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J. Int.

Environmental Application & Science,

Vol. 10(3): 292-300 (2015)

Urban Cultural Heritage Quarters in Kosovo and Their Sustainable Urban
Transformation
V. Nushi, N. Kabashi, Sh. Nixha
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Pristina, Pristina, Kosovo
Received June 03, 2015; Accepted September 14, 2015
Abstract: The cultural heritage sites, urban quarters in Kosovo were faced with a lot
of social and physical challenges and transformation during last century. Kosovo‟s
rich cultural heritage in 1999 endured a terrible war that resulted with partial
destruction of built heritage and its urban settlements. The main aim of this paper is
to introduce and underline the concepts of heritage value of the urban quarter,
distinguished trade street „Qarshia e Madhe‟ of old Gjakova, a municipality in
western Kosovo, towards establishing an economic prosperity of the municipality.
Also, the research will discuss complex and demanding issues which diminished the
community interest to invest in further distinguishing a value of cultural heritage by
appliances of sustainable conservation principles and in accordance with
international Charters. The interdisciplinary research of case study is based in
sustainable development concepts, applied as a tool to select synthesized researched
data found at relevant heritage institutions, nongovernmental organizations and in
selected historical institutions. Gathered information and viewed indicators carried
out finding and opportunities to plane practices and strategies and to increase
awareness of the contribution of heritage conservation to sustainability through:
developing an understating of the attributes of heritage buildings-quarters,
considering the material options available for the improvement of environmental
performance (in particular reducing energy and water consumption) and evaluating
whether these measures are appropriate to heritage buildings and sites; identifying
he main issues which need to be addressed in optimizing the performance of
heritage buildings/sites. By dissemination of main concerns and undertaken
improvements of urban-architectural issues and/or accessories up to date, such as:
increase of public space, materials used for street‟s over layers and reinforcement of
them, refurbishment of shops‟ wooden envelope, water supply, sewage, IT cabling
and other environmental issues. the paper will contribute towards finding wellconserved heritage with international practices to strength national strategies,
methods and tools. In particular findings will increase a community role in the
process, as well will provide arguments and suggestions for the integration of
heritage concerns of Gjakova sustainable development model to real-life heritage as
the dynamic basis of community well-being demands.
Keywords: Urban transformation, sustainable development, community memory

Introduction
It is important nowadays while rehabilitation an urban quarters within cultural heritage sites to be
followed by providing information which is related with sustainable development issues. The
sustainable development concepts, applied as a tool to synthesize researched data found at relevant
heritage institutions and to promote a cultural heritage richness of case study for local economic
development component and community well-being demands towards establishing an economic
prosperity of the municipality is a challenging issue. Hence, the interminable discussions and not
integrated approach of complex and demanding issues, diminishes the community interest to invest in
further distinguishing value of cultural heritage by applying a sustainable conservation principles and
in accordance with international Charters.
The cultural and historical value of urban quarters - herewith bazaar, is great, indeed. It is of
priceless importance for the science, since the study of evolution for relations of economy-production
within the crafts organized into corporation, completes the knowledge of social occurrences in the life
of bazaar. Since, the habitants areas within Albanian‟ territories in Balkans, since the sixteenth

Corresponding: E-mail: violeta.nushi@uni-pr.edu; Tel:00377(0)44120600; Fax: +381 38 244 187

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J. which represents an important place in urban breeding. and so on. In general. i. as well as in other Balkan areas. Kruja. (b) bezistans or enclosed shopping area. We noticed this feature in many old town centre of Kosovo. 2006). and (d) fair. albanian‟ bazaar systems. Int.. Development of bazaars launched originally around public and/or religious buildings. Environmental Application & Science. e. simultaneously selling craft production. Prizrens‟s old city mosque Sinan Pasha and bazaar around it. presents first built structures on cities and around them later gradually began building of the shops. in a function to sale certain important goods and valuable ornaments of gold.The bazaar street‟s views of old city‟s urban areas: a.. 10(3): 292-300 (2015) century. Introducing and underlining the heritage value of case study. Vol. b. clock towers. Prizreni and f. displayed number of merchants. Mainly.d. and other social facilities such as: hammams. etc. represents typology of shop units within urban settlements. 2009). both terms in Persian origin entered by the Turks. Shkupi. bazaar around Hadum Mosque built in the core of old city in Gjakova. c. the bazaars or çarshia. has be seen as a cultural heritage of urban quarters in Kosovo which faced a lot of social and physical challenges during last century.Çarshia e Madhe. the bazaar have indicative characterization. brilliant. a b c d e f Figure 1. (c) weekly shopping for the exchange goods between rural and urban areas. Shkodra. which were organized as annual periodic trade market (Riza. Gjirokastra. with a concentration of shops and places for workshop and mosques. silver. distinguished Grand Bazaar of Gjakova . Gjakova. inns (hannes) and caravansaries. 293 . consisted of: (a) central part. represent the most prosperous and economic value of community (Rizvanolli. where the crafts activity throughout developed and conducted.e. in the city Peja around the Bajrakli mosque. organized on certain days of the week. which provided domestic and temporary accommodated for foreign clients and traders. etc.

