exergy evaluation of heat exchanger

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exergy evaluation of heat exchanger

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https://www.researchgate.net/publication/286562463

and counter-flow heat exchangers using

measured data

ARTICLE in STROJNISKI VESTNIK MARCH 2007

Impact Factor: 0.82

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3 AUTHORS, INCLUDING:

Antun Galovic

University of Zagreb

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Retrieved on: 20 January 2016

Strojniki vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering 53(2007)3, 158-164

UDK - UDC 536.27

Izvirni znanstveni lanek - Original scientific paper (1.01)

prenosnikov toplote z uporabo merilnih podatkov

Energy and exergy analysis of a parallel and counter-flow heat exchangers using

measured data

Antun Galovi1 - Marija ivi2- Ahmet Can3

( University of Zagreb, Croatia; 2J.J. Strossmayer University of Osijek, Croatia; 3Trakya University, Turkey)

1

toplote z uporabo marilnih podatkov. Sestavili smo merilno progo, na kateri smo merili vstopne in izstopne

temperature in masni tok vode. Za doloitev brezrazsenega razmerja izgubljene eksergije in preneenega

toplotnega toka v odvisnosti od brezrazsenih parametrov prenosnika toplote: razmerja absolutnih

temperatur na vstopu pT, razmerja toplotnih moi p3 in tevila enot prenosnika toplote p2, smo razvili

analitini model. Za vse primere smo izraunali tudi uinkovitost prenosa toplote. Rezultate smo prikazali

v ustreznih brezrazsenih diagramih.

2007 Strojniki vestnik. Vse pravice pridrane.

(Kljune besede: prenosniki toplote, energijske analize, eksergijske analize, izmerjene vrednosti)

This paper presents an energy and exergy analysis of a parallel and counter-flow recuperative heat

exchangers using experimental data. An experimental rig was constructed to measure the inlet and outlet

temperatures and the mass flow rates of streams. The analytical model was developed to obtain a nondimensional relationship between the destroyed exergy and exchanged heat-flow rate as a function of the

non-dimensional parameters of a heat exchanger: the ratio of inlet absolute temperatures, pT, the ratio of

the heat-capacity rates, p3, and the number of heat-transfer units, p2. The effectiveness of the heat exchange

is also calculated for each case. The results are shown in appropriate non-dimensional diagrams.

2007 Journal of Mechanical Engineering. All rights reserved.

(Keywords: heat exchangers, energy analysis, exergy analysis, measured values)

0 INTRODUCTION

Energy-exergy analyses of heat exchangers

have been the subject of much research over the

past few decades, [1] to [7]. These analyses are

based on the first and the second laws of

thermodynamics. From such analyses the

parameters for the improved operation of a heat

exchanger can be obtained.

The destroyed exergy or the lost available

work of a heat exchanger is due to two factors: the

transfer of heat across the stream-to-stream temperature difference and the frictional pressure drop that

accompanies the circulation of fluid through the

apparatus. Taking into account these two parameters it is possible to optimize a heat exchanger on

an entropy-generation minimization or on a minimum

158

Galovic.p65

exergy destruction due to the pressure drop is neglected, because from experimental data it was clear

that the pressure drop was very small.

1 DESCRIPTION OF THE MEASURING RIG

Figure 1. shows the experimental setup of the

heat exchanger.

The studied heat exchanger was double

pipe type with only one passage of every stream.

The streams were a hot-water stream (as the stronger stream) and a cold-water stream (as the weaker

one). The mass flow rate of the weaker stream was

kept constant and equal to 0.002 kg/s. The values of

the mass flow rate of the stronger stream were 0.004,

0.006, 0.008 or 0.01 kg/s. As can be seen from Figure

158

Heating Tank

N

Heater

Jt21'

t3

To Supply

Or Drain

J1t'5

Temperature

Indicator

J1''

Temperature

Limit Switch

(Behind)

Heat

Exchanger

Re-set Switch

Supply

High

Flow

Meter

Heater Control

Drain

Control

Valves

J1'

t

J 1t''6

Water Flow

Meter

To Drain

Or Supply

''

Jt22

Pump

1, the inlet and outlet temperatures of the streams

were measured. In each of four cases (for the each

value of the mass flow rate), the inlet temperature of

the stronger stream was kept constant and the inlet

temperature of the weaker stream was varied four

times. From the obtained four sets of the measured

data, for each of the four cases, both for a parallel

and a counter-flow heat exchanger, two non dimen-

parameters are presented in the appropriate diagrams,

as shown in Figures 2 and 3.

