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QCS 2014

Contents

Page 1

CONTENTS

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SECTION 2
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4
Part 5
Part 6
Part 7
Part 8
Part 9
Part 10
Part 11
Part 12
Part 13
Part 14
Part 15

GENERAL
Introduction
Use and Maintenance of the Site
Site Access and Entry onto the Site
Protection
Interference
Project Meetings
Submittals
Building Demolition
Materials
Occupational Health and Safety
Engineers Site Facilities
Contractors Site Facilities
Setting Out of the Works
Temporary Works and Equipment
Temporary Controls
Traffic Diversions
Project Co-ordination
Other Contractors
Regulatory Requirements
Clearance of the Site
Final Inspection and Handover Procedures
New Technologies and Innovations
Design and Supervision Consultant Quality Requirement
Construction Dewatering

SECTION 1
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4
Part 5
Part 6
Part 7
Part 8
Part 9
Part 10
Part 11
Part 12
Part 13
Part 14
Part 15
Part 16
Part 17
Part 18
Part 19
Part 20
Part 21
Part 22
Part 23
Part 24

QUALITY ASSURANCE AND QUALITY CONTROL


General
Submittals
Contractors Quality Personnel
Document and Data Control
Quality Records
Quality Audits
Inspection And Test
Materials
Nonconformance Monitoring
Laboratories
Site Meetings And Reports
Failure By The Contractor To Meet Acceptable Quality Performance
Suspension of Work
APPENDIX A Sampling and Testing Frequencies
APPENDIX B Templates
(Contractors Project Quality Plan Template, Contractors Inspection And Test
Plan Template, and Quality Non-conformance Template)

Contents

Page 2

GROUND INVESTIGATION
General
Boreholes
Pits and Trenches
Soil Sampling
in-Situ Testing, Instrumentation and Monitoring
Laboratory Testing

SECTION 4
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4
Part 5

Foundations and Retaining Structures


General Requirements for Piling Work
Concrete Works for Piling
Shadow Foundations
Deep Foundations
Retaining Structures

SECTION 5
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4
Part 5
Part 6
Part 7
Part 8
Part 9
Part 10
Part 11
Part 12
Part 13
Part 14
Part 15
Part 16
Part 17
Part 18
Part 19
Part 20

CONCRETE
General
Aggregates
Cementitious Materials
Water
Admixtures
Property Requirements
Concrete Plants
Transportation and Placing Of Concrete
Formwork
Curing
Reinforcement
Joints
Inspection and Testing Of Hardened Concrete
Protective Treatments for Concrete
Hot Weather Concreting
Miscellaneous
Structural Precast Concrete
Prestressed Concrete
Testing of Water Retaining Structures
Personnel Qualifications and Certification

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SECTION 3
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4
Part 5
Part 6

SECTION 6
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4
Part 5
Part 6
Part 7
Part 8
Part 9

QCS 2014

ROADWORKS
General
Site Clearance
Earthworks
Unbound Pavement Materials
Asphalt Works
Concrete Road Pavements
Asphalt Plants
Recycled and Stabilised Road Materials
Recycled Aggregate for Roadworks

Contents

Page 3

Vehicle Crash Barriers


Kerbs, Footways and Paved Areas
Fencing
Traffic Signs, Markings and Studs
Works in Relation To Services
Road Lighting
Traffic Signals
Road Drainage
Geosynthetics
Miscellaneous

SECTION 7
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4
Part 5
Part 6

GREEN CONSTRUCTIONS
Introduction
Global Sustainability Assessment System - GSAS
Energy
Water [W]
Indoor Environment
Cultural and Economic Value

SECTION 8
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4
Part 5
Part 6
Part 7
Part 8
Part 9
Part 10
Part 11
Part 12

DRAINAGE WORKS
General
Earthworks
Pipes and Fittings Materials
Pipeline Installation
Valves, Penstocks and Appurtenances
Miscellaneous Metal Works
Miscellaneous GRP Works
Protective Coatings and Painting
Trenchless Pipeline Construction
Pipelines Cleaning and Inspection Survey
Sewer Rehabilitation
Vacuum Sewerage System

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Part 10
Part 11
Part 12
Part 13
Part 14
Part 15
Part 16
Part 17
Part 18
Part 19

SECTION 9
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4
Part 5
Part 6
Part 7
Part 8
Part 9
Part 10
Part 11
Part 12
Part 13
Part 14

QCS 2014

MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT


General
Submersible Pumps
Centrifugal Pumps (Dry Well)
Centrifugal Pumps (Split Casing)
Archimedian Screw Pumps
Surge Control System
Lifting Equipment
Electric and Pneumatic Actuators
Odour Control Equipment-Carbon Type
Odour Control Equipment-Scrubber Type
Screening Equipment
Grit Removal Equipment
Aeration Equipment
Air Blowers and Compressors

QCS 2014

Contents

Page 4

Settlement Tank Equipment


Tertiary Treatment Granular Filters
Sludge Thickening and Dewatering Equipment
Mixers and Stirrers
Chlorination Plant Equipment
Washwater Systems
Miscellaneous Equipment
Ventilation Systems

SECTION 10
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4
Part 5

INSTRUMENTATION, CONTROL AND AUTOMATION


General
Telemetry/SCADA
Primary Elements
Panel Mounted and Miscellaneous Instruments
Control Panels and Control Room Hardware

SECTION 11
Part 1
Part 2

HEALTH & SAFETY


Regulatory Document
Safety and Accident Prevention Management / Administration System
(SAMAS)

SECTION 12
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4
Part 5

EARTHWORKS RELATED TO BUILDINGS


General
Excavations
Filling
Utility Trenches
Installation of Protective Membranes

SECTION 13
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4
Part 5

MASONRY
General
Mortar and Grout
Accessories
Unit Masonry
Masonry Laying

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Part 15
Part 16
Part 17
Part 18
Part 19
Part 20
Part 21
Part 22

SECTION 14
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4
Part 5

ROOFING
General
Membrane Roofing
Metal and Plastic Roofing
Roof and Deck Insulation
Roofing Tiles

SECTION 15
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3

SECTION 15 INSULATION OF BUILDINGS


General
Building Insulation
Cold Stores

Contents

Page 5

STRUCTURAL STEELWORKS
General
Materials
Drawings
Fabrication
Welding
Bolting
Accuracy of Fabrication
Erection
Accuracy of Erected Steelwork
Protective Treatment

SECTION 17
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4
Part 5
Part 6

METALWORK
General
Materials Classification
Metal Doors and Windows
Architectural Metal Work
Light Metal Support and Cladding Support
Workmanship

SECTION 18
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4
Part 5
Part 6
Part 7

CARPENTRY, JOINERY AND IRONMONGERY


General
Wood Treatment
Structural Timber (Rough Carpentry)
Architectural Timber (Finished Carpentry, Millwork)
Joinery
Fasteners and Adhesives
Ironmongery (Hardware)

