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48-Hour Chick Embryo: Whole Mount

Changes in the 48-hour chick embryo:

head fold of the amnion

o covers the cranial half of the embryo
o formation of amniotic fold

head fold + lateral amniotic fold

caudal fold
o establishes the caudal boundary of the body
o separates the embryo from underlying
blastoderm via subcaudal pocket
o beginning of this fold: concavity facing the
anterior end

processes involved in the 48-hour chick:

o cephalization (rapid growth of anterior
o ventral flexion (bending)

at the anterior end of the embryo

makes the half of

formation of a pronounced cranial

the embryo lie on
flexure (level of midbrain)
its left side while
the posterior half

formation of an indicated cervical

remains at the
flexure (near hindbrain and spinal
original position
o dextral torsion (twisting)

at the anterior end of the embryo

involves all of the head, both cranial

and cervical flexures.

o elongation and twisting
o ventricle becomes posterior to the atrium (in
terms of location)

both these chambers are located

outside of the embryo

three fetal membranes that are seen:

o amnion

encircles anterior portion of embryo

consists of inner layer of ectoderm

& outer layer of somatic mesoderm
o yolk sac

double-membrane structure

on left side of embryo

contains blood vessels

derived from endoderm and

splanchnic mesoderm
o chorion

double-membrane structure

on right side of the embryo

consists of outer layer of ectoderm

and inner layer of somatic

branchial grooves and visceral arches

o branchial grooves

white lines that radiate out from the

heart toward the auditory vesicle

composed of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd

branchial grooves
o visceral arches

masses of cells

composed of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd

visceral arches

depending on its order, each

visceral arch is located cranial to its
corresponding branchial groove

example: 1st visceral arch

will be cranial to the 1st
branchial groove.

1st visceral arch

splitted into two via the

o maxillary process
o mandibular

48-Hour Chick Embryo: Transverse Section

Section through the mesencephalon


first cavity of the brain to be seen

in posterior sections, the frontal section of the

mesencephalon has several divisions
o due to cranial flexure

constriction at the lengthened section of the brain

partially separates the mesencephalon from the


opposite to mesencephalon

has a thin roof


underlined portion of the brain

between myelencephalon and isthmus


loose connective tissues

between brain and epidermis

Fetal Membranes

refer to the whole mount descriptions

Extraembryonic Coelom

space bounded by mesoderm


this space is between the chorion, yolk sac, and


Section through the diencephalon


when the brain separates into two cavities, it is the

lower cavity

replaces the mesencephalon in the preceding section

Velum transversum

depression on the dorsal wall of the forebrain

functions as a demarcation between diencephalon and


poorly defined

anteriorly delimited by isthmus


when the brain is divided into two cavities, this is the

larger and upper cavity

has a thin roof

will give rise to the posterior choroid plexus

Semilunar ganglion

dark accumulation of cells on the sides of the


ganglion of the trigeminal (V) cranial nerve

Jugular ganglion

mass of cells that is: lateral to the myelencephalon

and above the anterior cardinal veins

ganglion of the X cranial nerve

Anterior cardinal vein

space that is located on each side of the


as the section moves posteriorly, this becomes long

spaces toward the diencephalon

further posteriorly, this becomes more dorsal and

becomes located ventrolateral to the myelencephalon

vacuolated cells between the myelencephalon and the


tracing posterior, splits into two due to cranial flexure

in succeeding structures, will eventually unite back

into one, single structure
Section through the otic vesicle
Otic vesicle

paired vesicle on each side of the myelencephalon

formed as an invagination of the ectoderm

in older specimens, an invagination at the dorsal wall

the otic vesicle is the forerunner of the
endolymphatic duct
Anterior cardinal vein

pair of blood vessels

located on ventro-lateral to the otic vesicles

Acoustico-facialis ganglion

dark accumulation of cells close to are sometimes

attached to the otic vesicle and anterior cardinal vein

located lateral to the myelencephalon

ganglia of cranial nerve VII and VIII

Semilunar ganglion

dark accumulation of cells at the sides of the body

attached to the myelencephalon

observe: root of ganglion

o pink structure
o embedded in myelencephalon
o attached to the ganglion
Superior ganglion

