Term Paper On Reliance Industries Limited

Indian Institute of Information and Technology Allahabad Submitted to:

Dr. Madhvendra Mishra
Submitted By: Shivali Bharadwaj (MBA200535)

Reliance - India's largest business house
The Reliance Group founded by Dhirubhai H. Ambani (1932-2002) is India's largest business house with total revenues of over Rs 99,000 crore (US$ 22.6 billion), cash profit of Rs 12,500 crore (US$ 2.8 billion), net profit of Rs 6,200 crore (US$ 1.4 billion) and exports of Rs 15,900 crore (US$ 3.6 billion). The Group's activities span exploration and production (E&P) of oil and gas, refining and marketing, petrochemicals (polyester, polymers, and intermediates), textiles, financial services and insurance, power, telecom and infocom initiatives. The Group exports its products to more than 100 countries the world over. Reliance emerged as India's Most Admired Business House, for the third successive year in a TNS Mode survey for 2003. Reliance Group revenue is equivalent to about 3.5% of India's GDP. The Group contributes nearly 10% of the country's indirect tax revenues and over 6% of India's exports. Reliance is trusted by an investor family of over 3.1 million - India's largest.

Reliance Industries Ltd. - India's largest private sector company
Reliance Industries Limited (RIL) is India's largest private sector company on all major financial parameters with gross turnover of Rs 74,418 crore (US$ 17 billion), cash profit of Rs 9,197 crore (US$ 2.1 billion), net profit of Rs 5,160 crore (US$ 1.2 billion), net worth of Rs 34,452 crore (US$ 7.9 billion) and total assets of Rs 71,157 crore (US$ 16.3 billion). RIL emerged as the only Indian company in the list of global companies that create most value for their shareholders, published by Financial Times based on a global survey and research conducted by PricewaterhouseCoopers in 2004. RIL features in the Forbes Global list of world's 400 best big companies and in FT Global 500 list of world's largest companies. RIL emerged as the 'Best Managed Company' in India in a study by Business Today and A.T. Kearney in 2003. The company emerged 'India's biggest

wealth creator' in the private sector over a 5-year period in a study by Business Today - Stern Stewart in 2004. RIL alone accounts for:
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17 per cent of the total profits of the private sector in India 7 per cent of the profits of the entire corporate sector in India 6 per cent of the total market capitalisation in India Weightage of 13 per cent in the BSE Sensex Weightage of 10 per cent in the Nifty Index

One out of every four investors in India is a Reliance shareholder. With globally competitive capital and operating cost positions, Reliance Group dominates the rapidly growing Indian market deriving over 80% of its revenues from the domestic market.

"Growth has no limit at Reliance. I keep revising my vision. Only when you dream it you can do it."- DHIRUBHAI AMBANI, Founder Chairman,The Reliance Group "Our dreams have to be bigger. Our ambition higher. Our commitment deeper. And our efforts greater. This is my dream for Reliance and for India." -Dhirubhai Ambani Dhirubhai's vision: Reliance should become a name to reckon with in the global arena Reliance should be a powerful instrument in making India a major economic power in the world Reliance should be a catalyst for transformation of the quality of life of tens of millions of common men and women Having earned the trust of a family of millions of shareholders - each one so dear to his heart - Reliance should continue to grow, expand and diversify to serve their interests.

First, they set up world-class companies and facilities in spite of those regulations and, second, by exceeding the limits and restrictions, they created the case for scrapping those regulations. They made a case for reforms.


