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LESLIEG. JAEGER

Techtiical U~liversityof Nova Scorirr, Holifns, N.S.. Cntincl~~

B3J 2x4

AND

For personal use only.

BAIDAR

BAKHT

Resenrch n t ~ dDeveloptnerlt Bratlch, Ministry of Tratlsportrrtiotl rirld Cot~~m~rt~icntiot~s,

Dowtlsview, OIII.,Catz~zdaM3M IJ8

Revised manuscript accepted January 12, 1982

The grillage analogy method for analyzing bridge superstructures has been in use for quite some time. The idealization of

a bridge by a grillage is not axiomatic and is not without pitfalls. An attempt is made in this paper to provide guidance on

grillage idealization of various types of structure, together with the relevant background information. Specifically, the paper

deals with the idealization of slab, beam-and-slab, cellular, and voided-slab bridges. Idealization of slabs of linearly varying

thickness is also discussed. Guidance is provided on the mesh layout.

Keybi~ords:analysis, beam-and-slab bridges, cellular structures, flexural rigidity, grillage, idealization, load, mesh, slab

bridges, torsional rigidity, voided slab.

La mCthode de l'analogie du grillage pour analyser les superstructures de ponts est dCji utilisCe depuis un assez bon moment.

L'idCalisation d'un pont par un grillage n'est pas Cvidente et ne va pas sans embcches. Le but de I'article est de fournir des

regles ti suivre pour I'Ctablissement de 17idCalisation(ou diagramme thCorique) par le modkle du grillage pour divers types

d'ouvrages, accompagnCes des donnCes de base pertinentes.

Plus prCcisCment, l'article traite I'idCalisation de ponts-dalle, de ponts i poutres et dalles pleines, de ponts cellulaires, et

de ponts i dalle CvidCe. L'article traite Cgalement I'idCalisation des dalles d'Cpaisseur IinCairement variable et fournit des

indications sur la f a ~ o nde choisir un maillage satisfaisant.

Mots clks: analyse, pont i poutres et dalle, pont cellulaire, rigidite flexionnelle, grillage, modClisation, diagramme thiorique,

charge, maillage, pont-dalle, rigidit6 torsionnelle, pont a dalle CvidCe.

Can. J . Civ. Eng.. 9, 224-235 (1982)

Introduction

In recent years two methods have come increasingly

to the fore in the analysis and design of bridges. These

are the grillage analogy and the finite element methods.

This paper deals only with the first of these. In so

doing, no comparison between the two should be taken

to be implied. Both kinds of method have been used

many times in the past by bridge engineers, and both

will undoubtedly continue to be used in the future. At

the present stage in analysis and design of bridges, the

grillage analogy is extensively used and it is probable

that reason (c) given below is at least partially responsible for this popularity. It is undoubtedly true that

finite element methods, which are already supported by

a number of inexpensive and readily available computer

programs, will be increasingly popular in the future.

The grillage analogy method is well supported by the

published literature, among which may be mentioned

papers by Lightfoot (1964); Yettram and Husain

(1965); Sawko (1968a,b); Smyth and Srinavasan

(1973); and Hambly and Pennels (1975).

Reasons for the present popularity of the grillage

analogy method include the following.

where the bridge exhibits complicating features such as

heavy skew, edge stiffening, deep haunches over supports, isolated supports, etc.

(6) The representation of a bridge as a grillage is

ideally suited to carrying out the necessary calculations

associated with analysis and design on a digital

computer.

(c) The grillage representation is conducive to giving

the designer a feel for the structural behavior of the

bridge and the manner in which bridge loadings are

distributed and eventually taken to the supports.

For these kinds of reasons, the grillage analogy tends

to be the preferred method whenever there are aspects

present in a bridge, such as those mentioned in (a)

above, that make it inadvisable to use simplified methods, such as those of the American Association of State

Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO)

(1977) or the Ontario Highway Bridge Design Code

(OHBDC) (1979). Worthy of note also is the fact that

computer programs for grillage analysis are already

widely available to the designer from a variety of

sources (Firmin et al. 1977; Bakht et al. 1979). Hence

225

For personal use only.

/-

A SLAB ELEMENT

FIG.

TORSIONLESS DIAGONALS

FIG. 2. Slab idealization by grillages. Plans of: (a) actual slab bridges; (b) idealized grillages accounting for v ; ( c ) idealized

grillages ignoring v.

handle bridges of almost any kind and complication,

and the means for digital computer analysis are already

to hand.