acccumulation of cells on the sides of the


can be observed when the otic vesicle is not present

anymore or it is immediately posterior to the auditory

ganglion of the glossopharyngeal (IX) nerve

Section through the optic cups
Optic cup

double-walled structures on the sides of the


formed via the invagination of the optic vesicles

fate: sensory retina (thick, inner layer) and pigmented

retina (thin, outer layer)

parts of the optic cup:

o presumptive retina

inner layer
o presumptive pigmented epithelium

outer layer

fate: pigmented layer of retina

Lens vesicle

sac-like cavity nestled within the optic cups

formed via invagination of the ectoderm

Optic stalk

connects optic cup with the diencephalon


cavity below the notochord

triangular in shape
o middle portion = pharynx proper
o arms of triangle = 1st pharyngeal pouch (or
hyomandibular pouch)

1st pharyngeal pouch

o will invaginate to form the 1st branchial
o the double layered membrane formed by the
invagination is called the 1st closing plate
or 1st branchial plate
Preoral gut

anterior most part of the foregut

small circle or oval structure which is separated from

the pharynx via the oral plate

fingerlike diverticulum anterior to the future mouth

Carotid loop

extensions of the 1st aortic arches

medial to the anterior cardinal veins

Internal carotid arteries

paired vessels

extensions of the carotid loops


alongside forebrain
medial to the optic cups

Dorsal aorta

blood vessels on the sides of the notochord

above the 1st pharyngeal pouch

First aortic arch

blood vessels below the 1st pharygneal pouch

becomes located within the mandibular process

eventually becomes continuous with the ventral aorta

Visceral arches

between two pharyngeal pouches

lateral walls of the visceral arches:

o thickened
o filled with mesenchymal cells
Mandibular arch

more anterior of the rounded mesenchymal masses

between it lies the stomodeum

gives rise to the jaws

bears the first aortic arch

syn: 1st visceral arch

Maxillary arch

rounded or flattened masses

on the sides of the Rathkes pouch

Rathkes pouch

small vesicle

located between the infundibulum and the pharynx

arises as a dorsal evagination of the stomodeum

fate is the hypohysis

Oral plate

thin line made of ectoderm and endoderm

separates the stomodeum and pharynx

syn: pharyngeal membrane


arises as an evagination from the diencephalon

extends in the direction of the foregut

later evaginate to become the posterior (neural) lobe

of pharynx

more elongated at this level


slit-like space where the Rathkes pouch opens


as previously described
Section through the thyroid rudiment and the second
aortic arch
Thyroid rudiment

depression on the floor of the pharynx

2nd aortic arch

blood vessels beneath the 2nd pharyngeal pouch

located within the 2nd visceral arch (hyoid arch)

posteriorly, extend downward from the dorsal aorta

even more posteriorly, ventral ends of the 2nd aortic

arch become continuous with the ventral aorta

2nd pharyngeal pouch

outpocketing of the pharynx

can be seen when the otic vesicle is not seen or at the

posterior sections of the otic vesicle
Ventral aorta

blood vessels located beneath the pharynx

the following vessels are continuous with this:

o bases of the first aortic arch
o ventral ends of the 2nd aortic arch
o ventral ends of the 3rd aortic arches



Section through the third aortic arch

3rd pharyngeal pouch

outpocketing of the pharynx

pharynx + 3rd pharyngeal pouch = laterally oriented

oral cavity
3rd aortic arch

beneath the 3rd pharyngeal pouch

not well developed

another pair of downward extensions from the dorsal


ventral ends are continuous with the ventral aorta

3rd visceral arch

between 2nd and 3rd pharyngeal pouch

arches that are posterior to the hyoid arch are

sometimes referred to as branchial arches
o this is because in lower vertebrates these
arches will bear the gills
Bulbus cordis