Corporate Structure
The Reliance Group, founded by Dhirubhai H. Ambani (1932-2002), is India's largest business house with total revenues of over Rs 99,000 crore (US$ 22.6 billion), cash profit of Rs 12,500 crore (US$ 2.8 billion), net profit of Rs 6,200 crore (US$ 1.4 billion) and exports of Rs 15,900 crore (US$ 3.6 billion). The Group's activities span exploration and production (E&P) of oil and gas, refining and marketing, petrochemicals (polyester, polymers, and intermediates), textiles, financial services and insurance, power, telecom and infocom initiatives. The Group exports its products to more than 100 countries the world over. Reliance emerged as India's Most Admired Business House, for the fourth successive year in a TNS Mode survey for 2004. Reliance Group revenue is equivalent to about 3.5% of India's GDP. The

Group contributes nearly 10% of the country's indirect tax revenues and over 6% of India's exports. Reliance is trusted by an investor family of over 3.1 million - India's largest. The Reliance Group Companies include: Reliance Industries Limited, Reliance Capital Limited, Reliance Industrial Infrastructure Limited, Reliance Telecom Limited, Reliance Infocomm Limited, Reliance General Insurance Company Limited, Indian Petrochemicals Corporation Ltd. and Reliance Energy Limited.

STRATEGY ADOPTED:Changing according to Economy It all started when opportunity in the textile industry was sensed because higher disposable incomes were leading to Indians buying better, more expensive clothes. Clearances to manufacture cloth from polyester fibre were received and first textile mill in Naroda was opened. ANALYSIS:Economic condition of the country and buying power of the customers were quickly identified and Reliance forayed into business with high margins. STRATEGY ADOPTED: Expansion through Integration FACTS: In 1982 Ambani began the process of backward integration, setting up a plant to manufacture polyester filament yarn. He subsequently expanded into chemicals, gas, petrochemicals, plastics.

ANALYSIS:This is a classic example where backward integration was used as a method of expansion. Backward integration is a part of vertical integration which is used when company starts making new products that serve its own needs. This was a brilliant strategy which provided them with a better control over their value chain by creating access to and control of supply and demand. This complete vertical integration led to reduction in prices at each stage and also better control. Because of this they were able to meet the competition in a better manner. Now the products manufactured by them are not only used by them but also by their competitors. STRATEGY ADOPTED: EXPANSION THROUGH DIVERSIFICATION FACTS: Reliance’s diversification occurred in the 1990s when the company turned aggressively towards petrochemicals and telecommunications. ANALYSIS: Diversification strategy is used mainly to reduce risk. The diversification strategy that Reliance adopted was Conglomerate in nature as it diversified into those businesses which were totally unrelated to its existing businesses for example telecom and power. It was used to capitalize on organizational strengths and minimize weaknesses.It lead to better management and allocation of cash flows such

that cash flows from a CASH COWS were pumped into potential STARS. For eg. Here the cash from RIL is currently being pumped into Reliance Infocomm and REL until they start generating profits. STRATEGY ADOPTED: Generation of finances in earlier days for expansion purposes. FACTS: It was judged that further expansion, especially into related sectors , would depend on access to a cheap source of capital. Rather than turning to the banking system, Ambani decided to tap Bombay stock exchange, pioneering an equity cult that was to transform the corporate financing system in India. Reliance went public in 1977 and it’s initial public offering saw 58,000 investors buying shares. Currently the number of Reliance shareholders are more than three million. ANALYSIS: This cheap source of capital definitely saved them from high interest rates from banks and other financial institutions. The second benefit that they got was, now they they cannot be manipulated by a single individual and institution. Their large number of small shareholders ensured that rigging of their shares was virtually impossible. Thirdly, this decision helped them become a thoroughly professional company as they were now accountable to its shareholder. Six Sigma With a mission to achieve Zero Defect work culture, Reliance launched the Six Sigma initiative in February 2004. Six Sigma was deployed across all aspects of businesses, manufacturing and service functions to help us improve processes, boost productivity, reduce inventory and improve quality.

A team of 25 full-time Black Belts is spearheading cross-functional high impact projects throughout the company. Benefits from ongoing projects have been assessed at Rs 140 crore.

Three of our Six Sigma projects were rated as the top three projects at the 50th year celebrations of the Indian Statistical Institute, Bangalore in March 2005. One Six Sigma project at Hazira has won an award at the American Society for Quality conference held at Seattle in 2005. By March 2006 we plan to train about 40 percent of our supervisory staff in Six Sigma methodology. This will motivate them to work towards achieving world-class performance. In turn, this is expected to bring about increased satisfaction for the customer and the shareholder.