One principal step in the method does, nevertheless,

remain for the designer. This is the idealization step of

representing the bridge by a grillage. Such idealization

is not axiomatic and is not without pitfalls. An attempt

idealization of various types of structure, together with

the relevant background information.

Slab bridges

Idealization of structure

A rectangular slab element subjected to loads perpendicular to its plane is equivalent in deformability to an

For personal use only.

8 T kN LOAD A T B

FIG.3. Transverse moments in skew slabs. Experimental -(Rusch and Hcrgenrocdcr 1969); grid analogy --(output

modifled for Poisson's ratio).

Husain 1965). The properties of the grillage members

are as follows.

-%I

[la]

I,

[L,

[I01

I,

[L. -

J, =

t3

24(1

F]

24(1 - v')

[ELl(~G- 3v)]

t'

34( 1

[ 1(11

J,

[EL,";

v')

3v)1

v')

t3

34(1

v')

torsional inertias by J; E , G, and v are, respectively, the

elastic modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson's ratio of

the material; other notation is as shown in Fig. I. Most

slab bridges can be concept~~ally

divided into a number

of rectangles and each rectangle can then be idealizecl

by the above-mentioned assembly of six beams. Hence

bridges become represented by the type of grillage patterns shown in Fig. 20. While such idealizations can

closely represent the slab, the presence of cliagonaI

inernbers in the idealization renders the analysis unsuitable bcca~iseof the time-consuming data input and difficuIties in the interpretation of results.

The idealization can be made manageable by assuming Poisson's ratio to be zero, thereby eliminating

the need for the torsionless diagonal niernbers. Member

properties of the resulting asseinbly of orthogonal

beams, shown in Fig. 2c, are given by:

[2a]

I,

L,. t3/24

[20]

I,

L, t"24

JAEGER A N D BAKHT

227

For personal use only.

that in the transverse direction. However, the error in

the prediction of transverse moments can be large in

some cases. The following relationships can be used to

account approximately for errors resulting from the neglect of Poisson's ratio.

F I G . 4. Moments in a cantilcvcr slab: -grillagc analogy; --- from Hombcrg and Ropers (1965).

J , = ( E I C )L, t '124

[2d]

In an assembly of orthogonal bearns, the moment in

a beam depends only upon the curvature of the assembly in the direction of the beam. The corresponding

moment in a slab depends not only upon the curvature

in the direction of the moment but also on the slab

curvature in the perpendicular direction. This slab

action is represented by the following equations for the

moments in the x and y directions, M, and M,. respectively.

effect of curvature in the direction perpendicular to that

of tlie moment. It can be seen that the effect of curvature in the other direction, which is directly related to

v, would not be picked up by an idealization that

neglects v .

Ignoring Poisson's ratio leads to an underestimation

of monients. This underestimation is usually negligible

for longitudinal moments in concrete slab bridges, in

which the Poisson's ratio is usually about 0.15 and the

by grillage analysis, for which v is neglected; (M,),,and

(M,), are the relevant moments, corrected for a finite

value of v.

It should be noted that [4] is strictly true only when

deflections are independent of v. Such tends to be the

case when a bridge is wide and the load is away from

the free edges. In other cases [4] will always result in

conservative results. This is shown in Fig. 3, which

shows a comparison of experimentally obtained transverse moments in two skew slabs (Rusch and Hergenroeder 1969) and those obtained by the grillage

analogy using orthogonal beams, and corrected according to [4b] (Bakht 1972). It can be seen that while

corrected values of grillage monients compare very well

with experimental values for the wide slabs, they are

considerably higher in the narrow slab.

Slobs of varying tizickness

The concept of representing a slab of uniform thickness by an orthogonal grillage can also b e extended to

slabs of thickness varying in one direction. The validity

of the grillage analogy method for such a slab is demonstrated in Fig. 4 in which the classical plate solution,

corresponding to zero Poisson's ratio ombe berg and

Ropers 1965), is shown to compare very well with the

grillage analogy solution for a cantilever slab of linearly

varying thickness (Bakht 1981). As in the case of slabs

of uniform thickness, Poisson's ratio is neglected;

hence the idealized grillage consists of orthogonally

connected beams of which those running in the direction of the taper have varying moments of inertia and

torsional inertia, and those along the other direction

have uniform properties along their respective lengths.

