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Family Poeciliidae (Livebearers) -- Check List


of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central
America
Chapter January 2003

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Check List of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America

Family Poeciliidae
(Livebearers)
Paulo H. F. Lucinda
Poeciliids can be characterized by: (1) a highly-inserted pectoral fin, (2) pelvic fins that migrate anteriorly during growth,
(3) recessed supraorbital pores 2b through 4a, and (4) pleural ribs on the first several haemal arches as well as a series of
other internal synapomorphies (see details in Parenti, 1981; Costa, 1998; Ghedotti, 2000).
Poeciliids are small and laterally compressed cyprinodontiform fishes. Body form ranges from extremely elongate (e.g.
Tomeurus) to deep-bodied (e.g. Phallichthys, Carlhubbsia). Size is extremely variable ranging from the tiny Fluviphylax
palikur (maximum adult recorded size: 13.9 mm) to the giant of the group, Belonesox belizanus, which reaches 200 mm.
Poeciliids comprise 299 valid species inhabiting the fresh and brackish waters of American and African continents (but are
reported to occur in salt waters in coastal areas).
Species of Poeciliidae occur in North and Middle America, Caribbean, South America to Northern Argentina, Congo basin
and the African rift lakes, Dar es Salaam and Madagascar (Parenti, 1981). Following Ghedotti (2000), fishes of the family
Poeciliidae are included in three subfamilies: Poeciliinae (220 valid species), Procatopodinae (78 valid species)
Aplocheilichthyinae (one species).
The subfamily Poeciliinae is broadly distributed throughout the Americas. Poeciliines are characterized by: (1) the uniquely
derived possession of a gonopodium formed by the modified male anal-fin rays 3, 4, and 5 (Parenti, 1981), (2) internal
fertilization, (3) viviparity (Tomeurus gracilis possess facultative viviparity). Some species with all-female individuals,
their eggs capable of developing when stimulated by the sperm of another species without fertilization. Poeciliinae is the
sister group of the Procatopodinae, a group composed of the South-American Fluviphylax and the African procatopodines.
The clade Poeciliinae plus Procatopodinae is the sister group of the Aplocheilichthyinae (Costa, 1996; Ghedotti, 2000).
These three subfamilies compose the family Poeciliidae.
The Poeciliinae includes well-known aquarium fishes such as the guppies, mosquito fishes, swordtails, platys and the
mollies, being very familiar to the non-scientific public. On the other hand, poeciliines are well known from several
biological standpoints, being object of study for ecologists, anatomists, embryologists and many others biologist
researchers. Notwithstanding, this fish assemblage is disappointingly ill-studied from the perspective of systematics.
Intrageneric diversity and intergeneric relationships of the Poeciliinae are poorly known, regardless of its huge distribution
range and notoriety. Similarly, phylogenetic hypotheses for most of genera are still wanting. Taxonomic revisions and
phylogeny hypotheses have provided insights into the relationships of smaller groups of the Poeciliinae (e.g., Rosen, 1967,
1979; Rauchenberger, 1989; Rosa & Costa, 1993; Meyer et al., 1994; Mojica et al., 1997; Rodriguez, 1997; Ghedotti, 2000)
or have dealt with higher taxa (Costa, 1996 and 1998; Parenti, 1981). The only comprehensive study is the classic revision
of Poeciliidae by Rosen & Bailey (1963), which did not deal with cladistic methodology. Nonetheless, Rosen & Bailey
(1963) is the basis for current inner classification of Poeciliinae. Later, Parenti & Rauchenberger (1989) modified the
classification of Rosen & Bailey (1963) in order to accommodate it into the taxonomic rank of subfamily proposed by
Parenti. Following Rosen & Bailey (1963) and Parenti & Rauchenberger (1989), Tomeurus alone is the supertribe
Tomeurini. The remaining genera form the supertribe Poeciliini, which is subdivided in the tribes Poeciliini,
Cnesterodontini, Gambusini, Scolichthyini, Girardinini, Heterandrini and Xenodexini. Later, Ghedotti (2000) proposed
another Poeciliinae classification based in his phylogenetic study of the Poecilioidea despite the fact that only 12 genera
have been used in his cladistic analysis.

ALFARO
Petalosoma Regan, 1908: 458. Type species: Petalosoma
cultratum Regan, 1908. Preoccupied in Coleoptera. Type by
monotypy. Gender: neuter.
Alfaro Meek, 1912: 72. Type species: Alfaro acutiventralis Meek,
1912. Type by monotypy. Gender: masculine.
Petalurichthys Regan, 1912: 494 (footnote). Type species:
Petalosoma cultratum Regan, 1908. Type by being a replacement

name for Petalosoma preoccupied in Coleoptera. Gender:


masculine.
Furcipenis Hubbs, 1931: 1. Type species: Priapichthys huberi
Fowler, 1923. Type by original designation. Gender: masculine.

Alfaro cultratus (Regan, 1908)


Petalosoma cultratum Regan, 1908: 458. Type locality: Rio
Iroquois [Costa Rica]. Holotype: BMNH 1909.3.13.58.

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Petalosoma amazonum Regan, 1911: 659, fig. (p. 660). Type
locality:Obidos. Syntypes: BMNH 1911.10.28.1-2 (2).
Alfaro acutiventralis Meek, 1912: 72. Type locality: Guapilis,
Costa Rica. Holotype: FMNH 7679 [not FMNH 7579].
Maximum length: 7.5 cm TL
Distribution: Central America: Costa Rica, Panama and Nicaragua.
Countries: Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama

Alfaro huberi (Fowler, 1923)


Priapichthys huberi Fowler, 1923: 27. Type locality: Marceligo
Creek, tributary of the Tunky River, at Miranda, Nicaragua.
Holotype: ANSP 51220.
Maximum length: 5 cm TL
Distribution: Central America: Southern Guatemala through
Honduras to Nicaragua.
Countries: Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua

BELOESOX
Belonesox Kner, 1860: 419, 422. Type species: Belonesox
belizanus Kner, 1860. Type by monotypy. Gender: masculine.

Belonesox belizanus Kner, 1860


Belonesox belizanus Kner, 1860: 419, pl. Type locality: Belize.
Possible types: USNM 117504 (2).
Belonesox belizanus maxillosus Hubbs, 1936: 228, pl. 7 (fig. 5).
Type locality: roadside pool 3 km. south of Progreso, Yucatan.
Holotype: UMMZ 102137.
Maximum length: 20 cm TL
Distribution: North and Central America: From Laguna San Julian,
northeast of Ciudad Veracruz in Mexico to Costa Rica. Southern
Gulf of Mexico, southern Yucatn and along Central American
coast south to Nicaragua. Introduced in freshwater in Florida.
Countries: Belize, Costa Rica, Mexico, Nicaragua

BRACHYRHAPHIS

Brachyrhaphis hartwegi Rosen & Bailey, 1963


Brachyrhaphis hartwegi Rosen & Bailey, 1963: 87, fig. 41. Type
locality: stream tributary to Ro Jalapa, which in turn flows into
an independent Pacific drainage, the Ro Zintalapa, at Finca
Esperanza, 450 feet in elevation, longitude 9236 W., latitude
1520 N., about 6 km north-northeastern of Escuintla,
Soconusco District, Chiapas, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 179539.
Maximum length: 3.5 cm TL
Distribution: North and Central America: Mexico to Guatemala.
Countries: Guatemala, Mexico

Brachyrhaphis hessfeldi Meyer & Etzel, 2001


Brachyrhaphis hessfeldi Meyer & Etzel, 2001a: 34, fig. 1. Type
locality: ditch near Palenque, 40 km NE from Portobelo
(7923W. 935N), Colon, Panama. Holotype: MTD F 22534.
Maximum length: 5.5 cm TL
Distribution: Waters west of Canal Zone, Cocl.
Countries: Panama.

Brachyrhaphis holdridgei Bussing, 1967


Brachyrhaphis holdridgei Bussing, 1967: 223, fig. 4. Type
locality: Ro Madre de Dios, Ro Sarapiqu, and Ro Arenal
drainages on the Atlantic slope of Costa Rica between 50 and
about 600 meters elevation [100 miles E of Quebrada los
Murcielagos near Arenal,Guanacaste, Costa Rica]. Holotype:
LACM 9240-1.
Maximum length: 4 cm TL
Distribution: Central America: Costa Rica.
Countries: Costa Rica

Brachyrhaphis parismina (Meek, 1912)


Gambusia parismina Meek, 1912: 71. Type locality: Parismina,
Costa Rica. Holotype: FMNH 7678 [not 7578].
Maximum length: 7 cm TL
Distribution: Central America: Costa Rica.
Countries: Costa Rica

Brachyrhaphis Regan, 1913a: 997. Type species: Brachyrhaphis punctifer (Hubbs, 1926)
Trigonophallus punctifer Hubbs, 1926: 49. Type locality: Guibari
Gambusia rhabdophora Regan, 1908. Type by Creek, a tributary of the Rio Cricamola below Conquantu, on the
monotypy. Gender: feminine. See Mojica et al. Caribbean slope of western Panama. Holotype: UMMZ 72573.
(1997) for phylogenetic relationships inferred Maximum length: 3 cm TL
Distribution: Central America: Panama.
from DNA sequences.
Countries: Panama
Trigonophallus Hubbs, 1926: 48. Type species: Trigonophallus
punctifer Hubbs, 1926. Type by original designation. Gender:
masculine.
Plectrophallus Fowler, 1932: 384. Proposed as new subgenus of
Panamichthys Hubbs. Type species: Panamichthys tristani
Fowler, 1932. Type by original designation. Gender: masculine.

Brachyrhaphis cascajalensis (Meek & Hildebrand,


1913)
Gambusia cascajalensis Meek & Hildebrand, 1913: 86. Type
locality: Rio Cascajal, Porto Bello, Panama. Holotype: FMNH
7594.
Maximum length: 6 cm TL
Distribution: Central America: Southern Costa Rica to Panama.
Countries: Costa Rica, Panama

Brachyrhaphis episcopi (Steindachner, 1878)


Gambusia episcopi Steindachner, 1878: 387, pl. 2 (fig. 3). Type
locality: Streams near Obispo Station, Canal Zone, Panama.
Syntypes: NMW 14705 (5).
Gambusia latipunctata Meek & Hildebrand, 1913: 87. Type
locality: Arrijan, Panama. Holotype: FMNH 7595.
Maximum length: 3.5 cm TL
Distribution: Central America: Panama.
Countries: Panama

Brachyrhaphis rhabdophora (Regan, 1908)


Gambusia rhabdophora Regan, 1908: 457. Type locality: Volcano
of Tenorio and Rio Grande de Terraba [Costa Rica]. Syntypes:
BMNH 1909.3.13.48-53 (6), 1909.3.13.54-56.
Priapichthys olomina Meek, 1914: 114. Type locality: Orotina,
Costa Rica. Holotype: FMNH 7827.
Panamichthys tristani Fowler, 1932: 384. Type locality: Escobal,
at 400 meters, Costa Rica. Holotype: ANSP 53935.
Maximum length: 4 cm TL
Distribution: Central America: Costa Rica.
Countries: Costa Rica
Remarks and references: Reznick et al (1993): life history.

Brachyrhaphis roseni Bussing, 1988


Brachyrhaphis roseni Bussing, 1988: 81, fig. 1. Type locality:
Quebrada la Palma (elevation 90 m), 3 km W of Paso Canoas.
[Costa Rica]. Holotype: LACM 44220-1 [ex UCR 103-4].
Maximum length: 4.42 cm SL
Distribution: Central America: Costa Rica and Panama.
Countries: Costa Rica, Panama

Brachyrhaphis roswithae Meyer & Etzel, 1998


Brachyrhaphis roswithae Meyer & Etzel, 1998: 157, fig. 1. Type
locality: brook near El Valle (8022W, 0858N), Cocl,

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Check List of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America


Panama. Holotype: MTD F 17046.
Maximum length: 5 cm TL.
Distribution: Waters west of Canal Zone, Cocl. Only known from
type locality.
Countries: Panama

Brachyrhaphis terrabensis (Regan, 1907)


Gambusia terrabensis Regan, 1907a: 260. Type locality: Rio
Grande de Trraba, Pacific Slope. Syntypes: BMNH
1907.2.11.31-32 (2), 1907.2.11.33-36 (4).
Maximum length: 5 cm TL
Distribution: Central America: Costa Rica and Panama.
Countries: Costa Rica, Panama

CARLHUBBSIA
Allophallus Hubbs, 1936: 232. Name preoccupied in Diptera.Type
species: Allophallus kidderi Hubbs, 1936. Type by original
designation. Gender: masculine.
Carlhubbsia Whitley, 1951: 67. Type species: Allophallus kidderi
Hubbs, 1936. Type by being a replacement name. Gender:
feminine.

Carlhubbsia kidderi (Hubbs, 1936)


Allophallus kidderi Hubbs, 1936: 236, pl. 8 (fig. 2). Type locality:
Rio Champoton, near a savanna about 18 km. from mouth at
Champoton, Campeche. Holotype: UMMZ 102199.
Maximum length: 5 cm TL
Distribution: North and Central America: Champotn River,
Campeche, Mexico, and the drainages of San Pedro de Mrtir
River, El Petn, and de la Pasin River and Alta Vera Paz,
Guatemala.
Countries: Guatemala, Mexico

Carlhubbsia stuarti Rosen & Bailey, 1959


Carlhubbsia stuarti Rosen & Bailey, 1959: 5, pl. 1; fig. 1. Type
locality: Ro Polochic at the playa, about 0.5 km. east of
Panzs, Alta Vera Cruz, Guatemala. Holotype: UMMZ 146084.
Maximum length: 5.5 cm SL
Distribution: Central America: Polochic River and Lake Izabal
basins.
Countries: Belize, Guatemala, Panama

CESTERODO
Cnesterodon Garman, 1895: 43. Type species: Poecilia
decemmaculata Jenyns, 1842. Type by original designation.
Gender: masculine. See Rosa & Costa (1993) for taxonomic
revision.
Gulapinnus Langer, 1913: 207. Type species: Poecilia
decemmaculata Jenyns, 1842. Type by original designation.
Gender: masculine.

Cnesterodon brevirostratus Rosa & Costa, 1993


Cnesterodon brevirostratus Rosa & Costa, 1993: 704, fig. 17.
Type locality: Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul, Cambar do Sul,
Parque Nacional dos Aparados da Serra, Arroio Camisa, tributary
to Rio das Antas. Holotype: MZUSP 41399.
Maximum length: 4.39 cm SL
Distribution: South America: Upper Pelotas and Canoas River
basins in Uruguay River drainage; Jacu River as well as the
headwaters of the Maquin River in the Tramanda River basins
and the headwaters of Itaja-Au River basin.
Countries: Brazil
Common names: Barrigudinho (Brazil), Guaru (Brazil)

Cnesterodon carnegiei Haseman, 1911


Cnesterodon carnegiei Haseman, 1911: 385, pl. 83. Type locality:
Serrinha, Paran..Holotype: FMNH [ex CM 2868] (missing).

