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ARCHITECTURAL PRACTICE

AND BUILDING LAWS

ARCHITECTURE ACT OF 2004


The Implementing Rules and Regulations
(IRR) of Republic Act no. 9266
The implementing rules and regulations (IRR) of republic act no. 9266, an act providing for a more
responsive and comprehensive regulation for the registration, licensing and practice of architecture,
repealing for the purpose republic act no. 545, as amended, otherwise known as
an act to regulate the practice of architecture in the Philippines, and for other purposes
Pursuant to Section 7 (a), Article II and Section 41, Article V of Republic Act No. 9266, known as The
Architecture Act of 2004, the Board of Architecture hereby prescribes, adopts, and promulgates the
following Rules and Regulations to carry out the provisions thereof.

RULE I
TITLE, POLICY STATEMENT, DEFINITION OF TERMS AND
SCOPE OF PRACTICE
SECTION 1. Title
SECTION 2. Statement of Policy
SECTION 3. Definition of Terms
As used in this IRR of the Architecture Act of 2004, in R.A. No. 9266 or other laws, the
following terms shall be defined as follows:
(1)

(2)

Architecture is the art, science or profession of planning, designing and


constructing buildings in their totality taking into account their environment, in
accordance with the principles of utility, strength and beauty;
Architect means a person professionally and academically qualified, registered and
licensed under R.A. No. 9266 with a Certificate of Registration and Professional
Identification Card issued by the Professional Regulatory Board of Architecture and
the Professional Regulation Commission, and who is responsible for advocating the
fair and sustainable development, welfare and cultural expression of societys habitat
in terms of space, forms and historical context;
(a)

Architect-of-record means the architect registered and licensed under


R.A. No. 9266, who is directly and professionally responsible for the total
design of the project for the client and who shall assume the civil liability for
the plans, specifications and contract documents he/she has signed and
sealed;

(b)

Architect-in-charge of construction means an architect registered and


licensed under R.A. No. 9266, who is directly and professionally responsible
and liable for the construction supervision of the project;

(c) Consulting Architect means the architect registered and licensed or permitted
to practice under R.A. No. 9266, who is professionally and academically
qualified and with exceptional or recognized expertise or specialization in any
branch of architecture;

(3)

(4)

General Practice of Architecture the act of planning and architectural designing,


structural conceptualization, specifying, supervising and giving general administration
and responsible direction to the erection, enlargement or alterations of buildings and
building environments and architectural design in engineering structures or any part
thereof; the scientific, aesthetic and orderly coordination of all the processes which
enter into the production of a complete building or structure performed through the
medium of unbiased preliminary studies of plans, consultations, specifications,
conferences, evaluations, investigations, contract documents and oral advice and
directions regardless of whether the persons engaged in such practice are residents
of the Philippines or have their principal office or place of business in this country or
another territory, and regardless of whether such persons are performing one or all
these duties, or whether such duties are performed in person or as the directing head
of an office or organization performing them;
Scope of the Practice of Architecture encompasses the provision of professional
services in connection with site, physical and planning and the design, construction,
enlargement, conservation, renovation, remodeling, restoration or alteration of a
building or group of buildings. Services may include, but are not limited to:
(a)

planning, architectural designing and structural conceptualization;

(b)

consultation, consultancy, giving oral or written advice and directions,


conferences, evaluations, investigations, quality surveys, appraisals and
adjustments, architectural and operational planning, site analysis and other
pre-design services;

(c)

schematic design, design development, contract documents and construction


phases including professional consultancies;
preparation of preliminary, technical, economic and financial feasibility
studies of plans, models and project promotional services;

(d)

(e)

preparation of architectural plans, specifications, bill of materials, cost


estimates, general conditions and bidding documents;

(f)

construction and project management, giving general management,


administration, supervision, coordination and responsible direction or the
planning, architectural designing, construction, reconstruction, erection,
enlargement or demolition, renovation, repair, orderly removal, remodeling,
alteration, preservation or restoration of buildings or structures or complex
buildings, including all their components, sites and environs, intended for
private or public use;
the planning, architectural lay-outing and utilization of spaces within and
surrounding such buildings or structures, housing design and community
architecture, architectural interiors and space planning, architectural
detailing, architectural lighting, acoustics, architectural lay-outing of
mechanical, electrical, electronic, sanitary, plumbing, communications and
other utility systems, equipment and fixtures;

(g)

(h)

building programming, building administration, construction arbitration and


architectural conservation and restoration;

(i)

all works which relate to the scientific, aesthetic and orderly coordination of
all works and branches of the work, systems and processes necessary for
the production of a complete building or structure, whether for public or
private use, in order to enhance or safeguard life, health and property and

the promotion and enrichment of the quality of life, the architectural design of
engineering structures or any part thereof; and
(j)

all other works, projects and activities which require the professional
competence of an architect, including teaching of architectural subjects and
architectural computer-aided design;

(5)

Structural Conceptualization means the act of conceiving, choosing and


developing the type, disposition, arrangement and proportioning of the structural
elements of an architectural work giving due consideration to safety, costeffectiveness, functionality and aesthetics;

(6)

Architectural Firm means a sole proprietorship, a partnership or a corporation


registered with the DTI AND/OR SEC and then with the Board of Architecture and
PRC;

(7)

Authorship refers to the author or authors of a set of architectural plans or


specifications who are in charge of their preparation whether made by them
personally or under their immediate supervision;

(8)

Board refers to the Professional Regulatory Board of Architecture;

(9)

Commission means the Professional Regulation Commission;

(10)

Service Agreement means a duly notarized written contract or equivalent public


instrument stipulating the scope of services and guaranteeing compensation
of such services to be rendered by an architect registered and licensed under R.A.
No. 9266;
Violation of the Service Agreement is a basis for a civil liability under Art. 1723 of the
Civil Code unless he/she attempts and/or succeeds to interfere or contravene the
legal and professional functions of the Architect-of-Record: the Consulting Architect.

(11)

Integrated and Accredited Professional Organization means the existing official


national organization of all architects of the Philippines in which all registered Filipino
architects shall be members without prejudice to membership in other voluntary
professional associations;

(12)

Continuing Professional Development refers to a sustaining and progressive


learning process that maintains, enhances, or increases the knowledge and
continuing ability of architects;

(13)

DTI shall mean the Department of Trade and Industry;

(14)

SEC shall mean the Securities and Exchange Commission;

(15)

Association any formal grouping of two or more architects or architectural firms


working in joint venture on a project basis.

(16)

Architectural Company means a juridical entity that shall be synonymous with an


Architectural Partnership (see definition of Architectural Partnership) registered with
the SEC.

(17)

Architecture Corporation means a group of professionals in architecture and


allied professions, incorporated with Architects for the purpose of delivering
professional service in architecture and allied professions; in case an existing

Architectural Corporation does not comply with the 75% composition requirement, it
shall comply and register again with the SEC and the BOA.
(18)

Architectural Documents means an architectural drawings, specifications, and


other outputs of an Architect that only an Architect can sign and seal consisting,
among others, of vicinity maps, site development plans, architectural program,
perspective drawings, architectural floor plans, elevations, sections, ceiling plans,
schedules, detailed drawings, technical specifications and cost estimates, and other
instruments of service in any form.

(19)

Architectural Interiors means a detailed planning and design of the


indoor/enclosed areas of any proposed building/structure, including retrofit or
renovation work and which shall cover all architectural and utility aspects, including
the architectural lay-outing of all building engineering systems found therein.

(20)

Architectural Partnership means a group of two or more Architects duly registered


with the SEC and then with the Board of Architecture.

(21)

Architectural Plans means a two (2)-dimensional representations reflecting a


proposed development/redevelopment of an enclosed/ semi-enclosed or open area
showing features or elements such as columns, walls, partitions, ceiling, stairs,
doors, windows, floors, roof, room designations, door and window call-outs, the
architectural layout of equipment, furnishings, furniture and the like, specifications
callouts, elevation references, drawing references and the like; the architectural plan
is the representation of a lateral section for a proposed building/ structure (running
parallel to the ground) and at a height of from 1.0 1.5 meters above the finished
floor; the term may also collectively refer to other architectural designs such as cross/
longitudinal sections, elevations, roof plan, reflected ceiling plan; detailed sections
and elevations showing architectural interiors, detailed architectural designs, door
and window schedules, other architectural finishing schedules and the like.

(22)

Building means a structure for the purpose and function of habitation and other
uses.

(23)

Certificate of Registration means a certificate bearing a registration number,


issued to an individual, by the Professional Regulation Commission through the
Board of Architecture, signifying that the individual has successfully passed the
Licensure Examination and is registered to practice his/her profession as Architect.

(24)

Code of Ethical Conduct means a document which forms part of the Architects
National Code which contains the norms and principles governing the practice of the
profession of architecture in the highest standards of ethical conduct.
Consulting Architect a registered and licensed Architect, who is academically and
professionally qualified, and with exceptional or recognized expertise or
specialization in any branch of architecture; the Consulting Architect assumes no civil
liability under Art. 1723 of the Civil Code unless he/she attempts and/or succeeds to
interfere or contravene the legal and professional functions of the Architect-ofRecord; the Consulting Architect assumes the normal civil liability under the service
agreement he/she signs with a Client.

(25)

(26)

Contract Documents are the documents attached to the agreement identified


therein as Contract Documents, including all additions, deletions and modifications
incorporated therein. These generally include the following documents:
a)
b)

Special Provisions or conditions


General Conditions

c)
d)
e)

Drawings
Specifications
Other Bid Documents

(27)

Copyright (or Copyright Ownership) shall refer to the intellectual proprietary


rights retained by an Architect over any architectural documents/ work that he/she
prepares unless there is a written stipulation to the contrary, copyright in a work of
architecture shall include the right to control the erection of any building which
reproduces the whole or a substantial part of the work either in its original form or in
any form recognizably derived from the original; however, the copyright in any such
work shall not include the right to control the reconstruction or rehabilitation in the
same style as the original of a building to which the copyright relates.

(28)

CPD Providers means an entities, agencies, organizations and the like that have
been accredited/registered with the Board of Architecture of the Professional
Regulation Commission to deliver seminars, lectures, and other continuing
professional education modules for architects, other than the Integrated Accredited
Professional Organization of Architects which is automatically accredited by the
Board of Architecture as a CPD Provider.

(29)

Diversified Architectural Experience a post-baccalaureate, pre-licensure


experience of two (2) years required of a graduate of architecture prior to taking the
licensure examination; consisting of a variation of experiences in the different phases
of architectural service.

(30)

Foreign Architect means an architect who is not a Filipino citizen nor an Architect
registered and licensed in the Philippines, but who is duly registered and licensed in
his/her home country as an Architect.

(31)

Filipino Counterpart the local Philippine architect, partnership or corporation that


must work in association with a foreign architect, partnership or corporation, on a
project on Philippine soil.

(32)

Ownership shall refer to proprietary rights to an architectural work such as plans,


designs and other documents by a person/ juridical entity who commissions the
Architect and whose ownership of an architectural work by such a person/ juridical
entity shall only be confined to the use of the architectural documents for executing
/implementing the work described therein for one (1) or the original project;
ownership shall not apply to the use of a part of or of the entire architectural
work/architectural documents to repetitions or to subsequent projects.

(33)

Planning refers to physical planning at site, community or urban level by an


Architect.

(34)

Physical Planner refers to an Architect who specializes in the detailed physical


planning of land or property on which vertical structures such as buildings and/or
structures and horizontal developments such as rights-of-way, open spaces and
recreational/ sports/ entertainment/ tourism and related facilities are to be proposed.

(35)

Physical Planning the detailed physical planning of land or property on which


vertical structures such as buildings, monuments and/or structures and horizontal
developments such as rights-of-way, open spaces and recreational/ sports/
establishments/ tourism and related facilities are to be proposed.

(36)

Professional refers to a person whose name and registration/professional license


number is entered in the Professional Regulation Commission registry book and
computerized database as one legally authorized to practice his profession.

(37)

Professional Identification Card a document bearing the registration number,


date of issuance with an expiry date, due for periodic renewal, duly signed by the
Chairperson of the PRC to a registered Architect upon payment of the annual
registration fees for three (3) years.

(38)

Site Planning the detailed site development planning of all areas surrounding a
building/structure and/or a group of buildings/structures but only within the property
limits of the land on which such buildings/structures are to be erected.

(39)

Standards of Professional Practice means a document embodied in the


Architects National Code, which defines all aspects of professional service,
prescribes minimum basic fees and establishes the rights and obligations of both the
Architect and the client.

(40)

Sole Proprietorship means an individual Architect practicing and delivering


architectural services, duly registered with the DTI, BOA and the PRC.

(41)

Specialization an expertise and special knowledge in the field of architecture


acquired by an Architect through formal education and training or through continuing
professional development and experience, for which the Architect may be engaged
as Consulting Architect.

(42)

Syllabi the outlines embodying topics and concepts of major subjects prescribed in
specific course of study to serve as basis for test questions in the licensure
examinations.

(43)

Technology Transfer refers to contracts or arrangements involving the transfer of


systematic knowledge for the manufacture of a product, the application of a process,
or rendering of a service including management contracts; and the transfer,
assignment or licensing of all forms of intellectual property rights.

(44)

Urban Design physical and systemic design undertaken by an Architect on a


community and urban plane, more comprehensive than, and an extension of the
architecture of buildings, spaces between buildings, entourage, utilities and
movement systems.

(45)

Acronyms and Laws:


(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
(k)
(l)

ARCHITECTURE ACT OF 2004 R.A. No. 9266


BOA Board of Architecture
CHED Commission on Higher Education
CIAC Construction Industry Arbitration Commission
CPD Continuing Professional Development
DOLE Department of Labor and Employment
DTI Department of Trade and Industry
IAPOA Integrated Accredited Professional Organization of Architects (the
same as United Architects of the Philippines, Inc.)
Intellectual Property Code of the Philippines R.A. No. 8293
PCAB Philippine Contractors Accreditation Board
PDCB Philippine Domestic Construction Board
PRB Professional Regulatory Board (the same as BOA for the profession
of architecture)

(m)
(n)
(o)
(p)

PRC Professional Regulation Commission


PRC Modernization Act of 2000 R.A. No. 8981
SEC Securities and Exchange Commission
UAP United Architects of the Philippines, Inc

RULE II
PROFESSIONAL REGULATORY BOARD OF ARCHITECTURE:
ORGANIZATION, POWERS AND FUNCTIONS
SECTION 4. Creation and Composition of the Professional Regulatory Board
There is hereby created a Professional Regulatory Board of Architecture, hereinafter referred
to as the Board, a collegial body under the supervision and administrative control of the Professional
Regulation Commission, hereinafter referred to as the Commission, is composed of a chairman and
two (2) members appointed by the President of the Philippines from a list of three (3) recommendees
chosen from a list of five (5) nominees for each position submitted to the Commission by the
integrated and the accredited professional organization of architects. The Board shall be organized
not later than six (6) months from the effectivity of the Architecture Act of 2004.

SECTION 5. Qualifications of Members of the Professional Regulatory Board


Each Member shall, at the time of his/her appointment, possess the following qualifications:
(a)

citizen and a resident of the Philippines;

(b)

be a holder of a degree in Bachelor of Science in Architecture in the Philippines or


abroad that is recognized and/or accredited by the Commission on Higher Education
(CHED);

(c)

be an architect with a valid Certificate of Registration and Professional Identification


Card and active practitioner of architecture for at least ten (10) years on the date of
his/her appointment;

(d)

not be a member of the faculty of any school, college, university or review institution
where a regular course or review course in architecture is taught, nor have pecuniary
interest in such institution. No former member of the faculty of any school, institute,
university or review center where architecture is taught can become a member of the
Board unless he/she had officially resigned from such an institution and has
completely stopped teaching, advising or reviewing activities for at least five (5) years
prior to the nomination;

(e)

has never been convicted of any crime involving moral turpitude; and

(f)

not be an elective officer of the Integrated and Accredited Professional Organization


of Architects and other Professional Organization of Architects.

SECTION 6. Term of Office


The members of the Board shall hold office for a term of three (3) years after appointment or
until their successors shall have been appointed and duly qualified. Any vacancy occurring within the
term of a member shall be filled for the unexpired portion of the term only. Each member of the
Board may be reappointed for one full term of three (3) years. Of the members of the Board first
appointed under R.A. No. 9266, one (1) member shall be appointed and hold office as chairman for

three (3) years, one (1) member for two (2) years, and one (1) member for one (1) year. Each
member of the Board shall qualify by taking the proper oath prior to the performance of their duties:
Provided, That the incumbent members of the Board shall continue to serve for the remainder of their
term as members of the herein created Professional Regulatory Board of Architecture until a new
Board shall have been properly organized: Provided, Further that the incumbent members of the
Board may be appointed as members of the First Board.

SECTION 7. Powers and Functions of the Board


The Board shall exercise the following specific powers, functions and responsibilities:
(a)

Prescribe and adopt the IRR of the Architecture Act of 2004 for carrying out the
provisions of R.A. No. 9266;

(b)

Supervise the registration, licensure and practice of architects;

(c)

Administer oaths in connection with the administration of R.A. No. 9266;

(d)

Issue, suspend, revoke, or reinstate the Certificate of Registration and the


Professional Identification Card for the practice of the architecture profession;

(e)

Adopt an official seal of the Board;

(f)

Monitor the conditions affecting the practice of architecture and adopt such measures
as may be deemed proper for the enhancement and maintenance of high
professional, ethical and technical standards of the profession;

(g)

Prescribe and/or adopt the Code of Ethical Conduct and Standards of Professional
Practice;

(h)

Hear and decide administrative cases involving violations of R.A. No. 9266, the IRR
of the Architecture Act of 2004, the Code of Ethical Conduct and Standards of
Professional Practice and for this purpose, to issue subpoena ad testificandum and
subpoena duces tecum to secure the appearance of witnesses and the production
of documents in connection therewith; Provided, That the decision of the Board shall,
unless appealed to the Commission, become final and executory after fifteen (15)
days from receipt of notice of judgment or decision. The decision of the Commission
may be appealed to the Court of Appeals in accordance with the procedure under the
Rules of Court;

(i)

Prescribe guidelines for the Continuing Professional Development (CPD) program in


consultation with the integrated and accredited professional organization of
architects: Provided, That the attendance to said CPD shall not be a mandatory
requirement for the renewal of a professional Identification Card;

(j)

Prepare, adopt, issue or amend the syllabi of the subjects for examinations in
consultation with the academe, determine and prepare questions which shall be
within the scope of the syllabi of the subject for examination as well as administer,
correct and release the results of the licensure examinations;

(k)

Approve, issue, limit or cancel temporary or special permit to practice architecture;

(l)

In coordination with the CHED, ensure that all higher educational instruction and
offerings of architecture comply with the policies, standards and requirements of the
course prescribed by the CHED in the areas of curriculum, faculty, library and

facilities; Provided, That, for the orderly implementation of this provision, the Board
and the Commission may enter into a Memorandum of Agreement with the CHED.
(m)

To adopt a program for the full computerization of the licensure examination; and

(n)

Discharge such other duties and functions as may be deemed necessary for the
enhancement of the architecture profession and the upgrading, development and
growth of the architecture education.

SECTION 8. Administrative Supervision of the Board, Custodian of its


Records, Secretariat and Support Services
The Board shall be under the administrative supervision of the Commission. All records of
the Board, including applications for examination, examination questions, answer sheets, and other
records and documents pertaining to licensure examination, administrative and other investigative
cases conducted by the Board shall be under the custody of the Commission. The Commission shall
designate the Secretary of the Board and shall provide the secretariat and other support services to
implement the provisions of R.A. No. 9266.

SECTION 9. Grounds for Suspension or Removal of Members of the Board


The President of the Philippines, upon the recommendation of the Commission, after giving
the concerned member an opportunity to defend himself in a proper administrative investigation to
be conducted by the Commission, may suspend or remove any member on the following grounds:
(a) Neglect of duty or incompetence;
(b) Violation or tolerance of the violation of R.A. No. 9266, or its implementing rules and
regulations or the Code of Ethical Conduct and Standards of Professional Practice;
(c) Final judgment of crimes involving moral turpitude; and
(d) Manipulation or rigging of the architecture licensure examination results, disclosure of
secret and confidential information in the examination questions prior to the conduct of the said
examination or tampering of grades.

SECTION 10. Compensation and Allowances of the Board


The chairman and members of the Board shall receive compensation and allowances
comparable to that being received by the chairman and members of existing regulatory Boards under
the Commission as provided for in the General Appropriations Act.

SECTION 11. Annual Report


The Board shall submit an annual report to the Commission after the close of each year
giving a detailed account of its proceedings during the year and making such recommendations as it
may deem proper.

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RULE III
EXAMINATION, REGISTRATION AND LICENSURE
SECTION 12. Examination Required
All applicants for registration for the practice of architecture shall be required to undergo a
licensure examination to be given by the Board in such places and dates as the Commission may
designate in accordance with the provisions of Republic Act No. 8981.

SECTION 13. Qualifications of Applicant for Examination


Any person applying for examination shall establish to the satisfaction of the Board that:
(a)

He/she is a Filipino citizen or a citizen of a foreign country qualified to take the


examination as provided for in Sec. 27, Art. IV of R.A. No. 9266 as carried out by
Sec. 27, Rule IV of this IRR of the Architecture Act of 2004;

(b)

He/she is of good moral character;

(c)

He/she is a holder of the degree of Bachelor of Science in Architecture conferred by


a school, college, academy or institute duly recognized and/or accredited by the
Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and in addition has a specific record of at
least two (2) years or equivalent of diversified architectural experience duly certified
by a registered/licensed architect: Provided, however, That an applicant holding a
Masters Degree in Architecture from a school, college, university or institute
recognized by the government shall be credited one (1) year in his/her practical
experience; and

(d)

He/she has not been convicted of any criminal offense involving moral turpitude.

The following documents shall be submitted in support of the above requirements:


(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)

Certificate of Live Birth in National Statistics Office (NSO) Security Paper


Marriage Contract in NSO Security Paper for married female applicants
College Diploma with indication therein of date of graduation and Special Order
Number unless it is not required
Baccalaureate Transcript of Records with indication therein of date of graduation and
Special Order Number unless it is not required
Accomplished Diversified Training (DT Form 001)
Accomplished Diversified Training (DT Form 002)
Architect-Mentor Affidavit
Photocopy of Architect-Mentors valid Professional Identification Card, Professional
Tax Receipt and IAPOA number
National Bureau of Investigation (NBI) Clearance
Other documents the Board may require.

Fraudulent Applications of Candidate and Mentor The Board may refuse to renew a
professional identification card, or may suspend, or revoke, any certificate of registration obtained by
false swearing or any misrepresentations made in applying for registration or examination and may
refuse to renew or grant registration to any applicant whose application contains such false evidence
or information.

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SECTION 14. Subjects for Examination


The licensure examination for architects shall cover, but are not limited to, the following
subjects:

(1)

History and Theory of Architecture; Principles of Planning and


Architectural Practice
Part I: History of Architecture
A.

Rationale and Description

1.

Analysis of architectural manifestations from the beginning of civilization to


contemporary periods of development;

2. Analysis of the influences of environmental, historical, and sociocultural factors


and their relevance to the development of art, buildings, structures, as well
as of human settlements.
Part II: Theory of Architecture
A.

Rationale and Description

1.

Understanding of the theories and principles of design and architectural


design process;

2.

Analysis of anthropometric, proxemic, and kinesthetic requirements of space


in relation to architectural design;

3.

Analysis of sociocultural and technological trends which are contributory to


the development of contemporary architecture.

Part III: Architectural Practice


A.

Rationale and Description

1.

Understanding of the role, legal rights and obligations, and responsibilities of


the architect

2.

Analysis and application of the various statutes, codes, and regulations


affecting the practice of architecture in the Philippines

3.

Understanding of the various aspects of the professional


architecture, including tools and techniques related to
construction, resource allocation, and project management, as
efficient conduct of client and business relations for building
construction projects.

practice of
production,
well as the
design and

Part IV: Theory and Principles of Planning


A.

Rationale and Description

1.

Analysis of the concepts and techniques in the general planning process,


regional planning, land use planning, and human settlements planning

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2.

(2)

Understanding of the art and science of site planning with emphasis on


ecological, socio-psychological, aesthetic, and functional basis of site
planning.

Structural Design, Building Materials, and Architectural


Specifications, and Methods of Construction and Utilities;
Part I: Structural Design
A.
1.
2.

Rationale and Description


Understanding of the fundamentals of mechanics, strength of materials, and
theory of structures
General design, principles, and analysis of the structural elements of various
types of construction materials and systems.

Part II: Building Materials and Methods of Construction


A.
1.
2.

Rationale and Description


Understanding of the properties of building construction and finishing
materials; their application and articulation; systems and methods of
specifying and construction;
Application of the principles of design and construction methods of various
types of materials used in construction.

Part III: Utilities


A.
Rationale and Description
1. Understanding of the basic practices, principles, general design and installation,
and/or construction of utilities required for a building or structure and its
premises;
2.
Analysis of utility, facility, and equipment requirements in relation to
aesthetic, function, and strength of a building or structure and its premises.

(3)

Urban Design and Architectural Interiors


Part I: Urban Design
A.
1.

2.

Rationale and Description


Analysis of the concepts and techniques in the general planning process of
the physical and systematic design on a community and urban plane on a
more comprehensive manner.
Understanding of the art and science of urban design with emphasis on
ecological, socio-psychological, aesthetic and functional basis of urban
design.

Part II: Architectural Interiors


A.

Rationale and Description

1.
2.

Understanding of the theories and principles of Architectural Interiors.


Analysis of anthropometric, proxemic, and kinesthetic requirements of space
in relation to Architectural Interiors.

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(4)

Architectural Design and Site Planning

A.

Rationale and Objectives


1.
Application of logical approach to architectural interiors, urban design and
site planning solutions to architectural and planning problems with emphasis
on design methodology, quantitative and qualitative aspects of space,
circulation, and interrelationships of space, structural and form envelopes,
and building utilities and facilities.
2.
Application of skills and ability to visualize architectural design problems and
present solutions in appropriate graphical language.
The Board, subject to the approval of the Commission, may revise or exclude
any of the subjects and their syllabi, and add new ones as the need arises to
conform to technological changes brought about by continuing trends in the
profession.

SECTION 15. Rating in the Licensure Examination


To be qualified as having passed the licensure examination for architects, a candidate must
obtain a weighted general average of seventy percent (70%), with no grade lower than fifty percent
(50%) in any given subject.

SECTION 16. Report of Ratings


The Board shall submit to the Commission the ratings obtained by each candidate within
thirty (30) calendar days after the examination, unless extended for just cause.

SECTION 17. Oath


All successful candidates in the examination shall be required to take an oath of profession
before any member of the Board, any government official authorized by the Commission pursuant to
Sec. 7(k) of R.A. No. 8981 or any person authorized by law to administer oaths, prior to entering upon
the practice of the profession.

SECTION 18. Issuance of Certificates of Registration and Professional


Identification Card
The Certificate of Registration shall bear the signature of the chairperson of the Commission
and the chairman and members of the Board, stamped with the official seal of the Board and the
Commission, indicating that the person named therein is entitled to the practice of the profession with
all the privileges appurtenant thereto.
A Professional Identification Card bearing the registration number, date of issuance, expiry
date, duly signed by the chairperson of the Commission, shall likewise be issued to every registrant
who has paid the prescribed fee of annual registration for three (3) years;

SECTION 19. Roster of Architects


A roster showing the names and place of business including other personal material and
relevant data of all registered professional architects shall be prepared and updated by the Board and
copies thereof shall be made available to any party as may be deemed necessary.

14

SECTION 20. Seal, Issuance and Use of Seal


A duly licensed architect shall affix the seal prescribed by the Board bearing the registrants
name, registration number and title Architect on all architectural plans, drawings, specifications and
all other contract documents prepared by or under his/her direct supervision.
(1) It shall be unlawful for any architect to sign his/her name, affix his/her seal or use any
other method of signature on architectural plans, specifications or other documents made under
another architects supervision, unless the same is made in such manner as to clearly indicate the
part or parts of such work actually performed by the former, and it shall be unlawful for any person,
except the architect-of-record, to sign for any branch of work for any function of architectural practice,
not actually performed by him/her. The architect-of-record, shall be fully responsible for all
architectural plans, specifications and other documents issued under his/her seal or authorized
signature.
(2) Drawings and specifications duly signed, stamped or sealed, as instruments of service,
are the intellectual properties and documents of the architect, whether the object for which they are
made is executed or not. It shall be unlawful for any person, without the consent of the architect or
author of said documents, to duplicate or to make copies of said documents for use in the repetition
of and for other projects or buildings, whether executed partly or in whole.
(5) All architectural plans, designs, specifications, drawings and architectural documents
relative to the construction of a building shall bear the seal and signature only of an architect
registered and licensed under R.A. No. 9266 together with his/her professional identification card
number and the date of its expiration.

SECTION

21.Indication of Certificate of Registration/


Identification Card and Professional Tax Receipt

Professional

The architect shall be required to indicate the number of his/her Certificate of Registration
and Professional Identification Card (PIC) with its date of issuance and the duration of validity,
including the professional tax receipt number which the City/Municipal Treasurer shall issue to the
registered architect upon presentation of his/her current PIC, on the documents he/she signs, uses or
issues in connection with the practice of his/her profession.

SECTION 22. Refusal to Issue Certificate of Registration and Professional


Identification Card
The Board shall not register and issue a Certificate of Registration and Professional
Identification Card to any person who has falsely sworn or misrepresented himself/herself in his/her
application for examination or to any person convicted by a court of competent jurisdiction of a
criminal offense involving moral turpitude or guilty of immoral and dishonorable conduct or to any
person of unsound mind.

SECTION 23. Suspension and Revocation of Certificates of Registration,


Professional Identification Card or the Special/Temporary
Permit
The Board shall have the power, upon notice and hearing, to suspend or revoke the validity
of a Certificate of Registration/Professional Identification Card, or shall cancel a special permit
granted under R.A. No. 9266 to an architect, on any ground mentioned under Section 22 hereof for
the use of or perpetuation of any fraud or deceit in obtaining a Certificate of Registration and
Professional Identification Card or special/temporary permit; for gross negligence or incompetence;

15

for unprofessional or dishonorable conduct; or for any cause specified hereunder; Provided, however,
That such action of the Board shall be subject to appeal to the Commission whose decision shall be
final if he/she:
(a)

has signed and affixed or permitted to be signed or affixed his name or seal on
architectural plans and designs, specifications, drawings, technical reports, valuation,
estimates, or other similar documents or work not prepared by him/her or not
executed under his/her immediate supervision; or

(b)

has paid money except the regular fees provided for to secure a Certificate of
Registration; or

(c)

has falsely impersonated a practitioner, or former practitioner of alike or different


name or has practiced under an assumed, fictitious or corporate name other than that
of the registered; or

(d)

has aided or abetted in the practice of architecture any person not duly authorized to
practice architecture in the Philippines; or

(e)

has openly solicited projects by actually undertaking architectural services without a


valid service agreement guaranteeing compensation of services to be rendered
and/or has actually allowed himself/herself to be exploited by undertaking
architectural services without a valid service agreement, both acts being prejudicial to
other architects registered and licensed under R.A. No. 9266 and inimical to the
interests of the profession; or

(f)

has violated any provision of R.A. No. 9266, its implementing rules and regulations,
the Code of Ethical Conduct and Standards of Professional Practice.

SECTION 24. Re-issuance or Replacement of Revoked or Lost Certificates of


Registration, Professional Identification Card or Special and
Temporary Permit
The Board may, after the expiration of two (2) years from the date of revocation of a
Certificate of Registration, Professional Identification Card or special/temporary permit, and upon
application and for reasons deemed proper and sufficient, reinstate the validity of a revoked
Certificate of Registration and in so doing may, in its discretion, exempt the applicant from taking
another examination.
The Board shall issue a Resolution, subject to approval by the Commission, in granting a
petition for reinstatement to the practice of architecture.

16

RULE IV
PRACTICE OF ARCHITECTURE
(SUNDRY PROVISIONS)
SECTION 25. Registration of Architects Required
No person shall practice architecture in this country, or engage in preparing architectural
plans, specifications or preliminary data for the erection or alteration of any building located within the
boundaries of this country, or use the title Architect, or display the word Architect together with
another word, or display or use any title, sign, card, advertisement, or other device to indicate such
person practices or offers to practice architecture, or is an architect, unless such person shall have
received from the Board a Certificate of Registration and be issued a Professional Identification
Card in the manner hereinafter provided and shall thereafter comply with the provisions of R.A. No.
9266.

SECTION 26. Vested Rights. Architects Registered When This Law is Passed
All architects registered at the time this law takes effect shall automatically be registered
under the provisions hereof, subject, however, to the provisions herein set forth as to future
requirements.
Certificates of Registration and Professional Identification Cards held by such persons in
good standing shall have the same force and effect as though issued after the passage of R.A. No.
9266.

SECTION 27. Reciprocity Requirements


A foreign citizen, whether he studied in the Philippines or not, who desires to take the
licensure examination for Architects through reciprocity shall initiate the establishment of reciprocity
between his country/state and the Philippines by presenting/submitting a letter or any document
signed and under official seal by the appropriate official of his country/state requesting the
Chairman of the Board Architecture to allow the foreign applicant to take the licensure examination
of the Board that by express provision of the law of his country/state, Filipino citizens shall be
allowed to take the licensure examination for Architects and to register as Architect in his
country/state on terms of strict and absolute equality with the citizens or subjects of said country or
state including the unconditional recognition of prerequisite degrees issued by institutions of higher
learning duly recognized or established by the Government of the Republic of the Philippines
attaching/appending thereto an authentic or authenticated official copy of said law officially
translated in the English language.
If the letter/document and the copy of the law submitted by the applicant is satisfactorily to
the Board, the foreign applicant shall be allowed to take the licensure examination for Architects by
requiring him to file an application to take the licensure examination and by submitting the following
documents that shall accompany the application:
a.

The original or certified copy of any official document issued by the Bureau of
Immigration and Deportation allowing the applicant to enter and reside the
Philippines;

b.

Present his passport for examination and for photocopying of pertinent information
about the applicant;

17

c.

Original or authenticated copy of transcript of records or equivalent document of the


course for licensure examination issued by the institution of higher learning where he
studied, duly authorized or accredited by his country/state; and

d.

Other documents which may be required to be submitted by the Board.

SECTION 28. Continuing Professional Development (CPD)


To promote public interest and to safeguard life, health and property, all practicing architects
shall maintain a program of continuing professional development. The integrated and accredited
professional organization shall have the responsibility of developing a continuing professional
development program for architects. Other entities or organizations may become CPD providers upon
accreditation by the Board.