SECTION 19
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4
Part 5
Part 6
Part 7

PLUMBING WORK
General
Water Distribution
Plumbing Pipework in Trenches
Cold Water Storage
Hot Water Storage
Commissioning of Systems
Plumbing for Gases

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SECTION 16
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4
Part 5
Part 6
Part 7
Part 8
Part 9
Part 10

SECTION 20
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4
Part 5
Part 6
Part 7

QCS 2014

DRAINAGE WORKS FOR BUILDINGS


General
Internal Drainage Works
External Drainage Works
Drainage Pipes in Trenches
Structures Related To Drainage Work
Surface Water Drainage
Commissioning Of Systems

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ELECTRICAL WORKS
General Provisions for Electrical Installation
MV Factory Built Assemblies (FBAs)
Protective Devices
Motor Starters
Low Voltage Variable Speed Controllers
Cables and Small Wiring
Conduits and Conduit Boxes
Trunking
Cable Trays
Wiring Accessories and General Power
Light Fittings
Emergency Lighting
Telephone Installations
Structured Cabling Systems
Electric Motors
Power Factor Correction Capacitors
Standby Diesel Generator Set
Uninterruptible Power Supply Systems
Sound and Call Systems
Elevators/Escalators
Lightning Protection
Earthing and Bonding
Inspection and Testing
Documentation Format
Electrical Identification
Electromagnetic Compatibility
Battery and Battery Charger
Small Enclosures
Underfloor Ducts
Duct Bank and Manholes
Power Distribution Transformers
11 kv Switchgear
Actuators
HV Variable Frequency Drive

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SECTION 21
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4
Part 5
Part 6
Part 7
Part 8
Part 9
Part 10
Part 11
Part 12
Part 13
Part 14
Part 15
Part 16
Part 17
Part 18
Part 19
Part 20
Part 21
Part 22
Part 23
Part 24
Part 25
Part 26
Part 27
Part 28
Part 29
Part 30
Part 31
Part 32
Part 33
Part 34

Contents

QCS 2014

SECTION 22
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4
Part 5
Part 6
Part 7
Part 8
Part 9

AIR CONDITIONING, REFRIGERATION AND VENTILATION


General
Central Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Equipment
Unitary Equipment
Air Handling Equipment
Chilled Water Pipework
Ductwork and Air-Side Equipment
Thermal Insulation
Exhaust Fans
Accessories

SECTION 23
Part 1
Part 2

FIRE FIGHTING AND FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS


General
Fire Alarm and Detection Systems

QCS 2014

Contents

Page 7

Analogue Addressable Fire Alarm Systems


Fire Fighting System
Testing and Commissioning

SECTION 24
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4
Part 5
Part 6
Part 7
Part 8
Part 9
Part 10
Part 11
Part 12
Part 13
Part 14

FINISHES TO BUILDINGS
General
Lath and Plaster
Dry Lining (Wall Board)
Special Wall Surfaces
Tiles
Terrazzo
Stone Flooring
Unit Masonry Flooring
Floor Screeds and Treatments
Joints, Caulking and Sealants
Recessed Duct Covers
Carpeting
Other Floor Coverings
Ceilings

SECTION 25
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4

GLASS AND GLAZING


General
Glass
Workmanship
Glazed Curtain Walling System

SECTION 26
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4

PAINTING AND DECORATING


General
Surface Preparation for Painting
Primers, Paints and Coatings
Wall Coverings of Decorative Papers/Fabrics

SECTION 27
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4
Part 5
Part 6
Part 7
Part 8
Part 9

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Part 3
Part 4
Part 5

SECTION 28
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3

EXTERNAL WORKS
General
Block Paved Areas
Fences and Gates
Fountains and Aquatic Features
Site Furniture
Flag Poles
Protective or Shade Cover Systems
Play Field and Park Equipment
Miscellaneous Other External Works
LANDSCAPING
Landscape Planting
Landscape Irrigation System
Play Equipment General Specification

QCS 2014

Contents
RAILWAYS
Design Related Issues Aspects
Site Clearance
Geotechnical Specifications
Tunnel
Cut and cover Structure
Earthworks and Roadworks
Concrete Structures
Steel Structures
Drainage
Railway Track
Monitoring and Instrumentation
Survey and Setting Out

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SECTION 29
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4
Part 5
Part 6
Part 7
Part 8
Part 9
Part 10
Part 11
Part 12

Page 8

QCS 2014

Introduction

Page 1

INTRODUCTION
The purpose of the technical regulation QS 27/2014 [Qatar Construction Specifications 2014 (QCS2014)] is to provide technical guidance in connection with the execution of constructions in the State of
Qatar. Such guidance includes the establishment of the minimum acceptable material quality and
workmanship for those kinds of work which commonly occur in engineered projects in the State of
Qatar.
Qatar Construction Specifications 2014 (QCS 2014) supersedes Qatar National Construction
Standards 2010 (QCS 2010) in all respects.

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While working earnestly to benefit from new engineering developments, Laboratories and
Standardisation Affairs in the Ministry of Environment requests that all those undertaking works
projects in the State of Qatar to implement the specifications contained herein.

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We welcome any observations, suggestions or additions for future issues.

QCS 2014

Document History

Page 1

DOCUMENT HISTORY
The purpose of the Document History is to record changes to Qatar Construction Specifications. In the
event of a revision to the technical regulation, Laboratories and Standardisation Affairs in the Ministry
of Environment will issue the amended pages and re-issue the Document History.
The Document History pages should contain a description of the change, the issue reference and the
date of issue as noted below. The updated Document History should replace the superseded history
and the revised pages of the technical regulation should be placed in the appropriate position in the
technical regulation.
The technical regulation QS 27/2007 [Qatar National Construction Standards 2007 (QCS 2007)]
replaces Qatar Construction Specification 2002 (QCS 2002) and it supersedes in all respects.

The technical regulation QS 27/2010 [Qatar Construction Specifications 2010 (QCS 2010)]
replaces the technical regulation QS 27/2007 [Qatar National Construction Standards 2007
(QCS 2007)] and it supersedes in all respects.

Further, the technical regulation QS 27/2014 [Qatar Construction Specifications 2014 (QCS
2014)] replaces the technical regulation QS 27/2010 [Qatar Construction Specifications 2010
(QCS 2010)] and it supersedes in all respects.

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Description

Date

Original Issue

April 2000

Qatar Construction Specification 2002

Revision I

November 2002

Qatar National Construction Standards 2007

Revision II

July 2007

Qatar Construction Specifications 2010

Revision III

March 2011

Qatar Construction Specifications 2014

Revision IV

October 2014

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Qatar Construction Specification

Issue

QCS 2014

Acknowledgements

Page 1

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

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The Qatar Construction Specifications (QCS 2014) has been drawn upon the technical knowledge and
experience of a number of Governmental Ministries, Departments and Authorities in the State of
Qatar. The QCS technical committee and associated subcommittees whose members are
acknowledged below spearheaded the current revision of QCS 2014.

