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This specification contains the construction requirements for the applica- tion of shotcrete.

Both wet-mix and dry-mix shotcrete are specified, and the

minimum standards for testing, materials, and execution are provided.
Keywords: dry-mix shotcrete; fiber reinforced shotcrete; nozzleman;
shooting; shotcrete; wet-mix shotcrete.

CONTENTS Foreword, p. 506.2-2

Preface to specification checklist, p. 506.2-2
Mandatory requirements checklist, p. 506.2-2
Optional requirements checklist, p. 506.2-2
Submittals checklist, p. 506.2-3
Section 1General, p. 506.2-4
1.3Reference organizations
1.4Reference standards
1.6Quality assurance
1.7Shotcrete core grades
1.8Evaluation of in-place shotcrete
1.9Acceptance0Section 2Materials, p. 506.2-6
2.6Curing materials
2.8Fiber reinforced shotcrete
2.9Prebagged materials
2.10Delivery, storage, and handling
Section 3Execution, p. 506.2-6
3.2Batching and mixing
3.3Surface preparation
3.5Alignment control

ACI 506.2-95 supercedes ACI 506.2-90 and became effective October 1, 1995. Copyright 1995, American Concrete Institute.
All rights reserved including rights of reproduction and use in any form or by any
means, including the making of copies by any photo process, or by electronic or mechanical device, printed, written, or oral, or recording for sound or visual reproduc- tion or for
use in any knowledge or retrieval system or device, unless permission in writing is obtained from the copyright proprietors.





3.9Hot weather shotcreting

3.10Cold water shotcreting
F1. This foreword is included for explanatory purposes only; it does not form a part of Standard Specification ACI
F2. Standard Specification ACI 506.2 is a reference stan- dard which the Architect/Engineer may cite in the project
specifications for any project, together with supplementary requirements for the specific project.
F3. Each technical section of Standard Specification ACI
506.2 is written in the three-part section format of the Con- struction Specification Institute, as adapted by ACI and modified to
ACI requirements. The language is generally imperative and terse.
F4. Checklists do not form a part of Standard Specification ACI 506.2. Checklists are to assist the Architect/Engineer in
properly choosing and specifying any necessary require- ments for the project specifications.
P1. Standard Specification ACI 506.2 is intended to be used by reference or incorporation in its entirety in the Project
Specifications. Individual sections, articles, or para- graphs shall not be copied into the Project Specifications, since taking them
out of context may change their meaning.
P2. If sections or parts of Standard Specification ACI
506.2 are edited into Project Specifications or any other doc- ument, they shall not be referred to as ACI Standards, since the
Standard Specification has been altered.
P3. Building codes set minimum requirements necessary to protect the public. These Standard Specifications may
stipulate requirements more restrictive than the minimum. Adjustments to the needs of a particular project shall be made
by the Architect/Engineer by reviewing each of the items in the Specifications Checklist and then including the
Architect/Engineer's decision on each item as a mandatory requirement in the Project Specifications.
P4. These mandatory requirements designate the specific qualities, procedures, materials, and performance criteria for which
alternatives are permitted or for which provisions were not made in the Standard Specifications. Exceptions to the Standard
Specifications shall be made in the Project Specifications, if required.
P5. A statement such as the following will serve to make Standard Specifications ACI 506.2 a part of the Project
Work on
(Project Title)
shall conform to all the requirements of ACI 506.2 Standard Specification for Shotcrete,
published by the American Concrete Insti- tute, Detroit, Michigan, except as modified by the requirements of these
Contract Documents.
P6. The Standard Specifications Checklist identifies Ar- chitect/Engineer choices and alternatives. The checklists identify
the sections, parts, and articles of the Standard Spec- ifications and the action required by the Architect/Engineer.

3.3Surface preparation


bond. Sp
surface m
and mixe
with the
place conc
2 times o


1.4Reference standards



The following references are provided as gu

shotcrete specification. The references, howev
the construction, and the inspection of shotcre
ACI 506.4R
Evaluation of In-Place Sh
ACI 506.3R
Guide to Certification of
ACI 506R
Guide to Shotcrete
ACI 506.1RState-of-the-Art Report on Fiber
Specify if other submittals are needed such as

CHECKLIST, continued



1.6Quality assu

1.7Shotcrete co

A conc
hopper, mea
from in-p
prior to
If a great
3.3.3Surface preparation
It is rec
High ve
3.5Alignment control
For lon
Do not
3.6.2Encasement of reinforcement Voidsbb
float, or


1.8Evaluation o


3.10Cold weather

the curin
Steam cu
ACI 30

S ection/Part/Article
Notes to the Architect/Engineer
panel results if required.