The total heat exchanger area was 0.08 m2.

For each point the exchanged-heat flow rate

and the exergy destruction (entropy generation) are

calculated by using the equations of the following

mathematical model.

0.7

0.7

p3=0.50

p3=0.33

p3=0.25

p3=0.20

0.6

p1

p3=0

0.5

0.4

p1

p3=1

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.1

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

p2

p3=0

0.3

p3=0.50

0.2

p3=0.50

p3=0.33

p3=0.25

p3=0.20

0.6

0.8

points for a parallel-flow heat exchanger

1.2

p3=0.50

0.2

0.4

159

0.6

p2

0.8

1.2

points for a counter-flow heat exchanger

Galovic.p65

p3=1

159

2 MATHEMATICAL MODEL

The exchanged-heat flow rate between two

streams can be calculated using the following

equation ([10] and [11]):

Q& = C1 (J1' - J1'' ) = C2 (J2'' - J2' )

(1).

defined as:

J ' - J ''

Q&

e = p 1 = 1' 1' =

J1 - J2 Q& max

(2).

Q& = e Q& max = e C1 (J1' - J2' )

(3).

neglected, the entropy generation can be calculated

from the following equation [11]:

T ''

T ''

S&gen = C1 ln 1' + C2 ln 2'

T1

T2

(4).

Using Equations (1) and (2), it is easy to transform Equation (4) into the form:

C T '

T '

S&gen = C1ln 1-e 1- 2' + C2 ln 1+ 1 e 1' - 1 (5).

T1

C2 T2

If the following terms for two nondimensional parameters

pT =

T2'

C

; p3 = 1

T1'

C2

(6)

the entropy generation assumes the following form:

- 1 (7).

S&gen = C1ln (1-e ( 1-p T ) ) + C2 ln 1+p 3e

p

T

environmental temperature, T0, the equation for the

irreversibility or the exergy destruction is obtained

as:

I& = Exdestr = T0 S&gen

- 1

p

T

(8).

The above equation can be written in a nondimensional form. For that purpose, it will be divided

by the product of the heat capacity rate of the weaker

stream, C1, and the environmental temperature, T0,

as follows:

160

Galovic.p65

I&

1

= ln (1-e (1-p T ) ) + ln 1+p 3e

- 1

p3

T0C1

pT

(9).

Because the scope of this work is to show

the ratio of the irreversibility and the exchangedheat flow rate, it is useful to write Equation (1) in a

non-dimensional form, dividing it by the product

C1T1' :

Q&

q1 =

= e (1 - p T )

(10).

CT'

i1 =

1 1

(10), and a relevant ratio is obtained:

1

1

- 1

ln (1-e (1-p T ) ) + ln 1+p 3e

p3

i1

p T (11).

=

e (1 - p T )

q1

For a parallel heat exchanger the

effectiveness e is obtained using the following

formula [10]:

e=

1- e ( 3)

1+ p3

- 1+ p p 2

estimated as [10]:

e=

1- e (

- 1-p 3 )p 2

1 - p 3e (

- 1-p 3 )p 2

(13).

where:

p2 =

kA0

C1

(14).

non-dimensional parameters p3 and e = p1, which represent the operation points of the heat exchanger

and which are obtained by the energy analysis of

heat exchangers. The additional parameters for irreversibility or exergy destruction are the input temperature ratia, pT, and the ambient temperature, T0.

3 CALCULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The diagrams in Figures 4 and 5 present

the values of i1 and i1/q1 for a parallel-heat-flow heat

exchanger, and the diagrams in Figures 6 and 7 for a

counter-flow heat exchanger. These values are

calculated using Equations (9) to (11) and Equations

(12) and (13) for the parallel and the counter heat

exchanger, respectively. The black points in the

diagrams represent the values of the operating

points, which are presented in Figures 2 and 3.

160

(12).