Eng. Khalid Al-Emadi


Chairman of QCS
Manager of Q&S Dept. Ashghal

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Dr. Mohammed Saif Al-Kuwari


Assistant Undersecretary
Ministry of Environment

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Abdul Hameed M. Al-Yahri


Sec. of the committee
Ministry of Environment

Yousef Mahmoud Ahmed Nooh


Asst. Sec. of the committee
H/ of the Documents Editing
Quality Supervisor -Ashghal

Meshal Saoud Al Mesallam


Ministry Of Energy & Trade

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Nasser Al- Naimi


Deputy Chairman of QCS
Ministry of Environment

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Technical Committee for Preparing and Development of QCS

Dr. Noureddin Daas

Moaaz Hashim

Dr. Khaled Hassan

Osman Elhussien

Chairperson of Concrete Committee


Ministry of Environment

Chairperson of Road Committee


Member of: Rail committee
Quality Expert - Ashghal

Member of Concrete Committee


TRL

Chairperson of Rail Committee


Member of Road committee
Quality Researcher - Ashghal

Sharif Mohamed
Chairperson of Drainage Committee
Member of Rail Sub-committee
Design Engineer- Ashghal

Gareth Thomas
Chairperson of: Quality Committee
Quality Assurance & Quality
Control Expert - Ashghal

Ehab G Saleh
Chairperson of: Safety Committee
Safety Specialist - Ashghal

QCS 2014

Acknowledgements

Page 2

Sub Committees Members

Adel M. Quraan
Reviewers
CH2M HILL

Adrian Black
Safety Committee
MWH

Ahmed Mohd. Sayd


Concrete Committee
Ministry of Environment

Allan McEwan
Quality Committee
KBR

Ahmed Sami
Roads Committee
Ashghal

Amr Elmotasem
Concrete Committee
AEB

Arthur Hannah
Roads Committee
(TRL) London

David Matyus
Concrete Committee
QPMC

David Lewis
Roads Committee
AMEY

Dick Steer
Drainage Committee
Ashghal

Dr.Hany Mohamed
Reviewers
Ashghal

Effrosyni Plexousaki
Quality Committee
ANAS

Elie Khairallah
Concrete Committee
ACTS

Essam El Sarag
Green Building
GORD

Fatih Trk
Concrete&RailCommittee
Mace / EC Harris

Fraser McCaskill
Quality Committee
Mace / EC Harris

Gary Cook
Roads Committee
ANAS

Ghaleb Al Zubi
Reviewers
ACES

Gireesh Babu
Concrete Committee
QDC

Hazem Abdel Rahman


Roads Committee
Ashghal

Huw Woodyatt
Roads Committee
Exova

Issam A. Sarhan
Website Developer
MOE

Jaafar. Al-Aloosi
Concrete Committee
Ashghal

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Abdulrahim Sukik
Concrete Committee
ACES

Jaafer Mohammed
Roads Committee
MOE

Jose Vellattukudy
Drainage Committee
Ashghal

Karunarathna T A
Drainage Committee
Ashghal

Karen OSullivan
Roads Committee
FUGRO

Kim Catrambone
Roads Committee
Parsons Brinckerhoff

Konstantinos k
Roads Committee
Ashghal

Martin Cahalan
Quality Committee
AMEY

Mathhar Mustafa
Concrete Committee
Hilti Qatar

Markus Kretschmer
Concrete&RailCommittee
Qatar Rail

Melina Davies
Roads Committee
Parsons Brinckerhoff

Mohammed Adil
Document Controller
Ashghal

Mohammed Al-Yahri
Drainage Committee
Ashghal

QCS 2014

Acknowledgements

Page 3

Mohanasundaram
Concrete Committee
QDC

Michael De Roos
Safety Committee
Ashghal

Michelle Magbojos
Roads Committee
Ashghal

Neil Courtman
Quality Committee
Mace

Neil Kirkpatrick
Green Building
Parsons Brinckerhoff

Nicholas Ray
Quality Committee
CH2MHill

Packiaraj
Drainage Committee
Ashgha

Petru Ghicu
Drainage Committee
Ashghal

Peter E. Sebaaly
Roads Committee
ANAS

Peter Latham
Concrete Committee
ReadyMix

Peter Sutton
Safety Committee
AMEY

Rabih Boukaidbey
Concrete Committee
ACTS

Rania Hashim Abadi


Roads Committee
Ashghal

Rawshan Haniffa
Document Controller
Ashghal

Rabih Fakih
Concrete Committee
GREY MATTERS

Rolando Matias
Quality Committee
Parsons Brinckerhoff

Roy Cupples
Roads Committee
Ashghal

Salah Mousa
Safety Committee
Ministry of Labor

Richard James Ellis


Roads Committee
Gulf Laboratories

Robert Overett
Roads Committee
Parsons Brinckerhoff

Saleem Purayil Purayil


Document Controller
Ashghal

Shyam Sundar
Concrete Committee
QDC

Sheik Pahary
Safety Committee
QPM

Subrato Mukherjee
Concrete Committee
QDC

Srinivasan Samiappan
Concrete Committee
QDC l

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Mohamed El sherbiny
Green Building
Ashghal

Tom Baines
Safety Committee
EC Harris

Yasser Berzan
Safety Committee
Ashghal

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Acknowledgements

Page 4

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QCS 2014

Ministry of Environment
Dr Mohamed Saif Al-Kuwari
Undersecretary Assistant of MoE

Preparing and Development of Qatar Building Code Committee


Technical Committee for Preparing and Development of QCS

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ORGANIZATIONAL CHART

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Eng. Khalid Al-Emadi


Chairman of QCS

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Nasser Al-Naimi
Deputy Chairman of QCS

Abdul Hameed M. Al-Yahri, Yousef Mahmoud Ahmed Nooh, Gareth H. Thomas, Noureddin Daas, Moaaz Hashim, Osman Elhussien, Sharif Mohamed, Ehab Saleh

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Sub Committees

QUALITY

Gareth H. Thomas
Effrosyni Plexousaki
Neil Courtman
Allan McEwan
Martin Cahalan
Nicholas Ray
Rolando Matias
Fraser McCaskill

CONCRETE
Noureddin Daas
Khaled Hassan
Jaafar Isam S. Al-Aloosi
Rabih Fakih
David Matyus
Peter Latham
Gireesh Babu.K.M
Srinivasan Samiappan
Shyam Sundar Rajaram
Mohanasundaram Rangasamy
Ahmed Mohamed El Sayd
Amr Elmotasem Elkady
Abdulrahim Mohammed
Mathhar Ghazi Mustafa
Sabet Hajem Ibrahi
Elie Khairallah
Subrato Mukherjee
Rabih Bahij Boukaidbey
Fatih Trk

