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Is causing harm to the environment a crime ?
Crime can be defined best as a violation of the criminal law. Looking behind most criminal statutes, however, we can generally
catch a glimpse of the concept of harm. Criminal activity, such as theft and assault, most of us would agree, is harmful to others.
Some crimes, however, such as drug abuse, prostitution, gambling, and pornography, are sometimes referred to as "victimless
crimes" or social order offences because the harm, they cause is not readily identifiable at the individual level. Statutes outlawing
social order offenses are rooted in the notion of social harmthat is, although no one who participates in prostitution, say, runs
to the police to file a complaint (unless they are robbed, or in some other way directly victimized). Lawmakers recognize that the
act somehow lessens the quality of social life. Prostitution, many lawmakers argue, is harmful to the family and (in the case of
heterosexual prostitution) demeans the status of women in society.
Today, a whole new class of criminal offences is emerging based upon the notion of environmental damage. In what may be
the best known environmental catastrophe to date, the Exxon Valdez , a 1,000-foot supertanker, ran aground in Alaska in 1989
and spilled 11 million gallons of crude oil over 1,700 miles of pristine coastline. Animal life in the area was devastated. The U.S.
Fish and Wildlife Service reported decimation to salmon spawning grounds, the death of 580,000 birds (including 144 bald
eagles), and the demise of an unknown, but presumably vast amount of sea life. The initial cleanup involved over 10,000 people
and cost more than $1 billion. Damages were estimated as high as $5 billion.
While the Valdez incident is still near the forefront of national consciousness, environmental crimes of all proportions are a
common occurrence. Such crimes range from ecological terrorism, like that waged against Kuwait by Saddam Hussein, to smallscale recycling offences which are frequently committed (sometimes unknowingly) by individual citizens. As ecological awareness
continues to expand, new prohibitions are legislated and previously unheard-of offences created. Today, a highly concerned
society stands increasingly ready to define abuse of the environment in criminal terms. As a consequence, words like "curbside
criminals," "recycling police," and "garbage crime" are becoming commonplace. The state of Pennsylvania, for example, recently
enacted a recycling law which mandates stiff sanctions, including fines and jail sentences for violators. Under the law, what had
formerly been routine daily activities (throwing out the trash) become criminal offences unless properly conducted (plastics and
glass separated from paper products, and lawn clippings and yard trash appropriately bagged).
While human beings have insulted the environment since before the dawn of history, it has only been in this century, as our
dependence on the planet has become progressively obvious, that such activities have been ascribed criminal status. Hence, the
question: What taken-for-granted aspects of our contemporary everyday lives will become subject to criminal sanctions in the
twenty-first century?

What, according to the author, is a social order offence :

(1) An act whereby damage to the individual and the family is not heavy.
(2) An act whereby the harm caused is not economic in nature.
(3) An act whereby the harm caused is not identifiable at the individual level.
(4) An act which reinforces the takenforgranted aspects of contemporary everyday lives.


Endangering the environment, as per the passage, has been accorded the criminal status because :
(1) the harmful effects on the environment have considerably affected life around.
(2) mans dependence on the earthy resources has become more pronounced.
(3) natures fury and wrath is feared the most.
(4) the gap between the haves and havenots has widened.




A fallout of the Valdez incident, as made out by the passage, is :

(1) the spread of the ecological awareness.
(2) legislation of new prohibitions and creation of offences unheard of.
(3) the measures worked out for promoting aquatic life.
(4) All except (3).

Valdez incident mentioned in the passage :

was an accident caused in circumstances which were unforeseen.
was bloated by the media and the environmentalist crusaders.
was an environmental catastrophe resulting in a massive economic loss.
was not punishable under the existing code of law.

Abuse of the environment is categorised as a criminal activity because :

(1) there is widespread pressure created by groups committed to preserve environment and ecology.
(2) the climate has undergone a sea change and has become unpredictable.
(3) activism was on the wane and formulation of laws and extending them to human activities had become imperative.
(4) people had to be shaken from their slumber and made to come out of the takenforgranted mindset.





The author has dealt the passage in a manner that is :

(1) eff ective
(2) imposing
(3) eulogising
A suitable title for the passage could be :
(1) Environmental Conservations.
(3) Crusade For Environmental Preservations A Fad.



Environmental Abuse Is A Crime.

Laws Are Not Effective To Curb Environmental Misuse.

Which of the following, if true, would go against the authors contention as conveyed in the passage ?
(1) Nature has her own ways in decimating and replenishing the resources present in earth.
(2) A sound legislation would be an effective check on mans exploits of environment.
(3) The takenforgranted mindset of man needs to be changed.
(4) None of the above.
The passage is, at best, an extract from :
(1) the representation of an NGO lobbying for ecological preservations.
(2) the thought provoking article in a magazine on Nature and Environment.
a (3)
directive given by the administration about the duties of a citizen to preserve the ecology and the consequences in
case of default.
(4) the excerpts of a petition challenging the law to treat abuse of environment as crime.

10. All

of the following, as per the passage, is false except that :

the Valdez incident did not arouse the required awareness in people.
social order offences are harmful to its victims.
a strict and an effective law followed by an exemplary punishment will serve as a deterrent.
Nature will cause havoc if man does not care for the environment.