consisted of: (a) central part. c. clock towers.. Prizrens‟s old city mosque Sinan Pasha and bazaar around it.J. which provided domestic and temporary accommodated for foreign clients and traders. silver. Introducing and underlining the heritage value of case study. in the city Peja around the Bajrakli mosque.The bazaar street‟s views of old city‟s urban areas: a. and other social facilities such as: hammams. Vol. albanian‟ bazaar systems.. e. where the crafts activity throughout developed and conducted. Shkodra. and so on. Kruja.d. etc. Gjirokastra. Prizreni and f. (c) weekly shopping for the exchange goods between rural and urban areas. 2009). the bazaars or çarshia. in a function to sale certain important goods and valuable ornaments of gold. has be seen as a cultural heritage of urban quarters in Kosovo which faced a lot of social and physical challenges during last century. We noticed this feature in many old town centre of Kosovo. 2006). bazaar around Hadum Mosque built in the core of old city in Gjakova. a b c d e f Figure 1. the bazaar have indicative characterization. and (d) fair. presents first built structures on cities and around them later gradually began building of the shops. organized on certain days of the week. In general. Int. represents typology of shop units within urban settlements.e. b. both terms in Persian origin entered by the Turks. as well as in other Balkan areas. 10(3): 292-300 (2015) century. distinguished Grand Bazaar of Gjakova . etc. represent the most prosperous and economic value of community (Rizvanolli. i. Development of bazaars launched originally around public and/or religious buildings. Shkupi. simultaneously selling craft production. Environmental Application & Science. Gjakova. displayed number of merchants. with a concentration of shops and places for workshop and mosques. brilliant. (b) bezistans or enclosed shopping area. which were organized as annual periodic trade market (Riza. inns (hannes) and caravansaries. which represents an important place in urban breeding.Çarshia e Madhe. 293 . Mainly.

the research will discuss complex and demanding issues which diminished the community interest to invest further. within the urban agglomeration. From historical point of view the Grand Bazaar‟ growth and continuity nowadays have a significant value due to progressive adaptation for human needs and sustainable survival of its authenticity beside continues regenerations (Figure 2). Vol. Int. Indeed. Based on historical report by J. string linked series of one or two story buildings. which also bears the name of the donor-sponsors of the facility in town. hence. The improvised urban composition and extension of them. cut out with carpenter‟s tools and put together by means of wooden or wrought rivets. in distinguished cultural heritage. by appliances of sustainable conservation principles as a consequence during a replacement of the main street pavement. a property owner with obviously an Albanian name and surname. 1976) The urban settlement of Grand Bazaar and its network still offers a striking scholastic example of inherited city plan with narrow and winding streets. Objectives The purpose of this paper is to introduce and underline the concepts of heritage value of the urban quarter. mostly with common pattern of ground layout divided in two areas: shop area faced to the street and back story workshop part. the name would become the city Jakovë. 2006). Hadum Sulejam Aga built the mosque. connecting spontaneously with mahalla (Figure 3. This could be achieved by understating the attributes of heritage buildings-quarters. are built without any urban or financial state planning. Myller. towards susceptibility for possible economic prosperity of municipality.a). Gjakova dates back to middle Ages. with approx. rich craftsman interior facilities.b. Around a year 1594. opportunities of usage of materials available for improvement of environmental performance in infrastructural facilities. distinguished old trade streets Grand Bazaar of Gjakova. this is a second regional largest. dating back to the 17th century. 34. the main cultural heritage landmark and a public space of the old city. nongovernmental organizations and in selected research institutions. The interdisciplinary research of case study is based in sustainable development principles. according to tradition was built in property of JakëVula. Çarshia e Madhenë Gjakovë. tresses with many of mottled mosaic of various crafts.) and medresa.J. han. is based on crafts distributing needs for shop and workshops. 294 . Environmental Application & Science. Hadum Mosque. Gathered information carried out findings and opportunities. badly damaged during the 1999 war. The artisans who belonged to various guilds built their workshops beside the walls of the oldest nucleus: Hadum mosque. The municipality's population in 2011 stood at 94. as well as habitant‟s areas. It is also the administrative centre of the homonymous district. The urban structures. General Description of Grand Bazaar of Gjakova Background of the research Gjakova is a city in western Kosovo. 1500m linked bazaar. dated on 1838. stories widespread nearby river streams (Rizaet al. and to evaluate whether these measures are appropriate to heritage buildings and sites. to plane practices and strategies and to increase awareness for contribution of heritage conservation in sustainable development. within old city of Gjakova.000 m2. 10(3): 292-300 (2015) The architectural structures of cells – shops. such as: division of the street units according to craft bazaars fields. Also. mostly vernacular architecture. It presents one of Gjakova‟s seldom – protected quarters‟ typology. clock tower (Figure 3. Grand Bazaar Gjakova – urban settlement The Gjakova‟s Grand Bazaar is one of main historic landmarks.556. the bazaar had approximately 1100 private owned shops. animate and inspire users. The urbanarchitectural compositions were developed and increased by respecting certain vernacular settlement principles. applied as tools to select and synthesize researched data. According to the written history. found at relevant heritage institutions. hammam. in the specific. It is a real treasure. (Shehu. countless architectonic and constructive emphases trills.