SECTION 29. Prohibition in the Practice of Architecture and Penal Clause


Any person who shall practice or offer to practice architecture in the Philippines without
being registered/licensed and who are not holders of temporary or special permits in accordance with
the provisions of R.A. No. 9266, or any person presenting or attempting to use as his/her own the
Certificate of Registration/Professional Identification Card or seal of another or temporary or special
permit, or any person who shall give any false or forged evidence of any kind to the Board or to any
member thereof in obtaining a Certificate of Registration/Professional Identification Card or temporary
or special permit, or any person who shall falsely impersonate any registrant of like or different name,
or any person who shall attempt to use a revoked or suspended Certificate of
Registration/Professional Identification Card or cancelled special/temporary permit, or any person
who shall use in connection with his/her name or otherwise assume, use or advertise any title or
description tending to convey the impression that he/she is an architect when he/she is not an
architect, or any person whether Filipino or foreigner, who knowingly allows the use, adoption,
implementation of plans, designs or specifications made by any person, firm, partnership or company
not duly licensed to engage in the practice of architecture, or any person who shall violate any of the
provisions of R.A. No. 9266, its implementing rules and regulations, the Code of Ethical Conduct and
Standards of Professional Practice, or any policy of the Board and the Commission, shall be guilty of
misdemeanor and charged in court by the Commission and shall, upon conviction be sentenced to a
fine of not less than One hundred thousand pesos (P100,000.00) but not more than Five million
pesos (P5,000,000.00) or to suffer imprisonment for a period not less than six (6) months or not
exceeding six (6) years or both, at the discretion of the Court.
Government employees and employees of private firms or persons/entities who are not
registered and licensed architects shall not perform architectural works in the performance of their
official function without the direct supervision of a licensed architect. Any public official who shall
order or cause a non-architect to perform activities which constitute practice of architecture shall be
administratively liable and shall be guilty of misdemeanor and shall upon conviction be sentenced in
accordance with Section 30 of R.A. No. 9266

SECTION 30. Prohibition in the Practice of Architecture


Any person or entity, whether public or private, Filipino or foreigner, who/which shall entice,
compel, coerce, require or otherwise force an architect registered and licensed under R.A. No. 9266
to undertake/perform any service under the general practice of architecture as defined under R.A. No.
9266, without first executing a written contract/service agreement, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor
and shall, upon conviction be sentenced to a fine of not less than Two hundred thousand pesos
(P200,000.00) or to suffer imprisonment for a period not exceeding six (6) years, or both, at the
discretion of the Court.

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SECTION 31. Liability of Representatives of Non-Registered Persons


It shall be unlawful for any person or firm or corporation to seek to avoid the provisions of
R.A. No. 9266 by having a representative or employee seek architectural work in their behalf, unless
and until, such persons have duly qualified and duly registered/licensed, otherwise, both those
represented and the representative, the employer and the employee shall be deemed guilty of
violation of R.A. No. 9266.

SECTION 32. Signing and Sealing of Architectural Plans, Specifications,


Architectural Permit and Other Contract Documents
It shall be unlawful for any architect to sign his/her name, affix his/her seal, or use any other
method of signature on architectural plans, specifications or other contract documents made under
another architects supervision, unless the same is made in such manner as to clearly indicate the
part or parts of such work actually performed by the former, and shall be unlawful for any person,
except the Architect-of record shall be fully responsible for all architectural plans, specifications, and
other documents issued under his/her seal or authorized signature.
The authorized signature, official seal, PTR, PRC registration number and the IAPOA
membership number and Official Receipt (O.R.) number of the Architect-of-record stamped on
architectural plans, specifications, architectural permit and other related contract documents
signify his/her assumption of the mandated fifteen (15) year civil liability under Article 1723 of
the Civil Code. The Architect-of-record should be limited to architectural documents of a
project and its liability does not extend to the professional responsibility nor civil liability of
the other signing (sealing) professionals Including the Architect-in-charge of construction
(AICC) and the Consulting Architect (CA) unless these are under his/her direct employ. This
rule shall apply to both architects in government as well as architects employed by private
firms.
For architectural documents prepared by architectural firms, the Board of Architecture
Registry Number and the SEC or DTI Registry Numbers should be prominently displayed on
all architectural documents.

SECTION 33. Ownership of Plans, Specifications and Other Contract


Documents
Drawings and specifications and other contract documents duly signed, stamped or sealed,
as instruments of service, are the intellectual property and documents of the architect, whether the
object for which they are made is executed or not. It shall be unlawful for any person to duplicate or
to make copies of said documents for use in the repetition of and for other projects or buildings,
whether executed partly or in whole, without the written consent of architect or author of said
documents.

SECTION 34. Non-Registered Person shall not Claim Equivalent Service


Persons not registered as an architect shall not claim nor represent either services or work as
equivalent to those of a duly qualified registered architect, or that they are qualified for any branch or
function of architectural practice, even though no form of the title Architect is used.

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SECTION 35. Positions in Government Requiring the Services of Registered


and Licensed Architects
Within three (3) years from the effectivity of R.A. No. 9266, all existing and proposed
positions in the local and national government, whether career, permanent, temporary or contractual
and primarily requiring the services of an architect shall be filled only by registered and licensed
architects.
In order to provide a safety net intended to ensure that the legislative intent shall be
fully implemented, the following sub-rules are so prescribed:
1.

The government architect-of-record shall collect from the concerned national or local
agency including Government Owned and Controlled Corporations (GOCCs) an
incentive pay to cover civil liabilities in the equivalent amount of 1.5 % of the project
cost of every project provided it shall not exceed 50% of his annual salary which shall
be paid upon full completion of the project.

SECTION 36. Collection of Professional Fee


It shall be unlawful for any unregistered person to collect a fee for architectural services
except as an employee collecting a fee as representative of a Registered Architect.

SECTION 37. Limitation to the Registration of a Firm, Company, Partnership,


Corporation or Association
The practice of architecture is a professional service, admission to which shall be determined
upon the basis of individual personal qualifications. However, a firm, company, partnership,
corporation or association may be registered or licensed as such for the practice of architecture under
the following conditions:
a)

Only Filipino citizens properly registered and licensed as architects under R.A. No.
9266 may, among themselves, or together with allied technical professionals, form
and obtain registration as a firm, company, partnership, association or corporation
for the practice of architecture;

b)

Registered and licensed architects shall compose at least seventy-five percent (75%)
of the owners, shareholders, members, incorporators, directors, executive officers, as
the case may be;

c)

Individual members of such firm, partnership, association or corporation shall be


responsible for their individual and collective acts as an entity and as provided by
law;

d)

Such firm, partnership, association or corporation shall be registered with the


Securities and Exchange Commission and the Board.

SECTION 38. Coverage of Temporary/Special Permits


Foreign nationals who have gained entry in the Philippines to perform professional services
as architects or consultants in foreign-funded or assisted projects of the government or employed or
engaged by Filipino or foreign contractors or private firms, shall, before assuming the duties,
functions and responsibilities as architects or consultants, secure a special/temporary permit from the
Board subject to approval of the Commission, to practice his/her profession in connection with the
project to which he/she was commissioned: Provided, That a foreign national or foreign firm, whose

20

name or company name, with the title architect, architectural consultant, design consultant, consultant
or designer appears on architectural plans, specifications and other related construction documents,
for securing building permits, licenses and government authority clearances for actual building project
construction in the Philippines and advertisements and billboards for marketing purposes, shall be
deemed practicing architecture in the Philippines, whether the contract for professional services is
consummated in the Philippines or in a foreign country. Provided, further, That the following
conditions are satisfied as follows:
(a) That he/she is a citizen or subject of a country which specifically permits Filipino
professionals to practice his/her profession within their territorial limits, on the same
basis as the subjects or citizens of such foreign state or country;
(b) That he/she is legally qualified to practice architecture in his/her own country, and that
his/her expertise is necessary and advantageous to our country particularly in the
aspects of technology transfer and specialization;
(c) That foreign nationals shall be required to work with a Filipino counterpart and shall also
be responsible for public utilities and taxes due to the Philippine government, relative
to their participation in, or professional services rendered to the project, in
accordance with the established implementing rules and regulations providing for the
procedure for the registration and/or issuance of temporary/special permits to foreign
architects allowed by law to practice their profession in the Philippines by the Board
of Architecture and the accredited professional organization; and
(d) Agencies, organizations or individuals whether public or private, who secure the services
of a foreign professional authorized by law to practice in the Philippines for reasons
aforementioned, shall be responsible for securing a special permit from the
Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) and the Department of Labor and
Employment (DOLE) pursuant to PRC and DOLE rules.
The following procedures for the registration and/or issuance of temporary/special
permits to foreign architects are hereby prescribed:
1.0

A visa and work permit by appropriate government agencies shall be required.

2.0

Within thirty (30) calendar days after the commission/appointment date, the
commissioning party shall be responsible to secure the Temporary/Special
Permit from Board subject to approval by the PRC. DOLE upon compliance
with the qualifications required and receipt of a copy of the said
Temporary/Special Permit - shall issue the employment permit.

3.0

In the absence of a bilateral agreement, the foreign national shall submit


documentary proof or evidence allowing Filipino architects to practice the
profession in their home country without any limitation.

4.0

Technology transfer and/or specialization must be identified and substantiated


consistent with his expertise.

5.0

A Filipino counterpart shall be the architect-of-record, with his duties,


functions and responsibilities duly defined in a covering agreement.

6.0

Advertisements and billboards for marketing/promotion purposes shall


prominently display the name of the architect-of-record. Failure to comply shall
be subject to penalties in accordance with the rules promulgated by PRC.

21

7.0

Upon issuance of the temporary/special permit, the foreign national may


become member of the United Architects of the Philippines, Inc. subject to the
rules and procedures of UAP membership.

SECTION 39. Liability Insurance of a Person or Entity Allowed to Practice


under a Temporary/Special Permit
Foreign nationals, including former Filipinos wanting to engage in the general practice of
architecture as defined in Section 3 (c) of R.A. No. 9266 must secure locally their professional liability
insurance or malpractice insurance or their acceptable equivalent in bond form commensurate with
the nature and magnitude of their project involvement and their compensation the implementing rules
and regulations for such a requirement for practice shall be implemented by the Board in consultation
with the integrated and accredited professional organization of architects within six (6) months from
the effectivity of R.A. No. 9266.

RULE V
FINAL PROVISIONS
SECTION 40. Integration of the Architecture Profession
The Architecture profession shall be integrated into one (1) national organization which shall
be accredited by the Board, subject to the approval by the Commission, as the integrated and
accredited professional organization of architects:
1.a.

An architect duly registered with the PRC shall automatically become a member of
the UAP and shall receive the benefits and privileges provided for and described in
its by-laws upon payment of required fees and dues.

1.b.

Bona fide members of the UAP practicing the architectural profession shall be
required to provide their official IAPOA membership number and receipt number
together with their PRC registration number and professional tax receipt (PTR) on
official documents prepared by them for purposes of obtaining governmental
regulatory permits and licenses.

1.c.

The functions, duties and responsibilities of the UAP as the IAPOA shall be the
following:

a)

Nominations to the vacancy of positions to the BOA;

b)

Responsibility of preparing a program of CPD;

c)

Endorsement of the practice of foreign nationals to be issued


permit;

d)

Recommendation of compliance with liability insurance under a temporary/special


permit;

e)

Monitoring compliance and endorsing to/or filing a complaint with the Board and/or
Commission for violation of the R.A. No. 9266, this IRR, Code of Ethics, Standards of
Professional Practice and other policies of the Board and of the Commission and with
other agencies for violation of other relevant laws, regulations and the like; and

22

temporary/special

SECTION 41. Implementing Rules and Regulations


Within sixty (60) days after the effectivity of R.A. No. 9266, the Board, subject to the
approval of the Commission and in coordination with integrated and accredited professional
organization, shall adopt and promulgate such rules and regulations, Code of Ethical Conduct and
Standards of Professional Practice, to carry out the provisions of R.A. No. 9266 and which shall be
effective fifteen (15) days following their publication in the Official Gazette or in two (2) major daily
newspapers of general circulation.

SECTION 42. Appropriations


The Chairperson of the Professional Regulation Commission shall immediately include in the
Commissions programs the implementation of R.A. No. 9266, the funding of which shall be included
in the annual General Appropriations Act.

SECTION 43. Act Not Affecting Other Professionals


R.A. No. 9266 shall not be construed to affect or prevent the practice of any other legally
recognized profession.

SECTION 44. Enforcement of the Act


It shall be the primary duty of the Commission and the Board to effectively enforce the
provisions of R.A. No. 9266 and this IRR of the Architecture Act of 2004. All duly constituted law
enforcement agencies and officers of national, provincial, city or municipal government or of any
political subdivision thereof, shall, upon the call or request of the Commission or the Board, render
assistance in enforcing the provisions of R.A. No. 9266 and this IRR of the Architecture Act of 2004,
and to prosecute any person violating the provisions of the same.

SECTION 45. Separability Clause


If, for any reason, any section or provision of the herein IRR or application of such rules and
regulations or provision to any person or circumstances is declared unconstitutional or invalid, the
remainder of this IRR of the Architecture Act of 2004, or application of such provisions to other
persons or circumstances, shall not be affected by such declaration.

SECTION 46. Repealing Clause


Any provisions of the rules, regulations, codes, orders, resolutions, measures, and other
policies or parts thereof issued and promulgated pursuant to R.A. No. 545 (as amended by R.A. No.
1581), P.D. No. 223 (as amended), R.A. No. 8981, and other laws which are inconsistent with this
IRR of the Architecture Act of 2004 are hereby superseded, repealed or amended accordingly.

SECTION 47. Effectivity


The herein IRR of the Architecture Act of 2004 shall be, upon approval by the Commission,
be effective after fifteen (15) days following its full and complete publication in the Official Gazette or
in two (2) major newspapers of general circulation.

23

STANDARD OF PROFESSIONAL
PRACTICE (UAP DOCUMENTS)

24

CODE OF ETHICAL CONDUCT


An architect acts as professional adviser to his/her Client and his/her advice must
be unprejudiced
An architect also acts as the middle man between Client and Contractor and
must act with entire impartiality
An architect has moral responsibilities to his/her professional associates and
subordinates, to his/her contractor, to his/her manufacturers, dealers and
suppliers, and to the public
These duties and responsibilities cannot be properly discharged unless his/her
motives, conduct, sense of moral values, sensitivity, and ability are such as to
command respect and confidence.

A. RESPONSIBILITIES TO PUBLIC
1. Respect and conserve the natural, historic and cultural heritage of the community.
2. Promote the interest of professional organization and share technical information with
other design professions and the construction industry.
3. Abides by and observe the laws and regulations.
4. Shall not use paid advertisements nor misleading publicity.
5. Shall not solicit in his/her name, advertisements or other support towards the cost of any
publication presenting his/her work.
6. Shall not deceive the public as to his/her professional competence, nor claim any
professional specialization unless supported by academic qualification.
7. May exhibit his/her professional shingle outside his/her office in a modest manner.

B. RESPONSIBILITIES TO CLIENT
1. Shall introduce the services he/she is able to perform.
2. Shall explain the exact nature and scope of his/her services and properly inform the
Client of the corresponding professional fees.
3. Shall advise against proceeding with any project whose practicability may be
questionable due to financial or legal important and/or exigent conditions.
4. Shall explain the conditional character of estimates.
5. Shall consider the needs and stipulation of his/her Client and the effects of his/her
work upon the life and well-being of the public and the community as a whole.
6. Shall bill based upon the Basic Minimum Fee prescribed under the "Standards of
Professional Practice."
7. Shall undertake the construction of a project even when the plans were prepared
by him/her.
8. Shall be compensated for his/her services solely through his/her professional fee
billed directly to the Client.
9. Shall be free in his/her investments and business relations outside of his/her
profession from any financial or personal interests.
10. Shall include in his/her agreement with the Client a clause providing for negotiation,
mediation/conciliation and/or arbitration as alternative methods for the settlement of
disputes.

25

11. Shall carry out his/her professional work without undue delay and within an agreed
reason able time limit.
12. Shall keep the Client informed at all times of the progress of the project.

C. RESPONSIBILITIES TO CONTRACTOR
1. Shall give the Contractor clear, definite, and consistent information in all pertinent
contract documents.
2. Shall not knowingly call upon the Contractor to correct or remedy oversights or errors
in the Contract Document to the Contractor's or the Owner's financial disadvantage.
3. Shall reject or condemn material, equipment, or workmanship which is not in
conformity with the Contract Documents.
4. Shall reject any offer of free professional engineering or allied design service/s, or
receive any substantial aid, gifts, commissions, or favors from any Contractor or
Subcontractor.
5. Shall promptly inspect each phase of the work completed and if found according to
the terms of the Contract Documents, issue the corresponding Certificates of
Payment and the Final Certificate of Completion, respectively, to the Contractor.

D. RESPONSIBILITIES TO MANUFACTURERS, DEALERS AND AGENTS


1. Shall not solicit free professional services when these are accompanied by an
obligation detrimental to the best interest of the Client.
2. Shall not seek commissions, discounts, fees, gifts, or favors from agents or firms
handling building materials or equipment which may place him/her in a reciprocal frame
of mind.

E. RESPONSIBILITIES TO COLLEAGUES AND SUBORDINATES


1. Shall not render professional services without a professional service agreement.
2. Shall abide by the Basic Minimum Fee prescribed under the "Standards of Professional
Practice".
3. Shall not enter as competitor in any Architectural Competition when he/she has direct
involvement in the formulation of the Program.
4. Shall not solicit any project already known to him/her as previously committed to
another Architect.
5. Shall not undertake a commission for which he/she knows that another Architect has
been previously employed unless he/she notifies me other Architect of the fact in
writing.
6. Shall not undertake a commission for additions, rehabilitation, or remodeling of any
erected structure undertaken previously by another Architect without duly notifying him of
the contemplated project even when the Client/Owner is no longer the same.
7. Shall refrain from associating himself/herself with the use of his/her name by any
enterprise that may negatively affect himself/herself or the architectural profession.
8. Shall not affix his/her signature and seal to any plans or professional documents
prepared by other persons or entities and not done under his/her direct personal
supervision.

26

9. Shall provide employees and subordinates with a suitable work environment,


compensate them fairly, and facilitate their professional advancement.
10. Shall tutor and mentor the young aspirants towards the ideals, functions, duties, and
responsibilities leading to the ethical practice of the architectural profession.
11. Shall unselfishly give his/her share in the transfer of technical knowledge and
experience.
12. Shall unselfishly give his/her time and effort to the advancement of the profession
thru his/her active and personal commitment and involvement with IAPOA.
13. Shall ensure that the conduct of his/her professional practice abides by appropriate
and effective internal procedures.
14. Shall neither appropriate the intellectual property of, nor unduly take advantage of the
ideas of another architect without express authority from the originating architect.
15. Shall build his/her professional reputation on the merits of his/her own service and
performance and shall strive to continuously update his/her professional know-how.
16. Shall not quote a fee without first receiving an official invitation for him/her to do so.
17. Shall not undertake professional work unless the parties shall have clearly agreed in
writing to the terms.
18. Shall continue to raise the standards of aesthetic excellence, functional logic,
architectural education, research, training, and practice.
19. Shall promote the allied arts and contribute to the knowledge and capability of the
construction industry.
20. If he/she possesses substantial information which leads to a reasonable belief that
another Architect has committed a violation of this Code, shall file a formal complaint
with the designated body.
21. If he/she is leaving his/her Architect-Employer shall not, without the permission of the
latter, take with him/her designs, drawings, data, or other relevant materials even if
22. personally performed by him/her.
23. Shall not discriminate on grounds of race, national origin, age, gender, marital status,
religion, or any disability which would hinder the performance of his/her professional
work.

ACRONYMS
ADR Alternative Dispute Resolution
AF
Architectural Firm
ADC Architectural Design Competition
Aicc
Architect in charge of construction
Aor
Architect-of-record
BPO Business Process Outsourcing
CA
Consulting Architect
CEC
Codes of Ethical Conduct
DoLE Department of Labor and Employment
DTI
Department of Trade and Industry
FPCA Filipino Professional Consulting Architects
IAPOA Integrated and Accredited Professional Organization of Architects
KPO Knowledge Process Outsourcing
MoP Manual of Procedure
PACS - Professional Architectural Consulting Services
PCA Professional Consulting Architect
PRC
Professional Regulation Commission

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PRBoA Professional Regulatory Board of Architecture


SEC
Securities and Exchange Commission
RLA
Registered and Licensed Architect
SPP
Standards of Professional Practice
TSP
Temporary/ Special Permit

GENERAL NOTES ON THE SELECTION OF THE ARCHITECT


1. Direct Selection is used when undertaking a relatively small project. The Client selects his
Architect on the basis of:

Reputation
Personal or business acquaintance or recommendation of a friend
Recommendation of the Architects former Client
Recommendation of another Architect

2. Comparative Selection may be conducted by committees representing institutions, corporations


or public agencies. The selection process involves:

Invitation. The Client issues an invitation which includes the Terms of Reference (ToR) for
the project which is based on the Design Brief prepared by another Architect.
Pre-qualification. Architects and/or PRC-registered Architectural Firms (AFs) submit
information regarding their qualification and expertise.
Interview. The Architect explains his methodology in translating the plan/design
requirements of the proposed project.
Verification. The selection committee may visit buildings designed by the Architects and
check references such as former clients and financial institutions.
Evaluation & Ranking. The selection committee may adopt its own procedure in evaluating
the entries and recommending the most capable firm.
Negotiation. The Architect explains to the Client the Scope of Services and the Architects
Fee as prescribed under the Architects Guidelines.

3. Architectural Design Competition (ADC) is used for civic or monumental projects.


a) Advantages
a) Opportunities will be open only to all PRC-registered and licensed
Architects (RLAs) or PRC-registered Architectural Firms (AFs).
b) The Client/ Committee will have a wider range of options.
b) Disadvantages
a) Process may be expensive and time consuming
b) The time and effort required may discourage qualified firms from participating.
c) Some potentially unscrupulous prospective Clients will seek free services under the
guise of design competition.

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c) Procedure. Competitions should be conducted:


I. With the assistance of the integrated and accredited professional organization of
architects (IAPOA) or one of its local chapters, and
II. In accordance with the Architects Guidelines.
4. Participants
a) Sponsor or Client consuming a natural or juridical person;
b) Competitors Filipino/ Philippine-Registered and Licensed Architects (RLA) and
IAPOA members in good standing. A foreign architect as a competitor must be
registered in his/her country of origin and must secure a Temporary Special Permit
(TSP) from the Commission (PRC), a work permit from the Department of Labor and
Employment (DoLE) and must work in collaboration with a local/Filipino counterpart
RLA who will assume the requisite professional responsibilities and civil liabilities, in
the case of a design or design-build competition;
c) Professional Adviser Philippine-Registered and Licensed Architects (RLAs) who
are IAPOA members in good standing;
d) Jury Composed of at least five (5) members who are known their integrity,
objectivity, impartiality and honesty.

METHOD OF COMPENSATION
This will be covered by the respective type of services.

PRE-DESIGN SERVICES
SPP Document 201 (replacing the 1979 UAP Doc. 201)
SCOPE OF PRE-DESIGN SERVICES
The Pre- Design Services cover a broad line of architectural services ranging from initial problem
identification to activities that would allow the Architect to initially conceptualize an array of
architectural and allied solutions. The Pre-Design Services nominally include consultation, prefeasibility studies, feasibility studies, site selection and analysis, site utilization and land-use
studies, architectural research, architectural programming, space planning, space management
studies, value management, design brief preparation, promotional services and other related
activities.
a) Consultation

When a Client calls upon the Architect to give oral or written advice and direction, to
attend conferences, to make evaluations and appraisals regarding a contemplated
project and similar activities.

b) Pre-Feasibility Studies

These preliminary studies involve the procurement, analysis and use of secondary
information gathered for the project to aid the Client in early decision-making.

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c) Site Selection and Analysis

This entails the formulation of site criteria, assistance to the Client in site evaluation as
well as analysis to determine the most appropriate site/s for a proposed project or
building program.

d) Site Utilization and Land-Use Studies

The detailed analysis of the site involves the identification of a sites development
potentials through the proper utilization of land. The analysis covers the context of the
site as well as that of its surrounding environment and the development controls that
apply to the site and its environs.

e) Architectural Research

f)

Architectural research entails the conduct of primary and secondary researches and
assembled facts used as basis for conclusion.

Architectural Programming

This analytical problem-seeking process will lead to the statement and identification of
both horizontal and vertical requirements in offering a solution. It incorporates a space
program with characterizations of the envisioned spaces such as ambiance, cost range,
etc.

g) Space Planning

The Architect determines the adequate size and appropriate configuration and
assemblage for a proposed project in consideration of the use, allocation and interface of
spaces for given activities.

h) Space Management Studies

i)

Value Management

j)

An analysis of the space requirements of the project based on organizational structure and
functional set-up pinpoints linkages and interaction of spaces.

This technique is applied in the cost management process to minimize the negative effect
of simplified operations associated with many cost-reduction programs.

Design Brief Preparation

Under design brief preparation, the Architect states the project terms of reference (ToR)
including the concept, objectives and other necessary requirements to bid out architectural
services (whether public or private).

k) Promotional Services

Projects may require promotional activities in order to develop and generate financial
support and acceptance from governing agencies or from the general public.

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MANNER OF PROVIDING SERVICES


1. After the initial meeting/ conversation/ correspondence with the Client, the Architect must submit
his proposal for pre-design services, stating the following:
a) Scope of Work
b) Manner of Payment
c) Owners responsibilities
d) Other Conditions of services
2. The Architect can render services in any of the following ways
a) As an individual Architect he must have special training and be knowledgeable in different
fields to supplement his skills.
b) Architects Own Staff
c) By Association, Consultation or Networking

METHOD OF COMPENSATION
The Architects compensation is based on the Architects / architectural firms talents, skill,
experience, imagination, and on the type and level of professional services provided.
Compensation for Pre-Design Services may be based on one or more of the following:
1. Multiple of Direct Personnel Expenses
This cost-based method of compensation is applicable only to non-creative work such as
accounting, secretarial, research, data gathering, preparation of reports and the like.
FORMULA
Direct cost =
AN + CN + TN
Fee = Direct Cost x M
Total Cost of Service charged to Client = Fee + R
Assume:
A=
Architects rate / hour
C=
Consultants rate / hour
T=
Rate per hour of Technical Staff, Researchers and others involved in the Project
AN, CN, TN = No. of hours spent by Architect, Consultants and Technical Staff
M = Multiplier to account for overhead and reasonable profit. The value may range from 1.5 to 2.5
depending on the set-up of the Architects office and the complexity of the Project.
R = Reimbursable expenses such as transportation, housing and living allowance of Consultant,
transportation, per diem, housing and living allowance of local consultants and technical staff
if assigned to places over 100 km. from the area of operation of the Architect.
2. Professional Fee Plus Expenses

This method of compensation is frequently used where there is continuing relationship


involving a series of Projects.

3. Lump Sum or Fixed Fee

This method may be applied to government projects since they entail more paper work
and time-consuming efforts.

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4. Per Diem, Honorarium Plus Reimbursable Expenses

In some cases a Client may request an Architect to do work which will require his personal
time such as:
a) attending project-related meetings, conferences or trips;
b) conducting ocular inspection of possible project sites; and
c) conferring with others regarding prospective investments or ventures and the like.

5. Mixed Methods of Compensation


The SPP provides for more than one method of compensation on a project.

REGULAR DESIGN SERVICES


SPP Document 202 (replacing the 1979 UAP Doc. 202)

While these implementing rules and regulations specifically refer to the individual
professional practice of the Architect as a natural person, the same may also apply to the
Architects group practice as part of a juridical entity i.e. as a DTI-registered sole
proprietorship or as a SEC-registered partnership or corporation
Foreign architect practicing architecture in the Philippines for projects on Philippine soil
must first secure a Temporary/ Special Permit (TSP) and a work permit from the
Department of Labor and Employment (DoLE) and must work in collaboration with a local
counterpart Architect who is a Registered and Licensed Architect (RLA) under Philippine
law.

REGULAR DESIGN SERVICES OF AN ARCHITECT


The Architects work starts at the inception of the project when the Owner outlines his requirements to
the Architect.
SCOPE OF SERVICES
Project Definition Phase

consults with the Owner to ascertain the conceptual framework and related requirements of
the project and confirms such requirements with him.
gathers relevant information and data leading to the definition of the requirements of the
project, including the scope of the Architects services.
reviews and refines the owners space requirements and translates them into an architectural
program.
prepares an initial statement of probable construction cost.

Schematic Design Phase

evaluates the Owners program, schedule, budget, project site and proposes methods of
project deliveries.
prepares the initial line drawings representing design studies leading to a recommended
solution, including a general description of the project for approval by the Owner.
submits to the Owner a Statement of the Probable Project Construction Cost (SPPCC) based
on current cost parameters.

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Design Development Phase

prepares the Design Development documents consisting of plans, elevations, sections and
other drawings,
outline specifications to fix and illustrate the size and character of the entire project as to type
of materials, type of structural, electrical, mechanical, sanitary, electronic and
communications systems.
diagrammatic layout of construction systems, and
an updated SPPCC for submission to the Owner.

Contract Document Phase

prepares the complete Contract Documents consisting of detailed designs and construction
drawings, setting forth in detail the work required for the architectural, structural, electrical,
plumbing/ sanitary, mechanical, electronic and communication works prepared by the
Architect and the respective professionals involved.
prepares Technical Specifications describing type and quality of materials, finish, manner of
construction and the general conditions under which the project is to be constructed.
submits to the Owner seven (7) sets of all construction drawings and technical specifications
for purposes of obtaining a building permit.
updates the SPPCC based on changes in scope, requirements or market conditions.
assists the Owner in filing the required documents to secure approval of government
authorities having jurisdiction over the design of the Project.

Bidding or Negotiation Phase

prepares the Bid Documents such as forms for contract letting, documents for construction,
forms for invitation and instruction to bidders, forms for bidders proposals, general / specific
conditions of contract, etc.
assists the Owner from the early stage of establishing a list of prospective Contractors to
awarding of the construction contract.

For competitive bids / procurements, the Architect:

furnishes complete sets of the Bid Documents for purposes of bidding in as many sets as
may be required to conduct a successful bidding.
helps in organizing and conducting pre-bid conferences,
responds to questions from bidders,
assists the Owner in obtaining proposals from Contractors, analyzes bid results and prepares
abstract of bids, notice of award, notice to proceed and other construction contracts.

Construction Phase

makes decisions on all claims of the Owner and Contractors on all matters relating to the
execution and progress of work or the interpretation of the Contract Documents.
prepares change orders, gathers and turns over to the Owner written guarantees required of
the Contractor and Sub-Contractors.
makes periodic visits to the project site to familiarize himself with the general progress and
quality of work and to ascertain that the work is proceeding in accordance with the Contract
Documents.
determines the amount owing and due to the Contractor and issues corresponding
Certificates for Payment for such amounts based on his observations and the Contractor's
Applications for Payment.

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Should more extensive inspection or full-time (8-hour) construction supervision be required


by the Client, a separate full-time supervisor shall be hired and agreed upon by the Owner
and the Architect subject to the conditions provided in the SPP Document on Full -Time
Supervision.

MANNER OF PROVIDING SERVICES

with a single contract between the Architect and Owner, and sub-consultancy contracts
between the Architect and the other professionals working with the Architect.
with the Architect and the engineering and allied professionals executing separate contracts
with the Owner.

PROJECT CLASSIFICATION
Professional architectural work is classified in accordance with the degree of complexity and the
creative skill required to meet the requirements of the Client within technical, functional, economic
and aesthetic constraints. Based on these groupings, the corresponding scale of charges shall be
prescribed in the Architects Guidelines to determine the fair remuneration to the Architect.
Group 1
Buildings of the simplest utilization and character which shall include but not be limited to the
following:
Armories
Bakeries
Habitable Agricultural Buildings
Freight Facilities
Hangars
Industrial Buildings
Manufacturing/Industrial Plants
Other similar utilization type buildings

Parking Structures
Printing Plants
Public Markets
Service Garages
Simple Loft-Type Buildings
Warehouses
Packaging and Processing Plants

Group 2
Buildings of moderate complexity of plan / design which shall include but not be limited to the
following:
Art Galleries
Banks, Exchange and other
Buildings
Financial Institutions
Bowlodromes
Call Centers
Churches and Religious Facilities
City/Town Halls & Civic Centers
College Buildings
Convents, Monasteries &
Seminaries

Nursing Homes
Office Buildings/ Office Condominium
Park, Playground and Open-Air
Recreational Facilities
Residential Condominiums
Police Stations
Postal Facilities
Private Clubs
Publishing Plants
Race Tracks
Restaurants / Fastfood Stores

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Correctional & Detention Facilities


Court Houses/Halls of Justice
Dormitories
Exhibition Halls & Display Structures
Specialty Shops
Supermarkets/ Hyper-marts
Serviced Apartments
Welfare Buildings
Mixed Use Buildings
Other buildings of similar nature
or use

Retail / Wholesale Stores


Schools
Shopping Centers
Fire Stations
Laundries & Cleaning Facilities
Libraries
Malls/Mall Complexes
Motels & Apartels
Multi-storey Apartments
Showrooms/Service Centers

Group 3
Buildings of exceptional character and complexity of plan / design which shall include but not be
limited to the following:
Aquariums
Nuclear Facilities
Auditoriums
Airports/Wet & Dry Ports & Terminals
Breweries
Cold Storage Facilities
Telecommunication Buildings
Convention Facilities
Gymnasiums
Hospitals & Medical Buildings
Hotels
Transportation Facilities & Systems

Laboratories/ Testing Facilities


Marinas and Resort Complexes
Medical Arts Offices & Clinics
Mental Institutions
Mortuaries
Observatories
Public Health Centers
Research Facilities
Stadia
Theaters & Similar Facilities
Veterinary Hospitals
Other buildings of similar nature or use

Group 4
Residences (single-detached, single-attached or duplex; row-houses or shop-houses), small
apartment houses and townhouses
Group 5
Monumental buildings and other facilities
Exposition & Fair Buildings
Mausoleums, Memorials,
Buildings of similar nature or use

Specialized decorative buildings


Museums & Monuments

Group 6
Projects where the plan / design and related Contract Documents are re-used for the repetitive
construction of similar buildings without amending the drawing and the specifications
Group 7
Housing Project involving the construction of several residential units on a single site with the use of
one (1) set of plans / design, specifications and related documents

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Group 8
Projects involving extensive detail such as designs for built-in components or elements, built-in
equipment, special fittings, screens, counters, architectural interiors (AI), and development
planning and/or design
Group 9
Alterations, renovations, rehabilitations, retrofit and expansion / additions to existing buildings
belonging to Groups 1 to 5
Group 10
The Architect is engaged to render opinion or give advice, clarifications or explanation on technical
matters pertaining to architectural works.

OWNERS RESPONSIBILITIES:

Provide full information as to his requirements for the Project.