0.012

i1

0.01

0.7

0.012

0.65

0.01

0.6

0.008

i1

0.004

0.6

0.5

0.006

0.45

0.004

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

p2

a) p3=0.50

1.1

i1

0.3

1.2

0.012

i1

0.7

0.6

0.008

p T=1.07

pT=1.11

pT=1.14

pT=1.17

i1

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

0.3

1.2

1.1

p2

b) p3=0.33

0.7

0.65

0.01

0.6

0.008

0.5

0.5

0.002

0.4

0.35

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

p2

0.9

1.1

0.45

0.004

0.4

0.55

0.006

0.45

0.004

0.35

0.55

0.006

0.45

0.012

0.65

0.01

0.5

0.002

0.35

0.5

0.55

0.4

0.4

0.002

0.65

0.008

0.55

0.006

0.7

0.002

0.3

1.2

0.35

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

p2

0.9

0.3

1.2

1.1

c)p3=0.25

d) p3=0.20

Fig. 4. The non-dimensional irreversibility i1 and the effectiveness e as a function of p2 and the parametric

curves pT for a) p3=0.50, b) p3=0.33, c)p3=0.25 and d) p3=0.20 for a parallel flow heat exchanger

i1

q1

0.12

0.12

0.1

0.1

i1

q1

0.08

0.06

0.06

0.04

0.04

0.02

0.02

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

p2

0.9

1.1

1.2

a) p3=0.50

0.12

i1

pT=1.07

pT=1.11

pT=1.14

pT=1.17

0.6

0.7

0.8

p2

0.9

1.1

1.2

1.1

1.2

b) p3=0.33

0.1

0.08

i1

q1

0.06

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.04

0.02

0.02

0.5

0.12

0.1

i1

q1

0.08

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

p2

c)p3=0.25

0.9

1.1

1.2

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

p2

0.9

d) p3=0.20

Fig. 5. Relative non-dimensional irreversibility i1/q1 as a function of p2 and the parametric curves pT for

a) p3 = 0.50, b) p3 = 0.33, a) p3 = 0.25, a) p3 = 0.20 for a parallel-heat-flow heat exchanger

Energijska in eksergijska analiza - Energy and exergy analysis

Galovic.p65

161

161

0.012

i1

0.7

0.012

0.65

0.01

0.5

0.004

0.55

0.006

0.45

0.5

0.45

0.004

0.4

0.002

0

0.4

0.002

0.35

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

p2

1.1

0.3

1.2

i1

a) p3=0.50

0.012

0.7

0.55

0.006

p T=1.07

p T=1.11

p T=1.14

p T=1.17

i1

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

p2

0.9

1.1

0.3

1.2

b) p3=0.33

0.7

0.65

0.01

0.6

0.55

0.5

0.45

0.4

0.002

0.35

0.5

0.8

0.004

0.4

0.7

0.006

0.45

0.002

0.6

0.008

0.5

0.004

0.5

0.012

0.6

0.008

0.35

0.65

0.01

i1

0.6

0.008

0.55

0.006

0.65

0.01

i1

0.6

0.008

0.7

0.3

1.2

0.35

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

p2

p2

0.9

1.1

0.3

1.2

c) p3=0.25

d) p3=0.20

Fig.6. Non-dimensional irreversibility i1 and effectiveness e as a function of p2 and the parametric curves

pT for a) p3=0.50, b) p3=0.33, c)p3=0.25 d) p3=0.20 for a counter-flow heat exchanger

i1

q1

0.12

0.12

0.1

0.1

i1

q1

0.08

0.06

0.06

0.04

0.04

0.02

0.02

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

p2

0.9

1.1

1.2

a) p3=0.50

0.12

i1

pT=1.07

pT=1.11

pT=1.14

pT=1.17

0.1

i1

q1

0.08

0.5

0.7

0.8

p2

0.9

1.1

1.2

b) p3=0.33

0.12

0.1

0.08

i1

q1

0.06

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.04

0.02

0.02

0.6

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

p2

0.9

1.1

1.2

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

p2

0.9

1.1

1.2

c)p3=0.25

d) p3=0.20

Fig. 7. Relative non-dimensional irreversibility i1/q1 as a function of p2 and the parametric curves pT for

a) p3=0.50, b) p3=0.33, c) p3=0.25, d) p3=0.20 for a counter-flow heat exchanger

162

Galovic.p65

162

The above diagrams clearly show the relationship between the dimensionless values of i1 and the

dimensionless parameters p2, p3 and pT. For each diagram it is possible to directly read the values of i1 and

e for every case. It is obvious that the given values of

p2 and p3 do not have a significant influence on i1, but

they have an influence on e. The pT ratio has the greatest influence on i1, but it has no influence on e. This

can be quantitatively seen from Figures 4a and 4d,

where the values p3 = 0.5 and 0.2 and parametric values

pT =1.11; 1.14 and 1.17 have the same value of p2 = 0.76

and 1.09 respectively. For p3 = 0.5, all operation points

have the same value of e, i.e., e = 0.455, with the

exergy destruction increasing from 0.0028 to 0.0078.