At all points the torsional rigidity, G J , of a beam is

taken to be equal to its flexural rigidity, E l . The program for analysing the resulting grillage should be capable of dealing with beams of varying properties. Such

a program is described in the paper by Smyth and

Srinavasan ( 1973). This program is based o n principles

enunciated in the paper b y S a w k o and Wilcock (1967).

ldealizcrtion qf loacls

In the grillage analogy method, loads that on the

actual structures are spread over a finite area, and that

in particular do not fall on nodal points of the grillage,

For personal use only.

EQUIVALENT

CONCENTRATED

LOAD

NODAL

20

18

16

14

12

paid to adjusting the size of the load for load representation. However, attention should be paid to the mesh

size in the vicinity of discrete bearings. Usually it will

be found that the mesh size is too fine compared with

the effective size of the bearings (which is obtained by

dispersing the actual area of the bearing at an angle of

45" to the middle surface of the slab). In such cases it

should be appreciated that the predicted moments are

higher than the actual ones.

10

U

C

,"

.

i

0 8

o6

00

4x4

8x8

12~12

16.16

m ~ m

24x24

are eventually represented by point loads at the nodes.

The question then arises as to how to find the best set

of point loads on the grillage, and the best mesh size,

in order that the resulting moments in the grillage agree

with the moments obtained by treating the bridge as an

orthotropic plate and taking the actual area of the applied load into account. Clearly, it would be possible to

use a virtual work approach and develop a method of

deriving the nodal loads. However, an approach that is

sufficiently close for design purposes is shown in Figs.

5 and 6. Bakht (1972) compared the grillage analogy

results of the structure shown in Fig. 5 with the results

obtained by the orthotropic plate theory of Cusens and

Pama (1975). The very good agreement shown in Fig.

5 is obtained when the loading for the orthotropic plate

theory analysis is uniformly distributed over an area

given by one third of the mesh size, as shown in Fig. 6.

It is noted that the two extreme mesh sizes cited in

Fig. 5, i.e., 4 X 4 and 24 x 24, are not realistic. In

practice, mesh sizes would range between 8 X 8 and

12 X 12, thus considerably reducing the differences

between predicted values. With the increase in the number of loads the margin of error is further reduced to

such an extent that, when there are more than eight

concentrated loads on the bridge, no attention need be

For idealizing a slab bridge the slab should be divided

into a number of rectangles, as shown in Fig. 2c, and

each rectangle should be represented by four beams

placed around its perimeter. The properties of members

common to two elements should be taken to be equal to

the sum of the respective properties contributed by each

element. There are no hard and fast rules for the number

of divisions in a grillage mesh. However, the following

suggestions are presented as guidance for forming an

idealized grillage.

(a) As far as possible keep the divisions in any direction fairly uniform.

( b ) For bridges supported on discrete bearings place

a longitudinal member along the centre of each bearing.

(c) Place additional longitudinal members to divide

the bridge transversely into eight divisions. For wider

bridges even more divisions may be suitable.

(d) Place transverse members along the centreline of

each bearing.

(e) Place additional transverse members so that the

mesh size in the longitudinal direction is about 1.5-2

times that in the transverse direction.

Beam-and-slab bridges

Idealization

The idealization of a beam-and-slab bridge by an

assembly of interconnected beams seems to conform

more readily to engineering judgement than is the case

JAEGER A N D BAKHT

For personal use only.

-4

k12"

SECTION A A

L/b

FIG.7. Effect of flange width on flexural rigidity. NOTES:w = mid-span deflection using full flange width by beam theory;

wr, = mid-span deflection by finite strip method; A = ( w - I V , , ) / W , , ; I" = 25.4 mm.

when the beams are absent, as in simple slab bridges.

The longitudinal members of the grillage are usually

positioned to coincide with the actual girders, and these

longitudinal members are given the properties of the

girders plus associated portions of the slab. which they

represent. The transverse medium, i.e., the deck slab,

is conceptually broken into a number of transverse

strips, and each strip is replaced by a beam. It is advisable to align the transverse grillage beams perpendicularly to the longitudinal beams, in which case the

properties of the transverse members are calculated in

the same way as for slab bridges. For example, the

moment of inertia, I,, of a transverse beam representing

a strip of length L , and thickness t is given by

G,.J,. = E, I,., which results in

where E, and G, are, respectively, the modulus of elasticity and shear modulus for the material of the deck

slab.