They are incorporating new techniques to improve the quality of their products. During the year, several new initiatives were taken to improve and strengthen quality management systems at the sites.

At the newly acquired RPCL facility, QA/QC systems were put in place at the time of plant start up - resulting in reliable results from the start. Total Quality Management was introduced in all the laboratories at Jamnagar. The 5 S programme was introduced at laboratories for inventory and document management. Inter laboratory testing across the Reliance group has been made a regular feature to monitor the reliability of analytical services. Suggestion schemes have been introduced to encourage the involvement of all employees in quality related activities - eighteen employees received awards. Reliance's efforts on the quality front continued to receive recognitions. The Jamnagar laboratory received recognition on the analytical front

from CEMILAC (Centre for Military Airworthiness and Certification) for its high level of Quality Confidence and Control Measures.

For each month during the year, Reliance received Golden certificates from Shell Global Services for Excellence in Reliability of Testing and Results. Reliance's laboratory was accredited for conforming to QMS as per ISO/IEC 17025 by NABL.


Abbreviation Full Name Abbreviation Full Name ATF Aviation LLDPE Linear low turbine fuel density polyethylene DEG Di-ethylene MEG Monoglycol ethylene glycol EDC Ethylene di- MS Motor spirit chloride EO HDPE HSD LAB Ethylene oxide High density polyethylene High speed diesel Linear alkyl benzene NGL NP PET PFY Natural gas liquid Normal paraffin Polyethylene terephthalate Polyester filament yarn

Abbreviation Full Name PP Polypropylene


Polyester staple fibre Purified terephthalic acid Polyvinyl chloride Paraxylene Tri-ethylene glycol Vinyl chloride monomer



IBRES, FIBRE INTERMEDIATES & CHEMICALS Patalganga, near Mumbai, Maharashtra RECRON
o o o o o

Recron Staple Fibre (PSF) Recron Filament Yarn (PFY) Recron Chips Purified Terephthalic Acid (PTA) Paraxylene (PX)

o o o

Linear Alkyl Benzene (LAB) Normal Paraffin Hydrocarbon Solvents


Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)


Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE)


High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)

o o o o o o o o o o o o o

Polypropylene (PP) Purified Terephthalic Acid (PTA) Ethylene Oxide (EO) Mono-ethylene Glycol (MEG) Di-ethylene Glycol Tri-ethylene Glycol Ethylene Propylene Benzene Toluene Xylene Carbon Black Feed Stock (CBFS) Vinyl Chloride Monomer (VCM)

o o o

Recron Staple Fibre (PSF) Recron Filament Yarn (PFY) Recron Fibre Fill (PFF)


Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)

o o o o o o o o

Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Propylene Naphtha Reformate Motor Spirit (Gasoline) Middle Distillate Pool (includes HSD, Kerosene, AFT) Sulphur Coke

o o

Paraxylene Polypropylene

PORT & TERMINALS POWER TEXTILES Naroda, near Ahmedabad, Gujarat VIMAL
o o

Suitings & Shirtings Dress Materials & Sarees

o o o

Furnishing Fabrics Day Curtains Automotive Upholstery

o o

Fibrefilled Pillows Sleep Products

o o

Texturised Yarns Twisted / Dyed Yarns




Shirts, Trouser & Jackets

OIL & GAS Panna & Mukta - off Bombay High Tapti - Northwest of Mumbai
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Crude Oil Natural Gas Exploration & Production (E & P)

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Telecom Power Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) Infrastructure Infocom Insurance Coal Bed Methane

Group Companies Reliance Industrial Infrastructure Limited
Reliance Industrial Infrastructure Limited (RIIL) is an existing, dividend paying Company. The Company is engaged in the business of construction /setting up of industrial infrastructure and project related activities. The Company's Registered Office is located at 5th floor, NKM International House, 178, Backbay Reclamation, Babubhai Chinai Road, Mumbai 400 020. It has its operations in Mumbai - Rasayani belt, Hazira - Surat belt and other places in India. The Company was incorporated in September, 1988 as a Public Limited Company in the name of "Chembur Patalganga Pipelines Limited". The name of the Company was subsequently changed to "CPPL Limited" in September, 1992 and thereafter to the present name viz., "Reliance Industrial Infrastructure Limited" in March, 1994.