ROADS

GREEN BUILDING

DRAINAGE

SAFETY

RAIL

Moaaz Hashim
Osman Elhussien
Jaafer Mohammed Al Saidi
Gary Cook
Huw Woodyatt
Richard James Ellis
Arthur Hannah
Khaled Hassan
Michelle Magbojos

Khalid Al- Emadi


Noureddin Daas
Mohamed El sherbiny
Essam El Sarag
Neil Kirkpatrick

Sharif Mohamed
Dick Steer
Mohammed Homoud Al-Yahri
Petru Ghicu
Jose Vellattukudy
Packiaraj Thangaswamy
Karunarathna T A. Kithsiri

Ehab Saleh
Yasser Berzan
Peter Sutton
Tom Baines
Salah Mousa
Michael De Roos
Adrian Black
Sheik Pahary

Osman Elhussien
Moaaz Hashim
Sharif Mohamed
Markus Kretschmer
Fatih Turk

Contributors to
Road Section
Peter E. Sebaaly
Karen OSullivan
Konstantinos Kanellaidis
Recycling
Robert Overett
Moaaz Hashim
Osman Elhussien
Gary Cook
Ahmed Sami Sayed Abbas

Road Lighting Work Group

Website Developer

Kim Catrambone
Melina Davies
Hazem Abdel Rahman
David Lewis
Roy Cupples
Rania Hashim Al-Abadi

Issam A. Sarhan

Reviewers

Document Controllers

Dr.Hany Mohamed
Ghaleb Al Zubi
Adel M. Quraan

Yousef Mahmoud Nooh


Saleem Puthiya Purayil
Mohammed Adil
Rawshan Haniffa

QCS 2014

Feedback

Page 1

FEEDBACK
It is intended that the technical regulation, Qatar Construction Specifications (QCS), will be amended
periodically. Any suggestions for amendments to Qatar Construction Specifications should be sent to
Laboratories and Standardisation Affairs in the Ministry of Environment.
By post:

The Coordinator
Qatar Construction Specifications 2014
Laboratories & Standardisation Affairs
Ministry of Environment
PO Box 23277
Doha, Qatar

By e-mail:

qcs@moe.gov.qa

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Section number and title


Part number and title
Clause and paragraph number
Page
Your name and contact details

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Please ensure that the following information are included in all correspondences:

Please use the following feedback form where possible and applicable.

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QCS 2014 Feedback

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Section name and title

Clause and paragraph number

Comments / Suggestions / Technical Justifications

Date

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Name and contact details

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Part name and title

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
01: Introduction

Page1

INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................... 2

1.1

GENERAL ...................................................................................................... 2

1.1.1
1.1.2
1.1.3
1.1.4

Scope of this Section


Scope of the Qatar Construction Specification
References
Precedence of Specification and Documents

1.2

COMPLIANCE ............................................................................................... 3

1.2.1
1.2.2

Compliance with the Qatar Construction Specification


Compliance with the General Conditions of Contract

1.3

STANDARDS ................................................................................................. 3

1.3.1
1.3.2
1.3.3

References to Standards
3
Government Published Specifications, Regulations, Notices and Circulars 3
Survey Marks
5

1.4

TERMS AND DEFINITIONS .......................................................................... 5

1.4.1
1.4.2
1.4.3
1.4.4
1.4.5
1.4.6
1.4.7
1.4.8
1.4.9
1.4.10
1.4.11
1.4.12
1.4.13
1.4.14
1.4.15
1.4.16
1.4.17
1.4.18
1.4.19
1.4.20
1.4.21
1.4.22

General
Approved
Contract
Contract Documents
Contractor
Drawings
Engineer
Engineers Representative
Government
Government Departments and Utility Services
Guarantee
Independent Agency
Owner
Permanent Works
Plant
Project Documentation
Singular and Plural
Site
Specifications
Specified
Temporary Works
Works

1.5

ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS ............................................................... 7

1.5.1
1.5.2

General
Site Conditions

1.6

LANGUAGE ................................................................................................. 10

1.6.1

Contract Language

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QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
01: Introduction

Page2

INTRODUCTION

1.1

GENERAL

1.1.1

Scope of this Section

This Section specifies the general clauses applicable to Works being carried out in
accordance with this Specification.

1.1.2

Scope of the Qatar Construction Specification

The clauses in this Specification are applicable to each and every part of the Works. Their
function is to bring together all those statements which are normally common to most types
of work.

The Qatar Construction Specification applies to the entire Works, whether on the Site or in
yards, workshops and factories employed elsewhere in connection with the Works.

1.1.3

References

The following standards are referred to in this Part:

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BS 6100......................Building and civil engineering: Vocabulary

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BS ISO 80000 ............Quantities and Units

BS EN 1991-1-4 .........Eurocode 1. Actions on structures. General actions. Wind actions

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BS EN 1992-1-1 .........Eurocode 2. Design of concrete structures. General rules and rules for
buildings

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ASCE/SEI 7-05...........Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and other Structures


Guide to the Design of Concrete Structures in the Arabian Peninsula, 2008

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Seismic hazard and seismic design requirements for the Arabian Peninsula region. The 14th
World Conference on Earthquake Engineering October 2008

Civil Aviation Authority wind records. Ministry of Communication & Transport, Department of
Civil Aviation & Meterology.
1.1.4

Precedence of Specification and Documents

The precedence of documents shall be:


(a)

Particular Conditions of Contract.

(b)

General Conditions of Contract.

(c)

Project Specific Specification.

(d)

Project Specific and General Drawings.

(e)

Qatar Construction Specification.

QCS 2014

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Page3

COMPLIANCE

1.2.1

Compliance with the Qatar Construction Specification

Unless otherwise stated in the Project Documentation, the Contractor shall comply with every
requirement of the Qatar Construction Specification that is relevant to the type of work
forming any part of the Contract and shall adopt whichever permissible option or alternative
that is best suited to the needs of the construction work being undertaken.

Any information in the Contract documents as to the whereabouts of existing services and
mains is approximate and for the guidance of the Contractor who shall not be relieved of his
obligations under of the General Conditions of Contract .

1.2.2

Compliance with the General Conditions of Contract

The Qatar Construction Specification is intended for use with the General Conditions of
Contract.

The Contractor shall comply with the provisions of the General Conditions of Contract in the
course of construction of the Works.

1.3

STANDARDS

1.3.1

References to Standards

Any standard referred to in this Specification shall be deemed to be the version and/or
standard(s), that was current forty-two days prior to the date of return of Tenders.

Any standard referred to in this Specification shall be taken as a reference to an equivalent


Specification.

The Contractor shall have copies of all referenced standards applicable to the work being
undertaken. Translations of standards not written in English shall be provided where
necessary.