Proposed shotcrete mix. Test

with cement, aggregate, and water are first mixed together before introduction into the delivery hose.
WorkThe entire construction or separately identifiable
This Standard Specification describes the requirements for
materials, proportioning, and application of shotcrete.
AcceptedAccepted by or acceptable to the Architect/En- gineer.
Architect/EngineerThe architect, engineer, architectural firm, engineering firm or architectural and engineering firm issuing
project drawings and specifications or administering the work under the Contract Documents.
Contract DocumentsDocuments covering the required work and including the project drawings and project specifi- cations.
ContractorThe person, firm, or corporation that the owner enters into an agreement with for construction of the work.
Core gradeQuality ranking of a shotcrete core.
Dry-mix shotcreteShotcrete in which most of the water is added at the nozzle.
Fiber-reinforced shotcrete (FRS)Shotcrete mixed with discrete discontinuous fibers commonly made of steel, plas- tic, or
alkali resistant (AR) glass.
Finish coatFinal thin coat of shotcrete preparatory to hand finishing.
C 33
Specification for Concrete Aggregates
intended receiving surface by air blast.
Flash coatThin shotcrete coat applied from a distance greater than normal for use as a final coat or for finishing.
C 42
Test Methods for Obtaining and Testing Drilled
OwnerThe corporation, association, partnership, indiGround wireWire used to establish line and grade for shotcrete work. Cores and Sawed Beams of Concrete
vidual, or public body or authority with whom the contractor
GunDry-mix shotcrete delivery equipment.
C 94
Specification for Ready-Mixed Concrete
enters into agreement and for whom the work is provided.
Gun finishUndisturbed final layer of shotcrete as ap- plied from
known asofnatural or
C 109nozzle
for finishing;
HydrauReboundShotcrete material that ricochets off the receivnozzle finish.
lic Cement Mortars
ing surface.
NozzleAttachment at end of delivery hose from where shotcrete is projected.
C 150
Specification for Portland Cement
Sand/rock pocketA porous zone in the shotcrete conNozzlemanWorker on shotcrete crew who manipulates the nozzle, controls consistency of dry-mix shotcrete, and controls
C 171
Specification for Sheet Materials for Curing Containing aggregate with reduced mortar content.
final disposition of the material.
ShootingAct of applying shotcrete.
OversprayShotcrete material deposited away from the
C 309
Specification for Liquid Membrane-Forming
ShotcreteMortar or concrete pneumatically projected
parts that are required to be furnished under the Contract Documents. Work is the result of performing services, fur- nishing
Compounds for Curing Concrete
onto a surface at high velocity.
labor, and providing and incorporating materials and equipment into the construction, all as required by the Con- tract
C 330
Specification for Lightweight Aggregates for
SloughingSubsidence of shotcrete, due generally to exDocuments.
Structural Concrete
cessive water in mixture or to vibration of continuous reinforcement or formwork.
C 595
Specification for Blended Hydraulic Cements
1.3Reference organizations
SubmittedSubmitted to the Architect/Engineer for reC 618
Specification for Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined
Natural Pozzolan for use as a Mineral Admixture
Wet-mix shotcreteShotcrete in which plastic concrete
in Portland Cement Concrete




American Concrete Institute

P.O. Box 9094
Farmington Hills, Michigan 48333
American Society for Testing and Materials
100 Bar Harbor Dr.
West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania 19428-2959
Steel Structures Painting Council
4400 Fifth Avenue
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213
1.4Reference standards
The following Reference Standards are referred to in this specification and declared to be a part of this Standard Specification:
1.4.1 ACI Standards
ACI 301-89 Specifications for Structural Concrete for
Buildings, paragraph 5.7.1 and Chapter 9
1.4.2 ASTM Standards
A 185
Specifications for Wire Fabric, Plain, Welded
Steel for Concrete Reinforcement
A 615
Specifications for Bars, Deformed and Plain, Bil- let-Steel, for Concrete Reinforcement
A 820
Specifications for Steel Fibers for Fiber Rein- forced Concrete
C 31
Practice for Making and Curing Concrete Test
Specimens in the Field