Maximum length: 2.97 cm SL

Distribution: South America: Upper Iguau River


and its upper tributaries.
Countries: Brazil.
Remarks and references: See Lucinda & Garavcllo (2001) for
discussion on types and type locality.
Common names: Barrigudinho (Brazil), Guaru (Brazil)

Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Jenyns, 1842)


Poecilia decem-maculata Jenyns, 1842: 115, pl. 22 (figs. 1, 1a).
Type locality: Maldonado [Uruguay]. Syntypes: (2) BMNH
1917.7.14.25-26.
Poecilia gracilis Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1846:
133. Type locality: environs de Montevido. Syntypes: MNHN
B-0939 (3)
Maximum length: 3.55 cm SL
Distribution: South America: Lower Uruguay, Laguna dos Patos,
Negro, and Salado River basins; western drainages of Argentina
and small coastal drainages of Uruguay and Argentina.
Countries: Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, Chile (introduced)
Remarks and references: Jenyns (1842) stated that the types of
Poecilia decemmaculata were collected by Charles Darwin in a
lake in Maldonado. In the same paper, Jenyns also described
Lebias lineata (= Jenynsia lineata) and cited its type-locality as
the same as for Poecilia decemmaculata. Based on the color
pattern of recent samples of J. lineata and based on localities
from which Darwin made collections, Ghedotti & Weitzman
(1996) concluded that Darwin did not actually collect the types in
Maldonado, but in the Cebollati River drainage, a tributary of the
Mirim Lagoon. Darwin did make a ten-day incursion to the
arroyo Polanco, a tributary of Cebollati River: I stayed ten
weeks at Maldonado, in which a nearly perfect collection of the
animals, birds, and reptiles, was procured. Before making any
observations respecting them, I will give of a little excursion I
made as far as the river Polanco, which is about seventy miles
distant, in a northerly direction (...) (Darwin, 1839). As Poecilia
decemmaculata and Lebias lineata have the same type-localities,
the same remarks should be applied to the type-locality of
Poecilia decemmaculata.
Common names: Barrigudinho (Brazil), Guaru (Brazil)
Cnesterodon hypselurus Lucinda & Garavello, 2001
Cnesterodon hypselurus Lucinda & Garavello, 2001: 129, fig. 5.
Type locality: Brasil, Paran, rio Cilada, brigde of road BR 151,
rio Paranapanema drainage, Jaguariava. Holotype: MCP 22741.
Maximum length: 3.05 cm SL
Distribution: South America: Paranapanema River basin.
Countries: Brazil
Common names: Barrigudinho (Brazil), Guaru (Brazil)
Cnesterodon omorgmatos Lucinda & Garavello, 2001
Cnesterodon omorgmatos Lucinda & Garavello, 2001: 126, fig. 3.
Type locality: Brasil, Paran, rio das Torres, rio Iguau basin,
Pinho. Holotype: MCP 22741.
Maximum length: 3.05 cm SL
Distribution: South America: Iguau River basin.
Countries: Brazil
Common names: Barrigudinho (Brazil), Guaru (Brazil)
Cnesterodon raddai Meyer & Etzel, 2001
Cnesterodon raddai Meyer & Etzel, 2001b: 248, fig. 1. Type
locality: swamp near Resistencia, Rio Paran basin, Argentina.
Holotype: MTD F 25416.
Maximum length: 2.32 cm SL
Distribution: South America: Paraguay and lower Paran River
basins.
Countries: Argentina, Paraguay
Cnesterodon septentrionalis Rosa & Costa, 1993

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Cnesterodon septentrionalis Rosa & Costa, 1993: 706, fig. 18.
Type locality: Brazil, Mato Grosso,Municpio de Alto Araguaia,
swamp near the Crrego do Rancho fountainhead. Holotype:
MZUSP 41380.
Maximum length: 3 cm SL
Distribution: South America: Upper Araguaia River basin.
Countries: Brazil
Common names: Barrigudinho (Brazil), Guaru (Brazil)
FLUVIPHYLAX
Potamophylax Myers & Carvalho in Myers, 1955: 7. Type species:
Potamophylax pygmaeus Myers & Carvalho, 1955. Type by
monotypy. Preoccupied in Insecta. Gender: masculine.
Fluviphylax Whitley, 1965: 25. Type species: Potamophylax
pygmaeus Myers & Carvalho, 1955. Type by being a
replacement name. Gender: masculine.
Fluviphylax obscurus Costa, 1996
Fluviphylax obscurum Costa, 1996: 122, fig. 13. Type locality:
Brazil: Estado do Amazonas: Barcelos, rio Negro. Holotype:
MZUSP 49208; erroneusly published as MZUSP 49207.
Maximum length: 1.73 cm SL
Distribution: South America: Upper Negro River basin.
Countries: Brazil
Common names: Barrigudinho (Brazil), Guaru (Brazil)
Fluviphylax palikur Costa & Le Bail, 1999
Fluviphylax palikur Costa & Le Bail 1999: 1029, fig. 1. Type
locality: Brazil: Estado do Amap: rio Taparabu, a right tributary
of rio Oiapoque, Juminn, 035835N, 514106W. Holotype:
MZUSP 52941
Maximum length: 1.2 cm SL.
Distribution: South America: Lower Oyapock River basin.
Countries: Brazil
Common names: Barrigudinho (Brazil), Guaru (Brazil)
Fluviphylax pygmaeus (Myers & Carvalho, 1955)
Potamophylax pygmaeus Myers & Carvalho in Myers, 1955: 7.
Type locality: Middle Amazon [Borba, lower Madeira River],
424S, 5935W, Amazonas, Brazil.
Maximum length: 2 cm SL
Distribution: South America: Amazon River basin.
Countries: Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela
Common names: Barrigudinho (Brazil), Guaru (Brazil)
Fluviphylax simplex Costa, 1996
Fluviphylax simplex Costa, 1996: 126, fig. 15. Type locality:
Brazil: Estado do Amazonas: igarap of lago Jos-Au, Parintins.
Holotype: MZUSP 49209.
Maximum length: 1.45 cm SL
Distribution: South America: Solimes-Amazonas River, between
Miu Lake (Codajs) and mouth of the Tapajs River, and lower
Trombetas and Tapajs Rivers.
Countries: Brazil
Common names: Barrigudinho (Brazil), Guaru (Brazil)
Fluviphylax zonatus Costa, 1996
Fluviphylax zonatus Costa, 1996: 124, fig. 14. Type locality:
Brazil: Estado do Amazonas: Anavilhanas, Rio Negro. Holotype:
MZUSP 49207.
Maximum length: 1.53 cm SL
Distribution: South America: Lower Negro River, between
Anavilhanas Archipelago and Manaus.
Countries: Brazil
Common names: Barrigudinho (Brazil), Guaru (Brazil)

See Greenfield et al. (1982) for taxonomy and distribution of the


species in Belize, Rauchenberger (1989) and Rauchenberger et
al. (1990) for systematics and biogeography.
Paragambusia Meek, 1904: 133. Type species: Gambusia
nicaraguensis Gnther, 1866. Type by original designation.
Gender: feminine.
Heterophallus Regan, 1914b: 65. Type species: Heterophallus
rachovii Regan, 1914. Type by monotypy. Gender: masculine.
Arthrophallus Hubbs, 1926: 38. Proposed as subgenus of
Gambusia. Type species: Heterandria patruelis Baird & Girard,
1853. Type by original designation. Gender: masculine.
Heterophallina Hubbs, 1926: 26. Proposed as subgenus of
Gambusia. Type species: Gambusia regani Hubbs, 1926. Type
by original designation. Gender: feminine.
Schizophallus Hubbs, 1926: 40. Proposed as subgenus of
Gambusia. Type species: Gambusia holbrookii Girard, 1859.
Type by original designation. Gender: masculine.
Dicerophallus Alvarez, 1952: 95. Type species: Dicerophallus
echeagarayi Alvarez, 1952. Type by original designation.
Gender: masculine.
Flexipenis Hubbs in Rivas, 1963: 334. Type species: Gambusia
vittata Hubbs, 1926. Type by original designation. Gender:
masculine.
Orthophallus Rivas, 1963: 339. Type species: Gambusia lemaitrei
Fowler, 1950. Type by original designation. Gender: masculine.

Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard, 1853)


Heterandria affinis Baird & Girard, 1853: 390. Type locality: Rio
Medina and Rio Salado [Texas, USA]. Syntypes: ANSP 6974-75
(2); MCZ 41141 (1), 41150 (1).
Heterandria patruelis Baird & Girard, 1853: 390. Type locality:
Rio Sabinal; Rio Leona and Rio Neuces, and Elm Creek [Texas,
USA]. Syntypes: MCZ 1300 (6).
Gambusia holbrooki Girard 1859a: 62. Type locality: Palatka, e.
Florida; Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A. Syntypes: ANSP
6976-77 (2) Palatka, MCZ 35999 [ex USNM 8301] (5)
Charleston, USNM 8301 (45). Name taken from Agassiz
manuscript (as Heterandria holbrookii), but author of description
is Girard.
Gambusia gracilis Girard, 1859a: 121. Type locality: Matamoras
[Mexico]. Syntypes: ANSP 6973 (1), MCZ 1309 (1), MNHN [ex
USNM 3506] (1), ?USNM 3506 (7, not found).
Gambusia humilis Gnther, 1866: 335. Type locality: Matamoras
[Mexico]. Syntypes: ANSP 6973 (1), MCZ 1309 (1), MNHN [ex
USNM 3506] (1).
Haplochilus melanops Cope, 1870: 457. Type locality: in still
waters of the Neuse basin, Wake Co., N. Ca. Syntypes: ANSP
7143-59 (17).
Zygonectes atrilatus Jordan & Brayton, 1878: 84 [footnote]. Type
locality: Neuse River, near Goldsboro [sic] [North Carolina,
USA]. Syntypes: BMNH 1880.1.21.48 (1), USNM 23464 (1).
Zygonectes brachypterus Cope, 1880: 34. Type locality: Trinity
River at Fort Worth [Texas, USA]. Holotype: ANSP 20446.
Zygonectes inurus Jordan & Gilbert, 1882: 143. Type locality:
Cache River [Southern Illinois, USA]. Holotype: USNM 29666.
Maximum length: 4 cm TL
Distribution: North and Central America: Mississippi River basin
from central Indiana and Illinois in USA south to Gulf of Mexico
and Gulf slope drainages west to Mexico. One of the species with
the widest range of introductions which acquired for itself a near
pan-global distribution.
Countries: Bolivia (introduced), Chile (introduced), Mexico, Peru
(introduced), USA

Gambusia alvarezi Hubbs & Springer, 1957

GAMBUSIA
Gambusia Poey, 1854: 382. Type species: Gambusia punctata
Poey, 1854. Type by subsequent designation. Gender: feminine.

Gambusia alvarezi Hubbs & Springer, 1957: 310, fig 14. Type
locality: El Ojo de San Gregorio, Chihuahua, Mexico. Holotype:
UMMZ 168979.

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Maximum length: 3 cm TL.
Distribution: North America: Only known from El Ojo de San
Gregorio, Chihuahua, Mexico, and the adjacent creek.
Countries: Mexico

Holotype: USNM 204865.


Maximum length: 5.18 cm SL
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: Hispaniola Island.
Countries: Dominican Republic, Haiti

Gambusia atrora Rosen & Bailey, 1963

Gambusia hurtadoi Hubbs & Springer, 1957

Gambusia atrora Rosen & Bailey, 1963: 102, fig. 43. Type
locality: ferry acrosss Ro Axtla to a shallow area 150 yards
upstream, Xilitla, San Luis Potos, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ
179999.
Maximum length: 3 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Mexico.
Countries: Mexico

Gambusia hurtadoi Hubbs & Springer, 1957: 307, fig. 13. Type
locality: El Ojo de la Hacienda Dolores, seven miles south of
Jiminez, Chihuahua, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 168975.
Maximum length: 3.1 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Chihuahua (only known from type
locality and proximities).
Countries: Mexico

Gambusia aurata Miller & Minckley, 1970

Gambusia krumholzi Minckley, 1963

Gambusia aurata Miller & Minckley, 1970: 249, fig. 1. Type


locality: lateral canal flowing north off the main canal from Ro
Mante, about 4 km west of Highway 85 on road at south end of
park on south side of Ciudad Mante, Tamaulipas. Holotype:
UMMZ 188736.
Maximum length: 3.02 cm SL
Distribution: North America: Mexico.
Countries: Mexico

Gambusia krumholzi Minckley, 1963: 154, fig. 2. Type locality: a


small stream (called the Ro de Nava by local residents) 5.6 miles
SSW of Nava, Coahuila, Mexico, along Mexican Highway 57.
Holotype: UMMZ 180320.
Maximum length: 4 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Mexico.
Countries: Mexico

Gambusia beebei Myers, 1935

Gambusia lemaitrei Fowler, 1950: 2, fig. 2. Type locality: Totumo


Lake, Colombia. Holotype: ANSP 71938.
Maximum length: 3.6 cm SL
Distribution: South America: Colombia.
Countries: Colombia

Gambusia beebei Myers, 1935: 305, fig. 274. Type locality: tang
de Miragone, Haiti, S. W. end of lake, from Aux Cayes road.
Neotype: USNM 203161.
Maximum length: 3.3 cm SL
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: tang de Miragoane in Tiburon
Peninsula, southwestern Haiti.
Countries: Haiti

Gambusia bucheri Rivas, 1944


Gambusia bucheri Rivas, 1944b: 42. Type locality: Rio Jicotea, of
the Moa system, at the bridge of the road between Aserrio de
Moa and Punta Gorda, Province of Oriente [Cuba]. Holotype:
USNM 203149 [ex Rivas coll. 132].
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: Oriente Province, Cuba.
Countries: Cuba

Gambusia dominicensis Regan, 1913


Gambusia dominicensis Regan, 1913a: 989, pl. 99 (fig. 7); Fig.
169c. Type locality: Haiti. Syntypes: BMNH 1913.1.22.10-11 (3
or 4).
Maximum length: 2.5 cm TL
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: Hispaniola Island.
Countries: Dominican Republic, Haiti

Gambusia echeagarayi (Alvarez, 1952)


Dicerophallus echeagarayi Alvarez, 1952: 95, fig. 1. Type
locality: Palenque, Chis., Ro Michol, em el cruce com la
carretera que va de la poblacin a las ruinas. Cuenca del
Usumacinta. [Chiapas, Mexico]. Holotype: ENCB-IPN-P 279
Maximum length: 2.94 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Michol River in Chiapas, Mexico.
Countries: Mexico

Gambusia eurystoma Miller, 1975


Gambusia eurystoma Miller, 1975: 19, fig. 5. Type locality:
Arroyo del Azufre at Baos de Azufre, 10 km W of Teapa,
Tabasco [Mexico] 93 01 W Long., 17 34 N Lat., elevation
about 150 meters. Holotype: UMMZ 197600.
Maximum length: 3.5 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Mexico.
Countries: Mexico

Gambusia hispaniolae Fink, 1971


Gambusia hispaniolae Fink, 1971a: 57, fig. 4. Type locality: Haiti,
Source Trou-Caiman, Cul-de-Sac Plain, Dept. de lQuest.

Gambusia lemaitrei Fowler, 1950

Gambusia longispinis Minckley, 1962


Gambusia longispinis Minckley, 1962: 391, fig. 1. Type locality: a
small marsh adjacent to La Angostura Canal, ca. 4 miles S, 6
miles W of Cuatro Cinegas, Coahuila [Mexico]. Holotype:
UMMZ 179620.
Maximum length: 5 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Cuatro Cinegas basin in northern
Mexico.
Countries: Mexico

Gambusia luma Rosen & Bailey, 1963


Gambusia luma Rosen & Bailey, 1963: 99, fig. 42. Type locality:
Puerto Barrios, Izabal, Guatemala. Holotype: UMMZ 143565.
Maximum length: 4.2 cm SL
Distribution: Central America: Guatemala and Honduras.
Countries: Belize, Guatemala, Honduras

Gambusia manni Hubbs, 1927


Gambusia manni Hubbs, 1927: 61. Type locality: fresh-water lake
on New Providence, one of the Bahamas. Holotype: UMMZ
72183.
Maximum length: 6.5 cm TL
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: Known only from the Bahamas.
Countries: Bahamas

Gambusia marshi Minckley & Craddock, 1962


Gambusia marshi Minckley & Craddock in Minckley, 1962: 393,
fig. 6. Type locality: Ro Salado de los Nadadores, near its
junction with Ro Salado de Monclova, 1 mile S of Hermanas,
Coahuila [Mexico]. Holotype: UMMZ 179167.
Maximum length: 2.4 cm SL
Distribution: North America: Northeastern Mexico.
Countries: Mexico
Remarks and references: Meffe (1985): life history.

Gambusia melapleura (Gosse, 1851)


Poecilia melapleura Gosse, 1851: 84, pl. 1 (fig. 3). Type locality:
Bluefields, Jamaica. Syntypes: BMNH 1849.12.27.90-95 (7).
Maximum length: 3.4 cm SL
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: Jamaica Island.

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Countries: Jamaica

Gambusia monticola Rivas, 1971


Gambusia punctulata monticola Rivas, 1971: 7, fig. 1. Type
locality: Rio Yao, a left subtributary of Rio Cauto, 15 km
upstream from Bueycito, Municipality of Bayamo, Province of
Oriente, Cuba. Holotype: USNM 203913.
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: Southeastern Cuba.
Countries: Cuba

Gambusia myersi Ahl, 1925


Gambusia modesta Ahl, 1923: 220. Type locality: Mexico.
Syntypes: ZMB 21004 (8). Permanently invalid, preoccupied by
Gambusia modesta Troschel 1865, replaced by Gambusia myersi
Ahl 1925.
Gambusia myersi Ahl, 1925: 36, fig.. Type locality: Mexico.
Syntypes: ZMB 21004 (8).
Distribution: North America: Mexico.
Countries: Mexico

Gambusia nicaraguensis Gnther, 1866


Gambusia nicaraguensis Gnther, 1866: 336. Type locality: Lake
of Nicaragua. Syntypes: BMNH 1952.12.31.1-5 (5), USNM
151451 (1), ZMB 6069 (1).
Gambusia dovii Regan, 1913a: 986. Type locality: Lake
Nicaragua. Holotype: BMNH 1952.12.31.7.
Gambusia mcnieli Fowler, 1916a: 433, fig. 5. Type locality:
Panama. Holotype: ANSP 6818.
Gambusia aestiputeus Fowler, 1950b: 87, fig. 42. Type locality:
Freshwater well 1/2 mile from San Andres. Holotype: ANSP
71772.
Maximum length: 3 cm SL
Distribution: Central America: Guatemala to Panama.
Countries: Belize, Guatemala, Panama

Gambusia panuco Hubbs, 1926


Gambusia panuco Hubbs, 1926: 30. Type locality: Valles, San
Luis Potos, Mexico: in the Rio Valles, a tributary to the Rio
Panuco. Holotype: FMNH 14060.
Maximum length: 3.5 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Panuco River basin.
Countries: Mexico

Gambusia pseudopunctata Rivas, 1969


Gambusia pseudopunctata Rivas, 1969: 784, fig. 1D. Type
locality: spring at Roseaux, off the road from Les Cayes to
Jremie, 15 km E of Jremie, Dpartment du Sud, Haiti.
Holotype: USNM 203163.
Maximum length: 3.2 cm SL
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: Hispaniola Island.
Countries: Haiti

Gambusia punctata Poey, 1854


Gambusia punctata Poey, 1854: 384, pl. 32 (fig. 5). Type locality:
not mentioned. Syntypes or Poey specimens: ANSP 6978 (1);
MCZ 6424 (3), 6393-94 (5, 53); USNM 4867 (9), 120411 [ex
MCZ 6394] (1), plus other USNM lots.
Gambusia finlayi Santa Maria, 1956: 96. Type locality: Camagey,
Cuba. No types known. Apparently not available, name assigned
to figures only (one male and one female), and based on an
unpublished manuscript by Torre; no text or distinguishing
features included (see also Rosen & Bailey 1963:101).
Maximum length: 4.8 cm SL
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: Cuba Island.
Countries: Cuba

Gambusia puncticulata Poey, 1854


Gambusia puncticulata Poey, 1854: 386, pl. 31 (fig. 6). Type
locality: en el foso de las murallas de la Habana [Cuba].