Reduction offle-xural rigidity due to shear lag

For composite structures, the moment of inertia of a

account of the fact that the apparent flexural rigidity of

a composite girder is reduced due to shear lag effects in

a slab. Three simply-supported T-beams, all having the

same cross-section as shown in Fig. 7, were analysed

for central loads by the finite strip method (Cheung and

Chan 1979), and the central web deflections thus obtained were compared with those obtained by simple

statics using the full flange width. It is recalled that the

finite strip method, because of the three-dimensional

nature of the idealization, is able to take into account

directly the effects of shear lag.

As can be seen from Fig. 7, the overestimation of the

flexural rigidity of a composite T-beam, caused by the

neglect of shear lag effects in the slab, depends upon the

slab-to-flange width ratio. While this overestimation is

as high as 40% for slab-to-flange width ratios close to

1.0, it is considerably reduced for the sort of dimensions encountered in real-life bridges.

It is noted that small changes in the longitudinal

flexural rigidities do not significantly affect the load

distribution characteristics of a structure. Therefore, it

is usually sufficiently accurate to use the approximate

values of flexural rigidities that are obtained by considering the full slab widths, without taking account of

shear lag. Regardless of the presence or absence of

For personal use only.

230

9.

1982

one span of a two-span bridge; ( b ) grillage idcalization by

beams of varying propertlcs; (c) grillagc idealization by

bcams of uniform propertics.

composite action, the torsional inertia of a longitudinal

grillage member, J,, is equal to the sun1 of the torsional

inertia of the girder alone and half the torsional inertia

of the associated portion of the slab. Thus:

torsional inertia in terms of the units' for deck slab

material.

As in slab bridges, the value of v affects the moments

in a beam and slab bridge. Because v is limited to the

deck slab, however, the effect is small and can be

neglected.

Variations in the slab thickness and the girder rigidities can be taken into account by idealizing the respective components as beams of varying moment of

inertia, as shown in Fig. 8h. If a computer program for

analysing grillages with beams of varying properties is

not available, the idealization can be done by using

beams of uniform properties in the manner shown in

Fig. 8c.

Idealization of locirls

When the position of a load does not coincide with a

grillage node, it is usual to apportion it to the sur-

rounding nodes without taking into accoilnt the moments that are associated with the apportioning, as illustrated in Fig. 9. The neglect of these moments in the

longitudinal direction does not give rise to significant

errors. However, their neglect in the transverse direction can result in significant errors, especially when the

actual loads are applied on the cantilever portion of the

slab, or when the spacing between girders is large. If a

computer program is available that is capable of including these moments they should be taken into account. If

the computer program does not have this capability,

then in order to reduce the error resulting from the

neglect of moments in the apportioning of loads it is

advisable to extend the grillage transverse members to

the true boundary of the actual deck slab, and to introduce additional nodes in the transverse beams midway

between the longitudinal beams.

The effect of providing the additional nodes in the

transverse beams is illustrated in Fig. 10, which shows

mid-span girder moments in two grillage idealizations

of a beam-and-slab bridge. In one idealization, the

transverse beams have nodes only at their intersections

with the longitudinal members and, in the other: they

have additional nodes midway between girders. The

latter idealization, which is superior on account of

better load representation, provides results that are up to

9% different from those given by the former.

Cellular bridges

Idealization of cellular bridges, a transverse slice of

one of which is shown in Fig. 11, is in many ways

similar to that for beam-and-slab bridges. Longitudinal

grillage beams are usually placed coincident with webs

of the actual structure, and the transverse medium,

which consists of both the top and bottom flanges, is

represented by equally-spaced transverse grillage

beams. The properties of the longiti~dinalmenlbers are

JAECER A N D BAKHT

LOAD CASE 3

LOAD CASE 2

LOAD CASE 1

For personal use only.

-t

ff

LOAD CASE 3

LOAD CASE 2

(1.7) (2.4)

(2.4)

(metresl

(2.4) (1.7)

N O T I O N A L JOINTSTO

BETTER REPRESENT

ACTUAL LOADS

FIG. 10. Effcct of additional nodes in transversc menlbers. Notcs for graph: -without

bctwcen girders; --- with notional joints in transverse beams between girdcrs.