When necessary, designate a representative authorized to act on his behalf.
Promptly examine and render decisions pertaining to documents submitted by the Architect
to avoid unreasonable delay in the progress of the Architects work
Furnish or direct the Architect to obtain at his expense, a certified survey of the site, giving,
as may be required, topographical and/or relocation surveys covering grades and lines of
streets, alleys, easements, encroachments and related information, boundaries, with
dimensions and complete data pertaining to existing buildings, structures, trees, plants, water
bodies, wells, excavations / pits, etc. and other improvements and full information as to the
available utility / service lines both public and private; zoning compliances, clearances,
deed/s of restrictions, encumbrances and annotations to titles, association guidelines and
standards, and soil investigations / tests, borings and test pits necessary for determining soil
and sub-soil conditions.
Promptly pay for architectural and all other engineering and allied services required for the
project.
Pay for the design and consulting services on acoustic, communication, electronic, and other
specialty systems which may be required for the project.
Arrange and pay for such legal, auditing, insurance, counseling and other services as may be
required for the project.
Pay for all reimbursable expenses incurred in the project as called for in Section 7: Other
Conditions on Services and all taxes including VAT (but not including income tax) that the
government may impose on the Architect as a result of the services rendered by the Architect
on the project, whether the services were performed as a natural person i.e. an individual
practitioner or as a juridical entity i.e. as a sole proprietorship, partnership or corporation.

OTHER CONDITIONS ON SERVICES


The Architects Fee is based on the Project Construction Cost. Where the Architect has to render
additional services, additional compensation shall be required.
Other Services
Other services that may be needed in order to complete the project such as services of acoustic
and illumination engineers / specialists, mural painters, sculptors, and other service providers are
to be recommended by the Architect for the Owners approval. Costs for these services are to be

36

paid for separately by the Owner and shall be subject to a coordination fee payable to the
Architect.
Scale Models, 3D Models and Walk-Thru Presentations
Should a scale model, 3D models and/or walk-thru presentation of the architects design be
necessary, they are to be recommended by the Architect for the Owners approval. Costs for
these services are to be paid for separately by the Owner and shall be subject to a coordination
fee payable to the Architect.
Per Diem and Traveling Expenses
A per diem plus traveling and living expenses shall be chargeable to the Owner whenever the
Architect or his duly authorized representative is required to perform services at a locality beyond
50.0 kilometers (air, straight line or radial distance) from his established office as it appears in the
Architects letterhead.
Extra Sets of Contract Documents
The Owner shall pay the Architect for additional sets of Contract Documents.

Change/s Ordered by the Owner


If the Architect renders additional professional services due to changes ordered by the Owner
after approval of the Architects outputs, the Owner shall pay the Architect for extra time,
resources/ drafting, or other office expenses.
Work Suspended or Abandoned
If the work of the Architect is abandoned or suspended in whole or in part, the Owner shall pay
the Architect for the services rendered corresponding to the amount due at the stage of
suspension or abandonment of the work.
Once the Architect has prepared all these documents, the Architect has completed the Detailed
Design and Contract Documents Phase of his services, which is equivalent to Ninety percent
(90%) of his work.
Different Periods of Construction
If the Owner requires the services of specialist consultants, they shall be engaged with the
consent of the Architect. The cost of their services shall be paid for separately by the Owner and
shall not be deducted from the Architects fee.
Separate Services
Should the Owner require the Architect to design movable or fixed pieces of cabinets and other
architectural interior (AI) elements, site development plan (SDP) components, urban design
elements, and other items of similar nature, the Owner shall pay the Architect in addition to the
Architects fee.

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Fulltime Construction Supervision


Upon recommendation of the Architect and with the approval of the Owner, full-time construction
supervisors as will be deemed necessary shall be engaged and paid by the Owner. If no Project /
Construction Manager is present, the full-time construction supervisor shall be under the technical
control and supervision of the Architect and shall make periodic reports to the Owner and to the
Architect regarding the progress and quality of the work done.
Estimates
Any SPPCC or any Cost Estimate submitted by the Architect can attain only a certain degree of
accuracy.
Government Taxes and Services
The Architects Fee is a net amount. Any tax (exclusive of income tax) that the national and/or
local government/s may impose on the Architect as a consequence of the services performed for
the project shall be paid by the Owner.
Ownership of Documents
All designs, drawings, models, specifications and other contract documents and copies thereof,
prepared, duly signed, stamped and sealed and furnished as instruments of service, are the
intellectual property and documents of the Architect, whether the work for which they were made
is executed or not, and are not to be reproduced or used on other work except with a written
agreement with the Architect (Sec. 33 of R.A. No. 9266).
Cost Records
During the progress of work, the Owner shall furnish the Architect a copy of the records of
expenses being incurred on the construction. Upon completion of the project, the Owner shall
furnish the Architect a copy of the summary of all cost of labor, services, materials, equipment,
fixtures and all items used at and for the completion of the construction.
Design and Placement of Signs
All signboards of the General Contractor, sub-contractors, jobbers and dealers that shall be
placed at the project site during the progress of construction shall be approved by the Architect as
to size, design and contents. After the completion of the project, the Owner or his building lessee
shall consult the Architect for the design, size of all signboards, letterings, directories and display
boards that will be placed on the exterior or public areas attached to the building project in order
to safeguard the Owners interest.
Project Construction Cost (PCC)
Project Construction Cost (PCC) as herein referred to, means the cost of the completed building
to the Owner, including the structure, plumbing/sanitary and electrical fixtures, mechanical
equipment, elevators, escalators, air-conditioning system, fire protection system, alarm and clock
system, communications and electronic system, elements attached to the building and all items
indicated in the plans, designs, drawings and specifications prepared by the Architect and his
consultants.

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The PCC does not include any of the fees for the Architect, the Engineer, the Specialist
Consultants or the salaries of the construction inspectors.
Project Development Cost
Project Development Cost shall include cost of the construction as well as all professional fees,
permits, clearances and utilities and cost of acquiring the project site / lot, cost of money, etc.

SPECIALIZED ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES


SPP Document 203 (replacing the 1979 UAP Doc. 203)
Design services needed within and outside the building which fall under Specialized Architectural
Services as listed under the pertinent provisions of R.A. No. 9266 and its 2004 IRR, include but
are not limited to the following:

Architectural Interiors (AI)


Acoustic Design
Architectural Lighting Layout and Design
Site Development Planning (SDP)
Site and Physical Planning Services (including Master Development
Subdivision Planning and Urban Design)
Comprehensive Development Planning
Historic and Cultural Heritage Conservation and Planning
Security Evaluation and Planning
Building Systems Design
Facilities Maintenance Support
Building Testing and Commissioning
Building Environmental Certification
Forensic Architecture
Building Appraisal
Structural Conceptualization
Preliminary Services
Contract Documentation and Review
Post-Design Services (including Construction Management Services)
Dispute Avoidance and Resolution
Architectural Research Methods
Special Building/ Facility Planning and Design
Building Components
Management of Architectural Practices

Planning,

The term Consulting Architect (CA) shall refer only to a RLA who may also be a separately
Registered and Licensed Professional (RLP)

ARCHITECTURAL INTERIOR (AI) SERVICES


Architectural Interiors (AI), specifically mentioned under Secs. 3 (4) (g) and 14 (3) of R.A. No.
9266, involves the detailed planning and design of the indoor / enclosed areas of any proposed
building / structure, including retrofit, renovation, rehabilitation or expansion work which shall

39

cover all architectural and utility aspects, including the architectural lay-outing of all building
engineering systems found therein.
1. SCOPE OF SERVICES
Architect develops the design by determining the size and interrelationship of interior spaces,
laying out the furniture, movables, equipment, built-ins and fixtures to support the required
activities, thus making both the exterior and interior spaces contribute to the total concept.
As such a specialist, the Architect:

Lays out and prescribes furniture/ built-ins/ equipment for the project and prepares
specifications of AI components including all floor / wall / ceiling finishes, doors and
partition systems, hardware, modular or ready-assembled furniture pieces/ systems,
equipment, furnishings, built-ins, fixtures, signages and graphic devices, etc.
Checks and approves samples of materials and shop drawings of AI components.
Conducts final inspection and approves installed AI components and related items.

2. MANNER OF PROVIDING SERVICES


The Architect may enter into contract with the Owner in two possible ways:

3.

Working in a dual capacity as Architect-of-record and as Consulting Architect for AI


services.
Working as Consulting Architect for AI services only.

METHOD OF COMPENSATION

For projects involving extensive detailing of AI components such as custom floor, wall,
ceiling construction and finishes, cabinet design, built-in components, equipment and
special fittings, the Architects Fee shall be a percentage of the cost of the AI work.
This excludes the fee of any Engineering and / or Specialist Consultants (SCs)
working with the Architect.

ACOUSTIC DESIGN SERVICES


Acoustic design services involves the detailed planning and design to control sound
transmission for compatibility with the architectural design concept.
1. SCOPE OF SERVICES
As a specialist for acoustic design, the Architect:

Prepares the drawings and specifications for acoustic design and treatment, sound
control and reinforcement, sound absorption, reflectance, insulation, etc.
Checks and approves samples of materials and equipment
Conducts final inspection of work and equipment

2. MANNER OF PROVIDING SERVICES


The Architect may enter into contract with the Owner in two possible ways:
Working in a dual capacity as Architect-of-record and as Consulting Architect for
acoustic design services.

40

Working as Consulting Architect for acoustic design services only.

3. METHOD OF COMPENSATION
Should the Owner/Client hire separately the services of other Specialist Consultants
(SCs), their fee shall be for the account of the Owner/ Client and shall be paid directly
to the SC.

ARCHITECTURAL LIGHTING LAYOUT AND DESIGN


Architectural Lighting Layout and Design Services involves the detailed planning and design of
light transmission, timing and control for compatibility with the architectural design concept.
As a specialist for lighting layout and design, the Architect :

Prepares the drawings and specifications for lighting design, illumination, fixture
placement, efficiency, energy considerations, etc.
Assists the Owner/ Client in bidding out the work or in negotiating with a specialty subcontractor
Checks and approve samples of materials and fixtures

MANNER OF PROVIDING SERVICES


The Architect may enter into contract with the Owner in two possible ways:

Working in a dual capacity as Architect-of-record and as Consulting Architect for


architectural lighting and layout design services.
Working as Consulting Architect for architectural lighting and layout design services
only.

METHOD OF COMPENSATION

Should the Owner/Client hire separately the services of Specialist Consultants, the
fee shall be for the account of the Owner/Client and shall be paid directly to the
Consultant.

Cost of the Work means the total cost of all fixtures and accessories, which were
either designed, specified or procured by the Specialist Architect and/or his Specialist
Consultants (SCs) for the Owner/ Client, and that were used or installed in the
project.

SITE DEVELOPMENT PLANNING (SDP) SERVICES


Ordinarily, the landscaping layout of small building projects could be done by the Architect as
part of the site development planning (SDP) effort. However, if the project is large in scale, the
Architect must hire other State-regulated professionals (RLPs) as qualified Specialist
Consultants (SCs).

41

SCOPE OF SERVICES
The Architect, upon designing a building/ structure, complements this with the design of the
surroundings that will make the space fit for a specific mood and for the required activities. He
lays out the open spaces in and around the structure such that they contribute to the totality of
the project.
In order to achieve a well-balanced design of the environment enveloping a specific
building/structure, the Specialist Architect:

Conceptualizes the entire site development plan (SDP) including the generic scope of
civil works and the general scope of softscape and hardscape requirements.
Conceptualizes the specifications for the needed civil works and utility lines.
Assists the Owner/Client in bidding out the work or negotiating with landscape,
waterscape, rock formation contractors, etc., but mainly when no SC is available.

MANNER OF PROVIDING SERVICES


The Architect may enter into contract with the Owner in two possible ways:

Working in a dual capacity as Architect-of-record and as Consulting Architect for site


development planning services.
Working as Consulting Architect for site development services only.

MANNER OF COMPENSATION

The Architects Fee for site development planning (SDP) services shall depend on the
estimated cost of the civil works and landscaping works i.e. hardscape and softscape,
depending on the magnitude and complexity of the work required by the project. If the
Architect is also certified and licensed as a separate RLP e.g. a Landscape Architect,
and is suitably experienced, the Architects fee shall increase correspondingly,
depending on the magnitude and complexity of the work required by the project.
Should the Owner/ Client separately engage the services of a Landscape Architect,
the fee of the said Specialist Consultant shall be for the account of the Owner/Client and
paid directly to the SC.

SITE AND PHYSICAL PLANNING (INCLUDING MASTER DEVELOPMENT


PLANNING, SUBDIVISION PLANNING AND URBAN DESIGN) SERVICES
Physical planning refers to the orderly arrangement within a piece of land or property on which
vertical structures such as buildings, monuments and the like, as well as horizontal developments
such as rights-of-way (ROWs), open spaces and activity spaces are to be proposed.
SCOPE OF SERVICES

The Architect undertakes the site planning of a project that requires a composite arrangement
of several buildings/ structures and their requisite amenities, facilities, services and utilities
within a natural or built setting.
When the Architect is commissioned to do physical planning for building sites such as
Industrial Estates, Commercial, Religious, Institutional and Government/Civic Centers, Sports
Complexes, Tourist Centers/ Tourism Estates/ Resorts, Amusement Parks, Educational
Facilities, Residential and Housing Subdivisions and the like, the Architect:

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Prepares Project Cost Estimates (PCE) based on current cost parameters.

MANNER OF PROVIDING SERVICES


The Architect may enter into contract with the Owner in two possible ways:

Working in a dual capacity as Architect-of-record and as Consulting Architect for site and
physical planning services.
Working as Consulting Architect for site and physical planning services only.

MANNER OF COMPENSATION

The fee structure for Site and Physical Planning Services by the Architect shall be as stated
in the Architects Guidelines.

COMPREHENSIVE DEVELOPMENT PLANNING (CDP) SERVICES


Comprehensive Development Planning (CDP) Services are based on the concept of expanded
physical planning services to include other activities necessary for the proper handling of the
numerous components considered in the formulation, implementation and realization of a Master
Development Plan (MDP). Comprehensive Development Planning (CDP) covers the range of all
services from primary data gathering through the formulation of the MDP and the parallel preparation
of the environmental impact assessment/ statement (EIA/S).
SCOPE OF SERVICES
If the Architect (an RLA) is separately qualified and suitably experienced as an Environmental
Planner, the range of all services offered by the Architect from data base gathering, to the preparation
of environmental impact assessments/statements (EIA/S), up to the formulation of the
Comprehensive Development Plan (CDP), may include the following components:

Physical Component - land use and the changes which occur within the physical
environment (within the space where such activities take place), represented mainly by the
MDP.
Economic Component - the nations assets and its management.
Socio-Cultural Component - the people, their living conditions and the seeking of ways to
ameliorate it.
Transport Component - road and transit networks, land-sea-air linkages, the movement of
people and goods from one place to another.
Legal and Administrative Component - the relationship of adopted development proposals
and policies to existing laws.

When the Consulting Architect is commissioned to do a Comprehensive Development Planning effort,


he performs the following:

Identifies existing land use, resources, social behavior and interaction


Undertakes environmental analysis, demographic analysis and feasibility studies
Examines existing laws, ordinances, political/ social constraints
Prepares the conceptual development plans, policies, implementing strategies to arrive at the
desired comprehensive and/or master planning solution/s.

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MANNER OF PROVIDING SERVICES


The Architect may enter into contract with the Owner in two possible ways:

Working in a dual capacity as Architect-of-record and as Consulting Architect for


comprehensive development planning services.
Working as Consulting Architect for comprehensive development planning services only.

MANNER OF COMPENSATION
Compensation for the foregoing specialized architectural service shall be through man-months i.e. 22
man-days multiplied by 8 man-hours, and multiplied by a factor to cover other direct and indirect costs
e.g. overhead, etc. or as prescribed by the Architects Guidelines.

HISTORIC AND HERITAGE CONSERVATION AND PLANNING


The suitably trained and experienced Consulting Architect in this area of architectural practice
provides research, assessment, recording, management, interpretation and conservation of historical
heritage.

SECURITY EVALUATION AND PLANNING


The Consulting Architect in this area of practice arranges and formulates methods of rating and
ascertaining the value of structures or facilities which must be fully secured, kept safe, protected,
assured, guaranteed and provided sufficient safeguards for the conduct of any work or activity.

BUILDING SYSTEMS DESIGN


The Architect in this area of practice engages in methods of producing building components in a
highly engineered, efficient and cost-effective manner, particularly for residential and commercial
applications.

FACILITIES MAINTENANCE SUPPORT


The Consulting Architect in this area of practice provides the Owner/Client with means and measures
to ensure the proper function and maintenance of the building/structure and site after final inspection.

BUILDING TESTING AND COMMISSIONING


The Architect in this area of practice recommends the systematic process of ensuring that a
building/structures array of systems is planned, designed, installed and tested to perform according
to the design intent and the buildings operational needs. If the building materials, equipment and
systems are not installed properly or are not operating as intended, the effectiveness, efficiency,
productivity and other benefits of high performance plans/designs will not be achieved.

BUILDING ENVIRONMENT CERTIFICATION


A building environment rating system is needed to evaluate the environmental performance of a
building and to encourage market migration towards sustainable design. The rating system must be:

credit-based, allowing projects to earn points for environment-friendly use of the building /
structure and actions taken during planning, design, construction and occupancy.

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flexible, such that projects need not meet identical requirements to qualify.
consensus-based and
market-driven, in order to accelerate the development and
implementation of green building practices.

The Consulting Architect in this area of practice must have much more than the basic knowledge of
Green Architecture and Environmental and/or Sustainable Design and sufficient knowledge of the
governing environmental laws and environmental investigation processes and procedures under
international protocols such as the Philippine Solid Waste, Clean Air and Clean Water Acts, DENR
administrative issuances and the like.

FORENSIC ARCHITECTURE
The Architect in this area of practice undertakes a scientific study on the built environments wellbeing, which allows the Architect to focus on the ways in which the building/structure can best
maintain itself and prolong its life in a cost-efficient manner, and finally provide recommendations to
the Owner/ Client. The forensic study may include:

determination as to the causes of building, building component and/or building material


deterioration
the causes of observed building deficiencies e.g., non-compliance with planning and building
laws, deviations from original use or function of spaces
research on possible faulty activities and operations during the project implementation phase
determination of faulty plan/ design and/or construction methodology.

BUILDING APPRAISAL
Appraisal is defined as an act or process of estimating value. The Consulting Architect in this area of
practice places value on the building/ structure condition and defects, and on its repair and
maintenance, including the required improvements.

STRUCTURAL CONCEPTUALIZATION
The Architect in this area of practice conceives, chooses and develops the type, disposition,
arrangement and proportioning of the structural elements of an architectural work, giving due
considerations to safety, cost-effectiveness, functionality and aesthetics.

PRELIMINARY SERVICES
The Consulting Architect in this area of practice must have much more than the basic knowledge of
Site Analysis, Space Planning and Management, Architectural Programming, and the other services
under SPP Document 201.

CONTRACT DOCUMENTATION AND REVIEW SERVICES


The Architect in this area of practice must have much more than the basic knowledge of Specification
Writing, Estimation and Quantity Survey, Architectural Production, Architectural Software,
Architectural Support Services and Contract Document Review.

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POST-DESIGN SERVICES (INCLUDING CONSTRUCTION SERVICES)


The Consulting Architect in this area of practice must have much more than the basic knowledge of
Pre-Construction, Construction, Post-Construction and the other services under SPP Documents 204,
206 and 207.
Included under this specialized practice is the preparation of the Fire Safety and Life Assessment
Report (FALAR) required by R.A. No. 9514, the 2008 Fire Code of the Philippines and its 2009 IRR.

DISPUTE AVOIDANCE AND RESOLUTION


The Architect in this area of practice must have much more than the basic knowledge of the various
modes of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) prescribed under R.A. No. 9285, the ADR Act of 2004
and its IRR i.e. Construction Arbitration, Mediation and Conciliation, Negotiation and of Contract
Administration, Quality Surveys, Appraisals and Adjustments and Expert Testimony. An Architect
specializing in ADR must preferably be State-accredited.

ARCHITECTURAL RESEARCH METHODS


The Consulting Architect in this area of practice must have much more than the basic knowledge of
Research Methods, Philippine Architecture and its History, Architectural Materials and Finishes,
Building Types and Standards, Architectural Design Trends, Architectural Writing and Architectural
Photography.

SPECIAL BUILDING/ FACILITY PLANNING AND DESIGN


The Architect in this area of practice must have much more than the basic knowledge of the Planning
and Design Processes required for Housing Developments, Recreational and Tourism Estates,
Health Care and Hospitality Facilities, Transportation and Telecommunications Facilities, Production
and Extractive Facilities, Utility-related Developments, Secure Facilities, Business and Industrial
Parks, Economic Zones and Community Architecture and the like.

BUILDING COMPONENTS
The Consulting Architect in this area of practice must have much more than the basic knowledge of
Building Materials and Finishes, Construction Methodologies, Building Envelopes including cladding
and roofing systems, Architectural Fenestrations and Architectural Hardware, Fixtures and Fittings.

MANAGEMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL PRACTICES


The Architect in this area of practice must have much more than the basic knowledge of the Types of
Architectural Office Operations, Architectural Office Management, Accounting / Finance / Taxation /
Audit, Labor Code, Architectural Marketing and Project Development, Proposals/ Negotiations/
Contracts, Contract Administration, File Management and Limitations of Business Process
Outsourcing (BPO) and Knowledge Process Outsourcing (KPO) Operations.

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METHOD OF COMPENSATION FOR SPECIALIZED


ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES:
Compensation for the foregoing specialized architectural services, all of which may be classified as
additional or extra services, shall be through man-months i.e. 22 man-days multiplied by 8 manhours, and multiplied by a factor to cover other direct and indirect costs e.g. overhead, etc. or any
other applicable mode of determination of the Architects fee as stated in Doc. 201, Doc. 202 and the
Architects Guidelines.

FULLTIME SUPERVISION SERVICES


SPP Document 204-A (replacing the 1979 UAP Doc. 204-A)
The Architect-in-charge of construction (Aicc) is directly and professionally responsible and liable for
the construction supervision of the project.
As projects become more complex, it becomes necessary for a construction supervision group to do
the full-time inspection at the project site.
The Construction Supervision Group (CSG) is normally recommended by the Architect based on their
performance, and hired by the Owner. They are answerable to both the Owner and Architect.
SCOPE OF SERVICES

Quality Control
Evaluation of Construction Work
Preparation of Daily Inspection Reports
Filing of documents

MANNER OF PROVIDING SERVICES


There are two ways by which the Architect may enter into contract with the Owner:

Working in a dual capacity as Architect-of-record and as Consulting Architect for fulltime


supervision services or as the Construction Supervision Group (CSG). As the Architect-ofrecord (Aor) of the project, the Aor is in a better position to interpret his drawings and
documents and to assure conformity by the Contractor. He can assign his staff to undertake
the fulltime supervisory work to perform the works as enumerated in the Architects
Guidelines.
Working as Consulting Architect for fulltime supervision services only or as the CSG.

LIMITATION OF AUTHORITY

The Construction Supervision Group (CSG), which may be a qualified architectural firm, or
which the Architect is only part of, shall not assume the responsibility of the Contractors
project superintendent.
The CSG shall not make decisions on matters that are the sole responsibility of the Architectof-record (Aor).

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LEGAL RESPONSIBILITY

The Construction Supervision Group (CSG) is responsible to the Owner only for
administrative matters. For technical matters, the CSG is responsible to the Architect-ofrecord (Aor).

CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT SERVICES


SPP Document 204-B (replacing the 1979 UAP Doc. 204-B)
The Construction Manager (CM) could either be:

a member of the staff of the Owner,


an independent individual, or
a firm hired by the Owner to manage the construction of a particular project.

FUNCTIONS AND DESCRIPTION OF TASKS


The responsibilities of the Construction Manager (CM) include the functions of the Construction
Supervision Group (CSG). (reference Doc. 204-A and Architects Guidelines)

Coordination and Supervision


Cost and Time Control
Quality Control of Work and
Keeping of Records

LIMITATION OF AUTHORITY
The Architect as the Construction Manager shall not:

Involve himself directly with the work of the Contractor such that it may be construed that he
is assuming the Contractors liability as provided for in Article 1723, etc. of the Civil Code.
Impose methods, systems or designs that will substantially affect the construction schedule
and impair the design concept of the Architect.

LEGAL RESPONSIBILITY

The Architect as the Construction Manager (CM) is directly responsible to the Owner on all
aspects of the construction work: programming, coordination, quality and cost control and
time management.
The CM assumes no liability in case equipment fail to function or if a portion of the building
collapses

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POST-CONSTRUCTION SERVICES
SPP Document 205 (replacing the 1979 UAP Doc. 205)

Building administration and management goes beyond maintenance and upkeep functions.
The Architect may be engaged as the Building Administrator and/or Property Manager of a
commercial, industrial, residential or institutional building, facility or complex to maximize the
lifespan of the building/s in order to produce the maximum economic return.

SCOPE OF SERVICES
Building and Facilities Administration
Building Maintenance. The Architect shall:

See to it that the building and all the parts thereof (structure, plumbing, electrical, partitions,
finishes, etc.) are all in good condition
Formulate and enforce rules for the proper use of the building and facility, particularly in the
common areas and the emergency/ egress/ exit areas.
Monitor security services
Monitor maintenance and upkeep services (cleanliness of corridors, lobbies, stairs and other
common areas, exits, parking areas, garbage collection)

Grounds and Landscaping Supervision. The Architect shall:

Supervise landscape contractors and gardeners for the proper watering, pruning, trimming
and maintenance of the landscape (both hardscapes and softscapes);
Maintain orderly entrances, exits and parking areas; and
Maintain streets i.e. road rights-ofway (RROWs), walkways, and ramps.

Building Equipment Maintenance. The Architect shall:

Assist the proper third parties in seeing to it that all equipment (air-conditioning, sprinkler
system, generators, transformers, tele communications equipment, etc.) are properly
maintained and in good working condition

Business Development and Management. The Architect shall:

Innovate schemes to attain maximum building occupancy


Bill the tenants for rentals and utilities (electricity, water, telephone, cable, gas and other/
related dues)

Post-Construction Evaluation

Upon the request of the Owner, the Architect shall:


evaluate the initial design program vs. the actual use of the facility;
determine the effectiveness of the various building systems and the materials systems in use;
assist the proper third parties in evaluating the functional effectiveness of the design and
construction process undertaken, and
study, research, and give solutions to any discovered/ emerging/ evolving defects and
failures such as shrinkage, water seepage and other problems in the building. This is referred
to as forensic investigation of the buildings systems (Reference Doc 203).

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MANNER OF PROVIDING SERVICES


The Architect may enter into contract with the Owner in two possible ways:

Working in a dual capacity as Architect-of-record and as Consulting Architect for postconstruction services.
Working as Consulting Architect for post-construction services only.

METHOD OF COMPENSATION

Percentage of gross rentals, maintenance and security fees; and/or


Monthly salary/ fee.

COMPREHENSIVE ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES


SPP Document 206 (replacing the 1979 UAP Doc. 206)
Comprehensive Architectural Services refers to the range of professional services that covers Predesign Services, Regular Design Services, Specialized Architectural Services, Construction Services
and Post-Construction Services.
The Architect is not expected to perform all the services. Rather, he is to act as the agent of the Client
in procuring and coordinating the necessary services required by a project.
SCOPE OF COMPREHENSIVE ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES
Pre-Design Services (SPP Document 201)

Consultation
Pre-Feasibility Studies
Feasibility Studies
Site Selection and Analysis
Site Utilization and Land-Use Studies
Architectural Research
Architectural Programming
Space Planning
Space Management Studies
Value Management
Design Brief Preparation
Promotional Services

Regular Design Services (SPP Document 202)

Project Definition Phase


Schematic Design Phase
Design Development Phase
Contract Documents Phase
Bidding or Negotiation Phase
Construction Phase

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Specialized Architectural Services (SPP Document 203)

Architectural Interiors (AI)


Acoustic Design
Architectural Lighting Layout and Design
Site Development Planning (SDP)
Site and Physical Planning Services (including Master Development Planning, Subdivision
Planning and Urban Design)
Comprehensive Development Planning (CDP)
Historic and Cultural Heritage Conservation and Planning
Security Evaluation and Planning
Building Systems Design
Facilities Maintenance Support
Building Testing and Commissioning
Building Environmental Certification
Forensic Architecture
Building Appraisal
Preliminary Services
Contract Documentation and Review
Post-Design Services (including Construction Management Services)
Dispute Avoidance and Resolution
Architectural Research Methods
Special Building/ Facility Planning and Design
Building Components
Management of Architectural Practices

Construction Services

Fulltime Supervision Services (SPP Document 204-A)


Construction Management Services (SPP Document 204-B)

Post-Construction Services (SPP Document 205)

Building and Facilities Administration


Post-Construction Evaluation

PROJECT MANAGEMENT (PM)

Project Management (PM) involves management activities over and above the normal
architectural and engineering (A&E) services carried out during the pre-design, design and
construction phase. The over-all objective is to have control over time, cost and quality
relative to the construction of a project.

THE PROJECT MANAGER (PM)


The Project Manager (PM, whether individual or firm) operates as a member of an Owner-ArchitectEngineer-Contractor Team. In the Team Approach, each member of the team will have precedence in
his own field of operations or expertise.

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Scope of Services
Pre-Construction Phase

As early as during the design development phase, perhaps even concurrently with the
Architects commission, the Project Manager (PM) should conduct regular consultations with
the Owner and with the Architects and Engineers (for A&E services) on all aspects of
planning for the project.

Construction Phase

If the Project Manager (PM) also serves as the Construction Manager (CM) to oversee time,
cost and quality control during the construction of the project, he shall provide the services
detailed under SPP Documents 204-A and/or 204-B.

MANNER OF PROVIDING SERVICES


Normally, the Architect enters into a contract with the Owner to perform comprehensive
architectural services. By the very nature of the services, he assumes the dual role of the
Project Manager (PM) and the Construction Manager (CM), or effectively the overall
coordinator whose functions are outlined under this SPP.

To perform the variety of services indicated under the Comprehensive Architectural Services,
the Architect must make full use of his own capability as well as of services offered by other
professionals. He may expand his staff by hiring the experts needed, or he may form a team
consisting of professionals such as but not limited to:
Architects
Engineers
Market Analysts
Accountants
General Contractors

Real Estate Consultants


Sociologists
Planners
Bankers
Lawyers

If a Project Manager (PM) is hired by the Owner, it may be the responsibility of the PM to
either hire the Construction Manager (CM) to be paid either by him or directly by the Owner
on salary, or on the basis of percentage of construction cost or to serve as the CM himself. In
like manner, the Fulltime Supervisor can either be a staff member of the PM or hired directly
by the Owner.

METHOD OF COMPENSATION

The Project Manager is compensated on a percentage basis, as shall be described in the


Architects Guidelines.
If the Architect as Project Manager (PM) performs regular design services for the same
project, he shall be compensated separately for these services as stipulated in SPP
Document 202.

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DESIGN-BUILD SERVICES
SPP Document 207(replacing the 1979 UAP Doc. 207)
The Architect renders professional services in the implementation of his design. In Design-Build
Services, he assumes the professional responsibility and civil liability for both the design and the
construction of the project.
SCOPE OF DESIGN-BUILD SERVICES
Design-Build Services by Administration
The scope of Design-Build Services by Administration includes the Architects Regular Design
Services (reference SPP Document 202) namely:

Project Definition Phase


Schematic Design Phase
Design Development Phase
Contract Document Phase
Construction Phase

When the various phases of design services are completed, the Construction Phase goes beyond
periodic inspection and assessment to include the following:

Preparation of schedule of work, program and estimates of materials, labor, transportation,


equipment and services as reference for the construction.
Organization and hiring of construction personnel, designation of duties and remunerations
Negotiation and entering into contract with piecework contractors and evaluation of work
accomplishments
Procurement of materials, plants and equipment, licenses and permits
Authorizing and undertaking payments of accounts
Keeping records and books of accounts
Negotiation with Government and private agencies having jurisdiction over the project, and
Management of all other business transactions related to the project construction /
implementation.

Design-Build Services with Guaranteed Maximum Project Construction Cost

This method is essentially the same as Design-Build Services by Administration except that
the Owner/ Client is provided a guaranteed maximum project construction cost for the
construction of the project.
The Owner/ Client is given an estimate of the project, and upon completion, if there is
realized savings from the estimated project construction cost; it is divided equally between
the Owner/ Client and the Architect.
The project construction cost is guaranteed by the Architect not to exceed Ten Percent (10%)
of the estimated project construction cost. Should the actual cost exceed the estimated
project construction cost plus Ten Percent (10%), the Architect shall be liable for the excess
amount but only up to the amount of his administration Fee.

METHOD OF COMPENSATION

The manner of payment to the Architect follows the progress of construction. All costs for
labor and materials are paid directly by the Client. The Architect does not advance any

53

money for payment of expenditures connected with the work. Generally, a revolving fund is
given to the Architect beforehand and is accounted for and subject to periodic auditing by the
Client.
Cost of all permits, licenses and other incidentals to the work are paid by the Owner/ Client.
The Architect may appoint, subject to the Owner/ Clients approval, a construction
superintendent, purchasing agent, timekeeper and property clerk aside from the usual labor
personnel required. Salaries of such persons are paid by the Owner/ Client and not
deductible from the Architects Fee under this SPP.

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN COMPETITION (ADC)


SPP Document 208 (replacing the UAP Doc. 209)
DEFINITIONS

Owner - The person or organization who undertakes or promotes an ADC with the primary
objective of obtaining excellence in design for a project or for a development concept. The
Owner issues the invitation to Architects to submit plans/designs in accordance with a
program and finances the ADC.
Jury - The people appointed by the Owner to assess the entries to the competition. The
members of the Jury are called Jurors. It consists of a majority of registered and licensed
architects (RLAs, hereinafter referred to as Architect/s) assisted by a lay Juror to represent
and voice the intention of the Owner. They are nominated by the Owner and approved by the
integrated and accredited professional organization of architects (IAPOA).
Professional Advisor An Architect nominated by the Owner and approved by IAPoA to
organize the ADC on behalf of the Owner.
Technical Advisors Specialist personnel who may be consulted by the Jurors during the
conduct of the ADC to permit them to obtain all necessary relevant information.
Competition Secretariat The body formed by the Owner and approved by the Professional
Advisor, to assist the Professional Advisor and the Jury in the administrative conduct of the
ADC

Classification of Architectural Design Competitions (ADCs)


Project ADCs for actual Projects proposed for implementation.
Ideas Competition or competition of ideas set as a design and planning exercise to elucidate
a problem.
IAPOA APPROVAL

Before any official announcement is made by the Owner, a written approval of the draft
Conditions, including the timetable, The ADC registration fee (when required) and
membership of the Jury shall have been received in writing by the Owner from the IAPOA
through the ADC Committee.
Notice of a National Architectural Design Competition (ADC) shall be issued by the Owner
and/or the IAPOA ADC Committee Secretariat with a request for publication in technical
journals or through other media at their disposal, simultaneously if possible to enable those
interested to apply for the competition. Such an announcement shall state where and how
the ADC documents may be obtained and that the ADC conditions have received the
requisite IAPOA approval.