Lectotype: MCZ 46568 [ex MCZ 6401], designated by Fink


1971b:18.
Gambusia picturada Poey, 1868: 410. Type locality: San Diego de
las Banos, Cuba. No types known.
Gambusia melanosticta Regan, 1913: 987. Type locality: Cuba.
Syntypes: BMNH 1884.7.7.158-160 (3).
Gambusia nigropunctata Regan, 1913a: 987, fig. 168f. Type
locality: Fermina, Bemba, Cuba. Syntypes: BMNH
1879.10.20.2-4 (3).
Gambusia caymanensis Regan, 1913a: 990. Type locality: Grand
Cayman. Syntypes: BMNH 1911.3.2.3-4 (2).
Gambusia oligosticta Regan, 1913a: 988, pl. 99 (fig. 1-2); Fig.
169b. Type locality: Jamaica. Syntypes: BMNH 1897.7.1.17-19
(3), 1905.8.16.3-12 (10, now 8); USNM 151460 [ex BMNH
1905.8.16.3-12] (2).
Gambusia hubbsi Breder, 1934: 1, fig. 1. Type locality: Southern
part of Andros Island, Bahamas. Holotype: AMNH 12454.
Gambusia howelli Rivas, 1944b: 44. Type locality: brackish-water
lagoon near Punta del Este, Isle of Pines [Cuba]. Holotype:
UHMP 454.
Maximum length: 3.58 cm SL
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: Throughout Cuba, Jamaica,
Cayman Islands and Bahamas.
Countries: Bahamas, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Jamaica

Gambusia rachovii (Regan, 1914)


Heterophallus rachovii Regan, 1914: 66, fig. A. Type locality:
Vera Cruz [Mexico]. Syntypes: BMNH 1914.3.23.16-21 (6).
Gambusia atzi Rosen & Gordon, 1951: 267, fig. 2. Type locality:
Laguna de la Sapote, about one kilometer northwest of Jesus
Carranza, Veracruz. Holotype: UMMZ 167098.
Maximum length: 3.5 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Arroyo Santiago Vasques near Jesus
Carranza and Laguna de la Sapote in Veracruz, Mexico.
Countries: Mexico

Gambusia regani Hubbs, 1926


Gambusia regani Hubbs, 1926: 28. Type locality: Forlon,
Tamaulipas, Mexico; in the Rio Forlon, tributary to the Panuco.
Holotype: FMNH 14033.
Maximum length: 3.5 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Tamaulipas, Mexico.
Countries: Mexico

Gambusia rhizophorae Rivas, 1969


Gambusia rhizophorae Rivas, 1969: 791, fig. 2D. Type locality:
mangrove swamp at Matheson Hammock, Miami, Dade Co.,
Florida. Holotype: USNM 203223.
Maximum length: 5 cm TL
Distribution: North America and Caribbean Islands: Southeastern
Florida and Cuba Island.
Countries: Cuba, USA

Gambusia senilis Girard, 1859


Gambusia senilis Girard, 1859a: 122. Type locality: Chihuahua
River [Grande River drainage, Mexico]. Syntypes: ?MNHN 0418
[ex USNM 3503] (1).
Maximum length: 5.5 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Devils River basin in Grande River
drainage, in Texas and Mexico.
Countries: Mexico, USA

Gambusia sexradiata Hubbs, 1936


Gambusia nicaraguensis sexradiatus Hubbs, 1936: 225. Type
locality: main Rio Papaloapan at Papaloapan, Oaxaca, Mexico.
Holotype: UMMZ 102989.
Maximum length: 2.6 cm SL
Distribution: North and Central America: Nautla River, northern
Veracruz, along the Atlantic slope of Campeche, Atlantic

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drainage of inland Mexico in the states of Oaxaca and Chiapas,
presumably across the base of the Yucatan Peninsula to Quintana
Roo, south to southern Belize (Moho River drainange). Also
found in the Usumacinta River drainage in Guatemala, and in
isolated islands in the Petn region.
Countries: Belize, Guatemala, Mexico

Gambusia speciosa Girard, 1859


Gambusia speciosa Girard, 1859a: 121. Type locality: Rio San
Diego, one of its affluents, near Cadereita, New Len [Mexico].
Syntypes: whereabouts unknown.
Maximum length: 3 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Mexico and USA.
Countries: Mexico, USA

Gambusia vittata Hubbs, 1926


Gambusia vittata Hubbs, 1926: 26. Type locality: Forlon,
Tamaulipas, Mexico; in the Rio Forlon, tributary to the Panuco.
Holotype: FMNH 14046.
Maximum length: 4.5 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Mexico.
Countries: Mexico

Gambusia wrayi Regan, 1913

uninotatus Poey, 1861. Type by being a replacement name for


Glaridodon Garman, 1895 preoccupied in fossil Reptilia.
Gender: masculine.
Toxus Eigenmann, 1903: 226. Type species: Toxus riddlei
Eigenmann, 1903. Type by original designation. Gender:
masculine.
Allodontium Howell Rivero & Rivas, 1944: 17. Type species:
Heterandria cubensis Eigenmann, 1904. Type by original
designation. Gender: neuter.
Dactylophallus Howell Rivero & Rivas, 1944: 15. Type species:
Girardinus denticulatus Garman, 1895. Type by original
designation. Gender: masculine.

Girardinus creolus Garman, 1895


Girardinus creolus Garman, 1895: 47, pl. 5 (fig. 9). Type locality:
Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 6399 (2), 100254 [ex MCZ 6399a] (8).
Toxus riddlei Eigenmann, 1903: 226, fig. 6. Type locality: San
Cristobal [Cuba[. Holotype: CAS 78944 [ex IU 9656] (1 of 2).
Toxus serripenis Rivas, 1958: 283, figs. 1 (5-6). Type locality: Rio
Taco Taco at Rangel, Province of Pinar del Ro [Cuba].
Holotype: USNM 203151 [ex Rivas coll. 69].
Maximum length: 4.4 cm SL
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: Cuba Island.
Countries: Cuba
Remarks and references: Rodriguez et al (1992): phylogenetic
position.

Gambusia wrayi Regan, 1913a: 988, pl. 99 (fig. 3-4); fig. 168b.
Type locality: Jamaica. Lectotype: BMNH 1912.12.20.7,
designated by Fink (1971a: 61).
Gambusia gracilior Regan, 1913a: 989, pl. 99 (fig. 5-6); Fig. 168c.
Type locality: Jamaica. Syntypes: (13) BMNH 1969.9.8.1-14 (14
now 6).
Maximum length: 3.22 cm SL
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: Jamaica Island.
Countries: Jamaica

Heterandria cubensis Eigenmann, 1903: 227, fig. 8. Type locality:


Los Palacios [Cuba]. Holotype: MCZ 32958 [ex IU 7663].
Maximum length: 2.6 cm SL
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: Cuba Island.
Countries: Cuba

Gambusia xanthosoma Greenfield, 1983

Girardinus denticulatus Garman, 1895

Gambusia xanthosoma Greenfield, 1983: 459, fig. 1. Type


locality: a mosquito control ditch (Herringbone system 25)
constructed through mangroves along a road opposite the
Taraquin Manor at West Bay, Grand Cayman, BWI. Holotype:
FMNH 94188.
Maximum length: 3.44 cm SL
Distribution: Caribean Islands: Grand Cayman Island.
Countries: Cayman Islands

Gambusia yucatana Regan, 1914


Gambusia yucatana Regan, 1914b: 67, fig. B. Type locality:
Progreso, Yucatn [Mexico]. Lectotype: BMNH 1914.3.23.12,
designated by Fink, 1971:23.
Gambusia yucatana australis Greenfield, 1985: 375. Type
locality:Belize, Saint Georges Cay, Barrier Reef. Holotype:
FMNH 94901.
Maximum length: 5.5 cm TL
Distribution: North and Central America: Mexico, Guatemala and
Belize.
Countries: Belize, Guatemala, Mexico

Species inquirenda
Heterophallus milleri Radda, 1987a: 127, Fig. 2. Type locality:
Ro Teapa at Teapa, W side of river, under bridge; Tabasco state
[Mexico]. Holotype: UMMZ 184705.

GIRARDIUS
Girardinus Poey, 1854: 383. Type species: Girardinus metallicus
Poey, 1854. Type by monotypy. Gender: masculine.
Glaridodon Garman, 1895: 40. Type species: Girardinus
uninotatus Poey, 1861. Type by original designation. Not
available name preoccupied in fossil Reptilia. Gender: masculine.
Glaridichthys Garman, 1896: 232. Type species: Girardinus

Girardinus cubensis (Eigenmann, 1903)

Girardinus denticulatus Garman, 1895: 47. Type locality:


Remedios, Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 1412 (now 4), 36037 (2),
100255 [ex MCZ 1412a] (11); ?USNM 120265 [ex MCZ 1412a]
(3), 206325 [ex MCZ 1412a] (1).
Dactylophallus ramsdeni Rivas, 1944b: 48. Type locality: Rio
Guaso, at the city of Guantnamo, Province of Oriente [Cuba].
Holotype: USNM 203152 [ex Rivas coll. 73].
Maximum length: 5 cm SL
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: Cuba Island.
Countries: Cuba

Girardinus falcatus (Eigenmann, 1903)


Glaridichthys falcatus Eigenmann, 1903: 224, fig. 3. Type
locality: San Cristobal [Pinar del Ro, Cuba]. Holotype: CAS
22548 [ex IU 9664].
Glaridichthys atherinoides Rivas, 1944a: 3, fig. 2. Type locality:
Arroyo Banco de Mabuya, provincia de Camagey [Cuba].
Holotype: USNM 203155 [ex Rivas coll. 130].
Maximum length: 3.7 cm SL
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: Cuba Island.
Countries: Cuba

Girardinus metallicus Poey, 1854


Girardinus metallicus Poey, 1854: 387, pl. 31 (fig. 8). Type
locality: jardin botnico de la Habana y en la zanja de Gines
[Cuba]. Possible syntypes: ANSP 6971 (1); MCZ 6407 (11);
USNM 652 (7, not found). 120263 [ex MCZ 6407] (4), 37422
(4), 37481 (2), 130031 (3).
Girardinus garmani Eigenmann, 1903: 226, fig. 5. Type
locality:Pinar del Rio [Cuba]. Holotype: MCZ 32780 [ex IU
9661, ex CAS].
Girardinus pygmaeus Rivas, 1944b: 49. Type locality: Rio Negro,
of the Hatiguanico system (Cinaga de Zapata), at Los Cristales,
Porvince of Matanzas [Cuba]. Holotype: USNM 203153 [ex

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Check List of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America


Rivas coll. 128].
Maximum length: 5 cm TL
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: Cuba Island.
Countries: Cuba

Girardinus microdactylus Rivas, 1944


Girardinus microdactylus Rivas, 1944b: 51. Type locality: springfed creek, tributary to Rio Taco Taco, of the San Cristobal
system, at Jardin de Blain, north-west of Santa Cruz de los Pinos,
Province of Pinar del Rio [Cuba]. Holotype: USNM 203154 [ex
Rivas coll. 110].
Maximum length: 3.3 cm SL
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: Cuba Island.
Countries: Cuba

Girardinus uninotatus Poey, 1860

Type locality: Mexico. Holotype: ZMB (lost).


Pseudoxiphophorus pauciradiatus Regan, 1904: 256. Type
locality: Orizaba, Mexico. Syntypes: BMNH 1894.1.27.19-26
(8).
Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculatus taeniatus Regan, 1905: 363. Type
locality: San Domingo de Guzman. Syntypes: (5) BMNH.
Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculatus peninsulae Hubbs, 1936: 230, pl.
8 (fig. 1). Type locality: somewhere near Progreso. Holotype:
UMMZ 102078.
Maximum length: 7 cm TL
Distribution: North and Central America: Mexico to Belize,
Honduras and Guatemala.
Countries: Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico

Heterandria cataractae Rosen, 1979

Girardinus uninotatus Poey, 1860: 309. Type locality: dans la


rivire de Tacotaco, prs de Santa-Cruz, plus de vingt lieues de la
Havane. Syntypes and or Poey specimens: MCZ 6243 (6);
USNM 120264 [ex MCZ 6406] (6), 37432 (2), 37465 (24).
Glaridichthys torralbasi Eigenmann, 1903: 225, fig. 4. Type
locality: Pinar del Rio [Cuba]. Holotype: Apparently MCZ
32957, not CAS [ex CM 9662].
Maximum length: 4.7 cm SL
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: Cuba Island.
Countries: Cuba

Heterandria cataractae Rosen, 1979: 328, fig. 12. Type locality:


large jungle stream, the Arroyo Sachicha (tributary to, but
isolated above a fall from, the Ro Senizo), about 20 km.
northwest of Cobn, 6-8 km north of Cancal, Ro Salinas
drainage, Ro Usumacinta system, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.
Holotype: AMNH 36381.
Maximum length: 6 cm SL
Distribution: Central America: Arroyo Sachicha, one of two
tributaries to the Senizo River, which flows to the upper Chixoy
River (Salinas River) at Cham, Alta Verapaz, and isolated from
all other flowing water by a downstream ribbon fall.
Countries: Guatemala

HETERADRIA

Heterandria dirempta Rosen, 1979

Heterandria Agassiz, 1853: 135. Type species: Heterandria


formosa Girard, 1859. Gender: feminine. Type by subsequent
designation by Bailey (1952).
Pseudoxiphophorus Bleeker, 1860: 440. Type species:
Xiphophorus bimaculatus Heckel, 1848. Gender: masculine.
Poeciliodes Steindachner, 1863: 176. Type species: Poeciliodes
bimaculatus Steindachner, 1863. Type by monotypy. Gender:
masculine.

Heterandria dirempta Rosen, 1979: 329, fig. 13. Type locality:


clear meandering tributary to Ro Chajmaic, 15 km. (by road)
south of Sebol, Ro de la Pasin drainage, Ro Usumacinta
system, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Holotype: AMNH 36380.
Maximum length: 6.4 cm TL
Distribution: Central America: Chajamaic River in Alta Verapaz,
Guatemala.
Countries: Guatemala

Heterandria anzuetoi Rosen & Bailey, 1979

Heterandria jonesii (Gnther, 1874)

Heterandria anzuetoi Rosen & Bailey in Rosen, 1979: 324, fig. 11.
Type locality: Ro Achuelo, south side of Gualn, Ro Motagua
drainage, Zacapa, Guatemala. Holotype: AMNH 36319.

Mollienesia jonesii Gnther, 1874: 371. Type locality: in a


volcanic lake, Alcohuaca, near Huamantla, in Mexico, 8000 feet
above the level of the sea. Syntypes: (several) BMNH
1873.1.13.1.
Maximum length: 4.5 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Guayalejo River in southern
Tamaulipas to Tehuacan River in Pueblo.
Countries: Mexico

Maximum length: 6 cm TL
Distribution: Central America: Basin of Motagua River in
Departments of El Progreso, Zacapa, Chiquimula, and Izabal,
Guatemala, and Copn, Honduras, and basin of Lempa River in
the Departments of Chiquimula and Jutiapa, Guatemala.
Countries: Guatemala, Honduras

Heterandria attenuata Rosen & Bailey, 1979


Heterandria attenuata Rosen & Bailey in Rosen, 1979: 315, fig. 8.
Type locality: Ro Candelaria Yalicar about halfway between
source and mouth, Ro Usumacinta system via an unknown
subterranean connection, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Holotype:
AMNH 36332.
Maximum length: 6.2 cm SL
Distribution: Central America: Candelaria Yalicar River in Alta
Verapaz, Guatemala.
Countries: Guatemala

Heterandria bimaculata (Heckel, 1848)


Xiphophorus bimaculatus Heckel, 1848: 297, pl. 9 (figs. 1-2).
Type locality: Veracruz, Mexico.
Poeciliodes bimaculatus Steindachner, 1863: 176 [15], pl. 4 (figs.
2-2a). Type locality: Kleine, kalte Gebirgsbche bei Tepeaca
(Tepeyacae) [corrected to Teapa, boundary between Chiapas and
Tabasco, Mexico]. Syntypes: NMW
Pseudoxiphophorus reticulatus Troschel in Mller, 1865: 633.

Heterandria litoperas Rosen & Bailey, 1979


Heterandria litoperas Rosen & Bailey in Rosen, 1979: 320, fig. 9.
Type locality: tributary to Ro Cahabn, 1 km. north-northwest
of Lanqun, Ro Polochic system, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.
Holotype: AMNH 36328.
Maximum length: 5.8 cm SL
Distribution: Central America: Polochic River basin, including
both Polochic River and Cahabn River as far as streams flowing
into Izabal Lake, Departments of Alta Verapaz and Izabal.
Countries: Guatemala

Heterandria obliqua Rosen, 1979


Heterandria obliqua Rosen, 1979: 321, fig. 10. Type locality:
Upper Ro San Ramn basin, 2-3 km. (by air) above suterranean
channel, Ro Lacantn drainage, Ro Usumacinta system,
Huehuetenango, Guatemala. Holotype: AMNH 36311.
Maximum length: 6.2 cm SL
Distribution: Central America: Usumacinta River basin: Dolores
River System (with a subterranean connection to Salinas River,
in Department Alta Vera Paz; and Ramn River System (with a
subterranean connection to Ixcan River Lacantn River).