C 642
C 685
C 989
C 1116
C 1140
C 1141

Test Method for Specific Gravity, Absorption, and

Voids in Hardened Concrete
Specification for Concrete made by Volumetric
Batching and Continuous Mixing
Specification for Ground Granulated Blast-Fur- nace Slag for use in Concrete and Mortars
Specification for Fiber-Reinforced Concrete and
Standard Practice for Preparing and Testing Spec- imens from Shotcrete Test Panels
Standard Specification for Admixtures for Shot- crete
SSPC Standards
Surface Preparation Specification No. 6, Commer- cial Blast Cleaning

Submit proposed mix characteristics including:

Proportions by weights or volumes


Water-cementitious materials ratio

Aggregate source and grading

Cement type and brand

Water source if other than potable


Admixtures data sheets

Test results
Submit preconstruction test panel results when required.
1.6Quality assurance
1.6.1 Preconstruction testing Prepare preconstruction test panels for examina- tion by Architect/Engineer prior to job shotcrete placement.
Preparation and testing shall comply with ASTM C 1140. Produce test panels for each proposed mix pro- portion, each anticipated shooting orientation, and each pro- posed
nozzleman. Mixes shall meet requirements of section
2.7Proportioning. In half of the test panels provide rein- forcement of the same size and spacing required for the work.
Obtain six test specimens from each panel, three non- reinforced specimens and three with reinforcing steel. Test the nonreinforced specimens for compli- ance with the specified physical properties in accordance with
ASTM C 42. Visually grade the reinforced specimens for compliance with specified core grade (Section 1.7Shot- crete core
grades). Test admixtures for compatibility with cement in accordance with ASTM C 1141. Unless otherwise specified, only nozzlemen with a test panel mean core grade less than or equal to 2.5 (section
1.7) shall be allowed to place job shotcrete. When the prequalification test panel is rejected, a second panel may be shot. When
the nozzleman's second mean core grade is greater than 2.5, the nozzleman shall not be permitted to shoot on the project.
1.6.2 Construction testing Produce a material test panel for each mix and each work day or every 50 cubic yards placed, whichever is less. Test
panel shall be kept moist and at 70 F 10 F until moved to test laboratory. Obtain test specimens either from job site material
test panel or from in-place shotcrete. Test specimens from test panels in compliance with ASTM C
1140. Test specimens from in-place shotcrete in com- pliance with ASTM C 42. Grade cores that include reinforcement in accor- dance with section 1.7Shotcrete core grades. The mean compressive strength of a set of three cores shall equal or exceed 0.85 fc with no individual core less
than 0.75 fc . The mean of a set of three cubes shall equal or exceed fc with no individual cube less than 0.88 fc .
1.7Shotcrete core grades
1.7.1 Grade 1: Shotcrete specimens are solid; there are no laminations, sandy areas or voids. Small air voids with a
maximum diameter of 1/8 in. and maximum length of 1/4 in. are normal and acceptable. Sand pockets, or voids behind
continuous reinforcing steel are unacceptable. The surface against the form or bond plane shall be sound, without a sandy
texture or voids.
1.7.2 Grade 2: Shotcrete specimens shall have no more than two laminations or sandy areas with dimensions not to exceed
/8 in. thick by 1 in. long. The height, width and depth of voids shall not exceed 3/8 in. Porous areas behind reinforc- ing steel shall

not exceed 1/2 in. in any direction except along the length of the reinforcing steel. The surface against the form or bond plane
shall be sound, without a sandy texture or voids.
1.7.3 Grade 3: Shotcrete specimens shall have no more than two laminations or sandy areas with dimensions ex-

Grade 1

Grade 2

Grade 3

Grade 4
maximum dimension of 1 in. (25 mm) perpendicular to the
face of the core with a maximum width of 11/2 in. The end of
the core that was shot against the form may be sandy and
with voids containing overspray to a depth of 1/8 in.
1.7.5 Grade 5 core: A core that does not meet the criteria
of core grades 1 through 4, by being of poorer quality, shall
be classified as Grade 5.
1.7.6 Determination of grade shall be by computing the
mean of a minimum of three test specimens.
1.7.7 A mean grade of 2.5 or less is acceptable unless otherwise specified. Individual shotcrete cores with a grade
greater than 3 are unacceptable.
1.7.8 The above core grades are based on cores with a surface area of 50 in.2 For cores with greater or lesser area than
50 in.2, adjust allowable flaws relative to 50 in.2