1.3.2

Government Published Specifications, Regulations, Notices and Circulars

The works shall be executed in accordance with the following Government specifications,
regulations, notices and circulars:

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1.2

(a)

The General Conditions of Contract.

(b)

The Qatar Construction Specification (QCS) issued by the Qatar Standards,


Laboratories and Standardisation Affairs, Ministry of Environment, 2014 and all
revisions and addenda issued by the same ministry prior to the date of the
announcement inviting tenderer.

(c)

The Code of Practice and Specification for Road Openings in the Highway prepared by
the Ministry of Industry & Public Works, January 1992.

(d)

The Guide for Civil Users of Explosives in Qatar prepared by the former Ministry of
Public Works.

(e)

The Qatar Survey Manual prepared by the Survey Section of the former Ministry of
Industry & Public Works.

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
01: Introduction

Page4

The Qatar Traffic Manual prepared by the former Ministry of Public Works and the
Qatar Highway Design Manual prepared by MMAA, 1997.

(g)

The Traffic Control at Road Works Manual issued by the former Ministry of Industry &
Public Works.

(h)

Rules, Regulations and Code of Practice for Design and Installation of Air
Conditioning, Heating, Ventilation & Refrigeration (ACHVR) Systems for Government
Buildings, 2nd Edition, 1989, prepared by Qatar General Electricity and Water
Corporation (QGEWC).

(i)

Regulations for the Installation of Electrical Wiring by the former Qatar National
Telephone Services.

(j)

The Regulations for the Installation of Electrical Wiring, Electrical Equipment and Air
Conditioning Equipment, Feb 2006 Edition prepared by the Qatar General Electricity
and Water Corporation (QGEWC).

(k)

Rules and Regulations for Plumbing Works prepared by the Qatar General Electricity
and Water Corporation (QGEWC).

(l)

Any current and relevant regulations, notices or circulars issued by the Public Works
Authority, Ministry of Municipal Affairs & Agriculture (including the previous Ministry of
Public Works and the previous Ministry of Industry and Public Works), Qatar General
Electricity and Water Corporation (QGEWC) (including the previous Ministry of
Electricity and Water), Qatar Telecom (Q-TEL), the Qatar Standards, the Supreme
Council for the Environment and Natural Reserves or the appropriate local Municipality
prior to the date of the announcement inviting tenderer.

(m)

State of Qatar Law No. 30 of 2002 and all subsequent amendments concerning The
Environment and Natural Resources Protection Articles 6, 17, 19 & 35.

(n)

State of Qatar Law No. (6) of 1987 and all subsequent amendments concerning
Materials and Equipment from Qatar or other CCASG countries.

(o)

The Method of Measurement for Road and Bridgeworks published by the Ministry of
Industry and Public Works, Civil Engineering Department , 1987.

(p)

Standard Method of Measurement of Building Works published by the Ministry of


Public Works, Engineering Services Department, 1973.

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Safety Rules issued by the Electricity Networks Department of the former Ministry of
Electricity and Water.

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(f)

(r)

The Jointing Manual prepared by the Electricity Networks Department of the former
Ministry of Electricity and Water.

(s)

The Labour Law, No. (14) of The Year 2004 Published by Labour Department of
Ministry of Civil Service Affairs & Housing, 2005.

(t)

Developers Drainage Guide prepared by the Public Works Authority, 2007.

(u)

Qatar Traffic Law No. 19 of the Year 2007.

(v)

CDD (Civil Defence Department) Fire Safety Handbook.

(w)

Civil Defence Law No. 9 of the Year 2012.

(x)

Worker Rights Booklet 2009 (National Human Rights Committee).

The Contractor shall be deemed to have his own copy of the Government specifications,
regulations, notices and circulars given at (a) to (t) above.

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


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Page5

Where any standard publication, specification, regulation, notice, etc or any correspondence
refers to a Government Ministry, department, division, section, etc it will be deemed to be the
same as any successor Ministry, department, division, section, etc which has or may
subsequently be officially promulgated by the Government of the State of Qatar.

1.3.3

Survey Marks

The Contractor shall consult the Engineer prior to any earth or other works to determine if the
work is likely to disturb survey marks. If the Engineer requires a survey mark to be moved
the Contractor will be responsible for recreating the survey mark to an approved design and
specification, and for resurveying the point using survey companies approved by the
Engineer authority.

The Contractor shall be responsible for the protection of the survey marks within the
boundaries of the site for the duration of the contract period, and shall be liable for all costs of
any remedial work required by the Engineer.

On the practical completion of the Works the Engineer will issue a certificate stating that all
survey marks, whether disturbed or otherwise by the Contractor, have been reinstated or
protected to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

In the event of failure to comply with the requirements of this Clause the Engineer, without
prejudice to any other method of recovery, may deduct the costs of any remedial work after
the practical completion date carried out by the Engineer, from any monies in its hands or
which may become due to the Contractor.

1.4

TERMS AND DEFINITIONS

1.4.1

General

The following terms and conditions shall apply when used within, or in association with, the
Qatar Construction Specification. Terms, which are restricted in their application to certain
types of material or workmanship, are dealt with in the appropriate Section.

The definitions given in the General Conditions of Contract shall apply to this specification.

1.4.2

Approved

means terms such as approved, approved by, to the approval, as directed and the like
refer always to approval or directions given by the Engineer in writing.

1.4.3

Contract

means the binding agreement entered into between the parties and the Contractor for the
construction of the Works.

1.4.4

Contract Documents

means documents which together form the Contract

1.4.5

Contractor

means the party responsible for the construction of the Works.

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QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
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Page6

Drawings

The drawings included in the Project Documentation.

1.4.7

Engineer

means the party appointed by the Owner to administer the Contract

1.4.8

Engineers Representative

means the party appointed from time to time by the Engineer to perform duties on behalf of
the Engineer whose authority and delegated powers shall be notified in writing to the
Contractor by the Engineer.

1.4.9

Government

means the Government of the State of Qatar, including its ministries and offices

1.4.10

Government Departments and Utility Services

means any governmental, semi-governmental, administrative, fiscal or judicial ministry,


department, commission, authority, tribunal, agency, municipality or body, and shall include
the provider of electricity, gas, water, wastewater and other public services, and any party
with a regulatory function under the laws of the State of Qatar.

1.4.11

Guarantee

A Guarantee is a written assurance that a material, product, component, item of equipment,


finishing or any other part of the Works meets certain defined standards or quality criteria
and/or lasts for a certain length of time.

A warranty is the same as a Guarantee as defined in Clause 1.4.17.1.

1.4.12

Independent Agency

means a party where specified in the Contract Documents or as instructed by the Engineer
as an Approved agency who is responsible for specific tasks assigned to that party by the
Contract Documents

1.4.13

Owner

means the party for whom the Project is being undertaken and to whom the handover of the
final product will be made.