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Check List of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America


Countries: Guatemala

LIMIA
Limia Poey, 1854: 383. Type species: Limia cubensis Poey, 1854.
Type by subsequent designation. Gender: feminine. The genus
Limia originally proposed by Poey (1854), was later listed as a
subgenus of Poecilia by Rosen and Bailey (1963) and Parenti
and Rauchenberger (1989). Rivas (1978; 1980) ressurected the
genus. spliting in sugenera and species-groups. Farr (1984)
survey of courtship display behavior. Chambers (1987) studied
the structural variation of gonopodium. Hamilton (2001) studied
the intrageneric relationships based on molecular data. Rodriguez
(1997) discussed the phylogentic position.
Acropoecilia Hilgendorf, 1889: 52. Type species: Poecilia tridens
Hilgendorf, 1889. Type by monotypy. Gender: feminine.
Odontolimia Rivas, 1980: 29. Type species: Limia grossidens
Rivas, 1980. Type by original designation. Gender: feminine.

Limia caymanensis Rivas & Fink, 1970


Limia caymanensis Rivas & Fink, 1970: 271, fig. 1. Type locality:
Coastal lagoon 2 miles west of Old Man Bay, Grand Cayman.
Holotype: USNM 203511.
Maximum length: 3.18 cm SL
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: Grand Cayman Island.
Countries: Cayman Islands

Limia dominicensis (Valenciennes, 1846)


Poecilia dominicensis Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes,
1846: 131, pl. 525-526, top. Type locality: Saint-Domingue].
Syntypes: BMNH 1913.1.25.1-2 [ex MNHN] (2); MNHN 1893
(13), 4390 (20), B-2882 [ex 4390] (1); USNM 94584 [ex
MNHN] (2).
Platypoecilus dominicensis Evermann & Clark, 1906: 852, fig. 2.
Type locality: small stream in San Francisco Moutains in the
interior of Santo Domingo, some 40 miles from Santo Domingo
city [Dominican Republic]. Holotype: USNM 53277.
Secondarily preoccupied in Poecilia by Poecilia dominicensis
Valenciennes, 1846, replaced by Poecilia montana Rosen &
Bailey, 1963.
Poecilia montana Rosen & Bailey, 1963: 48. Type locality: Small
stream in San Francisco Mts., Santo Domingo [Dominican
Republic]. Holotype: USNM 53277. Replacement name for
Platypoecilus dominicensis Evermann & Clark 1906, secondarily
preoccupied in Poecilia by Poecilia dominicensis Valenciennes
1846.
Maximum length: 2.6 cm SL
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: Hispaniola Island.
Countries: Dominican Republic, Haiti

Limia fuscomaculata Rivas, 1980


Limia fuscomaculata Rivas, 1980: 31. Fig 1c. Type locality:
Southwest bight of Lake Miragoane, Dept. de lOuest, Haiti.
Holotype: USNM 220525.
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: Lake Miragone, southwestern
Haiti.
Countries: Haiti.

Limia garnieri Rivas, 1980


Limia garnieri Rivas, 1980: 31, fig. 2b. Type locality: North end
of Lake Miragoane, Dept. de lOuest, Haiti. Holotype: USNM
220527.
Maximum length: 2.6 cm SL
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: Lake Miragone, southwestern
Haiti.
Countries: Haiti

of Lake Miragoane, Dept. de lOuest, Haiti. Holotype: USNM


220523.
Maximum length: 3.92 cm SL
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: Lake Miragone, southwestern
Haiti.
Countries: Haiti

Limia heterandria (Regan, 1913)


Limia heterandria Regan, 1913a: 1017, pl. 101 (figs. 3-4). Type
locality: La Guayra [Guara], Venezuela. Syntypes: BMNH
1909.4.2.30-32 (3).
Maximum length: 1.95 cm TL
Distribution: South America: Venezuela.
Countries: Venezuela

Limia immaculata Rivas, 1980


Limia immaculata Rivas, 1980: 32, fig. 2d. Type locality: North
end of Lake Miragoane, Dept. de lOuest, Haiti. Holotype:
USNM 220529.
Maximum length: 2.13 cm SL
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: Lake Miragone, southwestern
Haiti.
Countries: Haiti

Limia melanogaster (Gnther, 1866)


Poecilia melanogaster Gnther, 1866: 345. Type locality:
__________? North America ? Jamaica ? [sic] Syntypes: BMNH
1848.1.12.1546-1550 (5).
Maximum length: 4 cm SL
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: Jamaica Island.
Countries: Haiti, Jamaica

Limia melanonotata Nichols & Myers, 1923


Limia melanonotata Nichols & Myers, 1923: 1. Type locality: Las
Lagas [Lajas], on tang Saumtre, San Domingo [Haiti, West
Indies]. Holotype: AMNH 8220.
Maximum length: 5 cm SL
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: Hispaniola Island.
Countries: Dominican Republic, Haiti

Limia miragoanensis Rivas, 1980


Limia miragoanensis Rivas, 1980: 33, fig. 3b. Type locality:
North. end of Lake Miragoane, Dept. de LOuest, Haiti.
Holotype: USNM 220531.
Maximum length: 3.02 cm SL
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: Lake Miragone, southwestern
Haiti.
Countries: Haiti

Limia nigrofasciata Regan, 1913


Limia arnoldi Regan, 1913a: 1016, pl. 101 (fig. 5). Type locality:
Miragone, Haiti. Syntypes: BMNH 1912.8.30.2-3 (3),
1912.9.4.15-21 (9); USNM 151462 [ex BMNH 1912.9.4.21] (1).
Limia nigrofasciata Regan, 1913: 1015, pl. 101 (figs. 1-2). Type
locality: Miragone, Haiti. Syntypes: BMNH 1913.3.6.21 (1),
1913.3.6.30-31 (2), 1912.7.25.15 (1).
Maximum length: 5.2 cm SL
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: Hispaniola Island.
Countries: Haiti

Limia ornata Regan, 1913

Limia grossidens Rivas, 1980

Limia ornata Regan, 1913a: 1016, pl. 101 (fig. 7). Type locality:
Haiti. Syntypes: (5) BMNH 1912.9.4.12-14 plus BMNH
1913.3.6.34 (6, in 1 jar).
Maximum length: 4 cm SL
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: Lake Miragoane, southwestern
Haiti.
Countries: Haiti

Limia grossidens Rivas, 1980: 29, fig. 1b. Type locality: North end

Limia pauciradiata Rivas, 1980

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Limia pauciradiata Rivas, 1980: 34, fig. 3d. Type locality: Grand
Riviere du Nord at town of Grand Riviere, Dept. du Nord, Haiti.
Holotype: USNM 220533.
Maximum length: 3.5 cm SL
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: Grand Rivire du Nord,
northeastern Haiti.
Countries: Haiti

Limia perugiae (Evermann & Clark, 1906)


Platypoecilus perugiae Evermann & Clark, 1906: 851, fig. 1. Type
locality: small stream in San Francisco Moutains, Santo
Domingo [Dominican Republic]. Holotype: USNM 53278 (poor
condition).
Maximum length: 10 cm TL
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: Eastern Hispaniola Island.
Countries: Dominican Republic

Limia rivasi Franz & Burgess, 1983


Limia (Limia) rivasi Franz & Burgess, 1983: 51, figs. 1-3. Type
locality: 1 km southeast of Anse Galet, Ile de la Gonave, Dpt.
de lOuest, Haiti, West Indies. Holotype: UF 31434.
Maximum length: 3.1 cm SL
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: Western Hispaniola Island.
Countries: Haiti

Limia sulphurophilia Rivas, 1980


Limia sulphurophila Rivas, 1980: 36, fig. 4d. Type locality:
Balneario (spa) La Zurza, a sulfur spring 5 km WNW of
Duverge, Prov. of Independencia, Dominican Republic.
Holotype: MCZ 54401.
Maximum length: 3.92 cm SL
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: Eastern Hispaniola Island.
Countries: Dominican Republic

Limia tridens (Hilgendorf, 1889)


Poecilia (Acropoecilia) tridens Hilgendorf, 1889: 52. Type
locality: Port-au-Prince. Lectotype: ZMB 30958 [ex ZMB
12758], designated in Paepke & Seegers 1986:175.
Maximum length: 3 cm TL
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: Hispaniola Island.
Countries: Dominican Republic, Haiti

Limia versicolor (Gnther, 1866)


Girardinus versicolor Gnther, 1866: 352. Type locality: San
Domingo. Syntypes: (at least 2) BMNH 1857.10.28.64 (?2).
Maximum length: 3.3 cm SL
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: Eastern Hispaniola Island.
Countries: Dominican Republic

Limia vittata (Guichenot, 1853)


Poecilia vittata Guichenot, 1853: 146, pl. 5 (fig. 1). Type locality:
Cuba. Syntypes: MNHN 4398 (now 4), B-2883 [ex MNHN
4398] (1).
Limia cubensis Poey, 1854: 388, pl. 31 (fig. 12). Type locality: not
mentioned. Syntypes: (apparently 2 of following were basis of
description) ANSP 6814 (1), MCZ 6403 (now 55), plus some to
L. Rivas; USNM 649 (6, missing)
Limia pavonina Poey, 1876: 184 [142]. Type locality: Havana,
Cuba. Holotype: MCZ 6400.
Maximum length: 8 cm TL
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: Cuba Island.
Countries: Cuba

Limia yaguajali Rivas, 1980


Limia yaguajali Rivas, 1980: 35, fig. 4b. Type locality: Rio
Yaguajal at Santiago Rodriguez (Sabaneta), Prov. of Rodriguez,
Dominican Republic. Holotype: USNM 220535.
Maximum length: 3.75 cm SL
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: Yaguajal River, Dominican

Republic. A series from Riviere du Limbe at Limbe,


Departement du Nord, northeastern Haiti may also be referred to
this species.
Countries: Dominican Republic, Haiti (?)

Limia zonata (Nichols, 1915)


Heterandria zonata Nichols, 1915: 603, fig. 3. Type locality: San
Juan River (freshwater) at Samana, Santo Domingo [Dominican
Republic]. Holotype: AMNH 5232.
Maximum length: 3 cm SL
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: San Juan River in eastern
Hispaniola Island.
Countries: Dominican Republic

MICROPOECILIA
Micropoecilia Hubbs, 1926: 73. Type species: Poecilia vivipara
parae Eigenmann, 1894. Type by original designation. Gender:
feminine.

Micropoecilia branneri (Eigenmann, 1894)


Poecilia branneri Eigenmann, 1894: 629. Type locality: Santarem.
Syntypes: (23) SU 2158 (2), 22550 [ex IU 5082] (2), 22551 [ex
IU 5084] (2).
Poecilia heteristia Regan, 1909: 235. Type locality: Para [Par,
Brazil]. Syntypes: BMNH 1908.12.5.23-24 (2).
Maximum length: 3 cm TL
Distribution: South America: Amazon River basin.
Countries: Brazil
Common names: Barrigudinho (Brazil), Guaru (Brazil)

Micropoecilia bifurca (Eigenmann, 1909)


Acanthophacelus bifurcus Eigenmann, 1909: 52. Type locality:
Christianburg. Holotype: FMNH 53539 [ex CM 1088].
Maximum length: 3 cm TL
Distribution: South America: Amazon River basin.
Countries: Brazil
Common names: Barrigudinho (Brazil), Guaru (Brazil)

Micropoecilia parae (Eigenmann, 1894)


Poecilia vivipera parae [sic] Eigenmann, 1894: 628. Type locality:
in the ditches of the Rua das Mongubas of Para. Syntypes: (about
150) CAS 22552 [ex IU 5079] (25).
Acanthophacelus melanzonus Eigenmann, 1909: 51. Type locality:
Georgetown trenches. Holotype: FMNH 52717 [ex CM 1086].
Maximum length: 3 cm TL
Distribution: South America: Guyana to the Amazon River delta.
Countries: Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname
Common names: Barrigudinho (Brazil), Guaru (Brazil)

Micropoecilia picta (Regan, 1913)


Poecilia picta Regan, 1913a: 1007, pl. 100 (fig. 1-2); Fig.173a.
Type locality: Demerara. Syntypes: (many) BMNH 1872.6.11.11
(?), MNHN 1913-0226 [ex BMNH] (2), USNM 151459 (4).
Maximum length: 3 cm TL
Distribution: South America: From Trinidad to the Amazon River
delta.
Countries: Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago
Common names: Barrigudinho (Brazil), Guaru (Brazil)

Micropoecilia minima (Costa & Sarraf, 1997)


Poecilia minima Costa & Sarraf, 1997: 186, fig. 1. Type locality:
Brazil: Estado do Par: stream (igarap) in Ourm, rio Guam
basin. Holotype: MPEG 3393.
Maximum length: 2.36 cm SL
Distribution: South America: Guam River basin (only known
from type locality).
Countries: Brazil
Common names: Barrigudinho (Brazil), Guaru (Brazil)

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EOHETERADRIA

Common names: Barrigudinho (Brazil), Guaru (Brazil)

eoheterandria Henn, 1916: 117. Type species: eoheterandria


elegans Henn, 1916. Type by monotypy. Gender: feminine.
Allogambusia Hubbs, 1924: 8 [footnote]. Type species: Gambusia
tridentiger Garman, 1895. Type by original designation. Gender:
feminine.

Pamphorichthys hollandi (Henn, 1916)

eoheterandria cana (Meek & Hildebrand, 1913)


Gambusia cana Meek & Hildebrand, 1913: 87. Type locality: Rio
Satiganti, Cana [Darin], Panama. Holotype: FMNH 7596.
Maximum length: 2.5 cm TL
Distribution: Central America: Panama.
Countries: Panama

eoheterandria elegans Henn, 1916


eoheterandria elegans Henn, 1916: 118, pl. 19 (fig. 4). Type
locality: Rio Truando, a tributary of the Lower Atrato, in
Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 57007 [ex CM 5823].
Maximum length: 2 cm TL
Distribution: South America: Truando River, a tributary of the
Atrato River basin.
Countries: Colombia

eoheterandria tridentiger (Garman, 1895)


Gambusia tridentiger Garman, 1895: 89, pl. 4 (fig. 10). Type
locality: Isthmus of Panama, fresh waters. Syntypes: MCZ 6389
(orig. 10, now 7), 100253 [ex MCZ 6389a] (11); USNM 120260
[ex MCZ 6389a] (3).
Maximum length: 2.5 cm TL
Distribution: Central America: Toro Point, Fort Sherman, Canal
Zone, and Chame and Arrijan Rivers.
Countries: Panama

PAMPHORICHTHYS
Pamphoria Regan, 1913a: 1003. Type species: Cnesterodon
scalpridens Garman, 1895. Type by monotypy. Gender:
feminine.
Pamphorichthys Regan, 1913a: 1003. Type species: Heterandria
minor Garman, 1895. Type by original designation. Gender:
masculine.
Parapoecilia Hubbs, 1924: 11 [footnote]. Type species: Limia
hollandi Henn, 1916. Type by original designation. Gender:
feminine.

Pamphorichthys araguaiensis Costa, 1991


Pamphorichthys araguaiensis Costa, 1991: 40, fig. 1. Type
locality: Brsil: Goias: lagune prs dAruana, bassin de
lAraguaia. Holotype: MZUSP 42313.
Maximum length: 2.45 cm SL
Distribution: South America: Araguaia-Tocantins and Xingu River
basins.
Countries: Brazil
Common names: Barrigudinho (Brazil), Guaru (Brazil)

Pamphorichthys hasemani (Henn, 1916)


Heterandria hasemani Henn, 1916: 116, pl. 20 (fig. 1). Type
locality: Puerto Suarez, Bolivia (Paraguay Basin). Holotype:
FMNH 55874 [ex CM 4663].
Maximum length: 1.38 cm SL
Distribution: South America: Paraguay River drainage.
Countries: Bolivia (probably), Brazil
Remarks and references: Pamphorichthys hasemani occurs in the
Pantanal Brasileiro (upper portions of drainage of the Paraguay
River in Mato Grosso. Although its type-locality is Puerto Surez
(Bolivia), no record from the west side of Paraguay River basin
is available. The absence of records is probably related to the
lack of collecting efforts (Figueiredo, 1997).

Limia hollandi Henn, 1916: 138. Pl. 19 (fig. 3). Type locality:
Penedo, Rio San Francisco. Holotype: FMNH 55861 [ex CM
4643a].
Maximum length: 2.1 cm SL
Distribution: South America: So Francisco River basin and one
record from the Parnaba River basin (Figueiredo, 1997).
Countries: Brazil
Common names: Barrigudinho (Brazil), Guaru (Brazil)

Pamphorichthys minor (Garman, 1895)


Heterandria minor Garman, 1895: 92, pl. 4 (fig. 8). Type locality:
Villa Bella [Parintins], Brazil. Syntypes: AMNH 22647 [ex MCZ
6254] (5, c&s); MCZ 6254 [not 6294] (orig. 33, now 20); USNM
120268 [ex MCZ 6254] (6).
Maximum length: 1.7 cm SL
Distribution: South America: Amazon River basin, between
Santarm and Manaus.
Countries: Brazil
Remarks and references: Rosen & Bailey (1963) have
misinterpreted the type locality as Vila Bela at Mato Grosso.
Actually, Villa Bella or Villa Bella da Imperatriz corresponds to
the city of Parintins, Amazonas.Syntypes were labelled from
Villa Bella da Imperatriz (Agassiz, 1855). See Figueiredo (1997)
Common names: Barrigudinho (Brazil), Guaru (Brazil)

Pamphorichthys scalpridens (Garman, 1895)


Cnesterodon scalpridens Garman, 1895: 45, pl 8 (fig. 17). Type
locality: Amazon basin: Santarem; Obidos; Tapajos; Villa Bella;
Trombetas. Syntypes: MCZ 6261 (1), 6355 (1), 6830 (1), 6839
(6).
Maximum length: 2.48 cm SL
Distribution: South America: Amazon River channel and Tapajs
River basin.
Countries: Brazil
Common names: Barrigudinho (Brazil), Guaru (Brazil)

PHALLICHTHYS
Phallichthys Hubbs, 1924: 10 [footnote]. Type species:
Poeciliopsis isthmensis Regan, 1913. Type by original
designation. Gender: masculine.