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PROFESSIONAL ADVISOR

A Professional Advisor should be appointed and paid by the Owner and approved by the
IAPOA National Board of Directors (NBD) thru its ADC Committee. His role is the supervision
of the conduct of the ADC and the preparation of the Conditions. His function includes
insuring that the ADC timetable is adhered to, supervising the receipt of Competitors
questions, the dispatch of reply to all Competitors and the receipt of competition entries, and
safeguarding the anonymity of Competitors at all times. He will assist the Jury and will be
present during its deliberations but he will have no vote. His responsibilities will be limited to
the organization and the conduct of the competition.

THE JURY

The Jurors are appointed by the Owner and approved by the IAPOA, which shall assist the
Owner in the selection of the Jury members.
The Jury shall be composed of the smallest reasonable number of persons and in any event
should be an odd number and should not exceed seven (7). The majority of them shall be
Architects i.e. 4 out of 7.
To ensure correct conduct of the competition, at least one of the Architect-Jurors shall
represent the IAPOA.
The Jury must make awards. The awards shall be final and made public by a date agreed on
with the IAPOA and stated in the competitions. The Jury, when distributing the awards, shall
make full use of the amount set aside for prizes in the ADC Conditions.

PERSONS NOT ELIGIBLE FOR ENTRY TO THE ADC]

No member of the Jury will be allowed to take part in the competition, either directly or
indirectly, nor be commissioned with work connected with the prize-winning design either
directly or indirectly.

PRIZES, HONORARIA AND MENTIONS

It is important for the Owner to allot adequate prize money to compensate all the Competitors
for their work. For Ideas Competition only, it may be the sole remuneration received by the
first (1st) prize winner.
In Project ADCs, the award of first prize to a plan/design places the Owner under an
obligation to entrust the Author of the plan/design with the commission for the Project. If the
winning Competitor is unable to satisfy the Jury of his ability to carry out the plan/ design
work, the Jury may require the winner to collaborate with another Architect of the winning
Competitors choice, duly approved by the Jury and Owner.

COPYRIGHT AND RIGHT OF OWNERSHIP

The design awarded first prize can only be used by the Owner upon his commissioning the
Author to carry out the plan/design preparation for the project. No other plan/design may be
used wholly or in part by the Owner except by agreement with the Author concerned.
In all cases, unless otherwise stated in the Conditions, the Author of any design shall retain
the sole right of reproduction by virtue of sole copyright under Secs. 20 (4) and 33 of R.A.
No. 9266 (The Architecture Act of 2004) and its IRR.

REGISTRATION OF COMPETITORS

As soon as they have received details of the architectural design competition (ADC), all
Competitors shall register with the Owner. Registration implies acceptance of the Conditions
of the ADC.

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INSURANCE

The Owner shall insure the Competitors plans/ designs from the time when he assumes
responsibility for them and for the duration of his responsibility. The amount of such
insurance shall be stated in the Conditions.

RETURN OF PROJECTS

All drawings and plans, other than those which have received prizes or have been purchased
and are retained by the Owner, shall be destroyed at the end of the public exhibition, unless
provisions are made to the contrary in the Conditions for the ADC. Where models are
required, these will be returned to the Author/s at the expense of the Owner within a month of
the close of the public exhibition.

ON PROFESSIONAL ARCHITECTURAL
CONSULTING SERVICES (PACS)
SPP Document 209(replacing the 1981 UAP Doc. 210)
DEFINITION OF TERMS

Comprehensive Development- refers to the holistic and progressive growth and


advancement of a community, province, region and nation inclusive of their respective
economic, social, physical, environmental and institutional sectors.

Consortium or Association-refers to a coalition of purely Filipino professional consultants


(i.e. RLA-PCAs) or consulting firm/s (i.e. SEC- and/or PRC-registered architectural firms/
RAFs); or Filipino professional consultants (i.e. RLA-PCAs) or consulting firm/s (i.e. RAFs)
in collaboration with foreign professional consultant/s and/or foreign consulting firm/s
authorized to render consulting/ consultancy services, as herein defined; in the Philippine
setting, the use of the terms Consortium and Association may carry certain tax and legal
implications

Consulting Architect (FPCA), Filipino Professional- Filipino Professional Consulting


Architect or FPCA

Consultant, Foreign- Consultant, Foreign

Consulting Architect (PCA), Professional- Consulting Architect (PCA), Professional

Consulting Agreement-means a binding covenant or understanding entered into by a


professional consulting architect (PCA) and/or consulting firm (i.e. RAF only) with an Owner/
Client, whether in Government, private sector or CSO or the international community (with
projects on Philippine soil), that provides such terms and conditions mutually agreed upon
by the parties, under which specific work, study or joint venture requiring special or technical
skills and expertise, shall be undertaken

Consulting Architectural Firm (CAF)- refers to an architectural corporation, association,


group or partnership duly registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) or
other concerned government regulatory agency or instrumentality or to a single proprietorship
duly registered with the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), and likewise registered with

56

the Commission/ Board to perform State-regulated architectural services such as


professional architectural consulting services (PACS) as herein defined.

Direct Costs or Reimbursable Expenses- refer to expenses in connection or related to the


project that may include but not limited to the following:
a) living and travelling expenses of employees, partners, and principals when away from
the home office on business
b) identifiable communication expenses, such as long-distance telephone, telegraph,
internet, short messaging system (SMS), cable, express charge, postage, etc.
c) services directly applicable to the contracted architectural consulting work, such as
special legal and accounting expenses, computer rental and programming costs,
special consultants, borings, laboratory charges, commercial printing and bindings
and similar costs that are not applicable to general overhead;
d) identifiable expenses for supplies and materials charged to the project at hand, as
distinguished from such supplies and expenses applicable to two or more projects;
e) Identifiable reproduction costs applicable to the work, such as blue-printing,
mimeographing, printing, etc.;

Filipino Professional Consulting Architect (FPCA)- refers to a Filipino citizen, a natural


person who possesses the qualifications of a Filipino Professional Consultant (FPC) as
hereafter defined; the FPCA must be a Philippine-registered and licensed architect (RLA) and
must be a member in good standing of the IAPoA; the FPCA must also be a RLA specializing
in any or several branch/es of the State-regulated profession of architecture as defined under
R.A. No. 9266 and its derivative regulations; if the FPCA signs and seals architectural
documents, he then becomes an Architect-of-record (Aor) for a project and thereby assumes
the attendant professional responsibilities and civil liabilities consistent with the provisions
under valid and subsisting laws.

Foreign Consultant (FC) or Foreign Architect (FA)- has acquired a permit to work and/ or
do business in the Philippines in accordance with the rules and regulations of the
Commission Guidelines for the Registration of Foreign Professionals (Res. No. 98-547); has
acquired a temporary/special permit (TSP) to engage in the practice of any branch of
architecture for any project on Philippine soil in full accordance with the pertinent Board
Resolutions implementing Secs. 37 and 38 of R.A. No. 9266;

Professional Consulting Architect (PCA)- refers to any person, whether natural or juridical,
duly licensed, registered and/or duly accredited by the Commission.

Professional Organization, Accredited (APO)- generally refers to any organization under


the umbrellas of the CBNE and PTC; in the case of professional architectural consulting
services (PACS), the term shall specifically refer to the IAPOA;

Professional Architectural Consulting Services (PACS)- means the rendering by a


professional consulting architect (PCA) or by a consulting firm (i.e. a RAF), of independent
advice, extension of technical assistance and services, as well as undertaking of activities,
requiring appropriate knowledge, skills, training and experience, recognized competence,
integrity, and/or financial and logistical capability.

Project Cost- means the total cost of the project which includes but is not limited to
construction cost, fees for professional services, the cost of land, right-of-way (ROW), legal,
administrative and other related expenses of the client.

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SCOPE OF PROFESSIONAL ARCHITECTURAL CONSULTING SERVICES (PACS)


The scope of professional architectural consulting services (PACS) shall be defined and determined
in accordance with the charter, by-laws, policies, rules and regulations of the Commission and the
Board through the IAPOA to which a professional consulting architect (PCA) belongs as a member in
good standing. It includes, but shall not be limited to the following:

program / project conceptualization and development


rendering of technical advice, consultation and/or counseling
preparation of schematic/concept-level through preliminary plans, drawings, designs and
technical specifications
teaching, lecturing, coaching, mentoring
teaching, lecturing, coaching, mentoring
documentation
conduct of pre-investment/pre-feasibility and feasibility studies
marketing and promotional studies
land use and multi-sectoral development planning, development and management
site selection, analyses, evaluation, ranking and development
construction
Project/ Construction Management and/or Administration
post-construction evaluation
monitoring and evaluation
training, capability building and Continuing Professional Education (CPE)
Capital Investment Programming

QUALIFICATIONS OF PROFESSIONAL CONSULTING ARCHITECTS (PCAs)


A Professional Consulting Architect (PCA) must possess all of the following qualifications:

if a natural person, must be a citizen of the Philippines who is a duly registered and licensed
Architect (RLA), a holder of a valid identification (ID) card-license issued by the Commission
and a member in good standing of the IAPOA
if a juridical person, a consulting firm that must be a partnership or corporation duly registered
with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) or a sole proprietorship that is a duly
registered with the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), respectively and/or any other
concerned regulatory agency/ies of government; in addition, the consulting firm must possess
a valid Commission certificate to operate as a registered architectural firm (RAF) in full
accordanance with R.A. No. 9266 and its derivative regulations
Must have the minimum years of active and relevant professional training and experience in
the chosen field/s of specialization as may be determined by the IAPOA and the PRBoA/
Commission

SELECTION OF PROFESSIONAL CONSULTING ARCHITECTS (PCAs)

Clients shall consider the following criteria or general guidelines in the selection of
Professional Consulting Architects (PCAs)
Only duly-qualified Filipino professional consulting Architects (FPCAs) shall render
architectural consulting services in areas or fields of architectural specialization performed by
members of the CBNE, except where no qualified FPCA is available. Under the said
circumstances, where a non-FPCA i.e. a FA or FC is engaged, a minimum of two (2) Filipino
RLAs in the same area or field of architectural specialization shall be employed as
understudies

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For Government projects, the selection of PCAs shall be in accordance with the relevant
provisions of R. A. No. 9184, otherwise known as the Government Procurement Reform Act
(GPRA) of 2003

MANNER OF PROVIDING PROFESSIONAL ARCHITECTURAL CONSULTING SERVICES (PACS)

A Professional Consulting Architect (PCA) may provide services directly or indirectly to the
Client in the manner prescribed, suggested or promulgated by the Commission/Board
through the IAPOA.

COMPENSATION OF PACS

The computation of the compensation of fees for professional architectural consulting


services (PACS) shall depend on the type of services to be rendered and the conditions
under which they are to be performed

Compensation of a professional consulting Architect (PCA) may be computed based on one


or a combination of the following methods, with modifications applicable to the types of
services and/ or specific cases, if and when needed:
Per Diem or Hourly Basis
This method is particularly suited to engagements involving intermittent personal service. The
per diem charge should be based on the complexity of the work involved and the extent of his
experience/specialization. In addition to the compensation based on per diem, his expenses
for travel, subsistence, and other out-of-pocket expenses incurred while away from his
home/office shall be reimbursed by the Client.
Retainer
This method of remuneration is used when the services of a Professional Consulting
Architect (PCA) is expected to be required at intervals over a period of time. It is a means of
ensuring in advance that his services will be available to the Client when required.
Salary cost times a multiplier, plus direct cost or reimbursable expenses
This method is based on the total basic salaries of all PCAs and their staff multiplied by a
factor from 3.0 as a multiplier plus cost of certain items that are reimbursable to the PCA
classified under Direct Cost or Reimbursable Expenses. The following formula is used to
compute the fee:
Fee = Salary Cost x Multiplier + Reimbursable Expenses
Fixed/ Lump Sum payment
This method of compensation may be used when the scope of PACS required can be clearly
and fully defined. Two methods may generally be used to arrive at a lump-sum compensation
for the basic PACS. These two methods are frequently used concurrently with one serving as
a check on the other.
a) computation of a lump-sum as an appropriate percentage of the estimated total
cost of the project
b) direct development of a fixed amount of compensation by estimating the
individual elements of the cost outlines, plus a reasonable margin of profit, all
expressed as a single lump-sum

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Percentage of total project cost


The remuneration under this method is calculated as an agreed percentage of the ultimate
cost of the project/service.
SEAL AND USE OF SEAL UNDER PACS
Where applicable and in full accord with R.A. No. 9266 and its derivative regulations, a
Professional Consulting Architect (PCA) shall sign and affix his professional license number
and the seal duly-approved by the Commission/ PRBoA and/or the IAPOA on all architectural
documents as outputs and other deliverables/materials such as, but not limited to plans,
designs, technical drawings and specifications, feasibility studies as well as instruments of
service, prepared by him, or under his/her direct supervision, if and only if the CA shall also
act as the Architect-of-record (Aor), in which case he must assume all the attendant/pertinent
professional responsibilities and civil liabilities for the project.
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS FOR PACS
All architectural documentary outputs and materials delivered or rendered by a professional
consulting Architect (PCA), such as, but not limited to plans, designs, technical drawings and
specifications, pre-feasibility and feasibility studies and other instruments of service, shall be
protected under Secs. 20 (4) and 33 of R.A. No. 9266 and its 2004 IRR, whether such
outputs and materials are executed or not. No person without the written consent of the
professional consulting Architect (PCA) or author of said architectural documents and/or
materials shall duplicate or make copies of said documents for use in the repetition of and for
other projects, whether executed partly or in its entirety.

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PROJECT CLASSIFICATION

61

SPP DOCUMENT 301


GENERAL CONDITIONS

62

SPP DOCUMENT 301: GENERAL CONDITIONS


SECTION 1. DEFINITION AND DOCUMENTS
Article 1. Definitions
Article 2. Execution, Correlation and Intent of Document
Article 3. Drawings and Specifications
a. As-built
b. Detailed Drawings
c. Shop Drawings
d. Working Drawings

It establishes the relationship between: Owner-Architect, Owner- Contractor(s), and


Contractor-Architect.
It stipulates the norms by which the contractor shall perform his work in accordance with
the current trends in the practice of Architecture.
9 SETS OF BLUEPRINTS

** 7 copies are free of charge and the succeeding copies are payable.
1 set office of the building official
1 set contractor
1 set owner
1 set fire department
1 set homeowner association
1 set security of homeowner association
1 set site

Only the architect can use the copy at the site.


May cause termination of the contractor in case of lost or mishandled.
Well-kept at the site
Protected by electrical tape, binded by wood and screw and supported by acetate
cover

ARTICLE 1. DEFINITIONS

CONTRACT DOCUMENTS consists of the following:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Agreement
General conditions
Special provisions
Specifications
Drawings

OWNER person ordering the project for execution

ARCHITECT commissioned by the owner

ENGINEER person so named in the contract document

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PROJECT REPRESENTATIVE full time construction inspector hired by owner assisting in


the supervision of the work.

CONTRACTOR person or firm whose proposal has been accepted & contract awarded

SUB-CONTRACTOR having direct contact with contractor, acts in behalf of the contractor
in executing any part of the contract

SURETY person, firm, or corporation providing guarantee for contractors bonds

PROPOSAL offer of a bidder

PROPOSAL BOND cashiers check or surety bond with the proposal submitted by the
bidder to guarantee that the bidder will enter into the contract.

PERFORMANCE BOND (15%) approved form of security furnished by the contractor as a


guarantee to execute work in accordance with terms of the contract.

PAYMENT BOND (15%) approved form of security furnished by the contractor as


guarantee to pay all obligations arising from the contract

GUARANTEE BOND (15%) approved form of security furnished by the contractor to


guarantee to the quality of materials and workmanship performed.

AGREEMENT contract between owner and contractor undertaking the project

ADVERTISEMENT/ INVITATION TO BID notice or invitation issued to bidders giving


information of the magnitude and extent of the project, nature, etc.

BID BULLETIN additional information on contract documents

INSTRUCTION TO BIDDERS list of instructions on preparation & conditions for award of


contract

DRAWINGS graphical representation of work

GENERAL CONDITIONS printed documents stipulating procedural and administrative


aspects of the contract

SPECIAL PROVISIONS instructions that supplement or modify drawings, specs, & general
conditions of the contract.

SPECIFICATIONS written or printed description of work describing qualities of materials


and mode of construction

SUPPLEMENTARY SPECS addtl info issued as an addition or amendment to provisions


of specs.

SCHEDULE OF MATERIALS AND FINISHES outline specs enumerating type and trade
names of materials used

BREAKDOWN OF WORK AND CORRESPONDING VALUES list of work and


corresponding value in materials & labor including profit and overhead allowance.

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WRITTEN NOTICE info, advice or notification pertinent to the project

ACT OF GOD/ FORCE MAJEURE catastrophes, phenomena of nature, misfortunes and


accidents which human prudence cannot foresee or prevent.

TIME LIMITS duration of time allowed by the contract for project completion

LOCAL LAWS laws, ordinances, and government regulations applicable to the project

WORK includes labor and materials, equipment, transportation, faculties necessary for
completion of the project

FURNISH - purchase and/or fabricate and deliver to the jobsite

INSTALL build in, mount in positions, connect or apply

PROVIDE furnish and install

CONFLICTS ON DRAWINGS AND SPECIFICATIONS OR TEXT

Specifications or text will prevail


If not stated on drawings and specification, the contractor has
the right to do it in the most expensive manner, still the
materials have to be approved by the architect.

ARTICLE 2. EXECUTION, CORRELATION AND INTENT OF DOCUMENTS

Documents signed in quintuplicate by owner and contactor duly witnessed.

Intent of contract documents prescribe the complete work


-

Intention is to include labor, materials, equipment and transportation


necessary for completion and execution

Specs shall take control in discrepancies in drawings and specs.

Any discrepancies, errors and omissions shall be reported to the architect or


engineer. Any work done involving errors are the contractors risk.

Architect or engineer shall furnish additional detail drawings and instructions


consistent to contract documents.

Contractor and architect and engineer shall jointly prepare a schedule in accordance
to progress of work.

Contractor shall keep a copy of all drawings, specs, breakdown of work, and
schedule of constructions work, instructions at the site.

Drawings, specs, and models are property of the architect and are to be returned at
completion of work and before final payment to the contractor is made

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ARTICLE 3: DRAWINGS AND SPECS

Owner shall furnish contractor 3 sets of drawings and specs for free.

Drawings and models must cooperate with specs to form as part of the contract
documents. Figures are to be followed in preference to measurement and scale.

The contractor shall explain and verify any doubt as to the meaning of the drawings
and specs.
1. If there is a conflict in both drawings and specs, the contractor, with the
architects permission, shall submit to the owner proposals as to which
method or material is required. If the les expensive work is done, the
contractor shall credit the owner the amount equivalent to the difference of
the expensive and less expensive work.
2. The contractor must first refer to the architect before proceeding with the
work.

Discrepancies in figures, drawings must be referred to the architect before any


adjustment be made by the contractor. The decision of the architect will govern and
must be followed by the contractor.

ARTICLE 4: DETAIL DRAWINGS AND INSTRUCTIONS

Supplementary drawings and instructions shall be promptly supplied by the architect


and must conform to contract documents. Contractor shall do no work without proper
drawings and instructions.

Contractor and architect shall prepare a schedule a when detail drawings will be
required.

ARTICLE 5: SHOP DRAWINGS

Contractor shall prepare at his own expense and submit 2 copies of all shop
drawings to the architect, who will make the necessary corrections, and file the
corrected copies.

Contractor shall check drawings before submitting to sub-contractors.

Shop drawings shall represent:


1.
2.
3.
4.

Working and erection dimension


Arrangements and sectional views
Necessary details
Kinds of materials and finishes

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Shop Drawings shall be dated and contain:


1. Name of project
2. Descriptive names of equipment, materials and classified item numbers
3. Location at which materials or equipment are to be installed.

Drawings shall be accompanied by a letter of transmittal containing name of project,


contractor, number of drawings, titles and other pertinent data.

Contractor shall submit 3 sets of prints of shop drawings to the architect for
approval. 1 copy shall be returned to the contractor with necessary corrections.
1. Contractor shall make corrections and resubmit until approved by the
architect.
2. Contractor shall insert date of approval on tracings and furnish the architect
with 3 additional prints of approved drawings.
3. No work be done without architects approval.
4. Contractor shall mention specific variations of shop drawings from contract
documents in his letter of submittal.

Contractor is responsible for accuracy of shop drawings.

SECTION 2. LAWS, REGULATIONS, AND SITE CONDITIONS


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Laws
Regulations
Site Conditions
Permits
Taxes
Insurance
Life insurance
Property insurance
Survey

ARTICLE 6: LAWS, REGULATIONS, AND SITE CONDITIONS

Contractor shall comply with all laws and regulations governing the project. If ever he
resists without the knowledge of the architect, he shall bear the consequences.

Before bidding, the contractor must visit the site and make estimates of facilities and
difficulties attending to the scope of work and its execution.

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ARTICLE 7: PERMITS, TAXES AND SURVEYS

All permits and licenses necessary shall be secured and fees paid by the contractor
but may be reimbursed from the owner. Contractor is responsible if construction
starts without necessary permits.

Contractor will secure the occupancy permit.

Contractor will pay taxes pertinent to construction of the project.

Owner is responsible for establishment of boundaries made by a licensed surveyor.


He may delegate the responsibility to the contractor but the owner must pay for
surveyors fees.
1. Contractor shall verify all grades, lines and levels as indicated on drawings.
2. Contractor shall provide batter boards and maintain them. He shall establish
grade marks at each floor line.
3. Contractor shall layout exact location of partitions.

Contractor shall pay the services of the surveyor when so required to confirm
location of columns, piers, etc. required by the contract. Copy of certification shall be
furnished by the architect and will represent as an independent verification of the
layout.
1. Contractor shall furnish certifications from the surveyor that all partitions of
work are in accordance with contract requirements.
2. Surveyor shall verify and certify to lines and levels of any portion of work any
time deemed necessary by the architect.

Final verification shall be submitted upon completion of work before payment is


made.

SECTION 3. EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS


1. EQUIPMENT -- written on quotation submitted by the contractor must comply with actual
usage
2. MATERIALS -- should follow what is written on specifications

ARTICLE 8: GENERAL

All materials and equipment must conform to all laws governing the project.

Contractor shall obtain necessary permits and pay fees covered within period of
construction.

Contractor shall bear any and all damages by reason of any delay in work.

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ARTICLE 9: EQUIPMENT

Architect and engineer must refer to equipment by catalogue number and name.
1. Contractor shall furnish complete lists of substitutions prior to signing of
contract.
2. Contractor shall abide by architect and engineers judgment when proposed
items of equipment are judged to be acceptable. General contractor shall
submit proposals for substitutions in writing.

Contractor shall furnish 3 copies of complete catalogue data for every item of
equipment.
1. Submission shall be compiled by contractor.
2. Data sheet or catalogue shall be indexed according to specification, section
and paragraph.
3. Submission shall become part of the contract.
4. Catalogue data does not supercede contract documents.
5. It is contractors responsibility that items be furnished fit the space available.
6. Contractors responsibility to install equipment to operate properly.

ARTICLE 10: MATERIALS, FIXTURES, APPLIANCES AND FITTINGS FURNISHED BY


CONTRACTOR

Names of proposed manufacturers, material men and dealers shall be submitted to


the architect for approval.
1. No manufacturer shall be approved unless he has a good reputation, capacity
and adequate quality control.
2. Transactions shall be made through the contractor.
3. Contractor shall provide manufacturers with complete sets of specs and
drawings.
4. Manufacturer shall have materials supplied by him properly coded or
identified in accordance with existing standards.

Contractor shall furnish samples specified for approval.


1. 3 samples shall be submitted.
2. Samples shall be labeled, bearing material name and quality.
3. If specs require manufacturers installation directions, directions shall
accompany samples for approval.
69

4. 3 copies of letter of transmittal from contractor shall accompany all


samples.
5. Transportation charges to architects office must be prepaid.
6. No orders of materials are to be made without architects approval.

No substitution for materials be made without architects approval.

Samples for materials to be used for substitution shall be approved by architect.

Contractor shall submit samples for testing to the architect.

All costs for shipping, handling and testing of samples are to be paid by the
contractor.

Quality of materials used shall be of best grade and new otherwise specified.

Contractor shall provide space for subcontractors storage and work force.

All materials affected by moisture shall be stored and protected from the weather.

Moving materials will be done at the contractors expense.

Defective materials or materials not conforming to specs shall be used upon


approval. The architect shall have the authority to remove or replace such deducting
the cost from the contractor.

Contractor shall pay for royalties and license fees on patented materials furnished by
him.

All materials shall be applied and installed following the manufacturers directions.

SECTION 4. PREMISES AND TEMPORARY STRUCTURE


ARTICLE 14: USE OF PREMISES

Contractor shall confine materials to limits indicated by law.

Contractor shall not load or permit any part of the structure to be loaded with a
weight that will disregard the safety of others.

ARTICLE 15: TEMPORARY STRUCTURES


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Warehouse
Bunkhouse or barracks
Office for the design and construction team
Utilities
Access

70

6. Trial usage
7. Enclosures
8. Signage
e.g. falling debris

park at your own risk

OFFICE AND CONTRACTORS BUILDING wooden floor raised above ground;


room of approx. 12 sq.m. for the architect,

HOUSING FOR WORKERS tents or protection on designated areas.

SANITARY FIXTURES AND 1ST AID STATION ample sanitary toilets and other
conveniences including water connections.

TEMPORARY BARRICADES AND GUARD LIGHTS necessary for proper


prosecution and completion of work. Lights located at false work tower to be
provided by contractor.

TEMPORARY WATER, POWER, AND TELEPHONE FACILITIES provided by


contractor through arrangements with local utility companies. All expenses paid by
the contractor

TEMPORARY SIGNS no advertisements to be displayed without architects


approval.

TEMPORARY ROADWAYS provide proper access

TEMPORARY STAIRS, LADDERS, RAMPS, and RUNWAYS such shall meet


requirements of local laws.

TEMPORARY ELEVATORS AND HOISTS install adequate number of elevators


and hoists located bat sufficient distance from exterior walls.

TEMPORARY ENCLOSURES exterior doors shall be equipped with self-closing


hardware; windows equipped with removable sash frames.

TEMPORARY OR TRIAL USAGE privilege of owner.

REMOVAL OF TEMPORARY STRUCTURES contractor shall remove all


temporary structures erected by him and shall clean premises as condition of
completing the work.

SECTION 5. PROTECTION OF WORK AND OWNERS PROPERTY


ARTICLE 16: PROTECTION OF WORK AND OWNERS PROPERTY

The contractor shall maintain and protect owners property from damage.
1. The contractor shall provide watchmen (competent enough for the architect)
and provide all doorways with locks. It is the contractor who shall lock and
close the doors after each days work.

71

2. No smoking except on designated areas. No building of fires except with the


consent of the architect.
3. Contractor shall provide barrels of water and buckets for the main purpose of
fire protection and should not be used for any other reason.
4. Contractor shall provide adequate number of fire extinguishers.

Old materials of value shall be piled in areas designated by the owner or architect
and are in the responsibility of the contractor.

Existing trees and shrubs are to be boxed and protected from damage. Cutting of
trees in site must have consent of the architect.
1. Plants needed to be transplanted within 50 meters must be done at the
expense of the contractor.

Damage to trees, etc shall be made good by the contractor at his own expense.

ARTICLE 17: PROTECTION OF ADJACENT PROPERTY AND EXISTING UTILITIES

Contractor shall protect adjacent property and existing utilities as provided by law
and contract documents at his own expense. He is liable and must pay for all
damages by his acts and negligence or by his employees.

ARTICLE 18: PROTECTION OF LIFE, WORK AND PROPERTY DUE TO EMERGENCY

In cases of emergency where a life is at stake, the contractor may have the power to
act without consultation. Any compensation claimed by the contractor shall be
determined by agreement or arbitration.

SECTION 6. LABOR, WORK AND PAYMENTS


A. LABOR
1. Quantity -- Number of workers, decrease the workers when construction is almost
finish
2. Quality -- proper work designation such as painter, carpenter, steel man, etc.
B. WORK
Based on specifications and plans -- include liquidated damages which means delayed
construction to be deducted to the fee.
a. Working days Monday to Friday
b. Calendar days number of days including Saturday, Sunday and holidays
C. PAYMENT
No payment shall be made without the approval of the architect.
Duration starts counting 7 days after the acceptance of NTP
notice to proceed.

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Within 7 days: mobilization and materials were prepared.


Immediately means 5 days
S-CURVE allowable deficiency is 10%

CONTRACTOR
1. Certificate of completion (partial)
2. Request for Inspection
3. Billing
4. Certificate of Non-Financial

When accepted and approved, the ARCHITECT furnish certificates to the owner:
1. Certificate of acceptance
2. Certificate of payment

Contractor may not be paid till 90 days before he go to court.


Substantial completion (98%): the contractor may Be paid 100%

ARTICLE 19: LABOR

The contractor must employ competent and efficient workmen and must act, upon
request of the architect, to discharge or remove any employee deemed incompetent.
Should the contractor fail to do so, the architect may withhold payment or suspend
work until such orders are complied with.

The supervisor must be a licensed engineer or architect who will work personally and
inspect at least once a week.

The contractor shall keep a competent project engineer who will represent the
contractor in his absence. His decisions are binding to the contractor and he has full
authority to execute the orders or directions of the architect.

ARTICLE 20: WORK

The contractor shall use methods and appliances necessary to complete the work
within contract time.
1. The architect may order the contractor to increase efficiency or improve
system of operation. Failure of the architect to demand such does not
relieve contractor of his liability to the contract.
2. The contractor shall furnish approved full information and evidence of
appliances used if required.

Stakes, benchmarks placed by contractor shall be gradually preserved and


maintained by the Contractor. If such are displaced or damage due to neglect, the
contractor must replace them at his own expense.

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The owner, architect and representatives shall have access to work for inspection.
Contractor shall provide proper facilities for access and inspection.
1. The contractor shall give the architect and party a notice of its readiness
for inspection. If work should be covered up without approval, the
architect may uncover it for examination at contractors expense.
2. Re-examination of work may be ordered by the architect and uncovered
by the contractor. If work is found not in accordance with the contract, the
contractor shall pay for the cost.
3.

Contractor shall furnish promptly without additional charge all facilities,


labor, and materials necessary for safe inspection without delaying
schedule of work.

4. The architect may examine work already completed before final


acceptance. If work is found defective due to contractors fault, he shall
defray all the expenses of such examination and satisfactory
reconstruction. If work is found to be satisfactory, actual cost of labor
and materials in examination plus 15% shall be allowed the contractor
and granted extension time on account of additional work.

Contractor shall perform any work during an emergency. He may inform the architect
and engineer of the emergency as soon as practicable.

Adjustment of drawings to suit field conditions may be necessary during construction.


The contract recognizes the essence of this as long as resulting overruns and
underruns do not exceed 5%. Discrepancies shall be submitted immediately to the
architect before adjustments.

The owner may at any time change or alter by adding or deducting from work without
invalidating the contract by stating the changes to be made in writing.

If sub-surface conditions that are different from that on the drawings are discovered,
the architect must be informed immediately. He must investigate and make the
necessary changes in the drawings and specs.

If changes in work ma cause an increase or decrease in the amount due, the


contract shall be modified in writing and the contractor shall furnish proportionate
additional performance bond.

Value of extra work shall be determined by the following:


1. Estimate and acceptance in lump sum
2. Unit prices stipulated in contract provided that the extra does not exceed
20% of the original contract details.
3. Actual direct cost plus 15% for contractors profit, overhead and
contractors tax. Contractor shall present a correct account of costs with

74

vouchers. The architect will certify the 15% allowance for overhead and profit
of the contractor.

Claim of adjustment must be asserted within 15 days from date of the order of
change unless architect will extend the time.

Architect shall have the authority to make minor changes in the work not involving
extra cost.

Owner reserves to right to employ other persons to perform the extra work.

If any instructions in drawings involve extra cost, the contractor will inform the
architect through written notice within 15 days after the receipt of such instruction. If
delays incur in mobilization of work, the contractor must give the architect a written
notice within 15 days after recognition of delay and proceed to claim the extra cost.

Contractor shall keep the premises free of waste materials from the accumulation of
work. After the work is completed, he shall remove all his rubbish, scaffolding,
surplus materials and turn over the work to the occupants with:
1. All dirt, stains from floors, walls, ceiling, etc. removed.
2. All woodwork, hardware and metalwork cleaned and polished.
3. All glazing, marble and tile work washed and polished.

The owner has the right to use the completed portions of the work regardless of the
time of completion of work.

Upon notice of completion of work from the contractor, the architect shall
immediately inspect the project. If the work is substantially complete (not less than
98% is finished), the architect shall issue a certificate of completion of work in
respect to the work.

Prior to the issuance of the certification of completion, the contractor must execute a
written undertaking to finish any work during the period of Making Good of Known
Defects or Faults (period of not more than 60 days).

The contractor shall execute at his own expense all work necessary for making good
of known defects within the period of 60 days after the issuance of the certificate
of completion or within 15 days after its expiration as a result of the inspection by
the architect. If the owner is responsible for the defect, the value of work will be
regarded and paid for as additional work.

The contractor shall search for cause of any defects and faults in the project. If the
cause of the defect is something the contractor is not liable for, the owner will pay for
the cost of work carried out by the contractor. But if the cause binds the contractor
liable, the cost of searching, repair, rectification and make good of such defect shall
be borne by him.

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ARTICLE 21: TIME OF COMPLETION OF WORK

Written notice to proceed work shall be given to the contractor following the
execution of the contract agreement.

Contractor shall complete all the work contracted in the time stated. Computation of
the contract time shall commence on the 7th day from receipt of the notice to
proceed.

Contractor shall submit the schedule of work in CPM form or any form acceptable to
the architect, indicating the approximate dates each item will be started and
completed, for approval.

Contractor will be allowed an extension based on the following reasons:


1. Delay due to the employees of the owner and the owner himself, act of
god or force majeure, delay by the architect pending arbitration, the
contractor shall within 15 days from the occurrence of such delay file
the necessary request of extension for the approval of the architect. No
extension of time shall be granted for failure of owner to furnish materials
unless they be required for proper execution of work or contractor shall
have made request for them 10 days before they are actually needed.
2. Written consent of bondsmen must be attached to any request for
extension and submitted to the owner.
3. If there is increase in work and the contract time is unreasonably short,
the time allowance for extension and increases shall be agreed upon in
writing.
4. If no schedule or agreement stating upon which drawings shall be
furnished is made, then no claim for delay shall be allowed on the
account of failure to furnish drawings until 2 weeks after demands for
such drawings.
5. If work is interrupted for any reason, it must be resumed on the removal
of the cause of delay.
6. Contractor shall submit written notice to the architect at least 10 days
prior to beginning, suspending or resuming the work to the end that the
architect may make preparations for inspection without delaying the work.
All delays resulting from failure of the contractor are the contractors risk.
All extra costs due to such delay will be deducted from the final payment.

If failure to complete work at the said contract time, the contractor will pay the owner
the liquidated damages in the amount stipulated in the contract agreement.