1.4.14

Permanent Works

means the permanent works, forming part of the Works, to be designed and / or executed
and completed by the Contractor under the Contract.

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1.4.6

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
01: Introduction

Page7

Plant

means, irrespective of ownership, all plant, facilities, temporary structures and


accommodation, equipment, tools, appliances, apparatus, machinery, vehicles and other
things required for the design, execution and completion of the Works and the remedying of
defects, whether imported or locally supplied, but excluding Temporary Works and any other
things intended to form or forming part of the Permanent Works

1.4.16

Project Documentation

All documents associated with and applicable to the Project Contract.

1.4.17

Singular and Plural

Words importing the singular only also include the plural vice versa where the context
requires.

1.4.18

Site

Means the places provided by the Owner where the permanent works are to be executed and
to which Plant and Materials are to be delivered, any other places that may be specified in the
Contract Documents or by an instruction of the Engineer as forming part of the Site

1.4.19

Specifications

All specifications contained in the Contract including any modifications or additions thereto as
may from time to time be issued or approved in writing by the Engineer.

1.4.20

Specified

Specified in the Project Documentation.

1.4.21

Temporary Works

means temporary works of every kind (other than Plant) required on the Site for the execution
and completion of the Permanent Works and the remedying of Defects.

1.4.22

Works

means all works, supplies and services of any kind, including Permanent Works and
Temporary Works, required for the project and to satisfy the requirements of the Contract
Documents.

1.5

ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS

1.5.1

General

Units shall generally be in accordance with the Systm International dUnits and the relevant
provisions of BS ISO 80000

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1.4.15

QCS 2014

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microns
ampere
Celsius
centi
day
diameter
gram (me)
hour
hectare
joule
kilo
litre
mega
metre
milli
Newton
number
number
Pascal
radius
second
tonne
volt
Watt

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A
C
c
d
dia
g
h
ha
J
k
l
M
m
m
N
No.
nr
Pa
r
sec
t
V
W

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American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials


American Concrete Institute
American National Standards Institute
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
American Society for Testing & Materials
American Welding Society
American Water Works Association
British Standard
British Standard Institution
Cement and Concrete Association
Commission of approval of Electrical Equipment
Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers
Concrete Industry Research and Information Association
Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute
Concrete Society
Deutsches Institute fur Normung (German Institute for Standardization)
Electronic Industries Association
European Standards (Euro-Norm)
Federal Highway Authority
Factory Mutual Engineering Division
Gulf Standards
Institution of Civil Engineers
International Electrotechnical Commission
Institution of Electrical Engineers

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AASHTO
ACI
ANSI
ASME
ASTM
AWS
AWWA
BS
BSI
C & CA
CEE
CIBSE
CIRIA
CRSI
CS
DIN
EIA
EN
FHWA
FM
GS
ICE
IEC
IEE

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Reference to a technical society, institution, association or governmental authority is made in


the Specifications in accordance with the following abbreviations:

Page8

The following abbreviations are used in this Specification:

Section 01: General


Part
01: Introduction

Section 01: General


Part
01: Introduction

IEEE
ISO
LPC
LPCB
MMAA
NEMA
NFPA
PCI
PWA
QCS
QGEWC
QS

Page9

Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineering


International Organization for Standardization
Loss Prevention Council
Loss Prevention Certification Board
Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Agriculture
National Electrical Manufacturers Association
National Fire Protection Agency
Prestressed Concrete Institute
Public Works Authority (Ashghal)
Qatar Construction Specification
Qatar General Electricity & Water Corporation
Qatar Standards (Laboratories and Standardisation Affairs, Ministry of
Environment)
Qatar Telecom Provider
Swedish Standards Institute
United Kingdom Department of Transport
Urban Planning and Development Authority
Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker (Association for Electrical, Electronic
and Information Technologies)

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Ooredoo
SIS
UK DOT
UPDA
VDE

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QCS 2014

Site Conditions

The Site conditions shall be assumed to be as follows for tendering purposes:

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1.5.2

Maximum ambient temperature .......................... 50C

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Minimum ambient temperature ........................... 5C

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Design ambient temperature ............................... 50C


Maximum metal temperature under the sun ....... 85C

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Maximum ambient humidity ................................ 100%


Minimum ambient humidity ................................. 20%

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Design ambient humidity ..................................... 100%


50-year return period Wind Speed:

(a) Nominal wind speed for 3 sec gust 38 m/s (A per ASCE 7-05 / IBC 2012)
(b) Mean hourly wind speed. 25 m/s (as per BS 6399-2)

(c) Mean 10 minutes wind speed 27 m/s (as per BS EN 1991-1-4)

Yearly rainfall ....................................................... 80 - 150 mm


2

The wind is very directional and that the W-NNW sector predominates for velocities greater
than 8m/s (30km/h). However, the wind in coastal areas tends to exhibit a diurnal pattern,
with onshore winds during daylight hours changing to offshore at night.

The temperature is relatively mild from October to May and hot from June to September.

The relative ambient humidity is generally low from October to May and generally high from
June to September.

Under certain climatic conditions, considerable condensation may take place.

A considerable amount of salt is contained in the atmosphere which together with the
relatively high ambient humidity, can produce sever corrosion problems.

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
01: Introduction

Page10

Distribution and occurrence of rainfall events are very erratic. Rainfall events are generally of
a high intensity with a short duration and usually occur between December and March.

The prevailing wind directions are from the north and west.

The seismic design for all building structure shall be based upon local seismic accelerations
recommended as per ASCE 7-10, IBC 2012 or BS EN 1998-1:2004. Local seismic spectral
accelerations based upon uniform hazard response spectra for 475 year and 2475 year
return period as below.
Peak Ground Acceleration
(PGA)
2475 year

475 year

2475 year

475 year

0.045

0.10

0.090

0.147

0.045

2475 year

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475 year

0.065

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Wind tunnel test is recommended for buildings under below criteria


Total building height exceeding 120m from ground.

(b)

Structure with irregular geometry or shape.

(c)

Unusual terrain or surrounding structure in the area.

(d)

Any other factor as per design requirements or designer recommendation.

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(a)

The ratio of the wind speed for any return period to the 50 year return period wind speed as
per Peterka & Shahid Equation is

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1 second Spectral
Acceleration (g) S1

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0.2 second Spectral


Acceleration (g) - Ss

Building structure design working life shall be minimum as specified below

10

Examples

Temporary structures (a)

10 to 25

Replaceable structural parts, eg. Gantry girders, bearings

15 to 30

Storage and similar structures

50 to 75

Building structures and other common structures

120

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Indicative design
working life (years)

Design working
life category

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12

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VT / V50 = [0.36+0.1 ln (12T)]

(a)

Civil engineering structures like bridges, tunnel etc.