Phallichthys amates (Miller, 1907)


Poecilia amates Miller, 1907: 108, fig. 1. Type locality: Pond and
its outlet at Los Amates. Holotype: CAS 22554 [ex IU 11375].
Poecilia pittieri Meek, 1912: 71. Type locality: La Junta, Costa
Rica. Holotype: FMNH 7680 [not 7580].
Poeciliopsis isthmensis Regan, 1913a: 997, pl. 100 (fig. 3-4);
Fig.171b. Type locality: Colon, Panama. Syntypes: (12) BMNH
1913.1.22.14-16.
Maximum length: 3 cm TL
Distribution: Central America: Atlantic drainages, from southern
Guatemala to Costa Rica and Panama.
Countries: Costa Rica, Guatemala, Panama

Phallichthys fairweatheri Rosen & Bailey, 1959


Dextripenis evides Turner, 1940: 89 (nomen nudum).
Phallichthys fairweatheri Rosen & Bailey, 1959: 24. Type
locality: Ro San Pedro de Mrtir, or a branch, about mile
below Laguna de Yalc, some 6 leagues (by river) from El Passo
de los Caballos, in the Usumacinta River basin, El Petn,
Guatemala. Holotype: UMMZ 172456.
Maximum length: 3.75 cm SL
Distribution: North and Central America: Mexico to Guatemala
and Honduras.
Countries: Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico

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Check List of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America

Phallichthys quadripunctatus Bussing, 1979


Phallichthys quadripunctatus Bussing, 1979: 3, fig. 2. Type
locality: small tributary of the Rio Sixaola, 0.5 km NE of Chase
on road between Puerto Viejo and Bratsi, Limn Province, Costa
Rica. Holotype: LACM 36018-1.
Maximum length: 1.5 cm SL
Distribution: Central America: Sixaola River basin.
Countries: Costa Rica

Phallichthys tico Bussing, 1963


Phallichthys tico Bussing, 1963: 3, fig. 1. Type locality: Ro
Puerto Viejo 5,5 kilometers downstream from junction with the
Ro Sarapiqu and 6.5 kilometers SE of the Pueblo of Puerto
Viejo, Sarapiqu drainage, Provincia de Heredia, Costa Rica.
Holotype: LACM 2780.
Maximum length: 2.5 cm SL
Distribution: Central America: Upper San Juan River in Costa
Rica.
Countries: Costa Rica

PHALLOCEROS

Mndung des Rio Camaquam [= in the mouth of Camaqu


River]. Syntypes: BMNH 1886.1.21.73-82; SU 1132 (1).
Maximum length: 3.41 cm SL
Distribution: South America: Coastal drainages in Santa Catarina
and Rio Grande do Sul States.
Countries: Brazil.
Remarks and references: Boulenger (1889) described Girardinus
iheringii in honour of Hermann von Ihering who collected and
sent him the specimens on which the description was based
(Ihering, 1893). This name has subsequently been used by
Eigenmann & Eigenmann (1891) referring to Rio Grande do Sul
specimens. Boulenger originally cited the type-locality as Rio
Grande do Sul, probably because it was the only collection
information he had. Ihering (1893) states that type-specimens has
been collected an der Mndung des Rio Camaquam [=in the
mouth of the Camaqu River], thus restricting the type-locality.
In the same paper, however, Ihering claimed that G. iheringii
should be regarded as a junior synonym of G. januarius, based
on information provided in letter by Hingeldorf. Presumably, for
this reason, subsequent authors have considered both names
synonyms.
Common names: Barrigudinho (Brazil), Guaru (Brazil)

Phalloceros Eigenmann, 1907: 431. Type species: Girardinus


caudimaculatus Hensel, 1868. Type by original designation.
Gender: masculine.

PHALLOTORYUS

Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868)

Phallotorynus Henn, 1916: 126. Type species: Phallotorynus


fasciolatus Henn, 1916. Type by monotypy. Gender: masculine.

Girardinus caudimaculatus Hensel, 1868: 362. Type locality:


Costa da Serra bei S. Leopoldo in Brunnen und Grben
gesammelt. Syntypes: (41) ZMB 7425-26 (2, 5), 31496 (25).
Phalloceros caudomaculatus var. reticulata Stoye 1935: 61, pl. 10
(top fig.). No locality. Nomen nudum.
Maximum length: 6.5 cm SL
Distribution: South America: Upper Tocantins drainage, Atlantic
coastal river drainages from Bahia State, southward to Uruguay
Argentina and Paraguay.
Countries: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay
Common names: Barrigudinho (Brazil), Guaru (Brazil)
Remarks and references: Phalloceros caudimaculatus probably is
a species complex of several similar species.

PHALLOPTYCHUS
Phalloptychus Eigenmann, 1907: 430. Type species: Girardinus
januarius Hensel, 1868. Type by original designation. Gender:
masculine.

Phalloptychus eigenmanni Henn, 1916


Phalloptychus eigenmanni Henn, 1916: 121, pl. 20 (fig. 2). Type
locality: Alagoinhas, Rio Catu, Bahia. Holotype: FMNH 55876
[ex CM 4665].
Maximum length: 2.5 cm SL
Distribution: South America: Catu River in Alagoinhas, Bahia
State.
Countries: Brazil
Common names: Barrigudinho (Brazil), Guaru (Brazil)

Phalloptychus januarius (Hensel, 1868)


Girardinus januarius Hensel, 1868: 360. Type locality: Rio de
Janeiro. Syntypes: (41) ZMB 7422-24 (2, 4, 1), 31479 (20).
Maximum length: 2.5 cm SL
Distribution: South America: Coastal drainages from Rio de
Janeiro to Paran States.
Countries: Brazil
Common names: Barrigudinho (Brazil), Guaru (Brazil)

Phalloptychus iheringii (Boulenger, 1889)


Girardinus Iheringii Boulenger, 1889: 266. Type locality: Rio
Grande do Sul. Restricted by Ihering (1893: 29) to an der

Phallotorynus fasciolatus Henn, 1916


Phallotorynus fasciolatus Henn, 1916: 129. Pl. 21 (fig. 1). Type
locality: One mile north of Jacarehy, So Paulo, Brazil, from the
basin of the Rio Parahyba. Holotype: FMNH 55061 [ex CM
3752].
Maximum length: 2.5 cm SL
Distribution: South America: Rio Paraba do Sul basin in So
Paulo State.
Countries: Brazil
Common names: Barrigudinho (Brazil), Guaru (Brazil)

Phallotorynus jucundus Ihering, 1930


Phallotorynus jucundus Ihering, 1930: 98, fig. 9. Type locality:
Corrego de Rinco, Est. de So Paulo, affluente do rio
Mogyguass. Holotype. Instituto Biolgico de So Paulo,
probably lost.
Maximum length: 3 cm SL
Distribution: South America: Upper Pardo River basin in Grande
River drainage.
Countries: Brazil.
Remarks and references: Ihering (1930) original description does
not explicitly designate the type-material of P. jucundus. Ihering
probably described P. jucundus based on material housed in the
Instituto Biolgico de So Paulo. Although, Ihering did not
expressly designate the type specimens, the material from which
he made the description, should be regarded as the type series on
the basis of the Article 72.4.1.1 of the fourth edition of the
International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN, 1999).
However, our effort to locate the type-material was unfruitful.
The Instituto Biolgico de So Paulo had a small collection of
fishes, now belonging to MZUSP. This collection has been
transferred to the MZUSP a long time ago (Oyakawa, in litt.,
1999). However, we were not able to locate the types in MZUSP.
The type catalogues of Britski (1969) and Oyakawa (1996) do
not mention this type-material. Similar situation occurs with the
three other Siluriformes species described by Ihering in the same
paper: Pseudostegophilus scarificator, Glanidium neivai and
Bunocephalus larai. Mees (1989) states based in a letter from
Britski that the types of B. larai are probably lost. So, it let us to
conclude that the types of P. jucundus are probably lost as well.

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Common names: Barrigudinho (Brazil), Guaru (Brazil)

Countries: Guatemala, Mexico, Panama

Phallotorynus victoriae Oliveros, 1983

Poecilia catemaconis Miller, 1975

Phallotorynus victoriae Oliveros, 1983: 19, fig 2. Type locality:


madrejn El Negro, isla Los Mellados (Santa Fe). Holotype: Inst.
Nac. Limnologa 10.
Maximum length: 2.3 cm SL.
Distribution: South America: Lower and middle Paran River
drainage in Caaguaz, Misiones and Alto Paran Departments
(Paraguay), in Santa F and Corrientes Provinces (Argentina),
and Mato Grosso do Sul State (Brazil).
Countries: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay
Common names: Madrecita (Argentina), Barrigudinho (Brazil),
Guaru (Brazil), Piky (Paraguay).

Poecilia catemaconis Miller, 1975: 13, fig. 4. Type locality:


Laguna Catemaco at Playa Azul, about 3.2 km E of Catemaco,
Veracruz [Mexico] 95 05 W. Long., 18 25 N Lat., elevation
about 340 m. Holotype: UMMZ 195953.
Maximum length: 8 cm TL
Distribution: orth America: Laguna Catemaco basin.
Countries: Mexico

POECILIA
Poecilia Bloch & Schneider, 1801: 452. Type species: Poecilia
vivipara Bloch & Schneider, 1801. Type by subsequent
designation. Gender: feminine.
Mollienesia Lesueur, 1821: 3. Type species: Mollienesia latipinna
Lesueur, 1821. Type by monotypy. Gender: feminine. Originally
spelt Mollinesia but emmendation is justified (Bailey & Miller,
1950). Taxonomy and phylogenetic hypotheses of subgenus
Mollienensia: Hubbs (1933); Schultz & Miller (1971); Miller
(1975, 1983); Rauchenberger (1989).
Alazon Gistel, 1848: X. Type species: Poecilia vivipara Bloch &
Schneider, 1801. Type by being a replacement name. Gender:
masculine.
Lebistes De Filippi, 1861: 69. Type species: Lebistes poecilioides
De Filippi, 1861. Type by monotypy. Gender: masculine.
Acanthophacelus Eigenmann, 1907: 426 [footnote]. Type species:
Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859. Type by original designation.
Gender: masculine.
Allopoecilia Hubbs, 1924: 11 [footnote]. Type species: Girardinus
caucanus Steindachner, 1880. Type by original designation.
Gender: feminine.
eopoecilia Hubbs, 1924: 11 [footnote]. Type species:
eopoecilia holacanthus Hubbs, 1924. Type by original
designation. Gender: feminine.
Psychropoecilia Myers, 1935: 311. Proposed as subgenus of
Poecilia. Type species: Platypoecilus dominicensis Evermann &
Clark, 1906. Type by original designation. Gender: feminine.
Lembesseia Fowler, 1949: 267. Type species: Lembesseia
parvianalis Fowler, 1949. Type by original designation. Gender:
feminine.
Curtipenis Rivas & Myers, 1950: 289. Type species: Mollienesia
elegans Trewavas, 1948. Type by original designation. Gender:
masculine.
Recepoecilia Whitley, 1951: 68. Type species: Poecilia vivipara
parae Eigenmann, 1894. Type by being a replacement name.
Gender: feminine.

Poecilia amazonica Garman, 1895


Poecilia amazonica Garman, 1895: 64, pl. 4 (fig. 9). Type locality:
Santa Cruz; Para. Syntypes: MCZ 27573 (128), 69635 (97);
UMMZ 146750 [ex MCZ 27573] (6 or 5); USNM 120286 [ex
MCZ 27573a] (6).
Maximum length: 2 cm TL
Distribution: South America: Santa Cruz, Par State.
Countries: Brazil
Common names: Barrigudinho (Brazil), Guaru (Brazil)

Poecilia caucana (Steindachner, 1880)


Girardinus caucanus Steindachner, 1880: 87 [35], pl. 6 (fig. 4).
Type locality:des Cauca und der Flsse bei Guayaquil. Syntypes:
NMW 81128 (3).
Maximum length: 3 cm TL
Distribution: Central to South America: Pacific drainage basins
from Darin, Panama to the Cauca River, Colombia, and Lake
Maracaibo basin.
Countries: Colombia, Panama, Venezuela

Poecilia caudofasciata (Regan, 1913)


Limia caudofasciata Regan, 1913a: 1017, pl. 101 (fig. 6). Type
locality: Jamaica. Syntypes: (several) BMNH 1905.8.16.13-21
(?21), MNHN 1913-0227 (2), USNM 151463 [ex BMNH
1905.8.16.22] (1).
Limia caudofasciata tricolor Stoye, 1933: 12-14. Type locality: ?
Distribution: Caribbean Islands. Jamaica Island.
Countries: Jamaica

Poecilia chica Miller, 1975


Poecilia chica Miller, 1975: 2, fig. 1. Type locality: tributary of
Ro Purificacin about 2.5 km E of La Concepcin (about 8.5 km
E of La Herta), Jalisco [Mexico] 104 34 W Long., 19 30 N
Lat., elevation about 305 m. Holotype: UMMZ 172134.
Maximum length: 3 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Jalisco.

Countries: Mexico
Poecilia dauli Meyer & Radda, 2000
Poecilia dauli Meyer & Radda, 2000: 77, fig. 1. Type locality:
brook near Miranda, Venezuela. Holotype: NWM-94540.
Maximum length: 3.9 cm TL
Distribution: South America: Coastal drainages of Venezuela

Countries: Venezuela
Poecilia elegans (Trewavas, 1948)
Mollienesia elegans Trewavas, 1948: 409, pl. 1 (fig. 4); figs. 1-2.
Type locality: Jarabocoa, San Domingo, Haiti, West Indies.
Holotype: BMNH 1947.11.27.4-5 (1 of 2).
Maximum length: 3.6 cm SL
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: Eastern Hispaniola Island.
Countries: Dominican Republic

Poecilia gillii (Kner, 1863)


Xiphophorus gillii Kner, 1863: 224, fig. 9. Type locality: Aus dem
Rio Chagres in Panama, Nordseite. Syntypes: (33) NMW 21609
(2).
Maximum length: 6 cm TL
Distribution: Central America: Panama.
Countries: Panama

Poecilia hispaniolana Rivas, 1978

Poecilia butleri Jordan, 1889


Poecilia butleri Jordan, 1889: 330. Type locality: Rio Presidio,
near Mazatlan [Sinaloa, Mexico]. Syntypes: USNM 37158 (orig.
6, now 4).
Maximum length: 7 cm TL
Distribution: North and Central America: Mexico to Panama.

Poecilia hispaniolana Rivas, 1978: 101, figs. 1a-b, 2a, 3. Type


locality: Ro Mijo at road from Azua to San Juan, Prov. of
Benefactor, Dominican Republic. Holotype: USNM 218706.
Maximum length: 3.6 cm SL
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: Hispaniola Island.

570

Check List of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America


Countries: Dominican Republic, Haiti

Poecilia kykensis Poeser, 2002


Mollienesia petenensis Gnther, 1866: 348. Type locality: Lake
Peten [Guatemala]. Syntypes: BMNH 1864.1.26.375 (3), ZMB
6082 (1). Secondarily preoccupied by Poecilia petenensis
Gnther, 1866; replaced by Poecilia kykesis Poeser, 2002.
Peocilia kykensis Poeser, 2002: 244. Type locality: Lake Peten.
Syntypes: BMNH 1864.1.26.375 (3), ZMB 6082 (1).
Replacement for Mollienesia petenensis Gnther, 1866,
preoccupied in Poecilia by Poecilia petenensis Gnther, 1866.
Distribution: Central America: Lake Peten.
Countries: Guatemala

Poecilia latipinna (Lesueur, 1821)


Mollinesia latipinna Lesueur, 1821: 3, pl. 3. Type locality: in the
freshwater ponds in the vicinity of New Orleans [Louisiana,
USA]. Lesueur specimens or syntypes: MNHN B-0929 (8).
Poecilia multilineata Lesueur, 1821: 4, pl. 1. Type locality: East
Florida [USA].
Limia poeciloides Girard, 1858: 170. Type locality: Indianola,
Texas [USA]. Syntypes: USNM 670 (2, missing).
Poecilia lineolata Girard, 1858: 170. Type locality: Brownsville,
Texas, () and Fort Brown, Texas [USA]. Syntypes: MCZ 1296
[ex USNM 667] (1); USNM 667 (3) missing, 668 (4) missing.
Limia matamorensis Girard, 1859a: 117. Type locality: Matamoros
[Tamaulipas, Mexico]. Syntypes: AMNH 29833SW [ex USNM
3509] (3, c&s), USNM 3509 (now 67).
Maximum length: 15 cm TL
Distribution: North America: From Cape Fear drainage in North
Carolina, USA to Veracruz, Mexico. Introduced to many
countries. Several countries report adverse ecological impact
after introduction. Gulf of Mexico.
Countries: Bahamas (introduced), Colombia (introduced), Mexico,
USA

Poecilia latipunctata Meek, 1904


Poecilia latipunctata Meek, 1904: 150, fig. 48. Type locality:
Forlon, Tamaulipas, Basin of the Rio Panuco [Mexico].
Holotype: FMNH 4484.
Maximum length: 5 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Panuco River basin.
Countries: Mexico

Poecilia marcellinoi Poeser, 1995


Poecilia marcellinoi Poeser, 1995: 241, fig. 2a. Type locality:
Lago de Ilopango [El Salvador]. Holotype: RMNH 31771.
Maximum length: 6.3 cm SL
Distribution: Central America: Ilopango Lake basin.
Countries: El Salvador

Poecilia maylandi Meyer, 1983


Poecilia maylandi Meyer, 1983: 56, fig. 2. Type locality:
Mexique, Guerrero, Arroyo Chacambero prs de Altamirano.
Holotype: SMF 17855.
Maximum length: 9.5 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Balsas River basin.
Countries: Mexico

Poecilia mexicana Steindachner, 1863


Poecilia mexicana Steindachner, 1863: 178, pl. 4 (figs. 1-1a).
Type locality: Orizaba in Mexico. Syntypes: (16) NMW 61288
(14).
Poecilia cuneata Garman, 1895: 62, pl. 5 (fig. 3). Type locality:
Turbo, Gulf of Darien [Panama]. Syntypes: MCZ 6458 (now 10),
USNM 120285 [ex MCZ 6458] (3).
Poecilia limantouri Jordan & Snyder, 1899: 129, fig. 10. Type
locality: Ro Tamesoe near Tampico, Tamaulipas, Mexico.
Holotype: SU 6165.

