVUCPF ETQUUVJG5GXGP5GCU Martin Frey (USA) climbed the highest mountain on each continent from 21 Aug 2005 to 5 Dec 2012 and crossed the Seven Seas by sailboat between 25 Feb 2013 and 17 Apr 2016.QPFQP/CTCVJQP OCNG Eliud Kipchoge (KEN) ͤQLVKHGWKH9LUJLQ Money London Marathon in 2 hr 3 min 5 sec in London. /QUVEQPEWTTGPVCNDWOU KPǡVJG756QR On the Billboard 200 albums chart of 14 May 2016.09 sec. Kentucky. on 24 Apr 2016. at Welshpool Hospital in Wales.CTIGUVTQDQVEQORGVKVKQP VEX Worlds (USA) attracted 1. Sichuan. on 17 Apr 2015 was the oldest ever discovered.m. as of 26 Apr 2016.2 m (63 ft) from trough to crest and was ridden by Aaron Gold (USA) off Maui in Hawaii. opened on 14 May 1897. It had been at sea for 108 years 138 days. on 15 Jan 2016. Germany. California. Dr Nancy Segal. owing to complications. Italy. Prince Rogers Nelson.075 teams to its annual robot contest in Louisville. The event was sponsored by Hollister and SeriousFun Children’s Network (both USA). USA.SURͤWHUROHDW Gemona del Friuli in Udine.6 in) wide. a 7. Inside was a SRVWFDUGDVNLQJWKHͤQGHU to list where and when the bottle was found and post the card back to the MBA. Canada. . USA. made s’mores – a roasted marshmallow and layer of chocolate between two crackers. Kanagawa.96 m (16 ft 3. on 17 Apr 2016. In Apr 2016. China. USA. a group of 958 participants let ORRVHWKHLUͥ\LQJGLVFVLQ Miura. /QUVRGQRNGRNC[KPI DQQOYJCEMGTU A boomwhacker is a hollow plastic tube tuned to a musical pitch. P&G European Planning Service Center (POL) staged an event in which 661 individuals played the song “Eye of the Tiger” on boomwhackers in Serock. 1NFGUVEQPVKPWQWUN[ QRGTCVKPIEKPGOC The State Theatre in Washington.m. Prince (b.65-mlong (25-ft 1-in) golf club made by Ashrita Furman (USA) was measured and demonstrated in Jamaica.

The title is currently being researched by consultant Robert Young but is most likely to be Italy’s Emma Morano Martinuzzi (b.7). Purple Rain (No.CTIGUVTKUGKPRQUKVKQPHQTC 2TGOKGT.4). 6 Jul 1899) – the last 19th-century American – passed away at the age of 116 years 311 days. however. He was aged 57.com 255 . about the life and death of US Founding Father Alexander Hamilton.2). The Hits/ The B-Sides (No. aged 116 years 165 days as of 12 May. Ultimate (No. on 21 Apr 2016.3). guinnessworldrecords.GCIWGUQEEGTVGCO KPEQPUGEWVKXGUGCUQPU Leicester City FC (UK) ͤQLVKHGWKLQWKH Premier League season.KDGͤYHSRVWKXPRXV entries in the Top 10: The Very Best of Prince (No. On 2 May 2016.41 million units in the USA following the news that the star had died at his Paisley Park home in Minnesota. received 16 Tony nominations on 3 May 2016. During the week of 21–28 Apr 2016.6) and 1999 (No. 1NFGUVNKXKPIRGTUQP On the day we went to press (12 May 2016). Susannah Mushatt Jones (b. Prince’s back catalogue (including albums and individual tracks) sold a total of 4. USA. /QUV6QP[#YCTF PQOKPCVKQPUHQTCOWUKECN Lin-Manuel Miranda’s (USA) biographical musical Hamilton. “The )R[HV̹ZHUHFRQͤUPHGDV FKDPSLRQVͤQLVKLQJ places higher up the table. 29 Nov 1899). including Best Musical. .

com/ GuinnessWorldRecords WWW.com/ GuinnessWorldRecords Twitter.COM/2017 .com/GWR YouTube.GUINNESSWORLDRECORDS.com/ GuinnessWorldRecords Google.com/ +GuinnessWorldRecords Instagram.0RVWGLɝFXOWOHYHO created in Super Mario Maker Alex Tan 0RVWYLHZVIRUD 0LQHFUDIWYLGHR channel Dan the Diamond Minecart Most popular IHPDOHRQ7ZLWFK Sonja Reid Facebook.

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