Structures or parts of structures that can be dismantled with intention of being reused, arent temporary
structures.

1.6

LANGUAGE

1.6.1

Contract Language

All communications, meetings and documentation shall be in English.


END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
10: Occupational Health and Safety

Page 1

10

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY .................................................... 3

10.1

GENERAL ...................................................................................................... 3
3
3
4
5
6
6
7
7
7
8
8
10
10
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10.1.1 Scope
10.1.2 Responsibility
10.1.3 Organisation for Occupational Health and Safety
10.1.4 Reporting Accidents
10.1.5 General Sanitation
10.1.6 Safety Notice Board
10.1.7 Compensation for Damage
10.1.8 Occupational Health and Safety Performance
10.1.9 Occupational Health and Safety Leadership and Accountability
10.1.10 Safe-working Arrangements
10.1.11 Labour Rights, Benefits & Obligations
10.1.12 Language barriers and communications issues
10.1.13 Communications, Consultations and Participation
10.1.14 Management Review

CONTRACTOR OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY PLAN ............. 11

10.2.1
10.2.2
10.2.3
10.2.4
10.2.5
10.2.6

General
Occupational Health and Safety Policy
Risk Assessment and Job Hazard Analysis
Intervention
Requirement for Training
Method Statements

10.3

EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLAN (ERP) .................................................... 19

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10.3.1 General

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10.2

11
16
16
16
17
19
19

EARTHQUAKE EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT PLAN ............................... 20

10.4.1
10.4.2
10.4.3
10.4.4
10.4.5
10.4.6
10.4.7

Background
Requirements
Phase One: Gap Analysis (as is)
Phase Two: Implementation (to be)
Phase Three: Future Requirements
What Should We Do During An Earth Quake?
What Should We Do After An Earth Quake?

10.5

SPECIAL SAFETY REQUIREMENTS AND PRECAUTIONS ..................... 24

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10.4

10.5.1 Permits
10.5.2 Guarantee
10.5.3 Mechanical Plant, Machinery and Equipment
10.5.4 Existing Utilities
10.5.5 Excavations
10.5.6 Warning Signs
10.5.7 Confined Spaces
10.5.8 Lifting Operation
10.5.9 Lifting Gear
10.5.10 Scaffolding

20
21
21
22
22
23
23
24
24
24
25
26
28
28
30
30
31

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Section 01: General


Part
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Page 2

10.5.11 Hot work and Welding


10.5.12 Compressed Gas Cylinders
10.5.13 Working at Height
10.5.14 Electrical
10.6

32
33
34
36

FIRST AID ................................................................................................... 37

10.6.1 First Aid and Clinic


10.7

37

FIRE PRECAUTION AND PREVENTION ................................................... 37

10.7.1 General
10.7.2 Emergency Equipment
10.7.3 Hazardous Substances

SAFETY OF THE PUBLIC ........................................................................... 41

10.8

37
39
40

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10.8.1 Working in Public Areas

41

WELFARE, SAFETY AND PROTECTION OF WORKMEN ........................ 42

10.9.1
10.9.2
10.9.3
10.9.4
10.9.5
10.9.6
10.9.7

General
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) / Attire
Safety Equipment
Support Facilities for Contractors Staff and Labour
Summer Working Conditions and fatigue
Additional Environmental Protection and Pollution Control
Plant and Equipment Test Certificates

10.10

LABOUR ACCOMODATION ....................................................................... 46

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10.9

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10.10.1 General
10.10.2 Quality of Labour Accommodation
10.10.3 Provision for Fire Safety
10.10.4 Provision for Health Care
10.10.5 Access to Transport
10.10.6 Access to Religious, Social and Domestic Facilities
10.10.7 Access to Communications
10.10.8 Number, Quality and Location of Sanitation Facilities
10.10.9 Food Preparation Areas
10.10.10 Pest and Vermin Control
10.10.11 Security at Labour Accommodation
10.10.12 Social Issues
10.10.13 Competence of Labour Accommodation Management
10.10.14 Environmental Conditions at Labour Accommodation
10.10.15 Health and Safety for Labour Accommodation Residents

42
42
42
43
45
45
46
46
46
47
47
48
48
49
49
49
50
50
50
51
51
52

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Part
10: Occupational Health and Safety

Page 3

10

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY

10.1

GENERAL

10.1.1

Scope

This Part specifies the Health, Safety and Welfare requirements for construction and its
associated practices.

Related Sections and Parts are as follows.

Section 11

Health and Safety

Protection
Building Demolition
Materials
Engineers Site Facilities
Setting-out of the Works

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Part 8
Part 9
Part 11
Part 13

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This Section

Responsibility

It is the Contractors responsibility to implement an Occupational Health and Safety


Management System meeting as a minimum the requirements of BS OHSAS 18001. It shall
be the duty of the Contractor to provide the following:

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10.1.2

Safe plant and equipment;

(b)

Safe means of handling, transporting and storage of articles and substances;

(c)

Adequate training, instruction, information and supervision;

(d)

A safe place of work with safe access to and egress from the place of work;

(e)

A safe and healthy environment; and

(f)

Adequate welfare facilities.

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(a)

It is the Contractors responsibility to conduct his operations in such a manner as to prevent


injury to persons or damage to property. The Contractor shall take precautions for protection
against risks and shall inspect Occupational Health and Safety conditions where the Works
are being executed.

The Contractor shall conform to all Acts, Orders and Regulations made by any official
authority with respect to Occupational Health and Safety.

The Contractor shall note that Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) shall be treated with
high importance at all stages of the Contract. Contractor shall understand that the Contract
Price includes the Execution Programme for provision and implementation of an
Occupational Health and Safety Policy and Plan to ensure the highest standards are
enforced throughout Construction, Pre-commissioning and Commissioning.

QCS 2014

Page 4

The Contractors attention is drawn to the requirements of latest revision of:


Qatar Construction Specification QCS,

(b)

Qatar Law No.14 of the Year 2004 The Labour Law, and the ministerial decisions
issued in implementation of the provisions of the Labour Law issued by Law No. 14 of
2004,

(c)

Qatar Traffic Law No. 19 of the Year 2007,

(d)

Environmental Protection Law No. 30 of the Year 2002 and Decision No. (4) for the
year 2005 by issuing the executive regulations of Environmental Protection Law,

(e)

Civil Defence Law No. 9 of the Year 2012,

(f)

CDD (Department of Civil Defence) Fire Safety Handbook; and

(g)

Worker Rights Booklet 2009 (National Human Rights Committee).

(a)

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Section 01: General


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The Contractor is required to fully comply with the stated requirements relating to
Occupational Health and Safety. In the event that legislation is updated the latest version
shall be followed.
The Contractor shall ensure that Contractor Personnel and Subcontractors employees
comply with all requirements of latest revision of QATAR legislation mention above (but not
limited to). Compliance with the standards shall be considered as a minimum requirement
and Contractor shall establish additional arrangements as circumstances may require. Any
failure by Contractor to obtain copies of that mentioned laws applicable to the Contract shall
in no way relieve the Contractor from any responsibilities or obligation under the Contract.