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ARTICLE 22: PAYMENTS

The contractor shall, within 15 days from receipt of notice to proceed, submit a
complete breakdown of work and corresponding value for approval and will be used
as basis for all requests for payment.

The contractor shall submit a request for payment for work done, not more than once
each month. Each request shall be computed from the work completed on all items
listed in the breakdown of work, less 10% retention. When 50% of the contract
has been accomplished, no retention shall be made.

The contractor, at his own expense, shall furnish the architect progress photographs
which shall be taken monthly.
1. Photograph size shall be 6 by 8. Four exposures shall be taken (2 copies
for each exposure = 8), a total of 8 prints to be delivered to the architect, and
all negatives bearing the date of exposure and name of work.
2. No partial payment may be considered for approval without the pictures
accompanying request for payment.

15 days upon receipt of the request for payment, the architect shall either issue a
certificate of payment or withhold the request and inform the contractor in writing the
reasons for withholding it. The certificate of payment shall include the value of work
accomplished during the period of time covered by the certificate.

The architect may recommend withholding of payment on any of the following:


1. Defective work not remedied.
2. Reasonable evidence indicating probable filing of claims.
3. Failure of contractor to make payments to sub-contractors or for material and
labor.
4. Reasonable doubt that the contract can be completed for the balance then
unpaid.
5. Damage to another contractor.

The architect shall estimate the value of work using the breakdown of work and
corresponding values as a basis. Estimates of the architect are considered final and
conclusive evidence of the amount of work performed and shall be basis for the full
measure of the compensation of the contractor, but bear in mind that the estimates
are approximate only.

Within 15 days from the date of approval of a request for payment and
issuance of certificate of payment, the owner shall pay the amount as certified, or
such other amount he deems is due the contractor informing both the contractor and
architect in writing his reasons for paying the amended amount.

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The contractor shall pay promptly his workmen, materials and equipment used, taxes
and remit all amount withheld from salaries and wages of his employees. If required
by the owner, the contractor shall swear before an officer duly authorized to
administer oath that all persons who have done work and all materials furnished
have been paid for.

No payments shall be made in excess of 65% of the contract price unless a


notarized statement is submitted by the contractor to the effect that all bills for labor,
other than current wages, and bills for materials have been paid.

The contractor shall promptly remove from the premises all work condemned by the
architect as failing to conform to the contract. He shall replace and re-execute his
own work in accordance to the contract documents at his own expense.

The contractor shall submit the following before final payment is made:
1. Certificate of final building occupancy
2. Certificate of final inspection of utilities
3. Original and 3 sets of prints of as-built-drawings of electrical, sanitary, gas,
telephone and mechanical works.
4. 3 copies of directory of panel boards and list of circuits.
5. 3 copies of instructions and manual for operating fixtures and equipment.
6. 3 copies of keying schedule.
7. Guarantee bond equivalent to 30% of the contract price covering a
period of 1 year after the final acceptance of the work.

The architect shall proceed to verify the work, make final estimates, certify the
completion of work and accept the same.
1. The owner shall then pay the contractor the remainder of the fee provided
that the final payment of the contract shall not be made until the contractor
has submitted a sworn statement showing that all taxes due from him, all
materials and labor have been duly paid.
2. The making and acceptance of the final payment shall constitute a waiver of
all claims by the contractor.

The final certificate of payment nor any provisions may relieve the contractor of
responsibility for faulty materials. He shall remedy defects and pay for the damage,
which will appear within a years period from date of acceptance of work by the
owner.

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No provision may limit the contractors liability to defects.

The owner shall give notice of observed defects with reasonable promptness. All
questions shall be decided by the architect whose decision shall be subject to
arbitration.

The amount retained by the owner shall be released 3 months after the date of the
final payment.

SECTION 7. CONTRACTOR-SEPARATE CONTRACTOR-SUB-CONTRACTOR


RELATIONSHIP
ARTICLE 23: SEPARATE CONTRACTS TO OTHER CONTRACTORS

Owner reserves the right to let other contractors in connection to the work.

ARTICLE 24: CONTRACTOR-SEPARATE CONTRACTORS RELATION

The contractor shall provide other contractors the opportunity for introduction and
storage of materials and shall properly connect and coordinate his work with theirs.

The contractor shall do the cutting, patching and fitting required of his work and must
be fit to be received by work of other contractors.

Any cost caused by defective work shall be born by the party responsible. The
contractor shall not endanger any work by cutting, etc. or cut and alter any work
done by the sub-contractor without the architects consent.

The contractor shall promptly inform the architect of any defects done by the subcontractors. His failure to inspect and report shall constitute an acceptance of proper
execution of work by the sub-contractor.

Should the contractor cause any damage of the work done by the sub-contractors,
both parties will settle as such by an agreement and relieve the owner of any liability,
which may arise there from.

ARTICLE 25: SUB-CONTRACTS

At least 15 days prior to the date of bidding, the contractor shall seek the architects
clarification as to which particular areas for which the competence of the subcontractor shall be subject to evaluation by the architect where after, the contractor
may submit a list of prospective sub-contractors for the architects approval.

The contractor is responsible for the acts of his sub-contractors and persons directly
employed by them.

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ARTICLE 26: CONTRACTOR-SUB-CONTRACTORS RELATIONS

The contractor agrees:


1. To be bound to the sub-contractor by all the obligations assumed by the
owner to the contractor under the contract documents.
2. To pay the sub-contractor, upon the payment of certificates.
3. To pay the sub-contractor, to such extent as may be provided by the contract
documents.
4. To pay the sub-contractor on demand for his work or materials as far as
executed and fixed in place less the retained percentage at the time the
certificate should be issued.
5. To pay the sub-contractor adjust share of any fire insurance money received
by the contractor.
6. To make no demand to the sub-contractor for liquidated damages or penalty
for delay in any sum in excess of the amount stated in the sub-contract.
7. To give the sub-contractor an opportunity to be present and to submit any
evidence in any arbitration involving his rights.

The sub-contractor agrees:


1. To be bound to the contractor by the terms of agreement in the contract
documents and to assume toward him all obligations assumed to him by the
owner.
2. To submit to the contractor application for payment in such reasonable time
as to enable the contractor to apply for payment.
3. To make all claims for extensions, extras, and for damages for delays to the
contractor.

The contractor and sub-contractor agree that their rights and obligations and all
procedure shall be analogous to those set forth in the contract.

SECTION 8. SUSPENSION OF WORK AND TERMINATION OF THE CONTRACT


People who can suspend work: owner and contractor
A. CONTRACTOR
1. Government stoppage of work
2. Non action of request
a. drawings
b. materials
c. inspection
3. Nonpayment of workers or materials

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B. OWNER
1. Bankruptcy declared by BIR
2. Insubordination not following orders
3. Non payment

ARTICLE 27: CONTRACTORS RIGHTS TO SUSPEND WORK OR TERMINATE


CONTRACT
The contractor may suspend or terminate work upon 15 days written notice to the
owner and architect for the following:
1. Order of court or public authority caused the work to stop or suspension for
90 days through no act of the contractor and employees.
2. If architect fails to act upon request for payment within 15 days after
presented.
3. If owner fails to act upon request for payment within 15 days after
presented.
4. If owner fails to pay the contractor within 30 days after its award by
arbitration.
ARTICLE 28: OWNERS RIGHT TO TERMINATE CONTRACT

The owner, upon certification of the architect justifying his action, may terminate the
contract with the contractor within 15 days written notice and surety of the
contractor if any and take possession of the premises, tools, materials, etc.

The owner shall terminate contract based on the following:


1. If contractor declares bankruptcy or assign assets to creditors.
2. Disregard or violate provisions of the contract documents or fail to prosecute
work according to schedule.
3. Fail to provide qualified superintendents, workman, sub-contractors and
materials.
4. Fail to make payments to sub-contractors, workmen and dealers.

ARTICLE 29: OWNERS RIGHT TO PROCEED AFTER WORK TAKEOVER FROM


CONTRACTOR

The contractor, upon receipt of notice of termination, shall vacate position and work
stated in the notice. All materials, equipment, etc. shall remain, at the option of the
architect, for completion of work.

The owner shall take over the work and proceed in administration.

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The architect will ascertain and fix the value of work completed by the contractor.
1. If expenditures of owner on completion of work including all charges prior to
termination of the contract are not in excess of the contract price, the
difference between total expenditures and contract price may be applied to
settle claims, and the balance may be paid to the contractor.
2. No amount in excess of the combined value of completed work, retained
percentage, and usable materials shall be paid.
3. In case of suspension of work, all unpaid work and expenses incurred during
suspension shall be evaluated by the architect and paid for by the owner.

The full extent of damage the contractor and/or his sureties shall be liable shall be:
1. Total daily liquidated damages until the date the owner takes over work.
2. Excess cost incurred by owner in completion of the project over the contract
price, which includes administrative services, supervision and inspection.

SECTION 9. RESPONSIBILITIES AND LIABILITIES OF CONTRACTOR AND OF


OWNER

Contractors Insurance And Bonds


1. Liability Insurance
2. Fire Insurance
3. Performance Bond and Payment Bond
a. Prior to signing of the contract, 15% of the Contractual amount
b. Will be released after the expiration of two (2) months from the final acceptance of
the work and only after the contractor furnished the owner a Guarantee Bond
4. Guarantee Bond
a. 30% of the Total Contract Cost
b. Period of one (1) year commencing from the date of acceptance as a guarantee that
all materials and workmanship installed under contract are of good quality

NOTES INVOLVING NUMBERS:

5 days
7 days
10 days

15 days

30 days

Means immediately
NTP notice to proceed
Request for materials and drawings
Notice (stop, begin or resume)
Money matters (request for inspection, payments,
salary and wages)
Arbitration

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90 days
120 days
365 days

3 years
15 years

Government stoppage
Building permit (stoppage)
Building permit (without construction)
3 Consecutive board examination failures
Guaranteed bond
Reinstatement
Renewal of license
Liability of architect to his project

ARTICLE 30: CONTRACTORS RESPONSIBILITY FOR ACCIDENTS AND DAMAGES

The contractor shall take necessary precautions for the safety of employees. The
contractor shall erect barriers, supports, braces, shoring, danger signs and
necessary safeguards to protect workmen from any accident and damage in the
consequence of his work.

The contractor shall designate a member of his organization whose duty shall be
prevention of accidents and damage to the owners property and adjoining property
and his name and position will be reported to the architect.

The owner shall not be responsible for the following:


1. Death of disease contracted by contractor or employees
2. Contractors plant or materials
3. Damages caused by the contractor to any property of the owner and
adjoining property
All damages are the contractors responsibility.

The contractor shall indemnify and save harmless the owner against all losses and
claims, demands, payments, suits, actions, recoveries and judgment brought or
recovered against him. Claims for payment and repairs for damages shall be settled
by the contractor at his own expense.

ARTICLE 31: CONTRACTORS INSURANCE AND BONDS

The contractor shall secure and maintain such insurance from a company acceptable
to the owner. He shall not commence work until he has obtained insurance and shall
have filed the certificate of insurance or the certified copy of the insurance policy to
the owner. The policy will not be cancelled prior to 10 days written notice to the
owner of intention to cancel.

The contractor shall furnish a performance bond of equal to 15% of the contract
amount and 15% payment bond covering payments and obligations arising from
the contract, as form of sureties for the owner and will remain in effect until replaced
by the guarantee bond.

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The owner will release the performance and payment bonds after the expiration of 2
months from the final acceptance of work. Only after shall the contractor furnish a
guarantee bond in the amount of 30% of the total contract cost and shall be for a
period of 1 year commencing from the date of acceptance of work guaranteeing the
quality of work and materials.

Contractors guarantee-warranty:
1. The contractor shall secure warranties from sub-contractors and deliver
copies to the owner upon completion of work.
2. The contractor shall warrant all work performed by him where guarantee is
required.
3. The contractor shall warrant and guarantee for a period of 1 year or for
longer periods so provided in the specs all materials and workmanship
installed under the contract.
4. The contractor hereby agrees to make repairs to correct defective work within
a period of 5 days after written notice at his own expense within the agreed
period of warranty.
5. The owner may have the defective work done and charge the cost against
the amount retained, if the work costs more than the retained amount, the
contractor and his sureties will pay the remaining balance.

ARTICLE 32: OWNERS RESPONSIBILITIES AND LIABILITIES

The owner, although optional, shall be responsible and maintain such insurance to
protect him from personal injury including disease and death of persons under his
employment, etc.

The owner and architect shall give a list of personnel assigned to the project who
need to be covered by insurance and amount of coverage.

ARTICLE 33: LIENS, DISPUTE AND ARBITRATION

Before release of the final payment and retained percentage, the contractor must
deliver to the owner a complete release of all liens arising out of the contract, or
receipts in full lieu.

Assignment:
1. The contract shall not be assigned by the contractor without prior written
consent of the owner and such consent shall not relieve the contractor from
responsibility and liability of all terms and conditions of the contract.
2. The owners consent of sub-letting of work shall; not be granted until the
contractor furnishes the owner with evidence that the sub-contractor has
ample insurance to the same extent.

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3. The contractor shall exonerate, indemnify and save harmless the owner form
any loss and expense caused by sub-letting.
4. In case of transfer without previous consent, the owner may refuse to carry
out the contract, but rights to breach the contract is reserved to the owner
and the contractor.

Claim for damages shall be made in writing to the party liable within a reasonable
time and not later than the final payment and shall be adjusted by agreement or
arbitration.

Disputes:
1. The architect shall make decisions on all claims of owner and contractor on
all matters relating to the progress and execution of work or interpretation of
contract documents.
2. The architect, whose decision is final, will decide disputes, concerning
questions of fact arising under the contract.
3. if the architect fails to render a decision within 15 days after parties
presented their evidence, either party may demand arbitration.

All disputes, claims, questions subject to arbitration shall be settled in accordance


with the provisions of this UAP document.

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THE NATIONAL BUILDING CODE


OF THE PHILIPPINES (P.D.1096)

86

THE NATIONAL BUILDING CODE


OF THE PHILIPPINES
The 2004 Revised IMPLEMENTING RULES AND REGULATIONS (IRR)
of P.D. 1096
RULE I - GENERAL PROVISIONS
SECTION 101. Title - Revised Implementing Rules and Regulations of the National
Building Code of the Philippines (P.D. 1096) ; referred to as the IRR.
SECTION 102. Declaration of Policy
SECTION 103. Scope and Application refers to the disciplines and conformation
to the code.
SECTION 104. General Building Requirements conformation to safety building
requirements.
SECTION 105. Site Requirements - The land or site upon which will be constructed
any building or structure shall be sanitary, hygienic or safe.
SECTION 106. Definitions

ADDITION Any new construction which increases the height and/or floor
area of existing buildings/structures.

AGENCY OF THE GOVERNMENT Refers to any of the various units of the


government including a department, bureau, office, instrumentality, or
government owned or controlled corporation.

ALTERATION Works in buildings/structures involving changes in the


materials used, partitioning, location/size of openings, structural parts,
existing utilities and equipment but does not increase the building height
and/or floor area.

APPLICATION FORMS A preformatted prescribed application form duly


accomplished and notarized by the respective design professional with
validation matrices related to other building rules and regulations.

APPLICANT/ PERMITTEE Any person, firm, partnership, corporation, head


of government or private institution, organization of any character applying for
the issuance of permits and certificates.

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BUILDING OFFICAL the Executive Officer of the OBO appointed by the


Secretary.

BUILDING PERMIT A document issued by the Building Official (BO) to an


owner/applicant to proceed with the construction, installation, addition,
alteration, renovation, conversion, repair, moving, demolition or other work
activity of a specific project/building/structure or portions thereof after the
accompanying principal plans, specifications and other pertinent documents
with the duly notarized application are found satisfactory and substantially
conforming with the National Building Code of the Philippines (the Code) and
its Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR).

CODE PD 1096, otherwise known as the National Building Code of the


Philippines.

CONSTRUCTION All on-site work done in the site preparation, excavation,


foundation, assembly of all the components and installation of utilities,
machineries and equipment of buildings/structures.

CONVERSION A change in the use or occupancy of buildings/structures or


any portion/s thereof, which has different requirements.

DEMOLITION The systematic


building/structure, in whole or in part.

DEPARTMENT The Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH).

EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR The Executive Officer or Head of the NBCDO

MOVING The transfer of buildings/structures or portion/s thereof from


original location or position to another, either within the same lot or to a
different one.

OFFICE OF THE BUILDING OFFICIAL (OBO) The Office authorized to


enforce the provisions of the Code and its IRR in the field as well as the
enforcement of orders and decisions made pursuant thereto.

REFERRAL CODES The applicable provisions of the various agency and


technical professional codes that are supplementary to the Code.

RENOVATION Any physical change made on buildings/structures to


increase the value, quality, and/or to improve the aesthetic.

REPAIR Remedial work done on any damaged or deteriorated portion/s of


building/structure to restore to its original condition.

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dismantling

or

destruction

of

SECRETARY Head or Chief Executive Officer of DPWH.

STAFF The personnel of the National Building Code Development Office


(NBCDO).

RULE II - ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT


SECTION 201. Responsibility for Administration and Enforcement vested on
the Secretary.
SECTION 202. Technical Staff
SECTION 203. General Powers and Functions of the Secretary
1. Formulate policies, plans, standards and guidelines on building design,
construction, use, occupancy and maintenance.
2. Issue and promulgate additional rules and regulations in the form of Memorandum
Circulars.
3. Exercise appellate jurisdiction over the decisions and orders of the Building
Official.
4. Evaluate, review, approve and/or take final action on changes and/or
amendments to existing Referral Codes.
5. Prescribe and impose the amount of fees and other charges as may be deemed
necessary.
6. Appoint a Building Official.
SECTION 204. Professional and Technical Assistance

The Secretary may secure professional, technical, scientific and other


services including testing laboratories and facilities.
He may also engage and compensate within available appropriations.

SECTION 205. Building Officials - responsible for carrying out the provisions of the
Code in the field as well as the enforcement of orders and decisions made pursuant
thereto.

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SECTION 206. Qualifications of Building Officials


1. A Filipino citizen and Good Moral Character
2. Duly registered Architect or Civil Engineer
3. Member of Accredited organization of not less than 2 years
4. At least 5 years diversified experience in building design and construction
SECTION 207. Duties of the Building Official
1. Be primarily responsible for the enforcement of the provisions of the Code
and its IRR.
2. Have overall administrative control and/or supervision over all works
pertinent to buildings/structures in his area of responsibility.
3. Ensure that all changes, modifications, and alterations in the design plans
during the construction phase shall not start until the modified design
plan has been evaluated and the necessary amendatory permit issued.
4. Undertake annual inspections of all buildings/structures.
5. Upon complaint or motu proprio and after due notice/s and hearing, initiate
action towards:
a. Non-issuance
b. work stoppage order, order for discontinuance
c. Declaration
d. Imposition
6. Submit a quarterly situational report.
7. Undertake such other duties and tasks
SECTION 208. Fees
SECTION 209. Exemptions of bldg. Permit
1. Public Buildings
2. Traditional Indigenous Family
Dwellings native materials
Cost doesnt exceed P15,000

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SECTION 210. Use of Income from Fees


1. Recording of Collections - the Building Official keeps a permanent
record and account of all fees and charges.
2. Disposition of Collections
SECTION 211. Implementing Rules and Regulations - the Secretary shall
formulate necessary rules and regulations and adopt design and construction
standards and criteria for buildings and other structures. Takes effect after
their publication once a week for three consecutive weeks in a newspaper
of general circulation.
SECTION 212. Administrative Fines impose fines maximum of Php 10,000.00
1. Imposition of Administrative Fines
2. Determination of Amount of Fines
i. Light Violations - Failure to post Certificate of Occupancy/ Use/
Operation, Failure to post Building Permit construction
information sign, etc.
ii. Less Grave Violations - Non-compliance with the work stoppage
order, etc.
iii. Grave Violations - Non-compliance with order to abate or demolish,
Unauthorized change, modification or alteration during
construction in the duly submitted plans and specifications on
which the building permit is based, etc.
Penalty:
Excavation for
foundation.. -10% of the building permit fees
Construction of foundation (including pile
driving and laying of reinforcing bars)-25% of the building permit fees
Construction of superstructure up to 2.00
meters above established grade.. .-50% of the building permit fees
Construction of superstructure above
2.00 meters. -100% of the building permit fees
Failure to pay annual inspection fee within 30 days - a surcharge of 25% of
inspection

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SECTION 213. Penal Provisions - (CORP. OR FIRM) maximum of P20,000 or


imprisonment not more than 2 years.
SECTION 214. Dangerous and Ruinous Buildings or Structures - are structurally
unsafe or not provided with safe egress, or which constitute a fire hazard, or are
otherwise dangerous to human life, or which in relation to existing use, constitute a
hazard to safety or health or public welfare.
SECTION 215. Abatement of Dangerous Buildings
1. Structural Hazards
2. Fire Hazards
3. Unsafe Electrical Wiring
4. Unsafe Mechanical Installation
5. Inadequate Sanitation/Plumbing and Health Facilities
6. Architectural Deficiency
SECTION 216. Other Remedies - procedure for abatement/ demolition of
dangerous/ ruinous buildings/Structures.

Written notice - at least fifteen (15) days to vacate, repaired,


renovated, etc.

RULE III - PERMITS AND INSPECTION


SECTION 301. Building Permits - Permits supplementary to a Building Permit shall
be applied for and issued by the Building Official.
These include Ancillary and the Accessory Permits.
a. Ancillary Permits
i. Architectural Permit
ii. Civil/Structural Permit
iii. Electrical Permit
iv. Mechanical Permit
v. Sanitary Permit
vi. Plumbing Permit
vii. Electronics Permit

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b. Accessory Permits
Examples:

bank and records vaults


swimming pools
firewalls separate from the building/structure
towers;
etc.

Exemption From Building Permits:


a. Minor Constructions
i. Sheds, outhouses, greenhouses, childrens playhouses, aviaries,
poultry houses, etc., not exceeding 6.00 sq. meters in total area.
ii. Addition of open terraces or patios resting directly on the ground,
not exceeding 20.00 sq. meters in total floor area.
iii. Installation of window grilles.
iv. Garden pools for the habitation of water plants and/or aquarium fish
not exceeding 500 millimeters in depth.
v. Garden masonry walls other than party walls not exceeding 1.20
meters in height, footpaths, residential garden walks and/or driveways.
b. Repair Works
SECTION 302. Application for Permits
1. A description of work to be covered by the permit
2. Description and ownership of the lot TCT
3. The use or occupancy of proposed work
4. Estimated cost of proposed work
*with 5 sets of plans & specifications min.
a. Geodetic Engineer, in case of lot survey plans;
b. Architect - architectural documents; in case of architectural
interior/interior design documents, either an architect or interior
designer may sign.
c. Civil Engineer - civil/structural documents.

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d. Professional Electrical Engineer - electrical documents.


e. Professional Mechanical Engineer - mechanical documents
f. Sanitary Engineer - sanitary documents
g. Master Plumber - plumbing documents
SECTION 304. Issuance of Bldg. Permit
15 days upon payment

SECTION 305. Validity of Building Permits


Null & Void not commenced in a period of 1 year
Abandoned work for 120 days

SECTION 306. Non-issuance, Suspension & Revocation


1. Errors found in plans & specifications
2. Incorrect or inaccurate data supplied
3. Non-compliance with the provisions of the code (NBC)

SECTION 307. Appeal


Filing 15 days from suspension/non-issuance

SECTION 308. Inspection and Supervision of Work


Upon completion of the construction, the said licensed architect or civil
engineer shall submit the logbook, duly signed and sealed, to the Building
Official. He shall also prepare and submit a Certificate of Completion of the
project stating that the construction of building conforms to the provisions of
the Code as well as with the approved plans and specifications.
SECTION 309. Certificate of Occupancy
Bldg. Official issues Certificate of Occupancy 30 days after final inspection
& submittal of Certificate of Completion

RULE IV: TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION (SECTION 401)


SECTION 401. Types of Construction
Type I Wood Construction
Type II Wood Construction w/ fire resistant materials (1 hr. fire resistive)
Type III Masonry & Wood Const. (1 hr. fire resistive)

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Type IV Steel, Iron, Concrete or Masonry Construction


Type V Fire Resistive
SECTION 402. Changes in Types
No change shall be made in the type of construction of any building which
would place the building in a different sub- type or type of construction unless
such building is made to comply with the requirements for such sub- type of
construction: Except, when the changes is approved by the Building Official
upon showing that the new or proposed construction is less hazardous, based
on life and fire risk, than the existing construction.
SECTION 403. Requirements on Type of Construction
1. Fire Resistive Requirements
2. Interior Wall and Ceiling Finishes
3. Standards for materials use in structural framework, exterior walls and
openings, floors, exits, stairs & roofs shall be governed by the pertinent
provision of the Fire Code of the Philippines.

RULE V: REQUIREMENTS FOR FIRE ZONES


SECTION 501. Fire Zones Defined
Fire zones are areas within which only certain types of buildings/structures
are permitted to be constructed based on their use or occupancy, type of
construction, and resistance to fire.
SECTION 502. Buildings Located in More Than One Fire Zone
A building/structure which is located partly in one (1) fire zone and partly in
another shall be considered to be in the more highly restrictive fire zone,
when more than one third (1/3) of its total floor area is located in such zone.
SECTION 503. Moved Buildings
1. Any building/structure moved within or into any fire zone shall be made to
comply with all the requirements for buildings/structures in that fire zone.
2. This shall also apply to pre-engineered or pre-fabricated
buildings/structures that may be dismantled and re-assembled.
SECTION 504. Temporary Building/Structures
1. Temporary buildings such as reviewing stands and other miscellaneous
structures conforming to the requirements of the Code, and sheds,
canopies and fences used for the protection of the public around and in
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conjunction with construction work, may be erected in the fire zones by


special permit from the Building Official for a limited period of time, and
such buildings or structures shall be completely removed upon the
expiration of the time limit stated in such permits.
2. Erection of temporary buildings/structures to be located in restrictive and
highly restrictive zones and which do not conform with the type of
construction allowed or permitted within such zones may be allowed by
the Building Official for a given period of time provided that, fire
protective/preventive measures and fire suppression facilities are
adequate.
SECTION 505. Center Lines of Streets
The center line of adjoining street or alley may be considered an adjacent
property line. Distances shall be measured at right angles to the street or
alley.
SECTION 506. Restrictions of Existing Buildings
Existing buildings or structures in fire zones that do not comply with the
requirements for a new building erected therein shall not hereafter be
enlarged, altered, remodeled, repaired or moved.
SECTION 507. Designation of Fire Zones
The legislative body of the LGU may enact ordinances for the purpose of
designating fire zones based on the parameters and guidelines set forth in
this Section.
1. Designation of Fire Zones is purposely for management, prevention,
control and suppression of conflagration that may occur in population
centers. The designation of fire zones is as follows:
a. Non-Fire Restricted Zones: These are areas where siting of
buildings/structures are permitted without fire-resistivity measures, often
located in the country sides or rural areas where commercial and industrial
and other buildings are sparsely constructed, or may be clustered in small
groups like farm lands wherein dwellings are built of indigenous materials
such as bamboo, sawali, nipa, cogon, palm leaves and wood up to Types I
and II Construction as classified in Section 401 of the Code.
b. Fire Restrictive Zones: Areas wherein siting of buildings/structures are
permitted within prescribed fire-resistivity measures for exterior walls of at
least two-hour fire resistivity. Usual locations in suburban areas are
permitted to be built with at least one-hour fireresistivity throughout as
Types II, III to IV Constructions as prescribed in Section 401 of the Code.

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c. Highly Fire Restrictive Zones: Areas wherein highly fire- resistive or noncombustible buildings/structures and/or construction assemblies of no less
than three to four-hour fireresistive construction materials are used
throughout, including exterior walls. Only Types IV and V Constructions are
permitted in the areas.

RULE VI: FIRE-RESISTIVE REQUIREMENTS IN CONSTRUCTION


SECTION 601. Fire Resistive Rating
Fire-resistive rating means the degree to which a material can withstand fire
as determined by generally recognized and accepted testing methods.
SECTION 602. Fire Resistive Time Period Rating
Fire-resistive time period rating is the length of time a material can
withstand being burned which may be one- hour, two- hours, four- hours, etc.
SECTION 603. Fire Resistive Standards
All materials of construction and type of materials and assemblies or
combinations thereof shall conform to the following fire-resistive ratings:

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SECTION 604. Fire Resistive Regulations


The Secretary shall prescribe standards and promulgate rules and regulations
on the testing of construction materials for flame-spread characteristics, tests
on fire damages, fire tests of building construction and materials, door
assemblies and tinclad fire doors and window assemblies, the installation of
fire doors and windows and smoke and fire detectors for fire protective
signaling system, application and use of controlled interior finish, fire-resistive
protection for structural members, fireresistive walls and partitions, fireresistive floor or roof ceiling, fire-resistive assemblies for protection of
openings and fire-retardant roof coverings.

RULE VII: CLASSIFICATION & GENERAL REQUIREMENT OF ALL


BUILDINGS BY USE OR OCCUPANCY
SECTION 701. Occupancy Classified
There are 10 Groups of Occupancies sub-divided into 25 Divisions. The
accompanying matrix shows the Groupings and Divisions and the
corresponding uses. The final column indicates the Zoning Classification.

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SECTION 702. Change in use


No change shall be made in the character of occupancy or use of any building
which would place the building in a different division of the same group of
occupancy or in a different group of occupancies, unless such building is
made to comply with the requirements of the Code for such division or group
of occupancy. The character of occupancy of existing buildings may be
changed subject to the approval of the Building Official and the building may
be occupied for purposes set forth in other Groups: Provided the new or
proposed use is less hazardous, based on life and fire risk, than the existing
use.
SECTION 703. Mixed Occupanc
1. General Requirements
When a building is of mixed occupancy or used for more than one
occupancy, the whole building shall be subject to the most restrictive
requirement pertaining to any of the type of occupancy.
2. Forms of Occupancy Separation
Occupancy separations shall be vertical or horizontal or both, or when
necessary, of such other forms as may be required to afford a complete
separation between the various occupancy divisions in the building.
3. Types of Occupancy Separation
Occupancy separation shall be classified as One-Hour Fire-Resistive,
Two-Hour Fire-Resistive, Three-Hour Fire-Resistive and Four-Hour
Fire-Resistive.
4. Types of Occupancy Separation
Occupancy separation shall be classified as One-Hour Fire-Resistive,
Two-Hour Fire-Resistive, Three-Hour Fire-Resistive and Four-Hour
Fire-Resistive.
SECTION 704. Location on Property
1. General
a. No building shall be constructed unless it adjoins or has direct access to a
public space, yard or street on at least one of its sides.
b. For the purpose of this Section, the centerline of an adjoining street or
alley shall be considered an adjacent property line.
a. Eaves over required windows shall not be less than 750 millimeters from
the side and rear property lines.
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2. Fire Resistance of Walls


Exterior walls shall have fire resistance and opening protection in
accordance with the requirements set forth by the Secretary. Projections
beyond the exterior wall shall not exceed beyond a point one-third the
distance from an assumed vertical plane located where the fireresistive
protection of openings is first required to the location on property
whichever is the least restrictive. Distance shall be measured at right
angles from the property line. When openings in exterior walls are
required to be protected due to distance from property line, the sum of the
areas of such openings in any storey shall not exceed 50% of the total
area of the wall in that storey.
3. Buildings on Same Property and Buildings Containing Courts For the
purpose of determining the required wall and opening protection, buildings
on the same property and court walls shall be assumed to have a property
line between them. When a new building is to be erected on the same
property with an existing building, the assumed property line from the
existing building shall be the distance to the property line for each
occupancy as set forth by the Secretary; Provided, that two or more
buildings on the same property may be considered as one building if the
aggregate area of such building is within the limits of allowable floor areas
for a single building, and when the buildings so considered, house
different occupancies or are of different types of construction, the area
shall be that allowed for the most restrictive occupancy or construction.
4. Building Footprint and Firewall Requirements
SECTION 705. Allowable Floor Areas
General. The Allowable Maximum Total Gross Floor Area (TGFA) of any
proposed building/structure shall only be as allowed under this Rule.
SECTION 706. Allowable Floor Area Increases
The floor areas hereinabove provided may be increased in certain specific
instances and under appropriate conditions, based on the existence of public
space, streets or yards extending along and adjoining two or more sides of
the building or structure subject to the approval of the Building Official.
SECTION 707. Maximum Height of Buildings
1. The maximum height and number of storeys of proposed building shall be
dependent upon the character of use or occupancy and the type of
construction, considering end-user population density, light and
ventilation, width of RROW/streets particularly of its roadway/carriageway
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component, building bulk, off-street cum off-site parking requirements, etc.


and in relation to local land use plan and zoning regulations as well as
other environmental considerations, e.g., geological, hydrological,
meteorological, topographical, prevailing traffic conditions, the availability
and capacity of public utility/service systems, etc.
2. Determination of Building Height:
BUILDING HEIGHT LIMIT (BHL) - the maximum height to be allowed for
buildings/structures based on their proposed use or occupancy.
Notes:
a. Establishing Grade
- In case of sloping grade where the edges of the building footprint (AMBF)
running perpendicular to the RROW has a difference in elevation of less than
3.00 meters, the highest adjoining natural grade (ground surface) or finished
grade (sidewalk surface) shall be considered the established grade elevation
(Figure VII.1.);
- In case of sloping grade where the edges of the building footprint (AMBF)
running perpendicular to the RROW has a difference in elevation of more
than 3.00 meters, the average grade level of the building footprint (AMBF)
shall be considered the established grade elevation (see Figure VII.3.); and
- The building/structure height shall be measured from the highest adjoining
public sidewalk (finished grade) or ground surface (natural grade); Provided,
that the height measured from the lowest adjoining surface shall not exceed
such maximum height by more than 3.00 meters; Except, that towers, spires
and steeples, erected as parts of the building and not used for habitation or
storage are limited as to the height only by structural design, if completely of
incombustible materials, or may extend but not exceed 6.00 meters above the
prescribed building height limit (BHL) for each occupancy group, if of
combustible materials (Figures VII.2.).