Indian Petrochemicals Corporation Ltd
Indian Petrochemicals Corporation Limited (IPCL) is the pioneering petrochemical company in India. It was established on March 22, 1969 (Chitra, Shukla Paksh 4, Saka 1891). Today, IPCL is one of the leading petrochemical companies. It's business comprises of polymers, synthetic fiber, fiber intermediates, solvents, surfactants, industrial chemicals, catalysts and adsorbents. Backed by Research Center, Product Application Centers, Technology Management Centers and Customer Relations Centres the company is continuously innovating its processes and products. The company owns and operates three petrochemical complexes, a naphtha based complex at Vadodara and gas based complexes at Nagothane near Mumbai and at Dahej on Narmada estuary in bay of Khambhat. The company produces over one and half million tonnes of merchant products and has turnover close to US $ three billion.

Trevira stands internationally for textile products with the highest functionality. Together with our partners we develop hi-tech fibres and filaments. And supply customised specialties, opening new market prospects to a globally successful textile industry.

Board of Directors
Mukesh D. Ambani Chairman & Managing Director Nikhil R. Meswani Executive Director Hital R. Meswani Executive Director H.S.Kohli Executive Director Ramniklal H. Ambani Mansingh L. Bhakta Yogendra P. Trivedi Dr. D. V. Kapur M. P. Modi S. Venkitaramanan Prof. Ashok Misra

Dipak C Jain Committees of Board of Directors Committee Audit Committee Composition Shri Y.P. Trivedi Shri S. Venkitaramanan Shri M.P. Modi Shri T.R.U. Pai Remuneration Committee Shri M.L. Bhakta Shri Y.P. Trivedi Shri S. Venkitaramanan Shri D.V. Kapur Shri M.L. Bhakta Shri Y.P. Trivedi Shri M.D. Ambani Shri M.D. Ambani Shri N.R. Meswani Shri H.R. Meswani Shri Hital R. Meswani Shri D.V. Kapur Shri H.S. Kohli Shri Y.P. Trivedi Shri D.V. Kapur Shri M.P. Modi Chairman Remarks Chairman Vice Chairman

Shareholders’/Investors’ Grievance Committee


Finance Committee

Health Safety and Environ Committee

Corporate Governance and Stakeholders’ Interface Committee

Reliance offers access to world-class resources for personal and professional growth. We offer opportunities for growth that can fill a career. If you join Reliance you'll have the chance to take on challenging responsibilities, working with top-caliber, world-class professionals from around the globe. At Reliance you will be part of a culture of excellence and social responsibility. You won't be just working for a living; you'll be part of a global team that's focused on making a difference in the everyday lives of people. Why? to find out why Reliance would be the right choice for you, read on. People are central to Reliance's growth strategy. A large in-house pool of intellectual capital is the driving force behind Reliance's accelerated growth, and is one of its fundamental competitive strengths. Reliance is a young company, with an average age of 37 years for its 11,358 employees, as on March 31, 2004. Talent is drawn from diverse academic backgrounds, and the emphasis is on recruiting people with formal training that matches their job profile. Reliance has 2% Ph.Ds, 12% MBAs, 79% Engineers and 7% CA / ICWAs. The world-class exposure, growth opportunities and competitive compensation packages offered by Reliance enable it to attract and retain the best talent in the company. As a result, Reliance's employee turnover at 3.26% is among the lowest in the industry. Recruitment in Reliance targets the world market for the right individuals, ensuring a global perspective for the people responsible for global scale plants and operations. Reliance is one of the few Indian companies with a significant number of expatriates within the organisation Reliance is looking for top-caliber people who want the flexibility and resources to grow in their career. If you're the kind of person who has always stood out, Reliance offers a place where you can continue to excel. No matter what your field or range of interests, there are vacancies where your talents can likely be applied and developed. We have thousands of diverse people from different cultures and backgrounds working in a variety