A hundred years ago, when sport was confined largely to games played in the backyard or on the field, one could hardly have
imagined the attention that it has come to receive in the twentyfirst century. Today, the importance of sport in society is clearly
demonstrated by the fact that even the CBS Evening News can be preempted for the finals of a tennis match or the match for
grabbing the title of the Super Bowl. A survey conducted recently revealed that fully 81 percent of all adults follow some
organized sport, mostly on television. And the phenomenon of weekend "sports widows"women abandoned by their husbands
for weekend sports on televisionis entering its third generation.
Sport is defi ned sociologically as competitive physical activity that is performed under established rules. Like all social
institutions, sport serves numerous functions.
First, it provides society with a vast array of leisure-time activities for all segments of the population. Although it is an
overstatement to say that modern society is a leisure society, there has been a significant increase in the amount of nonwork time
that most people have available. Further, more recreational activity has become increasingly necessary in a society in which the
vast majority of jobs provide little or none on physical activity.
Second, sport provides an outlet for energies that, if not diverted, could cause serious strain on the social order. For both fan
and participant, sport permits the expression of emotions (such as anger and frustration) in ways that are acceptable to, even
encouraged by, society.
Finally, sport provides society with role models. Athletes at all levels, but especially famous athletes, provide (examples) of
conduct and employment of skills that others can emulate. For example, many children's heroes today are professional football
and baseball players.
Although sports promote many positive aspects of a society, conflict theorists are quick to point out that they also reflect
society's inequalities. Like most other social institutions, sports are characterized by inequalities of class, race, and gender.
For example certain sports-such as polo, tennis, and skiing-have traditionally appealed to the wealthy. People with lower
incomes often simply cannot afford to purchase and maintain horses or expensive tennis and ski equipment. Other sports-such as
boxing, which is often associated with urban povertyare distinctly lower class in origin and participation. In general, members of
the lower and working classes have tended to participate in sports like baseball and basketball: games that require little more
than a field, a ball, and some players.
Although sport is sometimes considered exempt from racial inequality, sociological evidence has shown this not to be the case.
Although it is true that nonwhites in Western society have enjoyed greater opportunities for high incomes in professional sports

than in other occupations, it is also true that virtually all managers and owners of sports teams are white. There are very few
nonwhite sportscasters, administrators, umpires, or referees. Furthermore, nonwhites are all but absent (even as players) from
all professional sports except baseball, basketball, boxing, and football.
The history of women in traditionally maleoriented sports is also one of discrimination and inequality. When the first modern
Olympic Games were held in 1896, women were virtually excluded from all forms of competition. Until fairly recently, girls were not
even allowed to play Little League baseball. But the position of women in sports is currently changing as a result of the women's
movement, court decisions, and governmental policies. Today many women excel not only in such traditional "female" sports as
gymnastics and figure skating but also in more aggressively "male" sports like race car driving and basketball.
11. Which of the following is not a function of sport, as stated in the passage ?
(1) It provides the required recreation which has become increasingly necessary in todays society.
(2) It creates the spirit of healthy competition needed for one to rise up higher in life.
(3) It is a medium for a nations honour and prestige to be seen and felt.
(4) All of the above.
12. Which of the following, if true, concurs best with what the author has to state in the passage ?
(1) Television has played a vital role in spreading the importance of sport in society.
(2) Sport is not exempt from racial and gender inequality.
(3) Role models are born of sport.
(4) All of the above.
13. The

expression sports widows, as used in the passage, best means :

women who have become widows on account of the death of their husbands in a sporting encounter.
widows who have sportsman like qualities and who need to be encouraged to participate in sports.
women who are neglected by their husbands preferring to stay glued to the television for week-end sports.
None of the above.

14. The performance of women until recently, as made out by the passage, has been :
(1) below average, their participation being only for namesake.
discouraging due to the interference of court decisions, governmental policies and resistance by womens movement.
(3) subdued on account of prevailing discriminatory attitude on grounds of gender.
(4) poor on account of the inhibitions present in women and is their own doing.
15. Which of the following is refuted by the passage ?
( 1) Sports promote many positive aspects of society.
(2) Sports become the ready outlet for pent up emotions of anger and frustration.
(3) Sports is not an avenue of leisure and recreation, it involves undue strain and stress.
(4)S ports are responsible for players and participants becoming subjected to hero worship by the citizens of the country
they represent.
16. The

passage has portrayed sportsmen as :

money making individuals.
promoters of the organisations that employ them or are in contract with them.
socialites working for a public cause but having political leanings.
role models whose conduct and use of skills are emulatory.

17. The contents of the passage are not :

(1) informative
(2) uptodate



18. A suitable title for the passage could be :

(1) Sport As A Social Institution.
(3) Ethics Governing Sportsmen.


Sports Administration.
Towards Excellence In Sports.

19. The



passage has not ruled out sports as creating :

a feeling of unity among the people.
a sense of patriotism in playing for the nation.
a rift in the economic haves and have-nots.
a better ability to manage and administer things.

20. Sports, as per the passage, has given rise to racial inequality by :
(1) not allowing the Black people to play with the White people.
(2)the team representing the country consisting of White people not competing with the team representing the country
consisting of Black people.
(3)appointing White people to the posts of managers of sports teams, newscasters, administrators, umpires and referees.
(4) paying more to Black players than White ones.