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HEIGHT OF BUILDING / STRUCTURE


Annotation. The height of buildings should also be generally proportional to its
base/footprint. In practice, a smaller footprint cum taller profile for a building is
resorted to in order to preserve as much of the open space within a lot (or
surrounding the building) as much as possible.
3. Other Considerations in Height Determination
a. The designer/space planner must consider both the present and projected
population density within the project site and in the projects location/area
at full
completion/operation of the project
b. The height of proposed buildings/structures shall also be governed by the
following RROWbased limitations:
i. If only one (1) RROW services a lot and such is only 6.00 to 7.00 meters
wide, a BHL of three (3) storeys (or 9.00 meters maximum) shall be
observed regardless of use or occupancy, lot size, lot dimensions, lot
frontage and like considerations.
ii. If only one (1) RROW services a lot and such is only 4.00 to 5.00 meters
wide, a BHL equivalent to 2 storeys (or 7.50 meters maximum) shall be
observed regardless of use or occupancy, lot size, lot dimensions, lot
frontage and like considerations. If only one (1) RROW services a lot and
such is only 3.00 meters wide or less, a BHL equivalent to two (2) storeys
(or 6.00 meters maximum) shall be observed regardless of use or
occupancy, lot size, lot dimensions, lot frontage and like considerations.
iii. Taller buildings are allowed for duly approved high-density developments
such as Planned Unit Development (PUD) areas. Taller and bulkier
buildings are better suited in such areas due to higher end-user targets,
more advanced and coordinated planning efforts and the application of
more stringent development controls (DC) by the project proponents
themselves.
c. The following factors shall also be considered in the determination of the
building height:
i. Soil characteristics, lot location in relation to fault lines and earthquake
belts or proximity to volcanoes and other geological conditions.
ii. Hydrological conditions such as the water table at the site and distance to
waterways and shorelines.

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iii. Meteorological conditions such as the frequency and intensity of


destructive typhoons/monsoon winds/rains, prevailing wind speed and
direction, relative humidity, amount of precipitation and the prevailing
ambient conditions.
d. In accordance with the Standards and Recommended Practices (SARP)
of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) where the
Philippines is a member state and of Administrative Order No. 5 (Civil Air
Regulation) of the Air Transportation Office (ATO), the following rules and
regulations shall govern the construction of buildings/structures within the
24.00 kilometer radius of aerodromes where turbo-jet aircraft operate and
within the 10.00 kilometer radius of aerodromes where no turbo-jet aircraft
operate.
4. Parking Slot, Parking Area and Loading/Unloading Space Requirements
a. The parking slot, parking area and loading/unloading space requirements
listed hereafter are generally the minimum off-street cum on-site
requirements for specific uses/occupancies for buildings/structures, i.e., all
to be located outside of the road right-of-way (RROW).
b. The size of an average automobile (car) parking slot must be computed at
2.50 meters by 5.00 meters for perpendicular or diagonal parking and at
2.15 meters by 6.00 meters for parallel parking. A standard truck or bus
parking/loading slot must be computed at a minimum of 3.60 meters by
12.00 meters. An articulated truck slot must be computed at a minimum of
3.60 meters by 18.00 meters which should be sufficient to accommodate a
12.00 meters container van or bulk carrier and a long/hooded prime
mover. A jeepney or shuttle parking/loading/unloading slot must be
computed at a minimum of 3.00 meters by 9.00 meters. The parking slots
shall be drawn to scale and the total number of which shall be indicated on
the plans and specified whether or not parking accommodations are
attendant-managed.
c. The parking space ratings listed below are minimum off-street/offRROW cum on-site requirements for specific uses/occupancies for
buildings/structures, i.e., all to be located outside of the road right-of-way
(RROW):
SECTION 708. Minimum Requirements for Group A Dwellings
1. Dwelling Location and Lot Occupancy
The dwelling shall occupy not more than 90% of a corner lot and 80% of
an inside lot, and subject to the provisions on Easements of Light and
View of the Civil Code of Philippines, shall be at least 2.00 meters from
the property line.
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2. Light and Ventilation


Every dwelling shall be so constructed and arranged as to provide
adequate light and ventilation as provided under Section 805 to Section
811 of the Code.
3. Sanitation
Every dwelling shall be provided with at least one sanitary toilet and
adequate washing and drainage facilities.
4. Foundation
Footings shall be of sufficient size and strength to support the load of the
dwelling and shall be at least 250 millimeters thick and 600 millimeters
below the surface of the ground.
5. Post
The dimensions of wooden posts shall be those found in Table VII.5.:
Dimensions of Wooden Posts. Each post shall be anchored to such
footing by straps and bolts of adequate size.
6. Floor
The live load of the first floor shall be at least 200 kilograms per sq. meter
and for the second floor, at least 150 kilograms per sq. meter.
7. Roof
The wind load for roofs shall be at least 120 kilograms per sq. meter for
vertical projection.
8. Stairs
Stairs shall be at least 750 millimeters in clear width, with a rise of 200
millimeters and a minimum run of 200 millimeters.
9. Entrance and Exit
There shall be at least one entrance and another one for exit.
10. Electrical Requirements
All electrical installations shall conform to the requirements of the
Philippine Electrical Code.
11. Mechanical Requirements
Mechanical systems and/or equipment installations shall be subject to the
requirements of the Philippine Mechanical Engineering Code.

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SECTION 709. Requirements for Other Group Occupancies


Subject to the provisions of the Code, the Secretary shall promulgate rules
and regulations for each of the other Group Occupancies covering: allowable
construction, height, and area; location on property, exit facilities, light and
ventilation, sanitation; enclosures of vertical openings; fire extinguishing
systems; and special hazards

RULE VIII: LIGHT AND VENTILATION


SECTION 801. General Requirements of Light and Ventilation
1. Subject to the provisions of the Civil Code of the Philippines on
Easements of Light and View, and to the specific provisions of the Code,
every building shall be designed, constructed, and equipped to provide
adequate light and ventilation.
2. All buildings shall face a street or public alley or a private street which has
been duly approved.
3. No building shall be altered nor arranged so as to reduce the size of any
room or the relative area of windows to less than that provided for
buildings under this Rule, or to create an additional room, unless such
additional room conforms to the requirements of this Rule.
4. No building shall be enlarged so that the dimensions of the required court
or yard would be less than what is prescribed for such building lot.
SECTION 802. Measurement of Site Occupancy
1. The measurement of site occupancy or lot occupancy shall be taken at the
ground level and shall be exclusive of courts, yards, and light wells.
2. Courts, yards, and light wells shall be measured clear of all projections
from the walls enclosing such wells or yards with the exception of roof
leaders, wall copings, sills, or steel fire escapes not exceeding 1.20
meters in width.
SECTION 803. Percentage of Site Occupancy
1. The measurement of the percentage (%) of site occupancy (or lot
occupancy) shall be taken at the ground level and shall be exclusive of
courts, yards and light wells. Courts, yards, and light wells shall be
measured clear of all projections from the walls enclosing such wells or

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yards with the exception of roof leaders, wall copings, sills, or steel fire
escapes not exceeding 1.20 meters in width.
SECTION 804. Sizes and Dimensions of Courts
1. Minimum sizes of courts and yards and their least dimensions shall be
governed by the use, type of construction, and height of the building as
provided hereunder, provided that the minimum horizontal dimension of
said courts and yards shall be not less than 2.00 meters. All inner courts
shall be connected to a street or yard, either by a passageway with a
minimum width of 1.20 meters or by a door through a room or rooms.
2. The required open space shall be located totally or distributed anywhere
within the lot in such a manner as to provide maximum light and ventilation
into the building. (Figures VIII.12. through VIII.15.)
3. YARD - the required open space left between the outermost face of the
building/structure and the property lines, e.g., front, rear, right and left side
yards. The width of the yard is the setback. Yards prescribed for
Commercial,
For all firewalls (particularly those above 3.0 m in height), great care should
be taken when such firewalls face the south or southwest i.e. facing the
southwest monsoon (habagat) winds which are wet and destructive i.e. the
firewalls may also be generally subjected to rain for up to six to eight (6-8)
months annually. In such a situation, firewall gutters are strongly suggested to
prevent the firewall water from flooding the adjoining properties. A better
option is to set back the firewall by up to 0.60 m to create a drainage channel
as well as a firewall maintenance space i.e. for painting and general repair
work. When the latter solution is adopted, an endwall is created instead.
Annotation: The separation walls are actually firewalls (particularly if these are
above 3.0 m in height or above the roof lines of the buildings). A better option
is to set back the firewall by up to 0.60 m to create a drainage channel as well
as a firewall maintenance space i.e. for painting and general repair work.
When the said solution is adopted, endwalls are created instead.
The incremental setbacks are not intended for adoption as architectural
design standards. These are only tools to limit floor area generation using
climatic conditions as bases. The actual design solution may actually have a
different configuration that must however match the limit prescribed by the
incremental setbacks.
The 0.40 m height of the firewall above the roof lines of the buildings is an
absolute minimum. Only the flashing may be allowed to cross over to the
other side of the firewall for anchorage purposes.

106

SECTION 805. Ceiling Heights


1. Habitable rooms provided with artificial ventilation shall have ceiling
heights not less than 2.40 meters measured from the floor to the ceiling;
provided that for buildings of more than one (1) storey, the minimum
ceiling height of the first storey shall be 2.70 meters and that for the
second story 2.40 meters and the succeeding stories shall have an
unobstructed typical head-room clearance of not less than 2.10 meters
above the finished floor. Abovestated rooms with natural ventilation shall
have ceiling heights of not less than 2.70 meters.
2. Mezzanine floors shall have a clear ceiling height not less than 1.80 meters
above and below it.
SECTION 806. Sizes and Dimensions of Rooms
1. Minimum sizes of rooms and their least horizontal dimensions shall be as
follows:
a. Rooms for Human Habitations - 6.00 sq. meters with a least dimension of
2.00 meters;
b. Kitchen - 3.00 sq. meters with a least dimension of 1.50 meters; and
c. Bath and toilet - 1.20 sq. meters with a least dimension of 900 millimeters.
SECTION 807. Air Space Requirements in Determining the Size of Rooms
1. Minimum air space shall be provided as follows:
a. School Rooms - 3.00 cu. meters with 1.00 sq. meter of floor area per
person;
b. Workshop, Factories, and Offices - 12.00 cu. meters of air space per
person; and
c. Habitable Rooms - 14.00 cu. meters of air space per person.
SECTION 808. Window Openings
1. Rooms intended for any use, not provided with artificial ventilation system,
shall be provided with a window or windows with a total free area of
openings equal to at least 10% of the floor area of the room, provided that
such opening shall be not less than 1.00 sq. meter. However, toilet and
bath rooms, laundry rooms and similar rooms shall be provided with
window or windows with an area not less than 1/20 of the floor area of
such rooms, provided that such opening shall not be less than 240 sq.
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millimeters. Such window or windows shall open directly to a court, yard,


public street or alley, or open watercourse.
2. Required windows may open into a roofed porch where the porch:
a. Abuts a court, yard, public street or alley, or open watercourse and other
public open spaces;
b. Has a ceiling height of not less than 2.70 meters;
c. Has one of the longer sides at least 65% open and unobstructed.
3. Eaves, canopies, awnings (or media agua) over required windows shall
not be less than 750 millimeters from the side and rear property lines.
4. There shall absolutely be no openings on/at/within/through all types of
abutments (such as firewalls) erected along property lines except for
permitted vent wells. This Rule strictly applies to all new and existing
developments.
5. In locating window openings it should be borne in mind that in cases of
extreme emergencies windows must serve as emergency egress to
vacate the premises or access for rescue operations. Such windows shall
meet the following requirements:
a. They can be opened from the inside without the use of any tools;
b. The minimum clear opening shall have a width not less than 820
millimeters and a height of 1 meter;
c. The bottom of the opening should not be more than 820 millimeters from
the floor;
d. Where storm shutters, screens or iron grilles are used, these shall be
provided with quick opening mechanism so that they can be readily
opened from the inside for emergency egress and shall be so designed
that when opened they will not drop to the ground;
e. All areas immediately outside a fire exit window/grille must be free of
obstacles and must lead to a direct access down into the ground or street
level.
SECTION 809. Vent Shafts
1. Ventilation or vent shafts shall have a horizontal cross-sectional area of
not less than 1.00 sq. meter for every meter of height of shaft but in no
case shall the area be less than 1.00 sq. meter. No vent shaft shall have
its least dimension less than 600 millimeters.
2. Unless open to the outer air at the top for its full area, vent shafts shall be
covered by a skylight having a net free area or fixed louver openings equal
to the maximum required shaft area.
3. Air ducts shall open to a street or court by a horizontal duct or intake.
Such duct or intake shall have a minimum unobstructed cross-sectional
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area of not less than 0.30 sq. meter with a minimum dimension of 300
millimeters. The openings to the duct or intake shall be not less than 300
millimeters above the street surface or level of court.
SECTION 810. Ventilation Skylights
1. Ventilation skylights shall have a glass area not less than that required for
the windows that are replaced. They shall be equipped with movable
sashes or louvers with an aggregate net free area not less than the parts
in the replaced window that can be opened, or else provide artificial
ventilation of equivalent effectiveness.
SECTION 811. Artificial Ventilation
1. Rooms or spaces housing industrial or heating equipment shall be
provided with artificial means of ventilation to prevent excessive
accumulation of hot and/or polluted air.
2. Whenever artificial ventilation is required, the equipment shall be designed
to meet the following minimum requirements in air changes as shown in
Table VIII.4. of the NBC

RULE IX: SANITATION


SECTION 901. General Requirements
Subject to the provisions of Book II of the Civil Code of the Philippines on
Property, Ownership, and its Modification, all buildings hereafter erected,
altered, remodeled, relocated or repaired for human habitation shall be
provided with adequate and potable water supply, plumbing installation, and
suitable wastewater treatment or disposal system, storm water drainage, pest
and vermin control, noise abatement device, and such other measures
required for the protection and promotion of health of persons occupying the
premises and others living nearby.
SECTION 902. Water Supply System
The quality of drinking water from meteoric, surface or underground sources
shall conform to the criteria set in the latest approved National Standards for
Drinking Water Standards.
SECTION 903. Wastewater Disposal System
Sanitary sewage from buildings and neutralized or pre-treated industrial
wastewater shall be discharged directly into the nearest street sanitary sewer
main of existing municipal or city sanitary sewerage system in accordance

109

with the criteria set by the Code on Sanitation of the Philippine and the
Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).
SECTION 904. Storm Drainage System
1. Rainwater drainage shall not discharge to the sanitary sewer system.
2. Adequate provisions shall be made to drain rainwater from low areas in
buildings and their premises.
3. The drainage pipe installation and sewerage system of any premises
and/or connection with any public disposal or any acceptable terminal
shall conform to the Revised National Plumbing Code of the Philippines.
SECTION 905. Pest and Vermin Control
1. All buildings with hollow and/or wood construction shall be provided with
rat-proofing.
2. Garbage bins and receptacles shall be provided with ready means for
cleaning and with positive protection against entry of pests and vermins.
3. Dining rooms for public use without artificial ventilation shall be properly
screened.
SECTION 906. Noise Pollution Control
1. Industrial establishments shall be provided with positive noise abatement
devices to tone down the noise level of equipment and machineries to
acceptable limits set down by the Department of Labor and Employment
and the Department of Environment and Natural Resources.
2. Noise as an unwanted sound both in quality and intensity and excessive
vibration whose sources in building/structure construction shall conform to
acceptable limits the required emission standards of DENR.
SECTION 907. Pipes Materials
All pipe materials to be used in buildings/structures shall conform to the
standard specifications of the Bureau of Product Standards (BPS) of the
Department of Trade and Industry (DTI).

110

RULE X: BUILDING PROJECTION OVER PUBLIC STREET


SECTION 1001. General Requirements
1. No part of any building or structure or any of its appendages, shall project
beyond the building line except as provided herein.
2. The projection of any structure or appendage over a public property shall
be the
SECTION 1002. Projection into Alleys or Streets
a. Footings at least 2.40m below grade along national roads, may project
not > 300mm beyond Property line.
b. Foundations not < 600mm below the grade, may encroach 500mm into
public sidewalk areas
SECTION 1003. Projection of Balconies and Appendages Over Streets

SECTION 1004. Arcades


Min. of 3.00m above the established sidewalk grade
There should be no hanging signs, projecting signs nor ground signs within
the entire length of the arcade area. Signs should be above, part of or above
the storefront windows. All doors must swing inward to prevent accidents.
SECTION 1005. Canopies (Marquees)
a. Definition a permanent roofed structure above a door attached to and
supported by the building and projecting over a wall or sidewalk
b. Projection & Clearance outermost edge of the marquee and the curb
line shall be not < 300mm, vertical clearance bet pavement or GL &
undersurface of marquee shall not < 3.00m
c. Construction incombustible materials not < 2 hrs fire-resistive
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SECTION 1006. Movable Awnings or Hoods


a. Definition a movable shelter supported from an exterior wall of a bldg.
w/c can be retracted, folded, collapsed against the face of a supporting
bldg.
b. Clearance
Awning to curb line not < 300mm
Vertical Clearance (undermost surface of the awning or GL)
not < 2.40m
SECTION 1007. Doors, Windows
Doors, windows, and the like less than 2.40 meters above the pavement or
groundline shall not, when fully opened or upon opening, project beyond the
property line except fire exit doors.
SECTION 1008. Corner Bldgs. With Chaflans
a. Public Street or alley < 3.60m in width shall be truncated at the corner
Chaflan
b. If arcaded bldg, no chaflan reqtd notwithstanding the width of public street,
< 12.00m

RULE
XI:
PROTECTION
OF
CONSTRUCTION OR DEMOLITION

PEDESTRIANS

DURING

SECTION 1101. General Requirements


1. No person shall use or occupy a street, alley or public sidewalk for the
performance or work covered by a building permit except in accordance
with the provisions of this Rule.
2. No person shall perform any work or any building/structure adjacent to a
public way in general use for pedestrian travel, unless the pedestrians are
protected as specified in this Rule.
3. Any material, building/structure temporarily occupying public property,
including fence, canopies and walkways, shall be adequately lighted
between sunset and sunrise.

112

SECTION 1102. Storage in Public Property


1. Materials and equipment necessary for work to be done under a permit
when placed or stored on public property shall not obstruct free and
convenient approach to and use of any fire hydrant, fire or police alarm
box, utility box, catch basin, or manhole and shall not interfere with any
drainage of any street or alley, gutter, and with the safe and smooth flow
of vehicular and pedestrian traffic.
2. Materials to be stored at or near construction sites shall be piled or
stacked in an orderly manner to avoid toppling over or being otherwise
displaced. No materials shall be piled or stacked higher than 1.80 meters,
except in yards or sheds intended especially for storage. When piles
exceed 1.20 meters in height, the material shall be so arranged that the
sides and ends of the piles taper back.
SECTION 1103. Mixing Mortar on Public Property
The mixing of mortar, concrete, or similar materials on public streets shall not
be allowed.
SECTION 1104. Protection of Utilities
Temporary Light and Power
a. Temporary wiring for light, heat and/or power shall be adequately
protected against mechanical or over-current failures. All conductive
materials enclosing fixed or portable electric equipment, or forming a part
of such equipment, shall be properly grounded.
b. Temporary electric service poles shall be self-supporting or adequately
braced or guyed at all times.
SECTION 1105. Walkway
a. Temporary walkway 1.20m wide (during construction
b. Capable of supporting a uniform live load of 650 kg per sq.m
c. Where the street has no sidewalk, a temporary walkway adjacent to the
street line not less than 600 millimeters wide shall be provided. Where the
RROW is 5.00 meters or less, no temporary walkway shall be allowed.
d. Where only partial occupancy and fencing-off of the sidewalk is
necessary, a temporary walkway will not be required provided that a width
of at least 600 millimeters of the sidewalk with protective railing on road
side shall be left open for the use of pedestrians.

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SECTION 1106. Pedestrian Protection


a. Railings street side of the sidewalk at least 1m in height
b. Fences not < 2.40m above grade
c. Canopies 2.40m above the railway, live load 600 kg per sq.m.
SECTION 1107. Maintenance and Removal of Protective Devices
a. Removal protective fence or canopy shall be removed 30 days
after protection no longer required.
SECTION 1108. Demolition
If the work is of a difficult or dangerous nature, it should be done by a
contractor experienced in such work. Before demolition is commenced, notice
of intention to proceed should be given to the adjoining owners of the
buildings.

RULE XII: GENERAL DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS


SECTION 1201. General Requirements
Buildings proposed for construction shall comply with all the regulations and
specifications including safety standards embodied in the Administrative
Order of DOLE.

For the guidance of the general public, the Secretary shall periodically issue
generic lists of approved, strictly regulated or banned items, procedures,
usages and the like relative to the design, construction and use/occupancy of
buildings/structures:
o Materials for construction;
o Processes for the production of materials, their installation or
construction;
o Procedures/methodologies/systems for both design and construction;
o Organizational structures/hierarchies for construction;
o Types of occupancy; and
o Classifications relative to design, construction and occupancy.

SECTION 1202. Excavation, Foundation, and Retaining Walls


Before commencing the excavation, the person making or causing the
excavation to be made shall notify in writing the owners of adjoining
buildings not less than ten (10) days.
Every trench, 1.50 meters or deeper, shall be provided exit or escape at
least every 7.50 meters of its length.

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SECTION 1203. Veneer


Veneer shall support no load other than its own weight.
Surfaces to which veneer is attached shall be designed to support the
additional vertical and lateral loads.
Consideration shall be given to differential movements of the supports.
Adhered veneer and its backing shall be designed to have a bond to the
supporting elements.
Anchored veneer and its attachment shall be designed to resist horizontal
forces.
Anchors supports and ties shall be non-combustible and corrosion-resistant.
SECTION 1204. Enclosure of Vertical Openings
Enclosing walls of elevator shafts may consist of wire glass set in metal
frames on the entrance side only.
Elevator shafts extending through more than two storeys shall be equipped
with an approved means of adequate ventilation to and through the main roof
of the building.
Air ducts passing through a floor shall be enclosed in a shaft.
SECTION 1205. Floor Construction
Floors shall be of such materials and construction as specified under Rule V Fire Zones and Fire-Resistive Standards and under Rule IV - Types of
Construction.
SECTION 1206. Roof Construction and Covering
Roof covering for all buildings shall be either fire-retardant or ordinary
depending
upon the fire-resistive requirements of the particular type of construction.

Roof Trusses working stresses of materials shall conform to the Code.

Attics
o
The opening shall be located in a corridor or hallway of buildings of
three (3) or more storeys in height and readily accessible in buildings of
any height.
o
An opening shall not be less than 600 millimeters square or 600
millimeters in diameter.
o
The minimum clear headroom of 800 millimeters shall be provided
above the access opening.
o
Draft stops shall be installed in trusses roofs, between roof and
bottom chords or trusses, in all buildings exceeding 2000 sq. meters.

SECTION 1207. Stairs, Exits, and Occupant Loads

Determination of Occupant Loads


Shown on Table XII.1. and as determined by the Secretary.
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Exits
Number of Exits:
o Every building or usable portion thereof = min. 1 exit
o In all occupancies, floors above the first storey having an
occupant load of more than ten (10) = min. 2 exits.
o Each mezzanine floor used for other than storage purposes, if
greater in area than 185 sq. meters or more than 18.00 meters in
any dimension = min. 2 stairways to an adjacent floor.
o Every storey or portion thereof, having an occupant load of 500
to 999 = min.3 exits.
o Every storey or portion thereof having an occupant load of one
thousand (1000) or more = min. four (4) exits.
Width
o The total width of exits in meters shall not be less than the total
occupant load served divided by 165.
Arrangement of Exits
o If only two (2) exits are required = placed a distance apart to
not less than 1/5 of the perimeter of the area
o Where three (3) or more exits are required = arranged at a
reasonable distance apart so that if one becomes blocked, the
others will be available.
Distance to Exits
o Without a sprinkler system = not more than 45.00 meters from an
exterior exit.
o With a complete automatic fire extinguishing system = may be
increased to 60.00 meters.
Doors
o Exit door shall swing in the direction of exit travel when serving any
hazardous areas or when serving an occupant load of fifty (50) or
more.
o Double acting doors shall not be used as exits serving a tributary
occupant load of more than one hundred (100) .
o A double acting door shall be provided with a view panel of not less
than 1,300 sq. centimeters.
o Every required exit doorway shall be of a size as to permit the
installation of a door not less than 900 millimeters in width and not
less than 2.00 meters in height.
o When installed in exit doorways, exit doors shall be capable of opening
at least 90 degrees and shall
o Clear width of the exitway is not less than 700 millimeters.
o No leaf of an exit door shall exceed 1.20 meters in width.

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Corridors and Exterior Exit Balconies


o Every corridor or exit balcony = minimum 1.10 meters in width.
Stairways
o Occupant load of more than fifty (50) = min. 1.10 meters.
o Occupant load of fifty (50) or less = min. 900 millimeters wide.
o Occupant load of less than ten (10) = min. 750 millimeters.
o Trim and handrails shall not reduce the required width by more than
100 millimeters.
o Rise = max. 200 millimeters
o Run = min. 250 millimeters.
o There shall be not more than 3.60 meters vertical distance between
landings.
o Headroom clearance = min. 2.00 meters.
Exit Outlets, Courts, and Passageways
o Every exit shall discharge into a public way, exit court, or exit
passageway.
o The reduction in width shall be affected gradually by a guardrail at
least 900 millimeters in height.
o The slope of exit courts shall not exceed 1 in 10.
o The slope of exit passageway shall not exceed 1 in 8.
o All openings into an exit court less than 3.00 meters wide shall be
protected by fire assemblies having not less than three-fourth - hour
fire-resistive rating.
Aisles
o
o
o
o

Serving only one side = min. 800 millimeters wide


Serving both sides = min. 1.00 meter wide
Side aisles = min. 1.10 meters in width.
The slope portion of aisles shall not exceed a fall of 1 in 8.

Seats
o Standard seating, the spacing of rows of seats from back-to-back
= min. 840 millimeters.
o Continental seating, the spacing of rows of unoccupied seats shall
provide a clear width:
450 millimeters clear for rows of eighteen (18) seats or less
500 millimeters clear for rows of thirty five (35) seats or less
525 millimeters clear for rows of forty five (45) seats or less
550 millimeters clear for rows of forty six (46) seats or more
o The width of any seat shall be not less than 450 millimeters.

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Reviewing Stands, Grandstands, and Bleachers


o Stands made of combustible framing shall be limited to eleven (11)
rows or 2.70 meters in height.
o The minimum spacing of rows of seats measured from back-to-back
shall be:
600 millimeters for seats without backrests in open air stands
750 millimeters for seats with backrests;
850 millimeters for chair seating
o There shall be a space of not less than 300 millimeters between the
back of each seat and the front of the seat immediately behind it.
o Width of any seat shall not be less than 450 millimeters nor more than
480 millimeters.
o Rise of treads = max. 200 millimeters;
Run = min. 280 millimeters wide
o

The slope of a ramp shall not exceed 1 in 8.

o The line of travel to an exit = max. 45.00 meters.


SECTION 1208. Skylights
a. Shall be constructed w/ metal frames Except Group A and J. Glass
is set an angle of < 45 degrees, if located above 1st storey, set at
least 100mm (0.10m) above the roof.
b. Space bet supports
- flat wire glass not exceed 625mm
- corrugated wire glass - 1.5m
- glass no wired 2.5m in diameter w/ mesh not larger than 25mm
c. Ordinary Glass if ridge doesnt exceed 6.00m above the grade
d. Glass for Transmission of Light not < 12.5mm thick, glass over
10 sq.cm. area have wire mesh

118

SECTION 1209. Bays, Porches and Balconies


Railings for balconies, landings or porches more than 750mm
above grade
SECTION 1210. Penthouses and Roof Structures
a. Height Type V construction shall exceed 8.40m above roof,
shall not extend more than 3.60m in height w/ the roof.
b. b. Towers and Spires framework of iron, steel or RC when
c. not enclosed, towers not enclosed w/c extend more than
d. 20m above grade, shall not occupy more than of street
e. frontage of bldg.
SECTION 1211. Chimneys, Fireplaces, and Barbecues
1. Chimneys
Chimneys in a wood-framed building shall be anchored laterally at the
ceiling line and at each floor line which is more than 1.80 meters above
grade, except when entirely within the framework or when designed to be
free standing.
2. Fireplaces and Barbecues
Fireplaces, barbecues, smoke chambers, and fireplace chimneys shall be of
solid masonry orreinforced concrete and shall conform to the minimum
requirements specified in the Code.
SECTION 1212. Fire-Extinguishing Systems
a. Fire-Extinguishing Systems
1. Every storey, basement or cellar w/ 200sq.m or more w/c is
used for habitation, etc. w/c has an occupant load of more
than 20.
2. Dressing, rehearsal rms., workshops or factories w/ occupant
load of more than 10 or assembly halls w/ occupant load of
more than 500, if the next doors of rooms are more than
30.00m from safe dispersal area.
3. Photographic x-ray, nitrocellulose films and inflammable
articles
b. Dry Standpipes for bldgs. w/ 4 or more storeys

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1. Construction and Test shall be wrought iron of GS w/


fittings, connections to withstand 20 kg per sq.cm of water
pressure
2. Size 900 liters water per minute
3. Number Required every bldg 4 or more storeys where
any floor above 3rd floor is 950m or less, equipped w/ 1 dry
standpipe.
4. Siamese Connections:

5. Outlets standpipe 63mm outlet not more than 1.20m


above each floor level, with 2 way standpipes 63mm outlet
above the roof (all with gate valves)
c. Wet Standpipes
1. Size Interior wet standpipes deliver 190 liters/water per
minute under 2.0 kg per sq.cm water pressure
2. Outlets 38mm valve each storey located not < 300mm
nor more than 1.20m above the floor.
3. Water Supply street main not < 100mm in diameter
4. Pressure and Gravity Tanks 1500 liters/water per minute
for not < 10 minutes
5. Fire pumps capacity not < 1000 liters per minute w/
pressure not < 2 kg per sq.cm connected to street main w/
not < 100mm diameter
SECTION 1213. Stages and Platform
Stage Ventilators - There shall be one (1) or more ventilators constructed of
metal or other incombustible material near the center and above the highest

120

part of any working stage raised above the stage roof and having a total
ventilation area equal to at least 5% of the floor area within the stage walls.

SECTION 1214. Motion Picture Projection Rooms


a. Construction 1 hr fire resistive, ceiling shall not be < 2.40m
from finished floor. Room shall have a floor area of not < 7.00sq.m
and 3.50sq.m for every additional machine.
b. Exit Projection room at least 2 exits separated by not <
1/3 the perimeter of room, each at least 750mm wide
and 2.00m high
c. Ports and Openings (3 kinds) projection, observation,
combination ports
1. Ports required limited in area to 750 sq.cm, not more than
1 observation ports w/c be limited to 1300 sq.cm. There shall
be not more than 3 combination ports w/c not exceed
750mm by 600mm. Projection ports not to exceed 4,500
sq.cm in area.
d. Ventilation
1. Inlet fresh air inlet from the exterior bldg. not < 900sq.cm.
& protect w/ wire netting installed w/in 50mm of the floor in
every projection room
2. Outlets provide 1 or more mechanical exhaust systems.
SECTION 1215. Lathing, Plastering, and Installation of Wall Boards
The installation of lath, plaster and gypsum wall board shall conform to the
fire-resistive rating requirements and the type of construction of building.

RULE XIII: ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL REGULATIONS


SECTION 1301. Electrical regulations
All electrical systems, equipment and installations mentioned in the Code
shall conform to the provisions of the Philippine Electrical Code Part 1 (PEC-

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1) and Part 2 (PEC-2), as adopted by the Board of Electrical Engineering


pursuant to Republic Act 7920, otherwise known as the Philippine Electrical
Engineering Law.

SECTION 1302. Mechanical Regulations


All mechanical systems, equipment and installations mentioned in the Code
shall conform to the provisions of the Philippine Mechanical Code, as adopted
by the Board of Mechanical Engineering pursuant to RA 8495 as amended,
otherwise known as the Philippine Mechanical Engineering Law.

RULE XIV: PHOTOGRAPHIC AND X-RAY FILMS


SECTION 1401. Storage and Handling
Storage rooms of unexposed photographic and x-ray films shall be provided
with automatic fire extinguishing systems
SECTION 1402. Classes of film Exempted
The provisions of this Section do not apply to the following: film for amateur
photographic use in original packages of roll and film pack films in
quantities of less than 1.40 cu. meters; safety film; dental X-ray film;
establishments manufacturing photographic films and their storage incidental
thereto; and films stored or being used in standard motion picture booths.
SECTION 1403. Fire Extinguishing System
Unless otherwise provided in the Code, all fire extinguishing systems when so
required shall be of a type, specifications, and methods of installation as
prescribed in accordance with the requirements of the Secretary.

RULE XV: PREFABRICATED CONSTRUCTION


SECTION 1501. Prefabricated Assembly
Prefabricated assembly is a structural unit, the integral parts of which have
been built-up or assembled prior to incorporation in the building. It shall be
made of pre-cast concrete, various metal components, unplasticized polyvinyl
chloride (uPVC) or other construction materials acceptable to the
architect/engineer.

122

RULE XVI: PLASTICS


SECTION 1601. Approved Plastics
Approved plastic materials shall be those which have a flame-spread rating of
two hundred twenty five (225) or less and a smoke density not greater than
that obtained from the burning of untreated wood under similar conditions
when tested in accordance with generally accepted engineering practices.
The products of combustion shall be no more toxic than the burning of
untreated wood under similar conditions.
SECTION 1602. Installation
1. Structural Requirements - All plastic materials shall be of adequate
strength and durability to withstand the prescribed design loads.
2. Fastenings - Fastenings shall be adequate to withstand design loads and
internal and external stresses required of the assembly. Proper
allowances of plastic materials in conjunction with other materials with
which it is assembled or integrated shall be provided.
SECTION 1603. Glazing of Opennings
The size of openings glazed with approved plastics shall have a minimum
dimension where one person could pass through or 600 millimeters square.
SECTION 1604. Skylights
General - Approved plastics may be used in skylights installed on roofs of
Types I, II or III Constructions and all buildings in these categories shall be
equipped with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system in Groups A,
B, C, E, F, J, H-3 and H-4 Occupancies;
SECTION 1605. Light-Transmitting Panels in Monitors and Sawtooth Roofs
General - Where a fire-resistive rating is not required for the roof structure,
and in all buildings provided with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing
system, approved plastics may be used with or without sash as the lighttransmitting medium in monitors and sawtooth; Except, that plastics used in
monitors or sawtooth roofs of Type II Construction shall be of materials
appropriate to be used according to flame-spread characteristics.

123

SECTION 1606. Plastic Light Diffusers in Ceilings


General - Ceiling light diffusers having an area greater than 10% of any 10.00
sq. meters of room area shall be of approved plastics conforming to the
requirements specified in the Code.
SECTION 1607. Partitions
Where partitions are not required to be of fire-resistive or incombustible
construction, approved plastics conforming to the requirements specified in
the Code may be used.
SECTION 1608. Exterior Veneer
General - Exterior veneer may be of approved plastic materials, and shall
conform to the provisions of this Section.
SECTION 1609. Awnings and Canopies
Plastic materials appropriate for use according to Flame Spread
characteristics may be utilized in awnings and canopies, provided such
awnings and canopies are constructed in accordance with provisions
governing projections and appendages as specified in the Code.

