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LESSON 9

THE COMPUTER AS A TUTOR


One of the wonders of human ingenuity is the computer. Computers are
designed to carry out complicated mathematical and logical operations as its
original design in 1950s. The invention of microprocessor or also known as personal
computer (PC) has become the tool for programmed instruction.
The much use of PC has become affordable to small business, industries and
home. The potential for individualization in learning, especially with a class with
forty or more learners was much noticeable.
Computer-assisted instruction (CAI)
In effect of relieving the teacher of many activities in his personal role as a
classroom tutor the computer can be a tutor as well. Even with the available
computer and CAI software the teacher must:
*insure that the students have the needed knowledge and skills for many computer
activity
*decide the appropriate learning outcomes
*plan the sequential and structured activities to achieve objectives
*evaluate the students achievement by ways of test the specific expected
outcomes
On the other hand, the students in CAI play their own roles as learners
as they:
*receive information
*understand instructions for the computer activity
*retain/keep in mind the information and rules for the computer activity
*apply the knowledge and rules during the process of computer learning
During the computer activity proper in CAI the Computer, too, plays its
role as it:
*acts as a sort of tutor (the role traditional played by the teacher)
*provides learning environment
*delivers learning instruction
*reinforces learning through drill-and-practice

*provides feedbacks

CAI Integrated with Learners


CAI computer learning should not stop with the drill and practice activities
only, for CAI best work in reinforcing learning through repetitive exercises.
Vocabulary building, math facts, basic science, and history or geography facts are
some of the common types of drill and practice programs.
The question arises: When and how can a teacher integrate drill and practice
programs with their lessons? The following suggestions can be made:
* Use drill and practice program for basic and knowledge that require rapid or
automatic response by students (Examples: multiplication table, letter and word
recognition, identification of geometric shapes)
* Ensure that drill and practice activities conform the lesson plan/curriculum
* Limit drill and practice to 20 30 minutes to avoid boredom
* Use drill and practice to assist students with particular weakness in basic skills
In integrating computer programs in instruction, use tutorial software
associated with cognitive learning. Learning-by-doing is the heart of the tutorial, the
tutorial software should be able to:
* teach new content/new information to students(in as
much as CAI provides
practice on old or already
learned content)
*provide comprehensive information on concepts in addition to practice exercises
*can be used for remediation, reviewing, or enrichment
*allow the teacher to introduce the follow-up questions to stimulate students
learning
*permits group activity for cooperative learning
SIMULATION PROGRAMS
Simulation software materials are another kind of software that is
constructivist in nature. This simulation software:
*teaches strategies and rules applied to real-life problems/situations
*asks students to make decision on models or scenarios
*allows the students to manipulate elements of a model and get the experience of
the effects of their decisions
INSTRUCTIONAL GAMES
While relating to low-level learning objective (e.g. spelling or math skills),
instructional computer games add the elements of competition and challenge.

MULTIMEDIA ENCYCLOPEDIA AND ELECTRONIC BOOKS


The Multimedia Encyclopedia can store a huge database with texts, images,
animation, audio and video. Students can access any desired information, research
its vast contents, and even download/print relevant portions of the data for their
composition or presentation.
Electronic books provide textual information for reading, supplemented by
other types of multimedia information (sounds, spoken words, pictures, animation).
These are useful for learning reading, spelling and word skills.
CONCLUSION
Although computers assumes certain roles previously assigned to teachers
and it is also considered as tutor it does not replace teacher. For teacher take new
role of facilitator and guide.
Integrating computer exercises is the new task of the teacher. Computer
activities are not the end-all of learning since they have to conform to the
lesson/curriculum.
Computers become an integral part component of our classroom and not a
mere machine that can deliver routine drills and exercises. As we can notice in
schools computer is used as a common tool for the enhancement of the students
thinking, communication and collaboration skills.
LESSON 10
The Computer as the Teachers Tool
Computer can foster higher thinking skills and creativity. It can also serve as
a tutor along with the behaviorist and cognitive approach to learning. From another
perspective the computer can also be considered as teachers handy tool. It is also
used to support the Constructivist and Social Constructivist Paradigms of
constructivist leaning.
Piaget(1981) and Bruner(1990) introduced the Constructivism.
Knowledge discovery of new meaning/concepts/principles in the learning process
was much emphasis. Many strategies have been suggested to foster knowledge
discovery like students are involved or engaged in gathering unorganized
information and students are asked to apply discovered knowledge to new
situations or making their knowledge to real life situations.
Through Social Constructivism knowledge can also be constructed since it is
an effort to show that the construction of knowledge is governed by social, historical
and cultural contexts. Learners knowledge has a predetermined point of view
according to the social perspective of the community.

Putting on the emphasis on the idea that learning is affected by social


influence was the psychologist Lev Vygotsky stressed. He therefore suggested
Interactive process in learning. The role of teacher or parent or even classmate
can help the learners performance or project.
Language is a medium of social coordination and adaptation according from
John Dewey. Human langauigng is a human learning that occurs when students
socially share, build and agree upon meanings and knowledge.
INFORMATIVE TOOL

CO-CONSTRUCTIVE TOOL

-provides vast amounts of information


in various forms, such as text,
graphics, sound, and video

-the use of the electronic whiteboard


where students may post also co-edit
the same document from their homes

INTERNET

- Use as a tool for cooperative learning

- Provides enormous database from


which
user
can
access
global
information resources (news, weather,
airline, schedule, sports development,
as well as educational information and
entertainment)

CSILE(COMPUTER-SUPPORTED
INTENTIONAL
LEARNING
ENVIROMENTS)

Internet on Education can be a


source of educational resources that
can be found in the Internet. Along
with the constructivist point of view, it
is not enough to download the
relevant information but the students
can
also
construct
projects,
composition and other assigned task
by the teacher.
CONSTRUCTIVE TOOL
-used
for
the
manipulation
of
information,
visualizing
ones
understanding and building new
knowledge
MICROSOFT WORD
- Computer program that allows users
to organize and present their ideas in
attractive formats

-an
example
of
an
integrated
environment developed by the Ontario
Institute in Education
-where students can enter their ideas
in notes and respond to each others
ideas
-manifestation of student-generated
database are higher level thinking
process-explaining,
problem
solving/finding,
expertise
and
development, literacy improvement
SITUATING TOOL
-

More of a simulation using


computer by means of virtual
reality (RS) extension system

Example: MUDs, MOOs, and


MUSHs

REPORTERS: AIMEE PENTON, RICKY ARELLANO, AND CARINE GRACE


DAYAG