On the other hand, for p3 = 0.2 and the same parametric

values of pT and p2 of 1.09, the value of e is equal to

0.61. The associated exergy destructions are 0.0040,

0.0067 and 0.0076 respectively.

It is obvious that parallel- and counter-heatflow heat exchangers have very small values of the

ratio i1 and i1/q1 for the measured operation points.

It is not possible to make a comparison with respect

to exergy destruction and heat-transfer effectiveness

of the researched cases, because they did not have

the same non-dimensional p2 variables.

4 CONCLUSION

The presented analytical relationship

between the dimensionless exergy destruction and

the heat-transfer effectiveness of a heat exchanger

seems to be rather convenient, because it relates the

dimensionless parameters (p3; p2 and pT as additional

parameter) relevant to the operation of a heat

exchanger and the exergy destruction of a parallel

and a counter-flow heat exchanger. It is possible to

include the values of the measured operation points

into the presented mathematical model and simultaneously calculate the heat-transfer effectiveness and

the exergy destruction of the considered heat exchangers. It can be concluded that the exergy

destruction for each case of both investigated heat

exchangers is small. The main reason for such a

conclusion is the fact that the operation values of

pT close to 1.

Furthermore, by introducing additional

exergy destruction due to the pressure drop in the

model, it is possible to develop an analytical model

for the minimization of heat exchangers exergy

destruction.

5 NOMENCLATURE

A0

C

Ex

I&

i1

k

Q&

q1

S&

T

T0

heat-capacity rate of the stream, W/K

exergy, W

exergy destruction, W

non-dimensional exergy destruction

overall heat-transfer coefficient, W/(m2K)

heat-transfer rate, W

non-dimensional heat-flow rate

entropy generation rate, W/K

thermodynamic (absolute) temperature, K

ambient temperature, K

Greek Letters

e, p1 heat-exchanger effectiveness

J

pT

p2

p3

Celsius temperature, oC

ratio of inlet absolute temperatures, K

number of heat-transfer units

ratio of heat-capacity rates

Subscripts

1

weaker stream

2

stronger stream

destr

destruction

gen

generated

Superscripts

inlet

outlet

6 REFERENCES

[1] Bejan, A., (1977) Second law analysis in heat transfer, Energy, 5, (1977), pp. 721-732 .

[2] Rant, Z. (1956) Exergie, ein neues Wort fr technische Arbeitsfhigkeit. Forschung Ing. Wesens 22(1956),

pp. 36-37.

[3] Rant, Z. (1964) Thermodynamische Bewertung der Verluste bei technischen Energieumwandlungen,

BWK 16(1964), pp. 453-457.

Energijska in eksergijska analiza - Energy and exergy analysis

Galovic.p65

163

163

[4] Can, A., Buyruk, E., Eryener, D., (2002) Exergoeconomic analysis of condenser type heat exchangers,

Exergy- an International Journal 2(2002) , pp.113-118.

[5] Galovi, A., Virag Z., Mudrini, S., (2003), Non-dimensional entropy analysis of condenser and/or

evaporator type heat exchangers, Transactions of Famena, 27(2003), pp. 1-9.

[6] Gregorig, R. (1973) Wrmeaustausch und Wrmeaustauscher, Verlag Sauerlnder, Frankfurt am Main.

[7] Galovi, A., M. ivi, M. Andrassy, (2003) Entropijska analiza sotonih prenosnikov toplote, Strojniki

vestnik 49 (2), pp.100-110.

[8] Bejan, A., (1988) Advance engineering thermodynamics, John Willey and Sons, New York.

[9] Bejan, A. (1996) Entropy generation minimizaton, CRC Press, New York.

[10] Bonjakovi, F., K. F. Knoche, (1997) Technische Thermodynamik, Teil II, Steinkopf Verlag, Darmstadt.

[11] engel, Y.,Boles, M., A., (1994) Thermodynamics: an engineering approach, McGraw-Hill Book Company,

New York.

Authors Addresses:

Prof. Dr. Antun Galovi

University of Zagreb

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and

Naval Architecture

Ivana Luia 5

10000 Zagreb, Croatia

antun.galovic@fsb.hr

Dr. Marija ivi

J.J. Strossmayer University of Osijek

Mechanical Engineering Faculty

35000 Slavonski Brod, Croatia

marija.zivic@sfsb.hr

Prof. Dr. Ahmet Can

Trakya University

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and

Architecture

22030 Edirne, Turkey

Prejeto:

Received:

Sprejeto:

Accepted:

7.2.2006

164

Galovic.p65

25.10.2006

Open for discussion: 1 year

164

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