Maximum length: 11 cm SL
Distribution: North and Central America: From San Juan River,
Mexico to Guatemala. At least one country reports adverse
ecological impact after introduction.
Countries: Belize, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama (?)

Poecilia nicholsi (Myers, 1931)


Limia nicholsi Myers, 1931: 1. Type locality: San Juan River
(fresh water) at Saman, Dominican Republic. Holotype: AMNH
5239a.
Maximum length: ?
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: San Juan River basin in eastern
Hispaniola Island.
Countries: Dominican Republic
Remarks and references: Description and figures in Nichols (1915)
referred to as Heterandria versicolor (Gnther, 1874).

Poecilia orri Fowler, 1943


Poecilia orri Fowler, 1943: 1, fig. 1. Type locality: Lagoon and
salt water ditch on Bonacca Island, Bay Islands, Honduras.
Holotype: ANSP 70158.
Maximum length: 5.6 cm SL
Distribution: North and Central America: Southern Mexico
(Quintana Roo) to northern Honduras and Colombia (Islas de
Providencia).
Countries: Belize, Colombia, Honduras, Mexico

Poecilia petenensis Gnther, 1866


Mollienesia petenensis Gnther, 1866: 348. Type locality: Lake
Peten [Guatemala]. Syntypes: BMNH 1864.1.26.375 (3), ZMB
6082 (1).
Poecilia petenensis Gnther, 1866: 342. Type locality: Lake Peten
[Guatemala]. Syntypes: (at least 5) BMNH 1864.1.26.375,
1864.1.26.376, 1864.1.26.379.
Maximum length: 8 cm TL
Distribution: North and Central America: Southeastern Mexico to
Belize and Guatemala.
Countries: Belize, Guatemala, Mexico

Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859


Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859: 412. Type locality: Caracas; in
dem Guayre-Flusse von Gollmer gesammelt [Venezuela].
Syntypes: BMNH 1866.6.6.3 [ex ZMB] (1); ZMB 3468 (9), 3469
(8, lost).
Girardinus guppii Gnther, 1866: 353. Type locality: Trinidad;
Venezuela. Syntypes: BMNH 1847.7.18.9-11 (?3) Venezuela,
1865.11.30.8 (1) Trinidad; ZMB 6081 (2).
Maximum length: 3.5 cm TL
Distribution: South America and Caribbean Islands: Venezuela,
Barbados, Trinidad, northern Brazil and the Guianas. Widely
introduced and established elsewhere, mainly for mosquito
control, but had rare to non-existing effects on mosquitos, and
negative to perhaps neutral effects on native fishes. Africa: Feral
populations reported from the coastal reaches of Natal rivers
from Durban southwards, as well as in the Kuruman Eye and L.
Otjikoto in Namibia. Several countries report adverse ecological
impact after introduction.
Countries: Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Brazil (introduced),
Colombia (introduced), Cuba (introduced), Jamaica (introduced),
Mexico (introduced), Peru (introduced), Puerto Rico
(introduced), Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela
Common names: Barrigudinho (Brazil), Guaru (Brazil), Guppy
(Brazil, USA)

Poecilia salvatoris Regan, 1907


Poecilia salvatoris Regan, 1907: 65. Type locality: San Salvador,
in warm springs. Syntypes: BMNH 1864.1.26.191 (6?), BMNH
uncat. (5).
Distribution: Central America: El Salvador.

571

Check List of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America


Countries: El Salvador

Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes, 1846


Molinesia surinamensis Mller & Troschel, 1844: 36. Type
locality: Mexico [Misantla River at the town of the same name
and the Tacoluta River 6 hours riding above the sea and 13 hours
from Papantla, Central Vera Cruz, Mexico. Not Suriname,
corrected by Paepke & Meyer (1995)]. Holotype: ZMB 3473.
Preoccupied in Poecilia by Poecilia surinamensis Valenciennes,
1821.
Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1846:
130, pl. 525-526, bottom. Type locality: prs de Veracrux [same
type locality of Molinesia surinamensis Mller & Troschel,
1844]. Syntypes: MNHN B-0930 (8).
Poecilia thermalis Steindachner, 1863: 181, pl. 4 (figs. 3-3a). Type
locality: in mexikanischen Staate Chiapas in der Schwefelquellle
La Esperanza [sic] gefunden, deren Wasser 23 Ramur warm ist.
Syntypes: (40) NMW 15153 (5), 59834 (4), 60645 (5), 76504-07
(7, 7, 7, 4).
Gambusia modesta Troschel in Mller, 1865: 105. Type locality:
Mexico. Holotype: ZMB (apparently lost).
Gambusia plumbea Troschel in Mller, 1865: 106. Type locality:
Mexico. Holotype: ZMB (missing).
Poecilia spilurus Gnther, 1866: 345. Type locality: Central
America. Holotype: BMNH 1971.6.9.1.
Poecilia chisoyensis Gnther, 1866: 342. Type locality: River
Chisoy, Vera Paz [Alta Vera Paz, Guatemala]. Syntypes: BMNH
1864.1.26.190 (3).
Poecilia dovii Gnther, 1866: 344. Type locality: Guatemala;
Mexico. Syntypes: BMNH 1862.6.6.11-12 (2?) Mexico,
1863.12.16.77-92 (10) Lake Nicaragua, BMNH uncat. (?) Lake
Amatitlan.
Platypoecilus mentalis Gill, 1877: 335. Type locality: a stream on
the Atlantic side of the Isthmus [of Panama]. Holotype: USNM
16675.
Poecilia boucardii Steindachner, 1878: 386, pl. 3 (fig. 2). Type
locality: Aspinwall (Coln), (Atlantic) Panama. Syntypes:
(many) ?MCZ 32959 (10); NMW 14931-33 (1, 1, 1), 61266 (3),
77475-78 (2, 2, 2, 1), 22839-40 (1, 1), 10669-71 (1, 1, 1), 1067273 (1).
Poecilia vandepolli arubensis van Lidth de Jeude, 1887: 138, pl. 2
(fig. 6). Type locality: Aruba. Syntypes: RMNH 5156 (6).
Platypoecilus nelsoni Meek, 1904: 147, fig. 46. Type locality:
Papayo, Guerrero [Balsas River basin, Mexico]. Holotype:
USNM 51484.
Platypoecilus tropicus Meek, 1907: 146. Type locality: Turrialba,
Costa Rica. Holotype: FMNH 6027.
Poecilia tenuis Meek, 1907: 147. Type locality: Tiribi, Costa Rica.
Holotype: FMNH 6028.
Poecilia spilonota Regan, 1908: 460 [footnote]. Type locality: San
Jos [Costa Rica]. BMNH. Syntypes: BMNH 1907.2.11.44-50 (6
of 7).
Poecilia caudata Meek, 1909: 209. Type locality: Turrubares,
Costa Rica. Holotype: FMNH 6360.
Mollienesia gracilis Regan, 1913a: 1012. Type locality: Lake
Petn in Guatemala. Syntypes: BMNH 1864.1.26.377 (3),
1864.1.26.379 (2).
Mollienisia sphenops vantynei Hubbs, 1935: 11, pl. 2 (fig. 1,
upper). Type locality: aguada at Uaxactun, Guatemala. Holotype:
UMMZ 97874.
Mollienisia sphenops macrura Hubbs, 1935: 12, pl. 2 (fig. 2).
Type locality: Ro San Pedro de Mrtir, at El Paso de Los
Caballos, Guatemala, in the stream system of Ro Usumancita..
Holotype: UMMZ 95516.
Mollienisia sphenops altissima Hubbs, 1936: 242, pl. 9 (fig. 2).
Type locality: Miramar Spring, near Talcha, Yucatan. Holotype:
UMMZ 102127.
Mollienesia sphenops pallida de Buen, 1943a: 252, fig. 1. Type

locality: em la Plaza La Bocana del ro Marqus. Syntypes: (24).


?Lembesseia parvianalis Fowler, 1949: 267, fig. 70. Type locality:
Oka, Congo system. [Lembesse River Basin; French Equatorial
Africa; introduced]. Holotype: ANSP 71924.
Poecilia veti-providentiae Fowler, 1950b: 77, fig. 12. Type
locality: One quarter of mile south of Ironwood Hill, in freshwater stream called Huffingtons Creek at the Watering Place
and above, east side of the island. Holotype: ANSP 71750.
Maximum length: 6 cm TL
Distribution: North, Central and South America: Mexico to
Colombia. Often confused with P. mexicana.
Countries: Colombia, Cook Islands, Curaao Island, Mexico,
Trinidad and Tobago (introduced), Venezuela

Poecilia sulphuraria (Alvarez, 1948)


Mollienisia sulphuraria Alvarez, 1948b: 276, fig. 1. Type locality:
Baos del Azufre, a 12 Km de Teapa, Tab. Holotype: ENCBIPN-P-186.
Maximum length: 5 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Mexico.
Countries: Mexico

Poecilia teresae Greenfield, 1990


Poecilia teresae Greenfield, 1990: 449, fig. 1. Type locality:
Macal River on the Mountain Pine Ridge (trib. eastern branch of
Belize River), Belize, Central America, 8901W, 1652N.
Holotype: FMNH 82918.
Maximum length: 5 cm SL
Distribution: Central America: Belize.
Countries: Belize

Poecilia vandepolli van Lidth de Jeude, 1887


Poecilia vandepolli van Lidth de Jeude, 1887: 137, pl. 2 (fig. 4).
Type locality: Curaao. Syntypes: RMNH 5155 (6).
Maximum length: 4.5 cm TL
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: Curaao Island.
Countries: Curaao
Remarks and references: Recenty redescribed by Poeser (1992).

Poecilia velifera (Regan, 1914)


Mollienisia velifera Regan, 1914a: 338. Type locality: Progreso,
Yucatn. Syntypes: BMNH 1914.2.18.6-8 (3).
Maximum length: 15 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Southeastern Mexico.
Countries: Colombia (introduced), Mexico,

Poecilia vivipara Bloch & Schneider, 1801


Poecilia vivipara Bloch & Schneider, 1801: 452, pl. 86 (lower
fig.). Type locality: aquis dulcibus Surinami bipollicaris.
Holotype: ZMB 3465.
Poecilia surinamensis Valenciennes in Humboldt & Valenciennes,
1821: 158, pl. 51 (fig. 1). Type locality: in aquis dulcibus
Surinami. Holotype: ?
Poecilia unimaculata Valenciennes in Humboldt & Valenciennes,
1821: 158, pl. 51 (fig. 2). Type locality: in aquis dulcibus
Brasili [Rio Janeiro]. Holotype: ?
Poecilia schneideri Valenciennes in Humboldt & Valenciennes,
1821: 159. Unneeded replacement name for Poecilia vivipara.
Molinesia fasciata Mller & Troschel, 1844: 36. Type locality:
Suriname [not Mexico]. Holotype: ZMB 3472. Type-locality
corrected by Paepke & Meyer (1995).
eopoecilia holacanthus Hubbs, 1924: 11 [footnote]. Type
locality: not stated in original description but referred to material
recorded as Poecilia vivipara by Evermann & Marsh 1900
[Ponce and Fajardo; Arroyo and Hucares; Puerto Rico - an
introduced stock]. Syntypes: FMNH 3240 (6).
Maximum length: 4 cm TL
Distribution: South America: From Venezuela all along the coast
to La Plata River in Argentina. Introduced in Puerto Rico.

572

Check List of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America


Countries: Argentina, Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Puerto Rico
(introduced), Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay,
Venezuela
Common names: Barrigudinho (Brazil), Guaru (Brazil)

POECILIOPSIS
Hemixiphophorus Bleeker, 1860: 440. Type species: Xiphophorus
gracilis Heckel, 1848. Type by subsequent monotypy. Gender:
masculine. Appeared first in key, without included species. One
species added by Bleeker (1860: 485). Senior synonym of
Poeciliopsis Regan, 1913 but Poeciliopsis is placed in the official
list of generic names in zoology (opinion 375) of the ICZN (see
Rosen & Bailey, 1963:131 and Melville & Smith, 1987).
Poeciliopsis Regan, 1913a: 996. Type species: Poecilia presidionis
Jordan & Culver, 1895. Type by subsequent designation. Gender:
feminine.
Leptorhaphis Regan, 1913a: 998. Type species: Gambusia infans
Woolman, 1895. Type by monotypy. Gender: feminine.
Aulophallus Hubbs, 1926: 69. Type species: Poecilia elongata
Gnther, 1866. Type by original designation. Gender: masculine.
Poecilistes Hubbs, 1926: 68. Type species: Heterandria lutzi
Meek, 1904. Type by original designation. Gender: masculine.

Poeciliopsis baenschi Meyer, Radda, Riehl &


Feichtinger, 1986
Poeciliopsis baenschi Meyer, Radda, Riehl & Feichtinger, 1986:
80, fig. 1. Type locality: ruisseau prs de El Tuito, Jalisco,
Mexico. Holotype: SMF 19988.
Maximum length: 2.5 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Creek near El Tuito in Jalisco, as
well as tributaries of the Purificacin River near La Huerta.
Countries: Mexico

Poeciliopsis balsas Hubbs, 1926


Poeciliopsis balsas Hubbs, 1926: 66. Type locality: Balsas, on the
Rio Balsas, Guerrero, Mexico. Holotype: FMNH 3702.
Poeciliopsis anonas de Buen, 1943b: 263, fig. 1. Type
locality:Arroyo de las Anonas de la cuenca del ro Marqus, a
406 metros sobre el nvel del mar. Holotype: Estacin
Limnolgica Ptzcuaro.
Maximum length: 3.5 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Balsas River basin, Arteaga and
Aguililla Rivers in Michoacan.
Countries: Mexico

Poeciliopsis catemaco Miller, 1975


Poeciliopsis catemaco Miller, 1975: 35, fig. 11. Type locality: a
small beach on the west side of Laguna Catemaco, Veracruz
[Mexico] 95 07 W Long., 18 25 N Lat., elevation about 340
m. Holotype: UMMZ 176977.
Maximum length: 4 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Laguna de Catemaco in Veracruz.
Countries: Mexico

Poeciliopsis elongata (Gnther, 1866)


Poecilia elongata Gnther, 1866: 342. Type locality: Panama.
Holotype: BMNH 1866.1.14.23.
Maximum length: 11 cm TL
Distribution: Central America: Costa Rica and Panama.
Countries: Costa Rica, Panama

Poeciliopsis fasciata (Meek, 1904)


Gambusia fasciata Meek, 1904: 129, fig. 37. Type locality:San
Geronimo, Oaxaca [Mexico]. Holotype: FMNH 4715.
Maximum length: 3 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Mexico in Laguna Coyuca near
Acapulco, Guerrero as far as the Pijijiapan River in Chiapas and
Coatzacoalcos River in Oaxaca.