endowed with a huge creative force. the west view-pointpictures of Gjakova taken form a hill Çabrat. The original forms developed nowadays. Figure 2.) Clock Tower b.c. 1987). after the second world war in 1945. On the contrary. shops may be observed both chronologically and typologically. etc. later after 1978 by following a rehabilitation plan. for instance. which contributed in their stylistic – plastic appearance. these modesty artisans engaged a man who precisely took the inspiration from his richness and irresistible imaginations. after the fire occurred in 1912. the proportional form of shops. Environmental Application & Science. 23. Vol. Since a war in 1999. their materialization and artisan works is not crated with intention to monumental or representative tendencies for the founders of feudal stamp. the quarter faced various obstacles. The highness of shops is proportioned as follows: from 204 analysed shops.5% is two story shops (Kurtović & Folić. a. since the changes of political and social order are not included within following process of 295 . as shown in Figure 3 c. Architectural structure and typological order In an architectural richness of views. pattern of urban settlement of Grand Bazaar of Gjakova old city. In this regards the society have made many attempts to rehabilitate the bazar with or/and rehabilitation plan. new technologies and materials. Conceptually. 10(3): 292-300 (2015) a. The basic architectural structure is presented mainly by three type series of small shops. a historical core of the city.5% are one story and 1.2. which are not faced towards street. but without losing their identity.).b. 75% are ground floor. Restoration and revitalization of bazaar The urban conservation of Grand Bazaar in Gjakova has been a subject of professional and academic discourse for over five decades. Musicality of Gjakova.J. Thus. an immediate need for introduction of new principles and conservation concepts is required. law-economic and cultural concerns for further research. e. 2006). incorporated in an extraordinary fashion. Int. It is significant to emphasize that the initiative for rehabilitation and conservation of historic quarters tends to re-affirm residents' feelings of identity and sense of belonging. expressed in a brilliant vernacular architectural and nobble forms (Riza. From the fundamental module of urban network. d. b. thus forming continuous chain of mostly combined one and/or two story timberframe wooden structure and/or masonry ground enclosure. challenges and opportunities that contributed in its partial degradation due to lack of any conceptually updated rehabilitation plan nowadays (Figure 4a. narrow streets as well followed the architectural dynamic of small shops in harmonic relation with small sized cube stones.environmental.a. Its conservation is seen as a challenge that covers a wide spectrum of issues that can be classified under four basic sustainable development categories: physical. bringing new conceptions. View point from Çabrat (fig. socio-demographic.