of different jobs in different fields. What can you bring to Reliance? do you fit in ? check out from the list below... WHO THEY HIRE Freshers : Qualification Engr Graduates MBAs CA/ ICWAs Company Sectys Law School Graduates Sites Process Industries Area / Qualification Petrochemicals Polyesters EPC Companies Shared Services Technical/ Engineering Graduates HR Professionals MBAs CA/ ICWAs Company Sectys Law School Graduates HOW THEY HIRE
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Experienced :

Merit is the sole criteria for selection Attitude is given as much weightage as functional competencies. Panel interviews comprising of Functional Head & HR Head.

Sources for recruitment are through campus, consultants, employee referrals, internal job postings and the internet. Positions in Officer Cadre, GET and MT involve written tests. Antecedent verification is an integral part of our recruitment process. Medical fitness is pre-requisite for all positions. We are an equal opportunity employer and do not discriminate on the basis of race, community, religion or sex.

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Learning and Training
Reliance believes that continuous learning, constant training and development, is necessary not only for self enrichment but also for ensuring retention of the best talent, besides providing Reliance with a sustainable platform for growth in the business environment. Training programs have been devised to develop cross-functional skills. The objective is to provide Reliance's people with an opportunity to address areas, not immediately relevant to their job profile, but important from the perspective of all-round development and for holistic view. During the year, 336 training programs covering over 5,000 employees were conducted. Management Programme for Reliance Engineers (MPRE) Reliance has, in association with the Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore, created a customised management course for its engineers. The course, which provides managerial insights to engineers, keeping Reliance's specific needs in view, is now completing its 7th year. The course has now expanded its scope to include, apart from 'Manufacturing Excellence', the 'Techno-Commercial' aspects of business. The medium of education is Reliance-specific case studies, projects and supplementary sessions, which are taken by Reliance's executives. Typically, the participants, after undergoing MPRE, move on to assignments different from the ones they were holding earlier and subsequently get rotated to different assignments facilitating them to get groomed as future leaders as a part of the individual based career plan. Care is taken to match the aptitude of the person with the requirement of the organisation.

Training Matrices The key to creating a cutting-edge organisation depends upon its ability to transform itself into a learning organisation. Reliance has developed specific matrices, which help to determine the skills/ability/knowledge required to do the present job, to do the present job better, and to prepare for the next job.Every employee identifies his training needs (based on gaps identified through matrices) with the help of his superior. These needs are then addressed by imparting the appropriate training to the employee. Performance appraisal and reward system Reliance's appraisal and reward system is aimed at increasing employee involvement in the goals and objectives of the organisation, and encouraging individuals to go beyond their scope of work, undertake voluntary projects that enable them to learn, and contribute innovative ideas in meeting the targets of the company. Reliance places great emphasis on soft, conceptual and cross-functional skills, especially at managerial levels. Employee commitment to areas like Human Resource Development, Industrial Relations, Health, Safety and Environment, and Quality and Documentation is given high importance. HRMS In the year 2000, Human Resources Management System (HRMS) was implemented to support the task of Human Resource and Personnel Administration. This system, designed and developed in-house, is an efficient, online, user-friendly system, which provides an effective interface between HR and its employees spread over diverse locations.The system is built around a central comprehensive database of all employees which is linked to the attendance system, payroll system and administrative system (housing, transport and travel), and which assists the HR department in carrying out recruitment, performance appraisal, transfer/deputation, separation and final settlement of employees. SAP - HR "The Reliance group is on the move to e-enable all HR functions and the