Countries: Mexico

Poeciliopsis gracilis (Heckel, 1848)


Xiphophorus gracilis Heckel, 1848: 300, pl. 9 (fig. 3). Type
locality: Orizaba, Mexico. Syntypes: (13) NMW 59600 (3),
76512 (6), 76514 (2, dry), 81118 (4).
Gambusia Heckeli [sic] Bleeker, 1860: 485. Type locality: Am.
sept, Mexico. Unneeded substitute name for Xiphophorus
gracilis Heckel 1848, not preoccupied by the later Gambusia
gracilis Girard 1859.
Girardinus pleurospilus Gnther, 1866: 353. Type locality: Lake
of Dueas, Guatemala. Syntypes: BMNH 1864.1.26.180 (1?),
ZMB 6078 (3).
Priapichthys letonai Hildebrand, 1925: 258, fig. 12. Type locality:
Ro San Miguel, San Miguel, El Salvador. Holotype: USNM
87251.
Maximum length: 5.1 cm TL
Distribution: North and Central America: From southern Mexico
to Honduras.
Countries: Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Venezuela (introduced)

Poeciliopsis hnilickai Meyer & Vogel, 1981


Poeciliopsis hnilickai Meyer & Vogel, 1981: 358, fig. 1. Type
locality: Mexico, Chiapas, Gebirgsbach 1 km W Ixtapa.
Holotype: SMF 15526.
Maximum length: 3.5 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Salina River in Chiapas.
Countries: Mexico

Poeciliopsis infans (Woolman, 1895)


Gambusia infans Woolman, 1895: 62, pl. 2. Type locality: Rio de
Lerma at Salamanca, Mexico. Lectotype: USNM 45570,
designated by Jordan & Evermann 1896: 680.
Poeciliopsis porosus de Buen, 1943b: 273, fig. 9. Type locality:
Lago de Camcuaro, Mich. Holotype: Estacin Limnol.
Ptzcuaro.
Maximum length: 3.5 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Mexican states of Jalisco and
Michoacan in Grande de Santiago River basins, Lerma and
Ameca River basins.
Countries: Mexico

Poeciliopsis latidens (Garman, 1895)


Glaridodon latidens Garman, 1895: 42, pl. 5 (fig. 11). Type
locality: Chihuahua, Mexico. Syntypes: MCZ 1307 (4).
Maximum length: 5 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Del Fuerte River to San Blas in
Nayarit.
Countries: Mexico

Poeciliopsis lucida Miller, 1960


Poeciliopsis lucida Miller, 1960: 2, pl. 1 (fig. A). Type locality:
small tributary of the Ro Mocorito, 0.9 mile N of San Benito,
Sinaloa; 107, 46W Long., 25, 32N Lat. Holotype: UMMZ
177266.
Maximum length: 3 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Mocorito River basin and del Fuerte
River on the Gulf of California in Sinaloa.
Countries: Mexico

Poeciliopsis lutzi (Meek, 1902)


Heterandria lutzi Meek, 1902: 106, pl. 20, lower. Type locality:
Ro Quiotepec at Cuicatlan, Oaxaca, Mexico. Holotype: FMNH
3718.
Maximum length: 3.5 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Mexico.
Countries: Mexico

Poeciliopsis monacha Miller, 1960

573

Check List of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America


Poeciliopsis monacha Miller, 1960: 3, pl. 1 (fig. C). Type locality:
Arroyo San Benito, about 1.5 miles ESE of Rancho Guirocoba,
Sonora; 108 40W Long., 26 56N Lat. Holotype: UMMZ
177268.
Distribution: North America: Mexico.
Countries: Mexico

Poeciliopsis occidentalis (Baird & Girard, 1853)


Heterandria occidentalis Baird & Girard, 1853: 390. Type
locality: Rio Santa Crux of the Rio Gila [Mexico - not Santa
Cruz River, Tucson, Arizona, USA.]. Syntypes: ANSP 6972 (1).
Girardinus sonoriensis Girard, 1859: 120. Type locality: san
Bernardino creek, Mex. [tributary of Ro Yaqui, Sonora,
Mexico]. Syntypes: MCZ 1310 (1), 1461 (1).
Maximum length: 6 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Gila River system in New Mexico
and Arizona and streams south to western Mexico. Occurs
naturally in the Colorado and Yaqui River basins at altitudes
ranging from sea level to 1500 m. High altitude occurences are
most commonly associated with outflows and springs.
Countries: Mexico, USA

Poeciliopsis paucimaculata Bussing, 1967


Poeciliopsis paucimaculata Bussing, 1967: 227, fig. 5. Type
locality: tributaries to the Ro General, a confluent of the Ro
Grande de Trraba [General River, by 1st steel bridge, 15 km
South of San Isidro del General on Pan. Am. Hiway, San Jose,
Costa Rica] Holotype: LACM 9236-1.
Maximum length: 3.5 cm TL
Distribution: Central America: General River basin.
Countries: Costa Rica

Poeciliopsis presidionis (Jordan & Culver, 1895)


Poecilia presidionis Jordan & Culver in Jordan, 1895: 413, pl. 29.
Type locality: in the clear waters of the Rio Presidio, about
Presidio [Sinaloa, Mexico]. Lectotype: SU 2687 (not separated
from paralectotypes), established as figured specimen in caption
to Pl. 114, p. 3257 by Jordan & Evermann (1900).
Maximum length: 3.5 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Sinaloa River in Sinaloa to San Blas
in Nayarit.
Countries: Mexico

Poeciliopsis prolifica Miller, 1960


Poeciliopsis prolifica Miller, 1960: 5, pl. 2 C. Type locality:
Arroyo Sonolona [tributary to Culiacn River] 18.5 miles by road
E of Culiacn, Sinaloa, 107 08W Long., 2448N Lat.
Holotype: UMMZ 177272.
Maximum length: 3 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Lower courses of Yaqui River in
Sonora and along the coast to San Blas in Nayarit. The species
enters brackish water.
Countries: Mexico

Poeciliopsis retropinna (Regan, 1908)


Poecilia retropinna Regan, 1908: 458. Type locality: Boruca
[Costa Rica]. Holotype: BMNH 1909.3.13.69.
Maximum length: 5 cm TL
Distribution: Central America: Costa Rica and Panama.
Countries: Costa Rica, Panama

Poeciliopsis scarlli Meyer, Riehl, Dawes & Dibble,


1985
Poeciliopsis scarlli Meyer, Riehl, Dawes, & Dibble, 1985: 26, fig.
1. Type locality: canal at El Bordqueral, 40 km N on HW 200
from state boundary Guerrero/Michoacn, Michoacn, Mexico.
Holotype: SMF 19715.
Maximum length: 3 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Guerrero and Michoacan.

Countries: Mexico

Poeciliopsis turneri Miller, 1975


Poeciliopsis turneri Miller, 1975: 27, fig. 8. Type locality: Ro
Apamila, 4.5 km WNW of La Huerta, Jalisco [Mexico] 104 39
W Long., 19 29 N Lat., elevation about 280 m. La Huerta is a
small town on Hwy 80 SW of Autln. Holotype: UMMZ 183942.
Maximum length: 3 cm TL
Distribution: North America: From the Purificacion River basin to
the Resolana River and northeastern Cihuatlan.
Countries: Mexico

Poeciliopsis turrubarensis (Meek, 1912)


Gambusia turrubarensis Meek, 1912 (18 Sep): 71. Type locality:
Turrubares, Costa Rica [San Jos, Pacific slope]. Holotype:
FMNH 7676 [not 7576].
Heterandria colombianus Eigenmann & Henn in Eigenmann, 1912
(23 Dec): 27. Type locality: Brackish water, mouth of Rio
Dagua, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56047 [ex CM 4837].
Priapichthys fosteri Hildebrand, 1925: 260, figs. 14-15. Type
locality: Ro Lempa, San Marcos, El Salvador. Holotype: USNM
87263.
Maximum length: 4 cm TL
Distribution: North, Central and South America: Jalisco, Mexico
to the Dagua River in Colombia.
Countries: Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Mexico

Poeciliopsis viriosa Miller, 1960


Poeciliopsis viriosa Miller, 1960: 4, pl. 2 (fig. A). Type locality:
Greenbank, from a spring-fed creek about 4.5 miles SW of Las
Palmas, on the road Ixtapita, Jalisco; 105 10W Long., 2048N
Lat. Holotype: UMMZ 177270.
Maximum length: 3.5 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Ameca River basin in Jalisco and
south Nayarit to the Mocorito River in Sinaloa.
Countries: Mexico

PRIAPELLA
Priapella Regan, 1913a: 992. Type species: Gambusia bonita
Meek, 1904. Type by monotypy. Gender: feminine.

Priapella bonita (Meek, 1904)


Gambusia bonita Meek, 1904: 132, fig. 39. Type locality: Refugio,
Vera Cruz. [Mexico]. Holotype: FMNH 4630.
Distribution: North America: Mexico.
Countries: Mexico

Priapella compressa Alvarez, 1948


Priapella compressa Alvarez, 1948a: 335, fig. 2. Type locality:
Ruinas de Palenque, Chis. Holotype: ENCB-IPN-P-188.
Maximum length: 4.5 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Grijalva River basin to the lower
Usumacinta River basin in Chiapas.
Countries: Mexico

Priapella intermedia Alvarez & Carranza, 1951


Priapella intermedia Alvarez & Carranza, 1951: 284. Type
locality: Santa Mara Chimalapa, em el Arroyo El Zacatal.
Holotype: ENCB-IPN-P-188.
Maximum length: 5 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Mexico.
Countries: Mexico

Priapella olmecae Meyer & Espinoza Prez, 1990


Priapella olmecae Meyer & Espinosa Prez, 1990: 122, fig. 1.
Type locality: Rio de la Palma, about 10 km NNW
Sontecomapan, 25 km NNE Lake Catemaco, Veracruz, Mxiko.
Holotype: SMF 21157.

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Check List of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America


Maximum length: 5 cm TL
Distribution: North America: La Palma and Agua Fria Rivers and
a lagoon called Escondida, Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz.
Countries: Mexico

PRIAPICHTHYS

Priapichthys panamensis Meek & Hildebrand, 1916


Priapichthys panamensis Meek & Hildebrand, 1916: 322. Type
locality: Chame Point, Panama. Holotype: FMNH 8950.
Maximum length: 2.5 cm TL
Distribution: Central America: Panama.
Countries: Panama.

Priapichthys Regan, 1913a: 991. Type species: Gambusia


annectens Regan, 1907. Gender: masculine.
Diphyacantha Henn, 1916: 113. Type species: Diphyacantha
chocoensis Henn, 1916. Type by monotypy. Gender: feminine.
Darienichthys Hubbs, 1924: 8 [footnote]. Type species: Gambusia
darienensis Meek & Hildebrand, 1913. Type by original
designation. Gender: masculine.
Panamichthys Hubbs, 1924: 8 [footnote]. Type species:
Priapichthys panamensis Meek & Hildebrand, 1916. Type by
original designation. Gender: masculine.
Alloheterandria Hubbs, 1924: 9 [footnote]. Type species:
Gambusia nigroventralis Eigenmann & Henn, 1912. Type by
original designation. Gender: feminine.

Priapichthys puetzi Meyer & Etzel, 1996

Priapichthys annectens (Regan, 1907)

Pseudopoecilia austrocolumbiana Radda, 1987


Pseudopoecilia austrocolumbiana Radda, 1987b: 173, fig. 10.
Type locality: bei Sammelort Nr. 10, einem Bach im Regenwald,
25 km W El Diviso, an der Strasse von Tuquerres nach Tumaco,
Seehhe 475 m, in der Kstenebene der Provinz Nario,
Kolubien. Holotype: NMW 85922.
Maximum length: 2 cm TL
Distribution: South America: Colombia.
Countries: Colombia

Gambusia annectens Regan, 1907a: 259. Type locality: Costa


Rica, Carullo and Juan Veas; Irazu. Syntypes: (numerous)
BMNH 1907.2.11.5-14 (10), 1907.2.11.15-23 (9), 1907.6.28.3842 (5); MNHN 1913-0228 [ex BMNH] (2).
Priapichthys annectens hesperis Hubbs, 1924: 22. Type locality:
Ro Mara Aguilar, upper trib. to Ro Grande de Trcoles, San
Jse, Costa Rica. Holotype: FMNH 14106.
Maximum length: 4 cm TL
Distribution: Central America: Costa Rica.
Countries: Costa Rica

Priapichthys caliensis (Eigenmann & Henn, 1916)


Gambusia caliensis Eigenmann & Henn in Henn, 1916: 113. Type
locality: Cali, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 57721 [ex CM
6700a].
Maximum length: 2.8 cm SL.
Distribution: South America: Colombia.

Countries: Colombia

Priapichthys puetzi Meyer & Etzel, 1996: 4. Type locality: a small


brook of the upper Rio Guarumo system, 20 km on the road from
Punta Pea towards Gualaca, Bocas del Toro, Panama. Holotype:
MTD F16250.
Maximum length: 6.72 cm TL
Distribution: Central America: Panama.
Countries: Panama

PSEUDOPOECILIA
Pseudopoecilia Regan, 1913a: 995. Type species: Poecilia festae
Boulenger, 1898. Type by monotypy. Gender: feminine.

Pseudopoecilia festae (Boulenger, 1898)


Poecilia festae Boulenger, 1898: 13. Type locality: Sources
thermales de S. Vicenta, canton de Santa Elena. Syntypes:
BMNH 1898.11.4.80-85 (6), MSNG [ex Mus. Torino] 36549
(19), MZUT 1496 (1).
Maximum length: 3.5 cm TL
Distribution: South America: Chico Chaune River in Ecuador to
Peru.
Countries: Ecuador, Peru

Pseudopoecilia fria (Eigenmann & Henn, 1914)

Priapichthys chocoensis Henn, 1916


Diphyacantha choconsis Henn, 1916: 114, pl. 19 (fig. 1). Type
locality: small creek near mouth of Rio Calima, a tributary of the
lower San Juan, Choc, Colombia. Holotype: CAS 22547 [ex IU
13618].
Maximum length: 3.5 cm TL
Distribution: South America: Colombia.
Countries: Colombia

Priapichthys darienensis (Meek & Hildebrand, 1913)


Gambusia darienensis Meek & Hildebrand, 1913: 88. Type
locality: Rio Capeti [Tuira River basin, Panama]. Holotype:
FMNH 7597.
Maximum length: 3 cm TL
Distribution: Central America: Tuira River basin.

Countries: Panama
Priapichthys nigroventralis (Eigenmann & Henn,
1912)
Gambusia nigroventralis Eigenmann & Henn in Eigenmann, 1912:
26. Type locality: Rio San Juan at Itsmina, Colombia. Holotype:
FMNH 56045 [ex CM 4835].
Gambusia caudovittata Regan, 1913b: 471. Type locality: Rio
Condoto [Colombia]. Holotype: BMNH 1913.10.1.68.
Maximum length: 3 cm TL
Distribution: South America: San Juan River basin.
Countries: Colombia

Poecilia fria Eigenmann & Henn in Eigenmann, Henn & Wilson,


1914: 13. Type locality: Vinces, Ecuador. Holotype: FMNH
56603 [ex CM 5420].
Distribution: South America: Ecuador.
Countries: Ecuador

QUITAA
Quintana Hubbs, 1934: 2. Type species: Quintana atrizona Hubbs,
1934. Type by original designation. Gender: feminine.

Quintana atrizona Hubbs, 1934


Quintana atrizona Hubbs, 1934: 4, pl. 1 (fig. 1). Type locality:
uncertain [tentatively Baracoa, Cuba]. Holotype: UMMZ 106459
(descendant of aquarium stock. Label states Vic. of Baracoa aquarium bred fish from female of Everglades Aquatic Nursery
stock).
Maximum length: 2.5 cm SL
Distribution: Caribbean Islands: Cuba Island.
Countries: Cuba

SCOLICHTHYS
Scolichthys Rosen, 1967: 2. Type species: Scolichthys greenwayi
Rosen, 1967. Type by original designation. Gender: masculine.

Scolichthys greenwayi Rosen, 1967

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Scolichthys greenwayi Rosen, 1967: 4, fig. 2. Type locality: clear,
jungle headwater stream of the Ro Salb, a tributary to the Ro
Chixoy-Ro Salinas (Ro Usumacinta basin), 20 kilometers
northwest of Cobn and 6 to 8 kilometers north of Cancal, Alta
Verapaz, Guatemala. Holotype: AMNH 22713.
Maximum length: 3.5 cm TL
Distribution: Central America: Chixoy and Salinas River basins.
Countries: Guatemala

Xiphophorus Heckel, 1848: 291. Type species: Xiphophorus


hellerii Heckel, 1848. Type by subsequent designation. Gender:
masculine.
Platypoecilus Gnther, 1866: 350. Type species: Platypoecilus
maculatus Gnther, 1866. Type by monotypy. Gender:
masculine.

Scolichthys iota Rosen, 1967

Xiphophorus alvarezi Rosen, 1960

Scolichthys iota Rosen, 1967: 9, fig. 7. Type locality: tiny, clear


creek emptying into the Ro Chajmayic, the true headwater
source of the Ro de la Pasin (Ro Usumacinta Basin) 15
kilometers by road south of Sebol, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.
Holotype: AMNH 22716.
Maximum length: 2.5 cm TL
Distribution: Central America: Chajmaic River basin.
Countries: Guatemala

TOMEURUS
Tomeurus Eigenmann, 1909: 53. Type species: Tomeurus gracilis
Eigenmann, 1909. Type by monotypy. Gender: masculine.

Tomeurus gracilis Eigenmann, 1909


Tomeurus gracilis Eigenmann, 1909: 53. Type locality: Mud
Creek in Aruka River. Holotype: FMNH 53541 [ex CM 1093].
Maximum length: 3.3 cm TL
Distribution: South America: Small coastal drainages of the
Venezuelan departments Delta Amacuro, Monagas, Territorio
Federal and in Brazilian states of Amap and Par; Guam and
Tocantins River basins; Cuyuni, Mazaruni, Essequibo Corantijn
River basins.
Countries: Brazil, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela
XEODEXIA
Xenodexia Hubbs, 1950: 8. Type species: Xenodexia ctenolepis
Hubbs, 1950. Type by original designation. Gender: feminine.

Xenodexia ctenolepis Hubbs, 1950


Xenodexia ctenolepis Hubbs, 1950: 9, pl. I (fig. 1). Type locality:
Ro Seniso (Ro Salba), at Finca Cham, Guatemala, from the
hacienda to the mouth of the stream. [Usumancita drainage,
Quiche, Alta Vera Paz, Guatemala]. Holotype: UMMZ 105460.
Maximum length: 4.1 cm TL
Distribution: Central America: Finca River basin, 30 km NW of
Cban, Alta Vera Paz, in the Salb River, tributary to the Negro
River (Chixoy River) which becomes the Salinas River of the
Usumacinta basin.
Countries: Guatemala

XEOPHALLUS
Xenophallus Hubbs, 1924: 10 [footnote]. Type species: Gambusia
umbratilis Meek, 1912. Type by original designation. Gender:
masculine.