Haraqia‟shan. 10(3): 292-300 (2015) updating rehabilitation plans. b. Environmental Application & Science. too lower administrative mechanisms. presented in Figure 4c. in order to improve infrastructures such as electricity.and e. According to Stren and Polese (2002). the Hadum Mosque in the centre of urban quarter. in a process that respects the continuity of history and tradition. professional and financial stakeholders. d. the needs of inhabitants and their own private cultural aspirations.J. The old city urban settlement of Gjakova. d. restoring. As an example of it is the last conservation and rehabilitation initiative by local government. while introducing new ones. at the main bazar‟s street Ismajl Qemajli. water and sewage systems. e. inefficient and not integrated support from political. This attempt have not been adopted sufficiently with integrated urban conservation approach. social and cultural aspects as well as the physical improvement of cultural heritage buildings and often witnessed as an approach towards higher levels of sustainability. a. one of the main aims of sustainable urban policy is to "bring people together. and adapting old structures and infrastructures. causing in this way rehabilitation delays which made an economy of bazaar unstained. main streets of bazaar. each day more and more impoverished. It also manifests a process of social-economic development of the city. Attempting to summarize the causes and consequences of the depreciation of bazaar cultural heritage value is a difficult issue worth mentioning. c. thus a lot of social and professional arguing and debates appears. Int. b. c. which required replacing a pedestrian street pattern – existing stone cube cover with new stone cube cover. Sustainable approach for urban heritage rehabilitation The urban rehabilitation and/or conservation in its broader term reserves tradition. Vol. This understanding indicates that urban conservation of Grand Bazaar is a continuous process and shall be fully controlled by urban environmental indicators. Figure 3. due to different obstacles. to weave parts of the city into a 296 . clock tower. Since actions taken are still facing an incomplete infrastructure. The restoration proceeded in 2011. IT. which involves preserving. a.

based on sustainable development principles and life cycle of entire built systems. restoration of natural or built environments and the ecological environments that prohibit them. the complex approach for preservation of cultural heritage and enlarging the concept of living tradition. detailed approach.. Vol. b. the main street of the quarter before the war. even more the historic buildings and/or architectural heritage sites (Nushi et al. it is seen that the most appropriate to be followed are definition introduced as the most significant of intervention: (1) deep conservation. this was not achieved in our case study as consequence of not integrated approach. social and environmental sustainability.J. 2009) This is of distinguished importance in cultural heritage districts (quarters) which tend to represent and symbolize a diverse set of ideals of the city's identity. which attempts to restore a historical area in a rigorous and 297 .. Int. 2012). 2007). in physical and social terms. Rehabilitation and conservation. sustainable areas are those that create a support to sustainable living. means a controlled use and the systematic protection of resources. 2007) Unfortunately. and b. cannot be used prior making an assessment and evaluate the environmental impact of each component. Environmental Application & Science. Ed. 10(3): 292-300 (2015) cohesive whole. "preservation" and "sustainability" should be nearly synonymous. the rehabilitation should be considered a foundation act of sustainability. 2005). and its local economic viability on the other side (Elnokaly et al. lack of professional advises no sufficient funds etc. because if you do not preserve something. a b c Figure 4. (Frey. sites and/or buildings. defined as an act to restore to a former rank and an act of conserving (AHD. In a context of a very complex. Meanings of the words. even if in fact those definition can act to model or to increase the value of any process of production/services. principles and classes for rehabilitation. (McDonald. the sophisticated tools available have to be used to analyze and evaluate a model. The bazaar‟ views after the war in 1999. including its history and culture in one side. Conceptually. as mentioned on Historic Preservation as Sustainable Development. it is not sustained. Accordingly. the same street of the quarter and its partial rehabilitation nowadays. system or building material. In addition. Apart different approaches.. et al. with a prime focus placed on economic. and to increase accessibility (spatial and otherwise) to public services and employment”.