first heart cavity to be observed

differentiated from the ventral aorta due to the

presence of both an endocardium and a myocardium
Dorsal mesocardium

mesodermal stalk

attaches the stalk to the dorsal wall of the coelom

Nasal placode

thickened skin ectoderm

lateral to the telencephalon

1st somite

compact cell masses

composed of:
o dermatome

darkly stained cells

beneath skin ectoderm

future dermis of the skin



lightly stained cells

medial to future dermatome

future muscle

Anterior cardinal veins

becomes more ventral

separates into two vessels: postcardinal vein (dorsal)

and common cardinal vein (ventral)
Section through the atrium and ventricle
Spinal cord

replaces the myelencephalon at this level

Descending aorta

fused dorsal aortae

Dorsal intersegmented arteries

small blood vessels

arising at intervals from the dorsal aorta

extends dorsally between spinal cord and somite

Conus arteriosus

chamber of the heart at the right side of the embryo

endocardium and myocardium are widely separated

Lung buds

evagination on the ventro-lateral portions of the

foregut into the pleural cavity
Pleural cavity

portion of coelom that is lateral to the developing lung


it is continuous with the pericardial cavity

Transverse septum

mesenchyme surrounding the sinus venosus

from where the dorsal mesocardium connects the

heart to the dorsal body wall

connected with the pleuropericardial membrane

Cranial liver diverticulum

small mass of cells dorsal to the sinus venosus

lies in the transverse septum (ventral to foregut)

a diverticulum from the wall of the gut gives rise to

the liver

syn: dorsal diverticulum

Caudal liver rudiment

branch or branches on ventral side of cranial liver


syn: ventral diverticulum


at the left side of the embryo

endocardium and myocardium are in close contact

with each other

future auricles


when the cranial liver rudiment becomes continuous

with the foregut


large looped chamber of the heart

connects the conus arteriosus and the atrium

Anterior intestinal portal

opening of foregut to the midgut

floor of midgut is the yolk

Laryngotracheal groove

V-shaped depression in the floor of the foregut

develops into: larynx, trachea, and lung buds

Vitelline veins

pair of blood vessels

extensions of the sinus venosus

located on each side of the anterior intestinal portal

the left vitelline vein passes out onto the yolk first
before the right vitelline vein

Future esophagus

dorsal portion of the gut

will later differentiate from part of the foregut (which

is dorsal to the laryngotracheal groove)
Cardinal Veins

paired precardinal veins (or anterior cardinal veins)

separates into two:
o postcardinal vein - dorsal
o common cardinal vein - ventral
Section through the sinus venosus
Sinus venosus

portion of the heart that is attached to the foregut via

the dorsal mesocardium
Common cardinal vein

blood vessel to which the sinus venosus is attached

Pleuropericardial membrane

mesenchyme that encloses the common cardinal vein

separate pleural cavity from the pericardial region of

the coelom

Section through the anterior intestinal portal

Peritoneal cavity

space where internal organs are located

Paired mesonephric duct

small tubules lateral to descending aorta

mesonephric tubule rudiments

o medial to the mesonephric duct
o will undergo cavitation to form mesonephric
tubules of the paired mesonephric kidneys

formed via delamination of the nephrogenic cord

Section through the lateral amniotic folds
Lateral amniotic folds

elevated folds that are about to fuse

continuous with the lateral body walls

consists of somatopleure
o forms inner amnion and outer chorion
Vitelline blood vessels

small blood vessels within the splanchnic mesoderm


Paired dorsal aortae

large pair of blood vessels below the notochord

descending aorta has not formed at more caudal levels

Mesonephric tubule rudiments

round cavity medial to the mesonephric duct


opening of mesonephric tubule to the coelom

Vitelline arteries

extension of dorsal aorta onto the yolk sac

Section through the tail bud
Tail bud

mass of mesenchymal cells at caudal end of the


covered by skin ectoderm

note: the tail bud is a mesoderm derived structure but it is

covered by ectoderm


posterior portion of the gut

now has a floor

Allantoic rudiment

endoderm lined cavity located below the tail bud

Caudal intestinal portal

space where the floor of the allantoic rudiment


opening of hindgut into the yolk