Xenophallus umbratilis (Meek, 1912)


Gambusia umbratilis Meek, 1912: 70. Type locality: Guapilis
[Limn], Costa Rica. Holotype: FMNH 7684 [not 7584].
Poeciliopsis maculifer Fowler, 1916a: 390, fig. 1. Type locality:
Rio Guapilis at Guapilis [Guapiles], Costa Rica. Holotype:
ANSP 45391.
Maximum length: 4 cm TL
Distribution: Central America: Costa Rica.
Countries: Costa Rica

XIPHOPHORUS

Xiphophorus helleri alvarezi Rosen, 1960: 126, fig. 23. Type


locality:Mexico Chiapas Rio Usumacinta system Rio Santo
Domingo, a tributary of Rio Jatate, upper Rio Usumacinta
system, 90 km E Comitan. Holotype: UMMZ 177304.
Distribution: North and Central America: Chiapas in Mexico and
Huehuetenango, El Quiche and Alta Veracruz in Guatemala.
Countries: Guatemala, Mexico

Xiphophorus andersi Meyer & Schartl, 1980


Xiphophorus andersi Meyer & Schartl, 1980: 148, fig. 1. Type
locality:Mexiko, Veracruz, Rio Atoyac bei Finca St. Anita, nahe
Chico. Holotype: SMF 15118.
Maximum length: 4.5 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Atoyac River near Chico in
Veracruz, Mexico.
Countries: Mexico

Xiphophorus birchmanni Lechner & Radda, 1987


Xiphophorus montezumae birchmanni Lechner & Radda, 1987:
191, fig. 3. Type locality: Rio Talol/Rio Tempoal- subsystem des
Rio Panuco-Systems, Ortschaft Orizatln (400 m . M.)/Hidlago,
Mexiko. Holotype: SMF 21154.
Maximum length: 7 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Panuco River basin in Hidalgo,
Mexico.
Countries: Mexico

Xiphophorus clemenciae Alvarez, 1959


Xiphophorus clemenciae Alvarez, 1959: 69. Type locality:em el
arroyo de La Cascada, afluente del ro Sarabia, muy proximo a la
confluencia de ste com el Coatzacoalcos; en el Rancho San
Carlos, 24 Km al E de Palomares (Oax.). Holotype: ENCB-IPNP-403.
Maximum length: 4 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Oaxaca.
Countries: Mexico

Xiphophorus continens Rauchenberger, Kallman &


Morizot, 1990
Xiphophorus continens Rauchenberger, Kallman & Morizot, 1990:
9, fig. 5. Type locality: nacimiento of the Ro Ojo Fro at El
Quince, north of Rascn, Ro Gallinas-Ro Pnuco drainage,
SLP, Mexico. Holotype: AMNH 88335.
Maximum length: 2.5 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Panuco River drainage in San Luis
Potosi.
Countries: Mexico

Xiphophorus cortezi Rosen, 1960


Xiphophorus montezumae cortezi Rosen, 1960: 96, fig. 13. Type
locality: Mexico, San Luis Potosi Rio Panuco system Rio
Moctezuma Arroyo Matlapa at Comoca, 2 mi. N of Axtla.
Holotype: UMMZ 177302.
Maximum length: 5 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Panuco River basin.
Countries: Mexico

Xiphophorus couchianus (Girard, 1859)


Limia couchiana Girard, 1859a: 116. Type locality: in the waters

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Check List of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America


of the Rio San Juan, at Caderecta and Monterey, in the Province
of New Leon [Mexico]. No types known.
Poecilia couchii Gnther, 1866: 347. Type locality: Rio San Juan
(Province of New Leon).Unjustified emendation of (and
objective synonym of) Limia couchiana Girard 1859.
Maximum length: 4 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Mexico (now restricted to vicinity of
Monterrey, formerly more widespread).
Countries: Mexico

Xiphophorus evelynae Rosen, 1960


Xiphophorus variatus evelynae Rosen, 1960: 87, fig. 7. Type
locality: Mexico, Puebla Rio Tecolutla, side branch of the Rio
Xaltepuztla where it meets the Rio Necaxa at Tepexic. Holotype:
UMMZ 177306.
Maximum length: 4 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Tecolutla (Necaxa) River bain.
Countries: Mexico

Xiphophorus gordoni Miller & Minckley, 1963


Xiphophorus gordoni Miller & Minckley, 1963: 538, fig. 1. Type
locality: Laguna Santa Tecla, about 20 airline miles southsoutheast of the town of Cuarto Cinegas, Coahuila, Mexico.
Holotype: UMMZ 179866.
Maximum length: 3.5 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Cuatrocinegas River basin.
Countries: Mexico

Xiphophorus hellerii Heckel, 1848


Xiphophorus hellerii Heckel, 1848: 291, pl. 8 (figs. 1-3). Type
locality: Orizaba, Mexico. Syntypes: NMW 60543 (8).
Xiphophorus guntheri Jordan & Evermann, 1896: 702. Type
locality: Ro Chisoy, basin of Ro Usumacinta, Guatemala.
Syntypes: BMNH 1864.1.26.185 (1), 1894.1.26.193 (1).
Xiphophorus jalapae Meek, 1902: 107, pl. 26. Type locality:
Jalapa, Vera Cruz, Mexico. Holotype: FMNH 3724.
Xiphophorus strigatus Regan, 1907b: 65. Type locality: southern
Mexico, Veracruz and Oaxaca. Syntypes: BMNH.
Xiphophorus brevis Regan, 1907b: 65. Type locality: British
Honduras, Stann Creek. Syntypes: BMNH 1890.9.8.18-19 (2).
Xiphophorus rachovii Regan, 1911b: 373. Type locality: Porto
Barrios, on the Atlantic coast of Guatemala, between Lake
Yzabal and Ro Motagua. Syntypes: BMNH 1911.8.14.4-8 (6).
Maximum length: 14 cm TL
Distribution: North and Central America: From Nantla River,
Veracruz in Mexico to northwestern Honduras. Africa: Feral
populations reported from Natal and eastern Transvaal as well as
in Lake Otjikoto, Namibia.
Countries: Belize, Brazil (introduced), Colombia (introduced),
Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica (introduced), Mexico, Puerto
Rico (introduced)

Xiphophorus kosszanderi Meyer & Wischnath, 1981


Xiphophorus kosszanderi Meyer & Wischnath, 1981: 130, figs. 13. Type locality: Arroyo Chapultepec, 7 km northeast of
Monterrey, Nuevo Len, Mexico. Holotype: SMF 16200.
Distribution: North America: Mexico.
Countries: Mexico

Xiphophorus maculatus (Gnther, 1866)


Platypoecilus maculatus Gnther, 1866: 350. Type locality:
Mexico. Syntypes: BMNH 1857.7.31.11-12 (2).
Platypoecilus nigra Brind, 1914: 22. Type locality: Mexico. No
types known.
Platypoecilus pulchra Brind, 1914: 22, fig. Type locality: Mexico.
No types known.
Platypoecilus rubra Brind, 1914: 22. Type locality: Mexico. No
types known.
Platypoecilus maculatus cyanellus Meinken, 1935: 261, fig.

unnumbred Type locality: in der Nhe der Stadt Tancasnequi, an


einen Nabenflusse des Rio Panuco [Mexico]. Holotype:
whereabouts unknown.
Platypoecilus maculatus sanguinea Stoye, 1935: 51. Type locality:
No locality. No types known.
Platypoecilus maculatus aurata Stoye, 1935: 51. Type locality: No
locality. No types known.
Maximum length: 6 cm TL
Distribution: North and Central America: Ciudad Veracruz,
Mexico to northern Belize.
Countries: Bahamas (introduced), Belize, Brazil (introduced),
Colombia (introduced), Guatemala, Jamaica (introduced), Puerto
Rico (introduced)

Xiphophorus malinche Rauchenberger, Kallman &


Mozirot, 1990
Xiphophorus malinche Rauchenberger, Kallman & Morizot, 1990:
10, fig. 7. Type locality: Ro Claro at Tlatzintla, Ro Pnuco
drainage, HID, Mexico. Holotype: AMNH 88336.
Maximum length: 5.5 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Pnuco River drainage in Hidalgo,
Mexico.
Countries: Mexico

Xiphophorus mayae Meyer & Schartl, 2002


Xiphophorus mayae Meyer & Schartl, 2002: 60, fig. 1. Type
locality: Guatemala: Castillo de San Felipe, near hotel
Marimonte, Lago de Izabal. Holotype: SMF 28885.
Maximum length: 7.8 cm SL
Distribution: Central America: Atlantic slope, in Lake Izabal, and
the Polochic, Dulce, and Motagua River basins.
Countries: Guatemala

Xiphophorus meyeri Schartl & Schrder, 1988


Xiphophorus meyeri Schartl & Schrder, 1988: 312, fig. 1. Type
locality: near Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico. Holotype: SMF
21192.
Maximum length: 3 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Mexico.
Countries: Mexico

Xiphophorus milleri Rosen, 1960


Xiphophorus milleri Rosen, 1960: 89, fig. 8. Type locality:Mexico,
Veracruz Rio Papaloapan System. A small tributary of Laguna
Catemaco about 2 mi. SE Catemaco. Holotype: UMMZ 177308.
Maximum length: 3 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Catemaco in Veracruz, Mexico.
Countries: Mexico

Xiphophorus montezumae Jordan & Snyder, 1899


Xiphophorus montezumae Jordan & Snyder, 1899: 131, fig. 11.
Type locality: Ro Verde near Rascon, San Luis Potosi, e.
Mexico. Holotype: SU 6145.
Maximum length: 5.5 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Northeastern Mexico (Tamaulipas,
northern Veracruz, San Luis Potos).
Countries: Mexico

Xiphophorus multilineatus Rauchenberger, Kallman


& Morizot, 1990
Xiphophorus multilineatus Rauchenberger, Kallman & Morizot,
1990: 15, fig. 13. Type locality: Ro Coy near confluence with
the Ro Tampan, Ro Pnuco drainage, SLP, Mexico. Holotype:
AMNH 88337.
Maximum length: 4.5 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Coy River of Panuco River basin in
San Luis Potosi, Mexico.
Countries: Mexico

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Check List of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America

Xiphophorus
nezahualcoyotl
Kallman & Morizot, 1990

Rauchenberger,

Xiphophorus nezahualcoyotl Rauchenberger, Kallman & Morizot,


1990: 6, fig. 4. Type locality: Arroyo Gallitos, 0.5 km west of
Gallitos, an internal drainage, TAMPS, Mexico. Holotype:
AMNH 88334.
Maximum length: 5 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Tamasi River drainage in San Luis
Potosi, Mexico.
Countries: Mexico

Xiphophorus nigrensis Rosen, 1960


Xiphophorus pygmaeus nigrensis Rosen, 1960: 100, fig. 15. Type
locality:Mexico San Luis Potosi Rio Panuco system Rio Choy
Nacimiento del Rio Choy, 4 km. N Hotel Taninul, 3 km. N of
road from Route 110 (Valles-Tampico Highway). Holotype:
UMMZ 177301.
Maximum length: 6 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Choy River, in the Pnuco River
drainage in San Luis Potos, Mexico.
Countries: Mexico

Xiphophorus pygmaeus Hubbs & Gordon, 1943


Xiphophorus pygmaeus Hubbs & Gordon, 1943: 31, pl. 1 (fig. 1).
Type locality: Ro Axtla of the Ro Panuco system, at Axtla, San
Luis Potos, Mxico. Holotype: UMMZ 124365.
Maximum length: 4 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Pnuco River system, northeastern
Mexico.
Countries: Mexico

Xiphophorus roseni Meyer & Wischnath, 1981


Xiphophorus roseni Meyer & Wischnath, 1981: 133, fig. 4. Type
locality: Arroyo Cahpultepec, 7 km northeast of Monterrey,
Nuevo Len, Mexico. Holotype: SMF 16204.
Distribution: North America: Mexico.
Countries: Mexico.

Xiphophorus signum Rosen & Kallman, 1969


Xiphophorus helleri signum Rosen & Kallman, 1969: 5, fig. 1B.
Type locality: Ro Semococh, tributary to the Ro Chajmaic, a
headwater source of the Ro de la Pasin (Ro Usumacinta
Basin)15 kilometers by road south of Sebol, Alta Verapaz,
Guatemala. Holotype: AMNH 27675.
Maximum length: 7.5 cm TL
Distribution: Central America: Chajmaic and de la Pasion River
drainages in Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.
Countries: Guatemala

Xiphophorus variatus (Meek, 1904)


Platypoecilus variatus Meek, 1904: 146, pl. 10. Type locality:
Valles, San Luis Potos [Mexico]. Holotype: FMNH 4501.
Maximum length: 7 cm TL
Distribution: North America: From southern Tamaulipas to
northern Veracruz.
Countries: Colombia (introduced), Mexico

Xiphophorus xiphidium (Gordon, 1932)


Platypoecilus xiphidium Gordon, 1932: 287. Type locality: Ro
Corona at La Corona, 15 mi. north of Ciudad, Victoria, Ro Soto
la Marina system, Tamualipas, Mexico. Lectotype: UMMZ
97573, designated by Rosen (1960: 83).
Maximum length: 4 cm TL
Distribution: North America: Soto La Marina River drainage in
Tamaulipas, Mexico.
Countries: Mexico

GEERA IQUIREDAE
Arizonichthys Nichols, 1940: 1. Type species: Arizonichthys
psammophilus Nichols, 1940. Type by monotypy. Gender:
masculine.
Gambusia (Toluichthys) Dahl in Dahl & Medem, 1964: 80. Type
species: Gambusia (Toluichthys) meadi Dahl, 1964. Type by
monotypy. Gender: masculine.
Hubbsichthys Schultz, 1949: 95. Type species: Hubbsichthys
laurae Schultz, 1949. Type by original designation. Gender:
masculine.

SPECIES IQUIREDAE
Arizonichthys psammophilus Nichols 1940: 1. Type locality: 3 1/2
miles east of Tanque Verde, Pima County, Arizona, altitude 2750
ft. Holotype: AMNH 15373 (not found in 1996).
Fundulus capensis Garman 1895: 113, Pl. 3 (fig. 2). Type locality:
False Bay, Cape of Good Hope, South Africa [apparently in
error]. Holotype: MCZ 6454.
Gambusia (Toluichthys) meadi Dahl in Dahl & Medem, 1964: 80,
fig. pg. 81. Type locality: vecindad de Tol. Holotype: not
located.
Gambusia baracoana Rivas, 1944b: 46. Type locality: small freshwater pond, near the mouth of Rio Miel, in the vicinity of the city
of Baracoa, Province of Oriente [Cuba]. Holotype: USNM
203150 [ex Rivas coll. 134].
Girardinus januarius var. reticulatus Hippius 1910: 392, Figs. 3132. Unknown type locality. No types known.
Girardinus microdactylus rivasi Baru & Wohlgemuth, 1994: 250,
fig. 1. Type locality: small man-made freshwater pool near
Rancho Tesoro Hotel, Nueva Gerona, Isla de la Juventud, Cuba.
Holotype: Inst. Landscape Ecol., Acad. Sci. Czech Republic ILE
11993.
Girardinus zonatus Schreiner & Miranda Ribeiro, 1903: 73. Type
locality: Brazil ? Syntypes: MNRJ (10) uncatalogued and
missing.
Hubbsichthys laurae Schultz, 1949: 96, fig. 13. Type locality:
Near Pampn, Estado de Trujillo, Venezuela, and probably in
Ro Motatn drainage. Holotype: USNM 120999.
Lebistes poecilioides De Filippi, 1861: 70, pl. 4 (figs. 6, 6a-d).
Type locality: Barbados, West Indies. No types known. Probable
synonym of some species of Poecilia, but not P. reticulata.
Lebistes reticulatus aurata Schreitmller, 1934: 242. No type
localilty. Syntypes: ZMB 21084 (7). Name found in Eschmeyer
(1998) without reference to a publication. Availability of name
undetermined.
Mollienesia sphenops petersi Schindler, 1959: 1, fig. 1. Type
locality:Yojoa-See (NWHonduras, atlantisches Einzugsgebiet).
Holotype: ZSM 15639.
Poecilia mexicana De Filippi in Tortonese, 1940: 142. type
locality: Citt di Messico. Not available: nomen nudum also
preoccupied by Poecilia mexicana Steindachner, 1863.
Poecilia unipunctata Gurin-Mneville, 1829-38: 28, pl. 47 (fig.
3). Type locality: les eaux douce de lAmrique Mridionale, a
Rio-Janeiro. No types known.
Xiphophorus elegans Paepke & Seegers, 1986: 175. Type locality:
?. Syntypes: ZMB 31510 (2)?
Xiphophorus heckelii Weyenbergh, 1874: 292, pls. 1-2 (= figs. 131). Type locality: La Plata. Syntypes: MSNG 33704 (4)
Xiphophorus marmoratus Obregon-Barboza & ContrerasBalderas, 1988: 95, fig. 2. Type locality: Cascada La Alberca, sw
of Mzquiz, road to airport, Coahuila, Mexico. Holotype: UANL
8077.
Xiphophorus minor Weyenbergh, 1877: 20, pl. 4 (fig. 19). Type
locality: Catamarca, Argentina. Syntypes: (several) Mus.
Nacional Argentina, Buenos Aires.
Xiphophorus obscurus Weyenbergh, 1877: 18, pl. 4 (figs. 17-18).

578

Check List of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America


Type locality: La Plata, Argentina. Syntypes: (several) Museo
Nacional Argentina, Buenos Aires. Syntypes: (several) MSNG
33705 (3)
Xiphophorus pseudomontezumae Ahl, 1938: 53, figs. 1-2. Type
locality: Mexico. Holotype: ZMB 21083.

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