Grade 5

ceeding 3/16 in. thick by 11/4 in. long, or one major void, sand pocket, or lamination containing loosely bonded sand not to exceed 5/8
in. thick and 11/4 in. in width. The surface against the form or bond plane may be sandy with voids containing overspray to a depth
of 1/16 in.
1.7.4 Grade 4 core: The core shall meet in general the requirements of Grade 3 cores, but may have two major flaws such as described for Grade 3 or may have one flaw with a
1.8Evaluation of in-place shotcrete
Remove and replace shotcrete that is delaminated, exhibits laminations, voids, or sand pockets exceeding the limits for the
specified grade or shotcrete. Remove and replace shot- crete that does not comply with the specified material prop- erties.
Repair core holes in accordance with Chapter 9 of ACI
301. Do not fill core holes by shooting.

1.9.1 Shotcrete work that meets applicable requirements will be accepted.
1.9.2 Shotcrete work that has previously failed to meet one or more requirements, but which has been repaired to bring it into
compliance, will be accepted.
1.9.3 Shotcrete work that fails to meet one or more re- quirements and which cannot be brought into compliance may be
accepted or rejected. Modifications may be required

to assure that remaining work complies with the require- ments.

Portland cement: ASTM C 150. Type I
Normal weight aggregate: ASTM C 33. Aggregate not meeting ASTM C 33 may be used provided preconstruction tests
demonstrate the shotcrete can meet specified require- ments.
Lightweight aggregate: ASTM C 330
Deformed steel reinforcement: ASTM A 615
Welded wire fabric: ASTM A 185
Steel fibers: ASTM A 820 and C 1116
Glass fibers: ASTM C 1116
Synthetic fibers: ASTM C 1116
Clean and potable.
Mixing water for shotcrete shall meet requirements of
ASTM C 94.
Water shall be free of elements that cause stains when used on architectural finishes.
Water-reducing: ASTM C 1141
Retarding: ASTM C 1141
Accelerating: ASTM C 1141
Air-entraining: ASTM C 1141
Fly ash and natural pozzolans: ASTM C 618
Ground granulated blast-furnace slag: ASTM C 989
Silica fume: ASTM C 1240
2.6Curing materials
Curing materials that cause stains on architectural finishes shall not be used.
Sheet materials: ASTM C 171
Curing compounds: ASTM C 309, apply twice the cover- age (double the application rate) recommended by manufac- turers.
Select shotcrete proportions to produce the specified ma- terial properties.
Shotcrete mix proportions using normal weight aggregate shall produce the following 28-day material property:
fc : ASTMC 42; ASTM C1140
Air content: ASTM C 173 or C 231
Table 2.7Total air content for frost resistant concrete*
Nominal maximum aggregate size
Less than /8
Greater than 3/8

Total air content, percent


* Based on samples obtained from the concrete truck.

See ASTM C 33 for tolerances for various nominal maximum size designations.

A tolerance of 11/ percent shall be allowed.

2.8Fiber-reinforced shotcrete
ASTM C 1116
2.9Prebagged materials

Are allowable with predampening.

2.10Delivery, storage, and handling
Deliver, store, and handle materials to prevent contamina- tion, segregation, corrosion or damage. Store liquid admix- tures in
order to prevent evaporation and freezing.
Verify that surfaces are acceptable and are ready to re- ceive work.
Verify that forms are to line and grade, braced against vibration, and constructed to permit escape of air and rebound.
Verify that placement and clearance around reinforce- ment permits complete encasement.
Verify that surfaces to receive shotcrete have been properly prepared according to the Contract Docu- ments.
3.2Batching and mixing
Weight batching shall comply with the accuracy specified in ASTM C 94.
Volume batching shall comply with the accuracy specified in ASTM C 685. Volume batching shall be verified once a week by
a weight batching check.
Use batching and mixing equipment capable of propor- tioning and mixing the required materials.
Shoot dry-mix shotcrete material within 45 min after batching or predampening. This requirement does not in- clude dry,
prebagged material unless prebagged material is predampened.
Shoot wet-mix shotcrete material within 90 min after batching.
3.3Surface preparation
3.3.1 EarthPrepare surfaces to line and grade. Do not apply shotcrete to frozen surface. Dampen surface immedi- ately
prior to shooting.
3.3.2 Concrete, masonry, and shotcreteWhen bonding is required, remove all deteriorated, loose unsound material or
contaminants that may inhibit bonding. Chip areas to be repaired to remove offsets causing abrupt changes in thick-