Rep,.esentatiotl o f the tratlsverse mecli~on

It is mainly in the representation of the transverse

medium that the application of the grillage analogy to

cellular structures is different from that of beam-andslab bridges. The structural action of the transverse

medium of a cellular structure can be explained with the

help of Fig. 1 1 , which shows the transverse slice of the

structure being subjected to a vertical load at one end

and an equilibrating moment at the other. If the two

flanges and webs are prevented by some nieans from

flexing about their own centroidal axes, then plane sections remain plane and the transverse slice, which de-

customary one-dimensional beam, having negligible

shear deformation. The second monient of area of the

equivalent beam is then equal to the second moment of

area of the two flanges about their combined centre of

gravity. However, in cellular structures without frequent transverse diaphragms the flanges and webs do

flex significantly about their individual axes and this

causes the cross-section to distort as shown in Fig. 1 l c .

Plane sections do not remain plane and the flexibility of

the slice increases. This increase in flexibility cannot be

accounted for by reducing the flexural rigidity of the

equivalent beam because the additional detlections of

the slice respond to shear in the slice rather than

moments.

For personal use only.

Massonnet and Gandolfi (1967) were among the first

to postulate that in cellular bridges the effects of transverse cell distortion could be represented by an equivalent shear area. Sawko (1968a,6) applied this concept

to the grillage analogy and concluded that the transverse

medium of a cellular bridge can be idealized by beams

of finite shear area. Following the notation of Fig. 12,

the moment of inertia, I , , of a transverse grillage beam

representing a length L, of the transverse flanges, in

units of deck slab concrete, is given by:

[8]

I,. = L,(t, hi

+ ~zt~l~:)

and bottom flanges. When the cellular structure is made

entirely of concrete, rz is equal to 1 .O. The equivalent

shear area, A,., of the transverse grillage beam is given

by:

[9]

12 L, E,

P,. G,

A,. = ---- -

l1I,(12Il I2

+ P , I ,1, + 11Pr121,

shear flows around the perimeter of the closed crosssection. Little shear reaches the intermediate webs and

even less reaches the cantilever slab overhangs. Hence

it is usual to exclude the intermediate webs and the

cantilever overhangs from consideration when calculating the torsional properties. The torsional rigidity of

the bridge is assumed to be uniformly distributed across

both the longitudinal and transverse sections. The total

torsional rigidity of a section is distributed amongst the

various grillage members in proportion to the width that

each member represents. For a longitudinal grillage

member representing a width L,, of the slab, the torsional inertia J , is given by:

closed cross-section, as shown in Fig. 13, 2b is the

width of the bridge, and n, is the ratio of shear moduli

for materials of the bottom and top flanges. For allconcrete structures, n, is equal to 1.0; for steelconcrete composite structures, it can be assumed to be

equal to 0.88 times the ratio of the moduli of elasticity,

n. This figure is derived using [ l 11, and assuming that

the values of u for steel and concrete are 0.30 and 0.15,

respectively.

E,

2 ( 1 + v , ) - -(l+v,)Es

G, ["I

2(1+us)

E,

(1 + us) E,

The torsional inertia, J,, of a transverse beam repre4 , , ~ , b ~+, 1 2 21, ~ + n ~ : ~ ; senting length L, of the transverse medium, is given by:

2 ~ :

where E, and G, are as defined earlier and I , ,I,, I3 are [12]

J, = L,

the moments of inertia per unit length of the top flange,

L $ dsl(n, t)

bottom flange, and web, respectively.

where A, is the area enclosed by the median line of the

[4PlI,

Torsiorzal taigidities

Unlike the flexural properties, the torsional properties of grillage members cannot be calculated by isolating certain portions of the bridge and then assigning

their properties to the grillage beams. When the crosssection of a cellular structure is subjected to torsion, the

and other symbols are as defined earlier.

For all concrete cellular structures having top and

bottom flanges of the same thickness, the torsional inertias can be calculated by the following simple expressions, which are based on the assumption that the con-

JAEGER A N D BAKHT

INTERMEDIATE

WEBS IGNORED

MEDIAN

For personal use only.

/AREA

A,

MEDIAN

r L l N E

AREA A2

INTERMEDIATE DIAPHRAGMS,

ANY, IGNORED

FIG. 13. Areas considered in the calculation of torsional properties: ( a ) cross-section; (b) longitudinal section.

are negligible.