RULE XVII: SHEET METAL PAINT SPRAY BOOTHS


SECTION 1701. Sheet Metal Paint Spray Booth
Paint spray booths shall be constructed of steel of not less than No. 18 U.S.
gauge in thickness and shall be designed in accordance with the Code.
SECTION 1702. Fire Protection
Every spray booth having an open front elevation larger than 1.00 sq. meters
and which is not equipped with doors, shall have a fire curtain or metal
deflector not less than 100 millimeters deep installed at the upper outer edge
of the booth opening.
SECTION 1703. Light
Paint spray booths shall be illuminated through hammered wire or heattreated glass panels. The glass panels shall be located in such a manner as
to reduce the hazard of ignition caused by paint spray deposit.
SECTION 1704. Ventilation
Mechanical ventilation shall be provided direct to the exterior of the building.
The mechanical exhaust system shall be designed to move the air through
any portion of the paint spray area at the rate of not less than 30.00 lineal
meters per minute.

124

RULE XVIII: GLASS AND GLAZING


SECTION 1801. General Requirements
This Rule shall apply to exterior glass and glazing in all Uses/Occupancies
except Groups A, B and J Occupancies not over three (3) storeys in height,
and to interior and exterior glass and glazing in all occupancies subject to
human impact.
SECTION 1802. Area Limitation
Exterior glass and glazing shall be capable of safely withstanding the load
due to wind pressure for various height zones above ground acting inward or
outward. The area of individual light shall not be more than the maximum
allowable area of glass according to the wind load multiplied by the
appropriate adjustment factor.
SECTION 1803. Glazing
Glass firmly supported on all four (4) edges shall be glazed with minimum
laps and edge clearances in accordance with Section 1801 paragraph (2),
Provided, that glass edge clearance in fixed openings shall be not less than
what is required for wind and earthquake drift. For glass not firmly supported
on all four (4) edges and design shall be submitted for approval of the
Building Official. Glass supports shall be considered firm when deflection of
the support at design load does not exceed 1/175 of the span.
SECTION 1804. Louvered Windows
Regular plate, sheet, or patterned glass in jalousies and louvered windows
shall not be thinner than 5.6 millimeters minimal and shall not be longer than
1.20 meters. Exposed glass edges shall be smooth
SECTION 1805. Impact
Frameless glass doors, glass in doors, fixed glass panels, and similar glazed
openings which may be subject to accidental human impact shall conform
with the requirements provided under Section 1802 on impact loads of glass.

RULE XIX: THE USE OF COMPUTERS


SECTION 1901. General Rule
The use of computer for all or any part of the design of buildings under the
Code is permitted provided that all programs to be used are documented.
SECTION 1902. Program Documentation
Documenting a program under the Code consists of filing with the OBO a
reference to a publication or publications accessible to him where the detailed

125

description of the program or a brief statement of the theoretical background


of the program including a description of the algorithms used are found.
SECTION 1903. Submission of Computer-Generated Computations
A copy of the output sheets for computer-generated computations shall be
submitted as part of the design computations.
i. The first sheet of the output sheets shall be signed and sealed by the
designer.

RULE XX: SIGNS


SECTION 2001. General Requirements
1. No sign or signboard shall be erected in such a manner as to confuse or
obstruct the view or interpretation of any official traffic sign, signal, or
device.
2. Signs which are written in any foreign language shall have a
corresponding translation in English or in the local dialect.
SECTION 2002. Maintenance
All signs, together with all of their supports, braces, guys, and anchors, shall
be kept in repair and in proper state of preservation. The display of all signs
shall be kept neatly painted and secured at all times.
SECTION 2003. Design and Construction
Sign structures shall be designed and constructed to resist all forces in
accordance with the National Structural Code for Buildings. For signs on
buildings, the dead lateral loads shall be transmitted through the structural
frame of the building to the ground in such a manner as not to overstress any
of the elements of the building. The weight of earth superimposed over
footings may be used in determining the dead load resisting moment. Such
earth shall be carefully placed and thoroughly compacted.
SECTION 2004. Supports and Anchorages
General. The supports and anchorages of all signs or sign structures shall be
placed in or upon private property and shall be constructed in conformity with
the requirements of the Code.
SECTION 2005. Projections and Clearances
Clearances from High Voltage Power Lines - Clearances of signs from high
voltage power lines shall be in accordance with the Philippine Electrical Code
SECTION 2006. Lighting
Signs shall be illuminated only by electrical means in accordance with the
Philippine Electrical Code.

126

ACCESSIBILITY LAW (BP 344)

127

SUMMARY OF BP 344 --ACCESSIBILITY LAW


DISABLED PERSONS
1. confinement to wheelchair
2. difficulty in walking
3. total impairment of hearing or sight
4. impairment due to aging
5. mental impairment
WHEELCHAIR
Length
Width
Turning space
Reach
Clear space under table

1.10 to 1.30 meters


0.60 to 0.75 meters
1.50 meters
0.70 to 1.20 meters above floor
0.75 meters

PARKING SLOTS
Width
50 to 100 slots

3.70 with1.20 walkway


1 slot

128

SEATING PROVISIONS IN PLACES OF ASSEMBLY

4- 50 persons
51-300 persons
301-500 persons
Increase of 100

2 seats
4 seats
6 seats
+1 seat

PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION

regular buses
first class/ aircon
passenger airplane
passenger train
jeepney
ships

5 seats
4 seats
4 seats
6 seats
2 seats
20 mins before embarkation
1 hr after arrival

DROPPED CURB

Width
Gradient
Cross gradient
Lowest portion

0.90 m min
1:12 max
1:20 max- to avoid water
0 .025 m max

CURB CUT-OUTS

Width
Gradient

0.90 m min
1:12 max

WALKWAYS

Width
Gradient
Cross gradient
Lengthy walkways

1.20 m min
1:20 or 5% max
1:100
width of 1.50m x 1.90m
rest stop max dist 12.00 m

HANDRAIL IN STAIRS, RAMPS & DROPPED CURBS

Height

Extension of railing

0.70 - 0.90 m above steps or ramps


1.00 to 1.06 m at great heights
0.30m

RAMPS

Clear width
Gradient
Length
Landings
Level area
top & bottom

1.20 m
1:12
6.00 m max
1.50 min
1.80 m min

129

SIGNS ON DOORS & WALLS

Height
Emboss

1.40- 1.60 m
1.0 mm

DOORS

Width
Clear level space
Door knobs

0.80 m min
1.50 m or 1.20 m
0.82 m - 1.06 m
0.90 m preferred

CORRIDORS

1.2 M. minimum

SWITCHES

From edge of door


Height

0.20 m
1.20 m - 1.30 m

WASHROOMS & STORAGE

Stall
Turning space
No. of PWD watercloset
Height of water closet
Flush
Max height of lavatories
Knee recess height
Depth
Handrail
Urinal height
Turnabouts

1.70 m x 1.80 m
1.50 m
1:20 +1 if greater than 20
0.45 m
1.20 m
0.80 m
0.60 m - 0.70 m
0.50 m
0.80 m
0.48 m
1.50 m x 1.50 m

ELEVATORS

Distance from entrance


Min dimension (Car)
Button heights

30.00 m max
1.10 m x 1.40 m
0.90 m - 1.20 m

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BATAS PAMBANSA 344: ACCESSIBILITY LAW


RULE I:
SCOPE & APPLICATION
CATEGORIES OF DISABLED PEOPLE

confinement to wheelchairs

requiring use of braces, crutches, artificial supports

impairment of hearing or sight

aging and incoordination

acquired or congenital mental impairments

RULE II:
MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS
PLANNING PRINCIPLES

accessibility

reachability

usability

orientation

safety

workability

efficiency

RULE III:
SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS
CLASSIFICATION BY USE OF OCCUPANCY
Category I
- Residential
Category II
- Commercial
Category III
- Educational and Industrial
Category IV
- Agricultural
Category V
- Ancillary

RULE IV:
PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION
Regular buses
First class, premiere & aircon bus
Passenger trains
Jeepneys
Domestic shipping
and disembarkation

- 5 designated seats near doors


- 4 seats near door
- 6 seats per car nearest the door
- 2 seats preferably front seats
- allocate on per class basis;give priority during embarkation

RULE V:
ADMINISTRATION & ENFORCEMENT
As stipulated in Section 46 of R.A. 7277, otherwise known as the Magna Carta for Disabled Persons,
any person who violates the rules and regulations of this Act shall be fined or imprisoned

131

RULE V:
ADMINISTRATION & ENFORCEMENT
PERSONS/INDIVIDUALS LIABLE
For buildings/establishment/structure
owner
contractor
architect
engineer
building official or other public official
Appendix A: Minimum Reqts.
OUTSIDE AND AROUND BLDGS.
WALKWAY
RAMP 1:12 MAX GRADIENT

PLANT
S

DROPPED CURB
1:20 GRADIENT TO
PREVENT WATER
FROM COLLECTING

CROSS SECTION OF DROPPED CURB

2. CURB CUT-OUTS
Curb cut-outs should only be allowed when it will not obstruct
a walkway or in any way lessen the width of a walkway;
The minimum width of a curb cut-out should be 0.90m.:
Curb cut-out should not have a gradient not more than 1:12;
WALKWAY

PLANTING STRIP
OR STREET FURNITURE

1:12 MAX GRADIENT


0.90M. MIN WIDTH

CURB CUT-OUT

132

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS /29


DN
RAILING

OTHER VARIATIONS OF DROPPED CURB


AT CORNERS
DROPPED
CURB

DN

PLANTS

RAILING
DROPPED
CURB

DN

DN

RAILING

DN
RAILING

DROPPED
CURB

DN

DN

PLANTS
DN

DROPPED
CURB
RAILING

3. WALKWAYS

Walkways should be kept as level as possible and provided with slipresistant material;

133

INCLINED SURFACE
ON RAMP NOT TO
EXCEED 1:12

CONTINUOUS CURB
PLANTS
(SHRUBS)

WALKWAY

0.90M MIN. WIDTH OR


SAME WIDTH AS CROSSING
1:20 GRAD.
PREVENTS
WATER FROM
COLLECTING

DROPPED CURB

1:12 MAX GRADIENT


CONTINUOUS CURB
1:20 SLOPE TOWARDS
STREET GUTTER

VARIATION OF DROPPED CURB AT CORNER

GRASS AREA
DEFINES EDGE
OF WALKWAY

134

DROPPED CURB
RAMP 1:12 MAX
RAILING
WALKWAY

CENTRAL REFUGE

MORE THAN 10.00 M

BRIGHTLY-PAINTED
ZEBRA CROSSING

CENTRAL REFUGE
1.50M MIN. 2.00M PREFERRED

PROVIDE HANDRAILS AT
OUTER SIDE OF WALKWAY
AT DROPPED CURB BUT
SHOULD NOT OBSTRUCT
CROSSING

TACTILE SURFACES AT
VICINITY OF CROSSING

ZEBRA CROSSING
HANDRAIL
RAMP

WARNING BLOCKS

RAMP

(DROPPED CURB)
CROSSING BLOCKS

135

WARNING BLOCKS

1.00 M MIN

TAPPING RAIL

2.00 M. MIN. CLEAR

WALKWAY WIDTH

136

1:100 MAX.
CROSS GRADIENT

1.20 M.
MIN.

WALKWAYS

REST STOP
OR
TURNING
SPACE

1.50

1.50 M. MIN.

WALKWAY

12.00 M. MAX

REST STOPS ON BUSY OR LENGTHY


WALKWAYS

6.5mm
MAX

13mm MAX

GRATINGS ON WALKWAYS

137

ALSO APPLIES TO
CRACKS OR BREAKS

HANDRAIL HEIGHT

138

0.90 M.

0.70 M.

KEEP ROUTES AS
STRAIGHT AS POSSIBLE
WITH RIGHT ANGLE
TURNS

HANDRAIL DIMENSIONS
50
mm

30mm-50mm

0.90 M.

40mm
MIN

MIN.

30--50mm

EASY
EASY-TO-GRASP DESIGNS

PLACE SIGN ON
CARRIAGEWAY IF IT
WILL DIMINISH WALKWAY
WIDTH TO LESS THAN
1.20 M

139

SIGNS SHOULD BE LOCATED


ON VERGES OR SIMILAR
WHEREVER THESE ARE
AVAILABLE

CONVENIENTLY LOCATED
SIGNS: SIMPLE & EASY
TO UNDERSTAND; EASILY
DETECTED
NORMAL SIGHT LINES
30
30

140

BLUE BACKGROUND
WHITE SYMBOLS & FIGURES

1.60 M. MAX.

1.40 M. MIN.

DIRECTION SIGN FOR PEDESTRIAN SUITABLE


FOR DISABLED

SIGNS ON WALLS & DOORS

1mm MIN. HEIGHTS


OF RAISED LETTERS
& SYMBOLS

141

RAMPS REQUIRED IF
ENTRANCE NOT AT SAME
LEVEL AS SITE ARRIVAL
GRADE

142

CURB HEIGHT AT RAMP

0.10 M. MIN

MORE THAN
0.20 M. RISE
1.80 M, MIN

RAILING ACROSS
FULL WIDTH OF
RAMP

STREET

RAMPS & VEHICULAR TRAFFIC

143

CURB CUT CURB


CUT-OUT OR
DROPPED CURB
1.20 MIN
PASSAGE

3.70 M.
MIN.

NORMAL
SPACE

NORMAL
SPACE

PARKING
APPENDIX B: MINIMUM REQTS. PARKING
2.4m x 5m - perpendicular or diagonal
2m x 6 - parallel

APPENDIX C: MINIMUM REQTS.


INSIDE BLDGS.& STRUCTURES

TURN ABOUT SPACES AT DEAD ENDS

3.50 M. MAX.

144

HANDRAILS ON
BOTH SIDES AT 0.90
M. & 0.70 M.
MAX. GRADIENT
OF 1:12

RAMP DIMENSIONS

SPACE FOR
PERSONS
WITH BRACES
OR CRUTCHES

1.50 M.

1.10 M.

0.70 M.

NEAREST
OBSTRUCTION

145

1.50 M. MIN.

1.50 M. MIN.

MAINTAIN MIN.
WIDTH OF
CORRIDOR=1.20 M
(UNOBSTRUCTED)

PROVIDE
PROTECTION FROM
OUTSWINGING
DOORS

1.50 M. MIN.

0.80 M
MIN.

1.50 M. MIN.

DOORS & CORRIDORS


DOORS & CORRIDORS

1.20 M. MIN. WIDTH


OF CORRIDOR ALLOWED

0.80 M.

1.50 M. MIN

MIN
.

1.50 M. MIN

146

30.00 M. MAX. DISTANCE

ENTRY

ELEVATOR
LOBBY

1.40 M.

1.10

1.80 M.
MIN.

MIN. DIMENSIONS OF ELEVATOR

20 mm.

MINIMUM

1mm MAX
DEPRESSION

BRAILLE
SIGN AT
EVERY
FLOOR
AT DOOR
FRAME

0.90 - 1.20 M.

BUTTON CONTROLS
WITH BRAILLE SIGNS

BUTTON SIZE
ELEVATOR CARS

147

1.70 M. MIN.

0.30
0.40

1.80 M. MIN.

0.90

0.90

0.80 M.
CLEAR

TURNING SPACE
1.50 X 1.50

0.80 M.

0.45 M.

MIN. WATER CLOSET STALL


DIMENSIONS

WATER CLOSET
148

LAVATORY

VERTICAL
DOOR PULL

1.06 M

0.30 0.40 M

DOORKNOBS,
LATCHES

0.82-1.06 M

0.80 M.
MAX

0.60 -0.70 M.
CLEAR

0.60
0.60

0.48 M.
MAX

URINAL

KICKPLATE

KICKPLATE

DOOR HARDWARE
149

0.20 M. MAX FROM


LATCH SIDE OF DOOR

0.92 1.22 M.
FROM FLOOR

SWITCHES

SLIP-RESISTANT TREADS WITH


NON-SKID NOSING MATERIAL
NOSING OF COLOR
AND GRAY VALUE IN
HIGH CONTRAST TO
REST OF STAIRS
TACTILE
STRIP AT TOP
AND BOTTOM
OF STAIRS
0.30 M.
MIN

150

25 mm MAX

SLIDING DOOR
TRACKS

THRESHOLDS
SLANTED
NOSE

AVOID

PREFERRED

TEXTURED
SYMBOLS
ON PLAN
(EMBOSSED)

LEGEND ALSO
IN BRAILLE

151

TEMPORARY COVERING
PROPERLY SUPPORTED BY
CROSS BEAMS IF NECESSARY
SIDES SHOULD BE RAMPED
IF PROJECTING MORE
THAN 25 MM

1.20 M. MIN.

1.20 M. MIN.
1.50 PREFFERED

KICKBOARD
0.20 M. MIN.
HEIGHT

ALL MATERIALS
STORED ON
FOOTWAYS SHOULD
BE FENCED

SPOIL
HEAP

1.20 MIN.

1.20 MIN.

152

DESIGN STANDARDS

LIGHT & VENTILATION

153

OPEN SPACE REQUIREMENTS

154

FIRE EXIT REQUIREMENT

STAIRWAY REQUIREMENT

SIDEWALKS, ARCADES, DRIVEWAYS AND ENTRANCES/EXITS

155

SETBACK

PARKING

156

PARKING & LOADING SPACE REQUIREMENTS


1. Parking space ratings listed are min off street requirements for specific
uses/occupancies for bldg./structures:
1.1 Parking slot

Average automobile

Truck or bus

2.40x5.00m perpendicular or diagonal,


2.00x6.00m for parallel
Min of 3.60m by 12.00m

1.2 Low Income Single Detached living


units in housing project areas w/ individual
lots not more than 100sq.m

Pooled parking at 1 slot/10 living units

1.3 Multi family


units w/ unit floor
of:

a. Up to 50sq.m

1 slot/8 living units

b. Above 50sq.m to
100sq.m

1 slot/4 living units

c. More than
100sq.m

1 slot/living unit

1.4 Hotels

1 slot/10 rooms

1.5 Residential Hotels & Apartels

1 slot/5 rooms

1.6 Motels

1 slot/unit

1.7 Neighborhood shopping center

1 slot/100 sq.m of shopping floor area

1.8 Markets

1 slot/150 sq.m of shopping floor area

1.9 Restaurants, fast-food centers, bars


and beerhouses

1 slot/30 sq.m of customer area

1.10 Nightclubs, supperclubs and theaterrestaurants

1 slot/20 sq.m of customer area

1.11 Office Bldgs

1 slot/125 sq.m of gross floor area

1.12 Pension/Boarding/Lodging houses

1 slot/20 beds

1.13 Other Bldgs in Business/Commercial


Zones

1 slot/125 sq.m of gross floor area

1.14 Public assembly bldgs such as


theaters, cinemas, etc.

1 slot/50 sq.m spectator area

157

1.15 Places of Worship & Funeral Parlors

1 slot/50 sq.m of congregation area

1.16 Schools

Elementary, Secondary,
Vocational & Trade
schools

1 slot/10 classrooms

College & Univ.

1 slot/5 classrooms
1 slot/25 beds

1.17 Hospitals
1.18 Recreational
Facilities

Bowling Alleys

1 slot/4 alleys

Amusement Centers

1 slot/50 sq.m of gross floor area

Clubhouses, beach
houses and the like

1 slot/100 sq.m of gross floor area

1.19 Factories, manufacturing


establishments, mercantile bldgs,
warehouses and storage bins

1 car slot/1,000 sq.m of gloss floor area

1.20 Tourist bus parking areas

2 bus slots/hotel or theater restaurant

2. Parking Requirement Computation:


2.1
2.2

Mixed occupancies, parking requirements shall be the sum of 100% dominant


use & 50% of each of the non-dominant
20% of parking requirements may be provided w/in premises

3. Special Provisions
3.1
3.2
3.3

1 parking slot for the handicapped per 50 up to 150 parking slots & an
additional slot for every 100 slots thereafter.
Wheel chair transfer area one between 2 spaces, directly connect to
accessible walk of travel and bldg entrances.
Maximum distance of accessible parking area from facility served. Parking areas
for handicapped shall be w/in 60m of the facility being served.

4. Loading Slot Requirements:


4.1 Stores, manufacturing, wholesale or
merchantile bldgs/structures, or similar
occupancies

1 loading slot for every 5,000 sq.m of


gross floor area w/ a min of 1 truck
loading slot

4.2 Hotels and Hospitals

1 truck loading slot

158

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PD 957 & BP 220

159

160

161

162

163

164

165

166

167

168

THEORY OF
ARCHITECTURE

169

THEORY OF DESIGN

Research of Architecture
Research contributes to Design Theory
Nature of Design Theory
Design Theory states facts
Design Theory aids design
Scope of Architecture Theory
Includes all that is presented in the handbooks of architects
Includes legislation, norms and standards, rules and methods
Includes miscellaneous and unscientific elements
Why Design Theory?
To aid the work of the architect and improve its product
Proven theory helps designers do work better and more efficiently
Skill without knowledge is nothing

(architect Jean Mignot, 1400 AD)


Understanding Design Theory
Theory does NOT necessarily mean PRECCED design
PARADISM
: every new or established theory applied

: STYLE

THEMATIC THEORIES
Aim at the fulfillment of one principal goal, often at the cost of other customary
goals of building

CLASSICAL
- Marcus Vitruvius Pollio

MIDDLE AGES
- Medieval (read: Dark Age) anonymous tradition of trade guilds)

RENAISSANCE
- Alberti, Vignola, Palladio, etc.

STRUCTURALIST
- Galileo Galilei, Robert Hooke, etc.

ART NOUVEAU (Personal Style)


- Eugene Emmanuelle Violett-le-Due, Le Corbusier, etc.

FUNCTIONALISM
- Walter Gropius, Louis Sullivan, etc.
- modern architecture
170

POSTMODERNISM
- Robert Venturi

SYMBOLIC ARCHITECTURE

ECOLOGICAL ARCHITECTURE

CLASSICAL THEORIES

Marcus Vitruvius Pollio


Author of the oldest research on architecture
Wrote an extensive summary of all the theory on construction
Had a thorough knowledge of earlier Greek and Roman writings

Ten Books on Architecture


De architectura libri decem
Consists mostly of normative theory of design (based on practice)
A collection of thematic theories of design with no method of combining them
into a synthesis
Presents a classification of requirements set for buildings:
: DURABILTIY (firmitas)
: PRACTICALITY or convenience (utilitas)
: PLEASANTNESS (venustas)

Vitruvian Rules of Aesthetic Form


Based on Greek traditions of architecture
Teachings of Pythagoras : applying proportions of numbers
Observations of tuned string of instruments
Proportions of human body
PLEASANTNESS
: in accordance of good taste
: parts follow proportions
: symmetry of measures

THEORIES in the MIDDLE AGES

Monastery Institutions
Most documents retrieved from the Middle Ages
However, archives contain only few descriptions of buildings
Buildings are only defined by stating the size and it shall be made according
to the traditional model.
Theres no accounting for tastes was the rule of thumb
171

Development of Building Style


With hardly or no literary research present
Villard de Hannecourts Sketchbook in 1235
Rotzers Booklet On The Right Way Of Making Pinnacles
Only through guidance of old masters
Tradition binding and precise in close guilds of builders

RENNAISANCE THEORIES

1948 a copy of Virtue manuscript found at St. Gallen Monastery

Leon Bautista Alberti (1404-72)


Person in charge of constructions commanded by Pope
On Building : De re aedifficatoria
: one of the greatest works of the theory of architecture
: completed in 1452, published in 1485
: more emphasis on decoration of building exteriors

Sebastino Serlio
- Regole generall di architectura

Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola


Regola delle cinque ordini
Concise, facts and easily applicable rules of the five column systems
Based his design instructions on four things:
: idea of Pythagoras
: proportions of small number
: properties and other instruments
: good taste

Andrea Palladio (1508-80)


I Quattro libri dellarchitectura
The father of modern picture books of architecture

Philibert de Lorme
One of French theorist who are critical of italians
Prove that Pantheons Corinthian columns had 3 different proportions
Rejected the doctrine of absolute beauty of measures

172

CONSTRUCTION THEORY
Building Material
Amorphic material:

Architectural Form
Spherical vaulted construction

Soft stone; snow


Sheets of skin or textile

Cone-shaped tent construction

Logs of wood

Box-shaped construction

Before Written Construction Theory


Architecture created without the help of architects or theory
Builders used a model instead of mathematical algorithms now used in
modern construction
Inverted catenary model

Semi-Circular Vault : Theory by Virtue


When there are arches the outermost piers must be made broader than
the others so that they may have the strength to resist when the wedges
under the pressure of the load of the walls, begins to thrust to the abutments.

During Middle Ages


No written documents survived about theories or models to describe the
magnificent vaults of medieval cathedrals

During Renaissance
From Alberti onwards, architects began specializing
Mathematical models by Francis Bacon and Galileo Galilei
: considers load and scientific studies
contributed to constructions
1675 : Marquis de Vauban founded a building depatment in the French army
called Corps des Ingenieurs
1747 : Ecole des Ponts et Chaussees, special school founded in Paris where
new profession specializing in construction was organized.
--- first engineering school
Other figures of mathematical construction theory
: Robert Hooke
: Jakob Bernoulli
: Leonard Euier
173

PERSONAL STYLE

Copying from Antiquity


Architecture form antiquity came to a print of perfection
Eugene Viollet-le-Duc (1863)
: the first theorist who set out to create a totally new system of architectural
forms independent of antiquity

What we call taste is but an involuntary process of reasoning whose steps


elude our observation. Authority has no value if its grounds are not
explained.
: the foundation of modern architecture
: did not create a timeless architectural style himself, he showed others
the philosophical foundation and method that they could use to develop
even radically new form language
Owen Jones : used forms inspired from nature, especially plants

ART NOUVEAU

The first architectural style independent of the tradition of antiquity after the
Gothic style
The example set by Art Nouveau encourage some of the most skillful
architects of the 20th century to create their private form language

THEORETICAL TREATISES
Five points of Architecture (1926, Le Corbusier)
a. Pilotis
b. Free plan
c. Free faade
d. The long horizontal sliding window
e. The roof garden
Architecture as Space (Bruno Zeri)
The crux of architecture is not the sculptural pattern, but instead the building
interiors. These can be seen as negative solids, as voids which the artist
divides, combines, repeats and emphasizes in the same way as the sculptor
treats his positive lumps of substance.
The personal style of architects are not necessarily based on laws of
nature or on logical reasoning. More important is that they exhibit a coherent
174

application of an idea which also must be clear that the public can find it out.
An advantage is also if the style includes symbolical undertones.
MODERN ARCHITECTURE

Industrial Revolution (1768)


Arts and Crafts Movement
a. conservative
b. William Morris
c. John Rustrin

Electicism
a. architecture of borrowing

Fruits of Industrial Revolution


Joseph Paxton Crystal Palace, 1851
Elisha Graves Otis Elevator, 1857
Manufacturing of Rolled Steel

1870s
The Great Fire of Chicago, 1871
downtown in Chicago was burned and in needs of construction of new
buildings
place where first tallest building was constructed
William Le Baron Jenney
made the first skyscraper
Daniel Burnham
make no little plans, they have no magic to stir mans blood
Louis Sullivan
form follows function
1880s

Chicago School became the concentration of architectural development


introduce Chicago Window

1890s
The World Columbian Exposition
built in 1863
Chief architect: Daniel Burnham and Frederick Law Olmsted
1900s
European architecture was notified
Person to notify:
175

Otto Wagner
Adolf Loos ornament is a crime
H.P. Berlage
Frank Llyod Wright

1910s
Office of Peter Behrens
a. Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe less in more
b. Walter Gropius
c. Le Corbusier
2 Art movements that influenced
1. Futurism simultaneity of movement
2. Cubism interpretation of space
1920s
The Bauhaus
Art and Technology, the new unity

Established architects
a. Frank Llyod Wright organic architecture
b. Le Corbusier
c. Mies Van Der Rohe / Gropius

1930s
International Style
1950s
The period of Reassessment
Universalism
Personalism
POSTMODERNISM
The center of Postmodernism: Robert Venturi
less is bore
Philip Johnson
- say that a portion of Chippendale building in New York has no function
Introduce the element of Discovery

176

SYMBOLIC ARHITECTURE
Building as a message
1. Mathematical Analogy
2. Biological Analogy
Se of plants and ornaments
3. Romantic architecture
Uses exotic language of form
Vastness; trying to surprise; huge
4. Linguistic analogies
Grammar; uses words with proper grammar
5. Mechanical analogies
Buckminter fuller
6. Ad hoc analogy
Any materials that you can get or available in your environment such as wood
in forest
7. Stage Analogy

177

Characteristics of Theor
Theory
History and Theory are closely related and have always been essential to the study of
architecture.
History deals with buildings and the various styles of architecture which have
arisen throughout time. History in this sense is a DESCRIPTION of the
architectural facts.
Theory attempts to provide an EXPLANATION for those facts. --why
why buildings
look the way they do
--why
why architects have chosen to design their buildings in
particular ways what
what is architecture all about?
What is ARCHITECTURE?

Theory of Architecture looks at the kind of choices architects can make in selecting
forms for their buildings. Their Architecture

INFLUENCES ON ARCHITECTURE
178

NEEDS OF MAN
Physical Needs
Shelter
Clothing
Transportation
Education
Livelihood

Food
Water
Sports
Medical
Power

Emotional Needs
Recreation
Religion

Art

Activities of Man
Desire for Preservation
Desire for Response

Desire for Recognition


Desire for Self Expression

Nature
Climate
Warm Cold
Plan
Roof
Windows
Topography
Mountainous Level
Material
Timber
Mud
The general function of Theory of Architecture is to define the relationship between
architecture (which itself is a social institution) and the other institutions in a society:
Architecture and Sociology
Architecture and Politics,
Architecture and Art
Architecture and History
Architecture and the Future
Architecture and Ecology

Architecture and Technology


Wealth, Power or Class
Architecture and Philosophy
Architecture and Science
Architecture and the City
Architecture and Human Perception
179

THEORY IDENTIFIES CRITICAL PROBLEMS IN ARCHITECTURE

When buildings or styles are too similar to each other


When buildings or styles are too different from each other
The Introduction
n of new Building Types
Rigid Styles which generate Hostile or Aggressive Environments
The loss of Regional Character or Identity in Architecture

Characteristics of Theory
A symptom of the speculative character of theory in architecture is the tendency for
theoretical statements to be manifestos employing evocative language
Louis Kahn The nature of space is the spirit and will to exist a certain way.
Robert Venturi Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture
A. Theories about what architectur
architecture
e is are concerned with identifying key variables
such as space, structure or process which should generate the form and character
of a building.
B. Theories often take the form or rely on analogies i.e. organic or machine-like,
machine
etc.
Analogies provide a wa
way
y to organize design tasks in a hierarchical order.
Some recurrent analogies employed in theory to EXPLAIN and DIRECT
architecture:

Mathematical Analogy
Geometry and numbers as a basis for architecture, in tune with a universal order
- Golden section
- Greek orders
- Numbers theories of the renaissance
- Modular (Le Corbusier)

1.618
1,1,2,3,5,8,13,21. F ibonacci Series

180

Biological Analogy
Organic focuses on the relationships between parts of a building or
between the building and its site.
Biomorphic focuses on growth processes and movement capabilities
associated with organisms.

Romantic Analogy
Evocative uses associations or exaggeration to elicit an emotional
response.
Associations can refer to nature, the past, exotic places, primitive
things the future, childhood, etc.
Exaggeration can intimidate, frighten or awe through the use of
contrast, excessive stimulation, unfamiliar scale or forms.

Linguistic Analogy
Grammatical model architecture is composed of elements (words) that
are ordered by rules ( grammar and syntax) that allow people to
understand what a building is trying to communicate i.e. Greek orders.
Expressionist model building as a vehicle for the expression of the
architects attitude toward the building i.e. Saarinens Dulles airport
conveying flight in its form.
Semiotic model a building is a sign that conveys information about
what it is and what it does i.e. Robert Venturis ducks vs. decorated shed.
181

Mechanical Analogy
Buildings are like
e machines. They should express
only what they are and what they do, i.e. A house
is a machine for living Le Corbusier

Problem Solving Analogy


Assumes that environmental needs can be solved through careful analysis and
deliberate procedures. It in
includes three stages:
o Analysis
o Synthesis
o Evaluation

Adhocist Analogy

Buildings should respond to the


immediate need, using materials
readily available without making
reference to an ideal.
Eames House, Charles and Ray
Eames
182

Dramaturgical Analogy
Human activities
tivities are often characterized as theater, and so the built environment
may be seen as a stage in which people play roles and buildings become
settings and props.
e.g. Plaza d Italia, Charles Moore, et. al.

General Goals the task of architecture:


1. Vitruvius made the earliest widely known goal statement for architecture which
is paraphrased to depend on, Commodity, Firmness and Delight.
Ulititas,
Ulititas, Firmitas, Venustas
Venustas
2. Development of social sciences in 19th. And 20th. Centuries brought about a
view of buildings as social, technical, economic, psychological.
3. Current and future changes in peoples relationship to the environment will
require a building to respond to energy efficiency and its impact on the
environment.

183

What Architecture Should Do


The first concern of these type of relational goals is that architecture should
satisfy the technical requirements of buildings.
a. logical structural systems
b. appropriate materials, construction methods and costs
c. regional and contextual in design
The second concern is that architectures primary purpose is social in nature i.e. that the
building is a background and support system to enhance ongoing life processes.
a. a receptacle for the flow of life it serves
b. it must be flexible and adaptive to human concerns
D. Other Goal statements
1. Occur in response to specific needs of a period
2. Short term responses that do not direct action over a long term
3.Function to correct and redirect attention to current pressing needs
a. Le Corbusier in the 1920s saw a need to revise the prevailing
conception of housing and its production.
b. Operation Breakthrough of the 1960s attempted to redefine the way
buildings, and particularly housing, was constructed.
Theories about how the architect should go about designing are concerned with
identifying appropriate methods of operation.
- usually directed toward the assurance that buildings will accomplish
particular ends
- inclusion of user groups and others
PRIORITIES
Problems in architecture are typically complex in nature:
a. technical structure, mech., etc.
b. social users
c. aesthetic, ecological, political
Some theories establish priorities:
a. find the essence of the problem and let that be the controlling factor.
- Mies Van Der Rohe Form follows function.
b. there is an underlying element that needs to be expressed in
structure and form before embellishment is added.

184

PRIMARY ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE


Point zero dimension . Indi
Indicates
cates position in space.

Line 1D point extended becomes a line. With properties of length,


direction & position.
Plane 2D line extended becomes a plane with properties of length,
width, shape, surface, orientation, position

Volume 3D
D a plane extended becomes a volume with properties
and length, width, depth, form, space, surface, orientation, position.

Elements of Architecture
PLANE
Shape is the primary identifying characteristics of a plane.
Supplementary properties are ssurface,
urface, color, pattern, texture, affecting visual
weight and stability.
Plane serves to define the limits or boundaries of a volume.

185

VOLUME

Form is the primary identifying characteristics of a volume.


Established by shapes & interrelations
interrelationship of planes.
A volume can be solid space displaced by mass or void contained by planes.

PRIMARY SOLIDS

186

PRIMARY SOLIDS
Cubes,
ubes, cones, spheres, cylinders, or pyramids are the great primary forms that light
reveals to advantage; the imag
image
e of these is distinct and tangible within us and without
ambiguity. It is for this reason that these are beautiful forms, the most beautiful forms.