ness. Taper edges to eliminate square shoulders at the perim- eter of a cavity.
Surface shall be saturated surface dry immediately prior to shooting.
3.3.3 Structural/reinforcementThe surface shall be free of deleterious materials that inhibit bonding. For new con- struction,
reinforcement laps shall be separated with a clear- ance of at least three times the diameter of largest aggregate. Reinforcement
shall be secured to prevent movement.
3.3.4 RockRemove loose material, mud or other foreign material that will prevent bonding. Clean surface. Prewet surface
immediately prior to shooting.
3.3.5 FormsUse form-release coating material on re- movable forms. Secure forms to minimize the effects of vi- bration.
Construct forms to allow escape of placement air and rebound.
3.4.1 Construction jointsTaper construction joints at a 1 to 1 slope where joint is not subject to compression loads.
Surface preparation of joints shall comply with section 3.3.2. Continue reinforcement through construction joint.
3.4.2 Control jointsPlace as shown on drawings. Discontinue reinforcement at control joints.
3.5Alignment control
Install taut ground wires or other means to establish thick- ness and plane of required surface.
Install taut ground wires or other means at corners or off- sets not established by forms.
3.6.1 Placement techniquesProvide a platform that per- mits nozzleman unobstructed access to the receiving surface. Place
shotcrete first in corners, recesses, and other areas where rebound or overspray cannot escape easily. Remove rebound and
overspray from previously prepared surfaces prior to shotcrete placement.
Place shotcrete with nozzle held approximately perpendic- ular to the receiving surface. In corners, direct nozzle at approximately 45 deg angle or bisect the corner angle. Apply shotcrete so sags or sloughing do not occur. Discontinue shooting
or shield the nozzle stream if wind causes separa- tion of ingredients during shooting.
Do not reuse rebound or overspray. Remove laitance from shotcrete surfaces to receive additional shotcrete layers. Sur- face
preparation after final set shall comply with section
3.3.2. Do not apply shotcrete on surfaces with standing water or running water. Remove hardened overspray and rebound from
adjacent surfaces, including exposed reinforcement.
3.6.2 Encasement of reinforcementPlace shotcrete to completely encase reinforcing steel. Encase reinforcement by
shooting with sufficient velocity and plasticity so material flows around and behind the reinforcement. Front face of reinforcement shall remain clean during encasement.
Place shotcrete to provide the cover over reinforcement re- quired by ACI 301.
Minimum slump of wet-mix shotcrete is 1 in.
Gun finish or as specified.
Broom or roughen the surface of freshly placed shotcrete after shotcrete has reached initial set when subsequent layers are to be
Immediately after finishing, cure shotcrete continuously by maintaining in a moist condition for seven days or until specified
strength is attained or until succeeding shotcrete layers are placed.
Cure by one of the following methods:
Ponding or continuous sprinkling
Covering with an absorptive mat or sand that is kept continuously wet
Covering with impervious sheet material
Curing compounds
Natural curing shall be permitted if ambient relative hu- midity is maintained above 95 percent.
3.9Hot weather shotcreting
Do not place shotcrete when material temperature is above
90 F for wet mix; 100 F for dry mix. Lower temperature of reinforcement and receiving surfaces below 100 F prior to shooting.
3.10Cold weather shotcreting
Shooting may proceed when ambient temperature is 40 F and rising. 50 F for latex-modified shotcrete. Shooting shall
discontinue when ambient temperature is 40 F and falling unless protective measures are taken to protect shotcrete.

Shotcrete material temperature, when shot, shall not be less than 50 F or more than 90 F. Shotcrete shall not be placed against
frozen surfaces. Applicable procedures used for cold weather concreting may be used for cold weather shot-cret- ing.
Protect surfaces not intended for shotcrete placement against deposit of rebound and overspray or impact from nozzle
Remove rebound and hardened overspray from final shot- crete surfaces and from areas not intended for shotcrete placement.
Tolerances of shotcrete shall comply as specified.

ACI 506.2-95 was submitted to letter ballot of the committee and approved in accor- dance with ACI standardization procedures