employee interface. We are in the process of adopting state-of-the art ERP software - SAP, across all locations and businesses. While Payroll for over 14,000 employees has already been streamlined through SAP into a uniform set of standardised fucntionalities, the Group HR is reorganising its world class procedures on the concept of "Shared Services," based on the capabilities and the best practices embedded in SAP. As a service to the most valuable assets, i.e. the employees, the Group HR is upgrading its extensive web-enabled services into an internet enabled empolyee portal which will enable employees from across the country to interact with HR & Payroll for any requirement, i.e. applying for and sanctioning leave, information on policies and procedures, entering expense claims, updating their own databases, etc." Induction The Human Resources Department structures an appropriate induction programme to orient the new employees to various businesses and services at Reliance. The new employee interacts with people at various levels and functions to get an insight into the organisation. The induction programme helps the employee to integrate in the new environment and provide an overview of the Organisation as a whole. It also provides an opportunity to the new entrant to engrain the original values and ethics as well as the style of functioning.

Work Environment
At Reliance our passion is to improve daily living and to achieve that we create a workplace where every person can reach their full potential. As a leading global company we offer opportunities worldwide. And our work environment gives employees the freedom to explore and make the most of them. It's Reliance's intention to create an environment where people can use all of their capabilities in support of the business. Therefore, we encourage our employees to balance their work and personal responsibilities. How ? read on...

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A high Performance organization Care & concern for people An organization where people are empowered to perform and be accountable for results. A value driven company which embraces simplicity, humility and Austerity. An environment where people “Dare to dream” Speed, Quality, Technology and Innovation is a way of life Respect for development of Employees through self help and guidance to foster common purpose and cohesion. Nurturing a learning organization is our bridge to continued success. The corner stones of our corporate ethos lies in our commitment to stake holder, customers, employees and vendors.

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Growth is care for our people At Reliance, we stress on quality of life. We are building with care, a workplace that proactively fosters professional as well as personal growth. There is freedom to explore and learn; and there are opportunities that inspire initiative and intrinsic motivation. We believe that people must dream to achieve, that these dreams will drive the company's excellence in all its businesses. Reliance thinks, behaves, lives and thrives with a global mindset, encouraging every employee to reach his / her full potential by availing opportunities that arise across the group.
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With presence in 36 countries, Reliance offers global opportunities. With steady organic growth and consolidation of businesses, Reliance offers possibilities for cross-organisation, crossdiscipline and cross-

country career opportunities. We now have 12,113 employees with an average age of 37 years. Programmes for training and capacity building are given prime importance. This endeavour targets the technical and professional growth of our people.

Reliance is associated with the Indian Institute of Management (IIM), Bangalore and the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Bombay. We have sponsored the participation of over 250 engineers in a customised Management course - MPRE (Management Program for Reliance Engineers) at IIM-Bangalore. We sponsored 91 science graduates and diploma holders to complete a Reliance Certified Engineering course with IIT-Bombay. Reliance conducted over 160,000 man-hours of training and 1,448 training programmes, covering 7919 employees. The Company also supported development of all other employees with a highly scientific Key Result Area (KRA) based Performance Management System and Career Mapping exercises. Reliance has embarked on developing a performance linked incentive scheme for all its employees with the assistance of reputed international consultants. The company also started a 'Manufacturing Leadership Programme' for its Senior Executives from Manufacturing, in association with Hewitt Associates

Words such as these keep the spirit of the employees high. "Growth has no limit at Reliance. I keep revising my vision. Only when you dream it you can do it." • Think big, think fast, think ahead. Ideas are no one's monopoly"

• "Our dreams have to be bigger. Our ambitions higher. Our commitment deeper. And our efforts greater. This is my dream for Reliance and for India." • "You do not require an invitation to make profits." • "If you work with determination and with perfection, success will follow." • "Pursue your goals even in the face of difficulties, and convert adversities into opportunities." • "Give the youth a proper environment. Motivate them. Extend them the support they need. Each one of them has infinite source of energy. They will deliver." • "Between my past, the present and the future, there is one common factor: Relationship and Trust. This is the foundation of our growth" • "We bet on people." • "Meeting the deadlines is not good enough, beating the deadlines is my expectation." • "Don't give up, courage is my conviction."

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