[13a]

J,

L,. t , H'

FIG.

Grillage idealization of a voided slab bridge (see

Figs. 14, 15) is similar to that of solid slab bridges, the

only difference being in the calculation of the properties

of grillage members.

Longitudinal jlexural rigidity

T h e moment of inertia of a longitudinal grillage beam

is equal to the moment of inertia of the section that the

beam represents. For an arrangement in which the

grillage beams coincide with the centrelines of webs,

the moment of inertia, I , , of a beam representing a slab

with concentric voids is given by:

[I41

I,=(~,t'/12)-(.srt:/64)

Transverse ,fle.rural r i g i c i i ~

By contrast with cellular structures, the transverse

rigidity of a voided slab can be significantly affected by

evaluation of the flexural rigidity of a transverse slice of

a voided slab requires extensive analysis. An approximation, due to Elliott (1975), is as follows:

flexural rigidity, obtained with this formula, compare

very well with those obtained by refined methods such

as the finite element method (Jaeger er al. 1979) and

dynamic relaxation (Cassell et a / . 1970).

Transverse cell distortiorl

Like cellular structures, the transverse section of a

voided slab bridge also undergoes distortion, but to a

much lesser extent. Bakht et al. (198 1 a ) show that the

magnitude of the effect of cell distortion on transverse

load distribution properties of a cellular bridge mainly

For personal use only.

Equations 14- 17 are applicable only to the voided portions of the bridge. For the solid slab portions, as they

exist over internal supports and near longitudinal free

edges, the properties of the grillage members sliould be

calculated similarly to those of the solid slab bridges.

t'P"

depends upon the number of loaded lanes. For cases in

which all lanes are loaded, the effects of cell distortion

are negligible. However, when only a few of the total

number of lanes are loaded, the effect may or may not

be significant, depending upon the geometry of the

bridge and details of the cross-section. In general, the

effects are significant in wide bridges having large and

frequently-spaced voids. T o obtain specific answers regarding the significance of cell distortion in a particular

bridge, reference should be made to the simplified

method proposed by Bakht et 01. (198 Irr).

It is sometimes the case that an available grillage

program does not have the capability of including finite

values of shear area in the properties of the beams.

However, when the program does have this capability,

it is prudent always to include the shear area in the

idealization. T h e equivalent shear area, A , , of a transverse grillage beam can be obtained as follows:

[I61

A,. = F,tL,

and spacing of the voids; F , can be obtained from Fig.

16, which is based on the analytical work of Cassell er

d . (1970).

Torsiorznl rigiclities

An accurate determination of the torsional rigidities

requires complex analysis. The following simplified

equations, which are based on work by Elliott (1975),

provide a fairly accurate estimate of the torsional inertias, as demonstrated by Bakht et n / . (19810).

[17a]

J, = [I

[17b]

J,.

0.84(t,,/t)']L,.t3/6

[ I - 0.84(t,,/t)']L,,t3/6

Although the primary purpose of this paper is to give

advice on the best use of the grillage analogy method to

those engineers who have selected it, it is also interesting and ~ ~ s e f utol address briefly the question of

whether one should adopt that method in the first place.

The power and versatility of finite element methods are

by now self-evident and it is, of course, true that any

bridge that can be analysed by the grillage analogy

method can also be analysed by finite elements.

T o some extent the choice is one of individual preference. It is noted that many engineers have a liking for

the grillage analogy method because they find that it

gives them a close feel for the structural action of the

bridge, and because of their opinion that they are in

consequence less likely to overlook gross errors that

may have been included, inadvertently, in the idealization and subsequent analysis. It is also undoubtedly

true that there exist many engineers whose design feel

for a structure is well served by the finite element approach to analysis.

Conclusions

T h e grillage analogy method has been shown to be

suitable for analysing a wide variety of bridges. It has

also been shown that complicating features such as

heavy skew, edge stiffening, deep haunches, isolated

supports, etc., could be conveniently handled by <he

method. Sufficient information on idealization and

preparation of the mesh is provided to enable the

designer to achieve a valid grillage representation of a

bridge even without previous experience in such

analysis.

ASSOCIIITION

OF STATE HIGHWAY

AN11 TRANSAMERICAN

I'ORTATION OFFICIALS. 1977. Standard spccifications for

highway bridgcs. Washington, DC.

BAKHT,B. 1972. A comparative study of thc mcthods of

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