The primary shapes can be extended or rotated to generate volumetric forms or solids
which are distinct, regular,
egular, and easily recognizable. Circles generated spheres and
cylinders; triangles generate cones and pyramids: squares generate cubes. In this
context, the term solid does not refer to firmness of substance but rather to a threethree
dimensional geometric bodyy or figure.

Sphere
Solid generated by the revolution of a
semicircle about its diameter, whose
surface is at all points equidistant from
the center. A sphere is a centralized and
highly concentrated form. Like the circle
from which it is generated, it is
i selfcentering and normally stable in its
environment. It can be inclined toward a
rotary motion when placed on a sloping
plane. From any viewpoint, it retains its
circular shape.
Cylinder
A solid generated by the revolution of a
rectangular about one off its sides. A
cylinder is centralized about the axis
passing through the centers of its two
circular faces. Along this axis, it can be
easily extended. The cylinder is stable if it
rests on one of its circular faces; it
becomes unstable when its central axis
a
is
inclined from the vertical.

187

PRIMARY SOLIDS

Cone
A solid generated by the revolution of a
right triangle about one of its sides. Like
the cylinder, the cone is a highly stable
form when resting on its circular base,
and unstable when its vertical axis is
tipped or overturned. It can also rest on
its apex in a precarious state of balance.

Pyramid
A polyhedron having a polygonal base
and triangular faces meeting at a corner
point or vertex. The pyramid has
properties similar to those of the cone.
Because
cause all of its surfaces are flat planes,
however, the pyramid can rest in a stable
manner on any of its faces. While the
cone is a soft form, the pyramid is
relatively hard and angular.

Cube
A prismatic solid bounded by six equal
square sides, the angle between any two
adjacent faces being a right angle.
Because of the equality of its dimensions,
the cube is a static form that lacks
apparent movement or direction. It is a
stable form except when it stands on one
of its edges or corners. Even though its
angular
ngular profile is affected by our point of
view, the cube remains a highly
recognizable form.

188

TRANSFORMATION OF FORM
All other forms can be understood to be
transformations of the primary solids,
variations which are generated by the
manipulation of one or more dimensions
or by the addition or subtraction of
elements.
Dimensional Transformation
A form can be transformed by
altering one or more of its
dimensions and still retain its
identity as a member of a family of
forms. A cube, for example, can be
transformed
ansformed into similar prismatic
forms through discrete changes in
height, width, or length. It can be
compressed into a planar form or
be stretched out into a linear one.
Subtractive Transformation
A form can be transformed by
subtracting a portion of its
it volume.
Depending on the extent of the
subtractive process, the form can
retain its initial identity or be
transformed into a form of another
family. For example, a cube can
retain its identity as a cube even
though a portion of it is removed,
or be transformed
sformed into a series of
regular polyhedrons that begin to
approximate a sphere.
Additive Transformation
A form can be transformed by the
addition of elements to its volume.
The nature of the additive process
and the number and relative sizes
of the elements
nts being attached
determine whether the identity of
the initial form is altered or
retained.

189

SUBTRACTIVE FORM

We search for regularity and continuity in


the forms we see within our field of vision.
If any of the primary solids is partially
hidden from our view, we tend to
complete its form and visualize it as if it
were whole because the mind
m
fills in what
the eyes do not see. In a similar manner,
when regular forms have fragments
missing from their volumes, they retain
their formal identities if we perceive them
as incomplete wholes. We refer to these
mutilated forms as subtracted forms.
forms
Because
use they are easily recognizable,
simple geometric forms, such as the
primary solids, adapt readily to
subtractive treatment. These forms will
retain their formal identities if portions of
their volumes are removed without
deteriorating their edges, corners,
corner and
overall profile.
Ambiguity regarding the original
identity of a form will result if the
portion removed from its volume
erodes its edges and drastically
alters its profile.

In the series of figures below, at


what point does the square shape
with a corner portion removed
become an L-shaped
shaped configuration
of two rectangular planes.

190

ADDITIVE FORM
While a subtracted form results
from the removal of a portion of its
original volume, an additive form is
produced by relating
ng or physically

The basic possibilities for grouping


two or more forms are by:
Spatial Tension
This type of relationship relies on the
close proximity of the forms of their
sharing of a common visual trait,
such as shape, color, or material.

Face-to
to face Contact
This type of relationship,
relationsh the forms
share a common edge and can pivot
about that edge.

Face to face Contact


This type of relationship requires
that
the
two
forms
have
corresponding planar surfaces whivh
wh
are parallel to each other.

Interlocking Volumes
In this type of relationship, the forms
interpenetrate each others space.
The forms need not share any visual
traits.

191

SUBTRACTIVE & ADDITIVE FORMS


LeCorbusier comments of form:
Cumulative Composition
Additive form
A rather easy type
Picturesque; full of movement
Can be completely disciplined
by classification and hierarchy
Cubic Compositions (Pure
Prisms)
Very difficult
(to satisfy the spirit)

La Roche-Jeanneret Houses,
Paris

Villa at
Garches

Very easy
(convenient combining)
House at Struttgart

Subtracted form
Very generous
On the exterior an architectural
will is formed
On the interior all functional
needs are satisfied (light
penetration, continuity,
circulation)

House at Poissy

192

SURFACE ARTICULATION
Our perception of the shape,
size, scale, proportion, and
visual weight of a plane is
influenced by its surface
properties as well as its visual
context.
A distinct contrast between
the surface color of a plane
and that of the surrounding
field can clarify its shape,
while modifying its tonal
value can either increase or
decrease its visual weight.
weight
A frontal view reveals
eveals the true
shape of a plane; oblique

Elements of known size within


the visual context of a plane
can aid perception of its size
and scale.

Texture
exture and color together
affect the visual weight and
scale of a plane and the
degree to which it absorbs or
reflects light and sound.

Directional
or
oversized
optical patterns can distort the
shape or exaggerate the
proportions of a plane.

193

ELEMENTS AND PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN

Elements of Design are the tools you work with when you design.
Form or Mass

The volume of a structure

Line

Creates visual direction

Texture

Surface pattern or physical materials

Space

Interior or exterior enclosure

Value

The play of light & shadow on a structure

Color

Applied or inherent to the bilding material

Principles of Design are the concepts that determine how a design is organized.
Unity

All parts of the design work together as a whole.

Proportion

The size relationship of a part to the whole.

Emphasis

The focal point of the design.

Balance

Symmetrical or asymmetrical organization of elements

Repetition

Creates a visual rhythm

Contrast

The variation of opposites

194

FORM AND SPACE

Munich
Olympic
Stadium

Elements of form defining


fining space
In architecture we manipulate three
generic types of planes:

Modern
Interior

Precast
Construction
House

ELEMENTS OF FORM DEFINING SPACE


Horizontal Plane

195

196

Horizontal plane
Base plane
Seems to be figured out when there is a perceptible change in color, texture.
With edge definition
With surface articulation e.g. carpet, lawn, paving, etc

Elevated Base plane


Elevating creates a specific domain
If surface characteristics continues up across the elevated plane, then the
elevated one will appear part of surrounding plane.
If edge conditions is articulated by a change in form, color, texture, then the field
will become a distinct plateau, that is separated from surroundings.

197

Elevated Base plane spatial & visual continuity


Edge is well defined
Spatial continuity
maintained physical
access accommodated

Spatial continuity interrupted.


Visual continuity maintained.
Require stairs for physical
access.

Visual and spatial


continuity is interrupted.
Elevated plane isolated
from ground level.

Elevated Base plane


it can be result from site conditions or constructed to elevate a building from
surroundings to enhance its image in landscape.
Used to differentiate the sacred buildings or it defines any important typology.
Elevated plane can defin
define
e a transitional space between exterior and interior.
A section floor plane can be elevated to establish a zone of space with in the
large space.

Acropolis, Athens

Villa Savoye, Paris


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Depressed Base plane spatial & visual continuity

Vertical surface of depression


establishes boundaries

By contrasting form,
geometry or orientation

Separates

Remains an
integral part

The space
is distinct

DEPRESSED PLANE
Depressed areas in topography of site stage for outdoor
utdoor arenas and amphitheater
Depression benefits sightlines, sense of having, acoustical quality

Steps down introvert nature

Steps up extrovert nature

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OVERHEAD PLANE

it is similar to the trees .


It gives sense of
enclosure.
Overhead plane define
a field of space
between
itself and ground plane.
Edges of the overhead
plane define the
Salamanca House, NewZealand
boundaries of this field.
Vertical linear elements , edges of overhead
plane , elevated base plan and depressed
base plane aid in visually establishing the
limits of the defined space and reinforce the
volume.

Valencia Opera House, Spain

Offers protection.
Determines overall form
It is determined by the materials &
structural form.
the roof plane can visually express how the
pattern of structural members resolve
forces
and transfer loads.
The roof planes can be the major space
defining element of the building and visually
organizes a series of forms and spaces
beneath the canopy.

200

Tensile Roof

ROOF PLANE
Can be hidden from view by wall or
merged.
Can be single or many
Can extend outward as overhang
Can be elevated to allow breeze to pass
through
Overall form can be endeavored with a
distinctly planar quality by opening with
vertical or horizontal edges.
Glass House, New Canaan

Dynamic Tower , UAE

Arena Zaqreb, Croatia

CEILING PLANE
Can be detached from roof plane, suspended, underside of an overhead. Can
be lowered / raised to articulate spaces.
Can be manipulated to define and articulate spaces.
Can be manipulated
nipulated to define and articulate zone of spaces.
Form, color, texture and pattern of the ceiling plane can be manipulated to
improve or control the quality of light / sound / directional quality.
Lowered

Raised to let in Light

CEILING PLANE

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Light wave ceiling plane

UAE , Airport.

Restaurant Rosso , Israel

SINGLE VERTICAL PLANE

A vertical plane has frontal qualities. It has two surfaces


or faces which it fronts on and establish two distinct
spatial fields
They can differ in form, color or texture to articulate
different spatial conditions.
The height of the vertical plane relati
relative to our body
height and eye level is the critical factor that effects
the ability of the plane to visually describe spaces.

202

JNCASR ,BUILDING , DESIGNED BY CHARLES COREA , BANGALORE


This vertical wall divides the campus and forest area.
The wall establishes different spatial quality

Provides little or no sense of enclosure. It defines the edges of spatial field


Provides sense of enclosure. It allows visual continuity
Separates one space from another
Full sense of enclosure

203

LINEAR ELEMENTS

Obelisks in Vatican city

Column of Marcus Aurelius, Rome

Vertical linear elements such as columns, obelisks and towers have been
used throughout history to commemorate significant events or establish
particular points in spa
space or to organize spaces around it.
Vertical linear elements can also define a transparent volume of spaces.

Hagia Sophia ,Istanbul

Parthenon , Rome

Marks the corners and edges of spaces.


Linear members that possesses the necessary materi
material
al strength can perform
structural functions..
They can express movement across space.
Stand as column supports for entablature.
Columns and beams together form a 3D framework for architectural space.

204

Colonnade in St.Peters Square

IIMB , CORRIDOR
DOR , B.V.Doshi

A row of column supporting an entablature a colonnade is often used to define the


public face or faade of a building
advantages
a. Being penetrated easily for entry.
b. Offers a degree of shelter from the elements
c. Forms a semi transparen
transparentt screen the unifies individual building form behind it.
d. Columns can define the edges of an exterior space.
e. Articulate the edges of building mass in space.
f. Trellis or pergola can provide a moderate degree of definition and enclosure
for outdoor spaces.
g. Allow
low light and breeze to penetrate.
OPENINGS IN SPACE DEFINING ELEMENTS

Openings are required for visual and spatial continuity.


Openings determine patterns of movement ( door)

205

Openings allow light to penetrate the space (window)& illuminate the surface
of a room.
They offer views from the room/interior to exterior.
They establish visual relationship between rooms and adjacent spaces.
They provide natural ventilation.
Depending on size, number and location they can weaken the enclosure.

Elements of design are the tools you work with when you design.
Form/Mass
Line
Texture
Space
Value
Color

The volume of a structure


Creates visual direction
Surface pattern or physical materials
Interior or exterior enclosure
The play of light & shadow on a structure
Applied or inherent to the building material

SENSORY ELEMENTS
We perceive information about works of art through our senses. By carefully
examining a work of art, we learn to organize our sensory perceptions by
identifying them as elements of art.
Architects use sensory elements in the preliminary design of a building.
Beginning with lines and shapes, the architect draws an inception of how a
building will look after it is constructed.
When we analyze a building, we begin by scanning its faade.
This means that we will examine the front of the building and systematically
identify the aesthetic elements that compose the overall design.
The first things we notice about a building are elements that appeal directly to
our senses: line, shape, texture, color, light/dark, and space.
see the photographs that follow to help you practice looking for each of the
sensory elements:

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1. SHAPE/FORM
A shape is made when a line is closed and space is enclosed.
A two dimensional shape is one th
that
at is drawn on a flat surface such as paper.
A three-dimensional
dimensional shape is one that takes up real space. Architectural
drawings often try to indicate what the proposed building win look like as a
three-dimensional
dimensional form by the use of perspective.

2. LINE
A line is a continuous mark made by a pencil, brush, pen or other tool.
Lines can be thick or thin, straight or curved, jagged or smooth, light or heavy.
In architecture, lines are often suggested by the structural materials designers
choose for their buildings
ldings such as the random lines of natural stone or the
sleek lines created by beams of steel or walls of glass.
Modern buildings often use bold lines created by structural steel cross
bracing. Lines can also be suggested by the shape and massing of a building.
buil
For instance, a building can look horizontal or vertical.

3. TEXTURE

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Texture is the apparent look or feel of the surface of an art object.


Texture is a tactile property and requires touching to be appreciated. Once we
know how a material feel
feels,
s, however, we can interpret a texture with our eyes
and can tell visually how it might feel.
An architect creates texture in building by certain choices of materials. Heavy,
jagged stone may be used in a building to give it a rough texture, whereas
delicate,
te, carved woods can give a structure a light and airy look.
Texture can also be suggested by the rich layering of shapes and forms on a
building.
Architects add visual interest to their buildings by using decorative building
materials such as siding, ston
stone
e and woodcarvings, or they can vary the
pattern of concrete forms.
4. SPACE
Space is the relative position of one three
three-dimensional
dimensional object to another.
Space is one of the most important considerations an architect must think
about while designing a buildi
building,
ng, because the sizes of rooms and hallways,
the height of ceilings and the ease of entering and exiting each living area
must carefully match the function of the building.
Architects chose dimensions of rooms to match the number of people who will
occupy the space and the amount of activity that will occur in it.
To make a building more interesting, architects will experiment with aesthetic
qualities of space by varying the width and height of rooms through which
people will move. Architects also speak o
off space as the amount of land that
will be occupied by a building on a site.
The remaining area is called open space.

5. VALUE
Light and dark are relative perceptions of light.
Architects use the concept of light and dark as they create visual interest on a
building by choosing shapes that create a sensation of depth. When some
shapes stick out, they leave others in shadow.

208

Narrow openings often appear dark, as in a tunnel, and broad, flat spaces
look light. Materials can be used to vary the light quality of a building.
For instance, a band of tinted windows gives the illusion of a dark space
wrapping around a building.

6. COLOR
Color is an element of our visual perception that is
related to how our eyes perceive light. We differentiate
these perceptions
ions and name them red, blue, yellow,
etc.
Architects use color in the choice of materials used to
construct a building. These color choices can be quite
subtle, such as using a warm, yellow toned concrete
instead of a cold gray base, or using a brownish brick
instead of the traditional red.
However, the architect must consider the color effect
of every element of a building's construction, from the
earthy colors of primary construction materials like
wood, stone, brick and marble, to the expansive
varietyy of colors available for paint, doors, windows, siding, and trim.
Once chosen, the architectural drawings and sample boards tell a contractor
exactly what color building materials to use when constructing a structure.

209

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN are the concepts that determine


rmine how a
design is organized:
Unity
Proportion
Emphasis
Balance
Repetition
Contrast

All parts of the design work together as a whole.


The size relationship of a part to the whole.
The focal point of the design.
Symmetrical or asymmetrical organization
tion of elements
Create a visual rhythm
The variation of opposites

FORMAL ELEMENTS
Artists combine Sensory elements when creating a work of art. The manner in
which elements are repeated overlapped and arranged creates the formal
design, or composition, of
of-the artwork.
Architects create formal designs using large masses of shape.
Construction materials are used to give the building variety.
Elements like line, shape, color and texture do not exist in isolation on a
building. They are
re combined to make formal compositions in an architectural
design, creating pattern, rhythm, symmetry, balance, contrast, proportion,
theme, and unity.
It is important that the variety of elements used for a building blend together
well so that the design appears unified.
As we scan architecture we look for the following:

1. PATTERN AND REPETITION:

When lines and shapes are repeated,


they create a pattern.
Patterns can be regular or irregular,
however, architects try to repeat
elements of design in a regul
regular manner.
In architecture, patterns can be found in
the way bricks are laid, in repeated
shapes of windows, and in decorative
wood or stone trim

210

2. RHYTHM

If you look carefully at the patterns on


buildings, you can sense a rhythm to
their order.
These rh
rhythmic patterns give a dynamic
quality to a building, making it seem to
be very lively.
Rhythm is very apparent in rows of
columns or repeated arches. Such
patterns carry our eye across the faade of
the structure and add visual excitement to a
large form.

3. SYMMETRY/ASSYMETRY

When
there
is
correspondence in size or
shape of parts on either
side of a bisected whole
we say it is symmetrical.
A good starting point for
understanding symmetry
might be to look in the
mirror and imagine a line
drawn down the cen
center of
your body.
You are fairly symmetrical with correspondence between your
eyes, ears, arms and legs, A symmetrical building has the same
shapes on either side of an imaginary line drawn down the middle
of its faade.
Buildings can be asymmetrical as well when different shapes are
placed on either side of a bisecting line.

4. BALANCE

Balance
is
the
characteristic of equal
weights opposing one
another.
In art, we say that a
composition is balanced if
the shapes on one side of
a center line appear to

211

have the same weight as those on opposite sides.


Buildings can be balanced whether they are symmetrical or
asymmetrical as long as they maintain a sense of equal, visual
weight on either side of a center line drawn through the faade.

5. CONTRAST

Contrast exis
exists when two
adjacent parts are very different
from
one
another.
In
architecture, we speak about
such things as materials that
have contrasting colors and
textures.
We may also mean the
relationship of highlights and
shadows. When contrasting
materials are placed together,
one seems to move to the front
of your line of vision. Architects
use contrast to add visual
variety to their designs.
6. PROPORTION

Proportion is the term used


to describe the relationship
between two things of
different
size.
In
architec
architecture we are looking
for
the
proportional
relationship
between
spaces and the size of the
human body.
The proportion of the room can greatly affect the way a person
feels in a space. We often talk about this kind of proportion as
scale when we speak about a building.
Ordinarily, an architect tries to design a space so that people feel
comfortable moving about in it. For that reason, a bedroom may
have a much lower ceiling than an auditorium Where many
people will mingle.
Sometimes a building is designed so a space is purposely out of
proportion to human scale. An example of this would be the
212

towering spaces inside cathedrals that make people feel quite


insignificant in comparison to the awesome power of God.
Architects also deliberately design spaces with changing scale by
varying heights of ceilings and sizes of rooms.
This makes the occupants movement through the space more
dynamic.

7. THEME

A theme is a dominant
feature of a work of art
that
is
carried
throughout the piece.
A variation is a change
in
th
the
dominant
elements with the main
idea still recognizable.
An
architect
might
design a building using a theme based on history such as a
Classical building with columns, domes and pediments, or make
reference to architecture of another culture such as choosing
choo
to
style the building using simple, horizontal forms of the Japanese.
Frank Lloyd Wright often chose a geometric theme for his Prairie
School houses. In these homes he altered the sizes of squares
and rectangles to add variety while maintaining the geometric
ge
theme of the buildings.

8. COHERENCE

A work of art has coherence


when its elements are used
together in a logical and
systematic manner.
In architecture, a variety of
elements is used to add
interest to a design, however
the architect tries hard to tie them together.
Many people feel that the most pleasing architectural designs
have an elegant system of repeated elements that give unity to
the overall structure.

213

COLOR

Color is a phenomenon of light where in we are able to categorize object colors


from red, yellow, green blue and others.
There is only a narrow band of wavelength that our eyes can see; it is the colors
of the rainbow or ROYGBIV.
Each color is corresponded by a wavelength.
Red has the longest wavelength while Violet has the shortest.
All wavelengths combined together to produces white light.
This was shown by Isaac Newton when he let a white light pass through a prism
causing a band of different wavelengths showing different colors.

Mono-Chromatic
o Using one color (hue) throughout, utilizing that colors various tints, tones and
shades.
o When using a mono-chromatic scheme using multiple textures creates character
and maintains unity.
Analogous
o Using three colors (hues) that are neighboring each other on the color wheel
o These schemes can be warm or cool since colors are adjacent on the color
wheel.
Complimentary
o Using two colors (hues) that are opposites such as red and green or violet and
yellow
o Choose varying tints tones and shades which will give the bold dramatic effect
you are looking for.
Triadic
o Using three colors (hues) that are equal distance apart on the color wheel, such
as red, yellow and blue or using secondary colors yellow-green, blue-violet, and
red-orange.
Single Split Complementary
o Uses a primary color plus colors on either side of its complement.
o An example is a color scheme that includes various values and intensities of
greens, violet-reds and red-oranges.
Double Split Complementary (Also Called Tetradic)
o Uses two pairs of complements, one apart on the color wheel. An example is red,
green, orange, and blue.

214

COLOR TERMINOLOGIES
HUE
Hue defines pure color in terms of "red", "green" or "magenta". Hue also defines
mixtures of two pure colors like "red-yellow" (~ "orange"), or "yellow-green" (limitations
to this statement will be addressed later).
Hue is usually one property of three when used to determine a certain color. It is a more
technical definition of our color perception which can be used when communicating
color ideas. Hues can refer to the set of "pure" colors within a color space.
TINT
Tint is a color term commonly used by painters. It is a mixing result of an original color
to which has been added white. If you tinted a color, you've been adding white to the
original color. A tint is lighter than the original color. When used as a dimension of a
color space, tint can be the amount of white added to an original color. In such a color
space a pure color would be non-tinted.
SHADE
Shade is a color term commonly used by painters. It is a mixing result of an original
color to which has been added black. If you shaded a color, you've been adding black to
the original color. A shade is darker than the original color. When used as a dimension
of a color space, shade can be the amount of black added to an original color. In such a
color space a pure color would be non-shaded.
TONE
Tone is a color term commonly used by painters.
The broader definition defines tone as a result of mixing a pure color with any
neutral/grayscale color including the two extremes white and black. By this definition all
tints and shades are also considered to be tones.
The narrower definition defines tone as a result of mixing a pure color with any
grayscale color excluding white and black. By this definition a certain amount of white
and black must have been added to the original color. Furthermore the following is true:
If you changed the tonal value of a color, you've been adding gray (any ratio of mixture)
to the original color.
A tone is softer than the original color. It is not used as a dimension of a color space.
Instead, the tonal difference consists of the amounts of white and/or black used to
determine a certain color.

215

SATURATION
Saturation is a color term commonly used by (digital/analog) imaging experts.
Saturation is usually one property of three when used to determine a certain color and
measured as percentage value. It defines a range from pure color (100%) to gray (0%)
at a constant lightness level. A pure color is fully saturated.
From a perceptional point of view saturation influences the grade of purity or vividness
of a color/image. A desaturated image is said to be dull, less colorful or washed out but
can also make the impression of being softer.
We will clear up the term saturation from a color mixing point of view in the color spaces
section.
LIGHTNESS
Lightness is a color term commonly used by (digital/analog) imaging experts. It defines
a range from dark (0%) to fully illuminated (100%). Any original hue has the average
lightness level of 50%.
CHROMATIC SIGNAL/ CHROMATICITY/ CHROMA
This family of color terms is commonly used by (digital/ analog) imaging and video
experts.
A chromatic signal is the component of color perception that is not achromatic, i.e. any
deviation from neutral-color perception (dark, grayscale, illuminated). The chromatic
intensity or chromaticity is the intensity of the chromatic signal contributing to color
perception. Chromaticity is similar to saturation as a color/image with a low chromaticity
value is not very colorful.
Chroma is a component of a color model. There's a blue-yellow and a red-green chroma
component.
INTENSITY/ LUMINOSITY/ LUMA
Intensity is a synonym for magnitude, degree or strength. It can therefore be used in
conjunction with any color property. Nevertheless, it carries special meaning in certain
contexts.
Luma (%) is the intensity of the achromatic signal contributing to our color perception.
BRIGHTNESS/ (RELATIVE) LUMINANCE
Brightness is an attribute of our perception which is mainly influenced by a color's
lightness. This is probably why brightness and lightness are often mixed up. Brightness
is not a color property, if used "correctly".
For one color of specific hue the perception of brightness is also more intense, if we
increase saturation. A higher level of saturation makes a color look brighter.
216

In relation to other colors the brightness intensity of a color is also influenced by its hue.
We can then speak of (relative) luminance to refer to brightness.
GRAYSCALE
A grayscale is a series of neutral colors, ranging from black to white, or the other way
around. Each step's color value is usually shifted by constant amounts.

PSYCHOLOGY OF COLORS & SHADES


BLUE
Blue is the overwhelming "favorite color." Blue is seen as trustworthy, dependable and
committed. The color of sky and the ocean, blue is perceived as a constant in our lives.
As the collective color of the spirit, it invokes rest and can cause the body to produce
chemicals that are calming; however not all blues are serene and sedate. Electric or
brilliant blues become dynamic and dramatic, an engaging color that expresses
exhilaration. Some shades or the overuse of blue may come across as cold or uncaring.
Blue is the least "gender specific" color, having equal appeal to both men and women.
How the color blue affects us physically and mentally:
* Calming and sedate
* Cooling
* Aids intuition
GREEN
Green occupies more space in the spectrum visible to the human eye and is second
only to blue as a favorite color. Green is the pervasive color in the natural world that is
an ideal backdrop in interior design because we are so used to seeing it everywhere.
The natural greens, from forest to lime, are seen as tranquil and refreshing, with a
natural balance of cool and warm (blue and yellow) undertones. Green is considered
the color of peace and ecology. However, there is an "institutional" side to green,
associated with illness or Government-issued that conjure up negative emotions as do
the "slimy" or bilious greens.
How the color green affects us physically and mentally:
* Soothing
* Relaxing mentally as well as physically
* Helps alleviate depression, nervousness and anxiety
* Offers a sense of renewal, self-control and harmony

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YELLOW
Yellow shines with optimism, enlightenment, and happiness. Shades of golden yellow
carry the promise of a positive future. Yellow will advance from surrounding colors and
instill optimism and energy, as well as spark creative thoughts.
How the color yellow affects us mentally and physically:
* Mentally stimulating
* Stimulates the nervous system
* Activates memory
* Encourages communication
ORANGE
Orange, a close relative of red, sparks more controversy than any other hue. There is
usually strong positive or negative association to orange and true orange generally
elicits a stronger "love it" or "hate it" response than other colors. Fun and flamboyant
orange radiates warmth and energy. Interestingly, some of the tones of orange such as
terra cotta, peach or rust have very broad appeal.
How the color orange affects us mentally and physically:
* Stimulates activity
* Stimulates appetite
* Encourages socialization
RED
Red has more personal associations than any other color. Recognized as a stimulant
red is inherently exciting and the amount of red is directly related to the level of energy
perceived. Red draws attention and a keen use of red as an accent can immediately
focus attention on a particular element.
How the color red affects us mentally and physically:
* Increases enthusiasm
* Stimulates energy
* Encourages action and confidence
* A sense of protection from fears and anxiety
PURPLE
Purple embodies the balance of red simulation and blue calm. This dichotomy can
cause unrest or uneasiness unless the undertone is clearly defined at which point the
purple takes on the characteristics of its undertone. A sense of mystic and royal
qualities, purple is a color often well liked by very creative or eccentric types and is the
favorite color of adolescent girls.
How the color purple affects us mentally and physically:
* Uplifting
218

* Calming to mind and nerves


* Offers a sense of spirituality
* Encourages creativity
BROWN
Brown says stability, reliability, and approachability. It is the color of our earth and is
associated with all things natural or organic.
How the color brown affects us physically and mentally:
* Feeling of wholesomeness
* Stability
* Connection with the earth
* Offers a sense orderliness
WHITE
White projects purity, cleanliness, and neutrality. Doctors don white coats, brides
traditionally were white gowns and a white picket fence surrounds a safe and happy
home.
How the color white affects us mentally and physically:
* aids mental clarity
* encourages us to clear clutter or obstacles
* evokes purification of thoughts or actions
* enables fresh beginnings
GRAY
Gray is timeless, practical, and solid. A longstanding favorite suit color, gray can mix
well with any color. Although well like and often worn, people rarely name gray as a
favorite color possibly because Gray also is associated with loss or depression.
How the color gray affects us physically and mentally
* unsettling
* expectant

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BLACK
Black is authoritative and powerful; because black can evoke strong emotions too much
can be overwhelming. A classic color for clothing possibly because it makes the wearer
appear thinner and more sophisticated.
How the color black affects us physically and mentally
* feeling inconspicuous
* a restful emptiness
* mysterious evoking a sense of potential and possibility.

COLOR WAVELENGTH

Violet

380450 Nm

Blue

450495 Nm

Green

495570 Nm

Yellow

570590 Nm

Orange

590620 Nm

Red

620750 Nm

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PRIMARY COLORS

ADDITIVE MIXING
The primary colors of light are orange-red, green,
and blue. When all three are added together (left),
they form white. When any two of the primaries
are combined, other hues are produced.

SUBTRACTIVE MIXING
The primary pigment colors, yellow, magenta, and
cyan, are shown at the upper right. Subtractive
mixing of all three produces black. The mixtures
shown at the lower left also produce black.
YELLOW
(PRIMARY)
YELLOW ORANGE
(TERTIARY)

YELLOW GREEN
(TERTIARY)

ORANGE
(SECONDARY)

GREEN
(SECONDARY)

ORANGE RED
(TERTIARY)

BLUE GREEN
(TERTIARY)

RED
(PRIMARY)

RED PURPLE
(TERTIARY)

BLUE
(PRIMARY)

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PURPLE
(SECONDARY)

BLUE PURPLE
(TERTIARY)

SECONDARY COLORS

TERTIARY COLORS

TERMS TO KNOW
Hue
Chroma
Value
Tint
Tone
Shade
Key Color

Another name for color


Intensity or saturation of color
The lightness or darkness of a color.
Color + White
Color + Grey
Color + Black
Dominant color in a color scheme or mixture.
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COLOR SCHEME
A Color Scheme is a combination of colors that harmonize with each other.
Monochrome

Triad

Adjacent = Analogous

Single Split Complimentary

Complementary Colors

Duble Split Complementary

Mono-Chromatic
Using one color (hue) throughout, utilizing that colors various tints, tones
and shades.
When using a mono-chromatic scheme using multiple textures creates
character and maintains unity.
Analogous
Using three colors (hues) that are neighboring each other on the color
wheel
These schemes can be warm or cool since colors are adjacent on the
color wheel.
Complimentary
Using two colors (hues) that are opposites such as red and green or violet
and yellow
Choose varying tints tones and shades which will give the bold dramatic
effect you are looking for.
Triadic
Using three colors (hues) that are equal distance apart on the color wheel,
such as red, yellow and blue or using secondary colors yellow-green,
blue-violet, and red-orange.
Single Split Complementary
uses a primary color plus colors on either side of its complement.
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An example is a color scheme that includes various values and intensities


of greens, violet-reds and red-oranges.
Double Split Complementary (Also Called Tetradic)
uses two pairs of complements, one apart on the color wheel. An example
is red, green, orange, and blue.

PICK - SEE - LMD

PICK a Pattern: Starting with a


pattern is the easiest way to create a color
palette for your decor. Choose a pattern
from any object you already have and love
such as a pillow, picture or piece of furniture.
This will be your color palette!

SEE 3 Colors: Select a light, medium


and dark color from your pattern to be used
as your foundation. You may want to go to a
hardware store and select color chips from
the paint department that match your pattern
to carry with you in case you come across a
great find and need to know if it matches.

LMD: Light, Medium and Dark - How


you use these colors can affect the overall
appearance of your room.

Light- Is the Background- this is usually easy to achieve since most rentals are
equipped with light to off-white walls.

Medium- Large furniture and windows - Since the color of these objects will
blend with the above lighter selection, the medium furniture will ground the room
and give it a foundation.

Darker- Accessories. Since your eye is drawn to a darker more intense color
you will be able to arrange you accessories in a manner to guide the eye flowing
through your room.

PICK - SEE - LMD Use it whenever you are trying to pull together a color
coordinated room!

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NEUTRAL COLORS
are colors that lacking hue, usually they are very light colors such as gray, beige and
taupe (brownish-gray).
gray). Neutral colors usually dusky in nature and may call achromatic.
Meanings:
Modest, quiet, pale, light, harmonious
Implications:
Natural, timeless, classic, unbiased, harmless
Associations:
Stone, sand, coral, packaging

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MUNSELL COLOR SYSTEM


The three dimensions of the munsell
mun
system are shown (above) by a ring
representing the ten hues, a central
column with a range of values
between black and white, and a
horizontal bar indicating the chromas
or saturation levels.
The munsell color system (left) may be
represented by a tree
ree with several
branches, each representing one of
the standard or intermediate hues.
The plates making up each branch are
arranged according to Munsell valure
and chroma.

Each branch of the Munsell color system


tree represents a constant
nstant-hue chart. The
charts make possible precise and
meaningful notation and comparison of
color samples. Each chart displays scales
of chroma on value (or lightness) levels
for a single hue. The chroma scales
radiate in equal visual steps from grays at
the neutral column at the extreme left to
the strongest chroma obtainable on each
value level.
Sample colors may be identified by direct
reference to the notation of the nearest
matching color. Or, for more precise
identification, the notation may be
specified
cified by interpolation between the
charted colors.

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Thus, if a sample of red matches


exactly the colorchip (5R 5/4): but if the
sample to be identified is halfway between
the colot-chips
chips in positions 5R 4/4 and 5R
5/4, the notation of the sample is recorded
as 5R 4.5/4. Thus the numerical scales
allow
precise
chroma
and
value
identification of any color that the eye can
distinguish.

OSTWALD COLOR SYSTEM

The Ostwald color tree has a branch for each numbered hue in the system. The chips
on each branch are marked and placed to show the degree of their white and black
content. Examples of four chips from the tree are shown at the right, two marked with
hue number 19, one with number 126, and one with number 6. The es on the top chip
indicate that it has a high white content and a minimum black content. The pa on the
bottom chip indicatess that is has a minimum white content and a minimum black
content.

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PROPORTION AND COLOR


The best way to describe a proportion is, size.
Color affects a rooms visual proportion.
A general guide line is white or pale colors make objects recede, while dark or
bright colors draw things closer which causes them to appear larger.

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