Hence. The old existing stone is on family of 298 . economic and environmental requirements. we analyse and found out that the properties of old stone are almost the same as the properties as new stone. laid in horizontal lintel collocation (Figure 4a. Case Study: bazaar’s street rehabilitation General information Nowadays. due to their collective memory. such as: economic statistics. by replacement of damaged and devastated objects and later on to provide conditions for modern urban functions to take place. is presented in threefold sense in order to evaluate an overall environmental. and provides new services and amenities (Appleyard. etc. Basically. Figure 4. b. Challenges of sustainable heritage The latest rehabilitation activity in Great Bazaar is related with improvements of infrastructure which required the replacement of covering of Ismal Qemali Street. The main street covers before and after replacement. they are insufficient due to not apply other additional sustainable principle. The protection and rehabilitation plane functioned well until was interrupted by the war interferes. a. water absorption. such as: changes and additions of craftsman‟s miscellanies. which attempts to maintain the public face or the physical appearance of a historic building or area. which destroyed almost 80% of architectural composition of the complex. social and economic beneficial impact. the partial rehabilitation of Grand Bazaar‟s main street rehabilitation. typically those related with social. the aim was to regain primary aesthetic qualities and features that make the Great Bazaar a distinguishable and important example into regional opened trade-centre. The aim of this task was firstly to establish a physical structure by renovation of the most valuable buildings. beside good results of the tests. the new materialization of streets. with cubic stone cover of streets. Secondly. etc. 10(3): 292-300 (2015) accurate form. because the environmental impact and modifications to as much as possible. In this regards the Regional Institute for Protection of Cultural Monuments in Pristina with Faculty of Architecture and Republic Institute of Bosnia – Herzegovina compiled a draft of protection and revitalization of bazaar (SPRODJ. The mineralogical and petrography analysis and evaluated stone using the microscope. and (3) deep social conservation. The main request during the rehabilitation of the street was to use the same stone. almost remained the same. Environmental Application & Science. projects and planning proposals. with the same properties.J. improvement of electrification. controls rents. Vol. In process of requesting properties. many studies. presented in figure 6. mainly due to small interventions. questioner with community etc. Consequently.All of the properties are presented in Table 1. Quality control of the stone The following graphs and pictures represent the tests of examinations done in relation to physical and mechanical feature of the stone. appeared some changes on paths covering. 1979). exceptionally. (2) surface conservation. c. improvements of sewage and water supply. The main properties for compares are density. there is a range of factors which caused bazaar structure changes. It is obvious that the urban layout of architectural composition with street network remained protected. This made a very difficult rehabilitation process since the process of replacement have been accepted by community. compressive strength and abrasion. Int. which is installed already. traditionally linked with old (existing) street cover nature. interventions and other partially rehabilitation actions tried to respect its ancient elements.). the architectural structure of the bazaar still presents a series of small shops interconnected in peculiar approach. Further. which attempts to ensure jobs for local inhabitants. herewith treated as a case study. 1979).

(2007) Making the Case : Historic Preservation as Sustainable Development. Spain. (2007) The Reflection of Euro. These strategies should be adapted to physical urban-architectural compositions while maintaining the everyday welling being of people. the society. req. Table 1. (2013) Report of examination of stone using the stone for pavement.14 / / / Min. new stone New stone 144. Frey P. Pristina: IBMS Ltd. while the new proposed stone is on family of sedimentary stones.48 / / 2580 0.ahdictionary. (1987) Studija o Revitalizaciji Velike Čaršije u Djakovici. Vol. Conclusion and Recommendations There is an urgent requirement for integrated rehabilitation and heritage conservation strategies which aims at sustaining the essential qualities of the cultural heritage quarters in old cities along with sustain developed principles. Barcelona. 12-15 July 2007. Reference American Heritage Dictionary (2005) Accessed on: http://www. Proceedings of Traditional Mediterranean Architecture. Present and Future". Figure 5. 10(3): 292-300 (2015) magmatic stones. Elseragy A. IBMS.12. min 80 – C min 160 – A (2000-3000) max 1. (1982) Conservation of Historic Buildings. The cut section of a. existing stone and b. (1979) The Conservation of European Cities. Prishtinë: Dukagjini Antikitetet e Kosovës. Cambridge. The stone cube examination summary # Type of examinations 2 1 Compressive strength (N/mm ): *dry state 2 3 4 5 6 Bulk density (gr/m3) Water absorption (%) Abrasion resistance Mineralogical and petrography analysis Chemical analysis Exist. Int. as in exampled case: when the proposal of new stone for rehabilitation of the street fulfilled the basic properties but not fulfilled the social and cultural heritage expectations. Rehabimid. 299 . Euro-Mediterranean Regional Conference. Kurtović-Folić N. These integrated rehabilitation projects should introduce new uses the historic heritage buildings and quarters which supports today‟s life style requirements and to be able to provide a vision for future generations to come.Mediterranean Historical Culture on Contemporary Architecture in Alexandria. October 2007. The appropriate technical-environmental and social-economy solutions provided by sustainable urban conservation of these projects should be analysed in detail and in multidisciplinary analysis in the above section. The extent and the level of such an intervention is dependent upon crucial indicators that comprehend the value system accredited by the resources available. Alsaadani S.J. Environmental Application & Science. stone 158.22 / / 2620 0. National Trust for Historic Preservation. and the cultural and environmental context within which such an intervention takes place. This paper underlines opportunities and obstacles to looking forward while preparing integrated rehabilitation projects of cultural heritage quarters after conflict countries.2113) Appleyard D.35 / / / a. in this case and in site.0 18-25 / / b.com (Accessed on: 14. A Draft White Paper presented in advance of the Sustainable Preservation Research Retreat. London: UK Butterworth. Feilden BM. MA: MIT Press Elnokaly A.

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