The Contractors Representative shall be responsible for all Occupational Health and Safety
matters during the performance of the Work up to and including the Completion Date. The
Contractors Representative shall ensure that an effective Occupational Health and Safety
management organization is maintained at all times to undertake the duties to comply with
this requirement.

10.1.3

Organisation for Occupational Health and Safety

The Contractor shall submit an Occupational Health and Safety Organisation Plan detailing
planning and management considerations for construction at an organisational level for the
Engineers approval within Thirty (30) days of the award of the Contract.

The Occupational Health and Safety Organisation Plan shall provide the names,
qualifications, experience and skills of all the Safety Team and key support staff.

The Contractor shall submit the names of the following to the Engineer for approval:-

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(a)

The details of its proposed competent and experienced Occupational Health and
Safety Manager. The minimum education for the proposed Occupational Health and
Safety Manager are but not limited to Bachelor degree in Engineering / Science or
equivalent with 10 years experiences in the same field as Safety Manager and the
ability to communicate with all nationalities, plus Professional OHS Qualification by
Examination (NEBOSH, IOSH Managing Safely, OSHA 30 hours, ... etc), Management
Qualification prefer certified as BS OHSAS 18001 lead auditor, implementation and
continues improvement Relevant Training Attendance. The Engineer shall review the
details and if necessary interview the proposed individual to assess his/her suitability
for the position prior to giving approval for appointment. The Contractor is not

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
10: Occupational Health and Safety

Page 5

permitted to execute any form of Work on the Worksite until such time as an approved
Occupational Health and Safety Manager has been deployed on a full time basis to the
Worksite. The Contractor shall not remove the appointed Occupational Health and
Safety Manager without prior approval from the Engineer.
(b)

Deputy Occupational Health and Safety Manager who is capable of performing all of
the duties of the Occupational Health and Safety Manager in the event of his absence.
The requirements and procedure outlined in Clause (a) above applies equally to the
appointment of the Deputy Occupational Health and Safety Manager.

The Contractor shall appoint Occupational Health and Safety Officers and support staff in
sufficient numbers to ensure the effective function of the Occupational Health and Safety
discipline within the Contractors organisation. The minimum education for the Occupational
Health and Safety Officer are HND / HNC with 4 years experiences in the same field as
Safety officer, certified from NEBOSH, IOSH or OSHA 30 hours, Professional in control and
monitoring the site activity. The Contractor shall appoint and deploy full time on the Worksite
one Occupational Health and Safety Officer for each and every 50 persons employed at the
Worksite. For a less than 50 persons employed at the Worksite, a minimum of one (1) Safety
Officer shall be present on site during all working hours each day throughout the Contract
period. This is in addition to the Occupational Health and Safety Manager and his Deputy.

The Safety Officers shall have no other duties, either on-site or off-site, other than
Occupational Health and Safety duties, and shall be exclusive to one site.

The Contractor shall ensure that each and every Subcontractor employed on the Worksite
appoints suitably competent and experienced qualified Occupational Health and Safety staff
to ensure the effective function of the Occupational Health and Safety discipline within the
Subcontractors organisation. The requirements and procedure outlined above for contractor
Occupational Health and Safety staff to be applies equally to the appointment of the
Subcontractor Occupational Health and Safety Staff. The Subcontractor shall appoint and
deploy full time on the Worksite one Occupational Health and Safety Officer for each and
every 50 persons that they employ at the Worksite. Any Subcontractor that employs more
than 100 persons will appoint an Occupational Health and Safety Manager. This is in addition
to the Occupation Occupational Health and Safety Officers.

10.1.4

Reporting Accidents

The Contractor shall promptly report to the Engineer any accident whatsoever arising out of,
or in connection with, the Works whether on or adjacent to the Site which caused death,
personal injury or property damage, giving full details and enclosing statements of witnesses.

Promptly shall mean immediately by telephone where it impacts on the operation of the
project and electronically in all cases never more than 24 hours.

The Contractor shall implement arrangements for effectively managing any emergency
incident that may occur as a result of Work and/or on the Worksite.

The Contractor shall make all necessary arrangements for emergency preparedness
including, but not limited to, medical equipment and facilities, trained personnel,
communication systems, transportation, search and rescue equipment.

The Contractor shall produce and submit to the Engineer monthly performance reports and
incident reports. Reports shall be in the format approved by the Engineer.

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The Contractor shall refer to, and in particular, QCS 2013 (Section 11, Part 2) for all incident
classifications and definitions.

Incident Investigation final reports to be submitted for all lost time major / reportable Incidents
within 10 days of the incident. All incidents that result in lost time from work, near miss,
dangerous occurrence or damage to property (asset) shall be reported. The normal steps to
be taken after an incident shall be;
Submit incident notifications immediately;

(b)

Conduct the investigation;

(c)

Prepare the report with conclusions and recommendations;

(d)

Prepare appropriate plan of corrective action;

(e)

Include in monthly Health and Safety statistics report;

(f)

Submit to Engineer for review and re-submittal if required.

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(a)

General Sanitation

The Contractor shall maintain the Site and all working areas in a sanitary condition and in all
matters of health and sanitation shall comply with the requirements of the Supreme Council
of Health and the Public Works Authority.

The Contractor is responsible for all measures necessary to prevent the breeding of
mosquitoes on the Site for the duration of the Contract.

The Contractor shall ensure that pests are not permitted to the Site facility by initiating a
routine pest control program. Non-toxic pest control methods shall be used.

The disposal surplus water and the accompanying growth of trees and the proliferation of
insects and rodents. Does the site cause an environmentally danger to the surrounding area?

10.1.6

Safety Notice Board

The Contractor shall set up and maintain (cleaned and legible) throughout the course of the
Contract safety notice boards in prominent places on the Site. These notice boards shall be
located in positions approved by the Engineer such that they are clearly visible to the
Contractors employees. They shall be fully illustrated and provide details of key safety
procedures to be followed.

The notice boards shall be in Arabic, English and;

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10.1.5

(a)

In all other languages which are the mother tongue of five or more of the Contractors
employees, or

(b)

The preferred languages (can be understood) by the workers on the Worksite.

The Contractors employees shall be made fully aware of the notice boards prior to
commencing duties on Site.

The Contractor shall maintain up to date copies of all industry codes and standards that apply
to the Work.

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Compensation for Damage

Claims for compensation arising from damage or injury caused by the Contractors failure to
provide adequate Occupational Health and Safety measures shall be the sole responsibility
of the Contractor.

The Contractor shall notify the Engineer of any claim made against him which is in any way
connected to the Contract.

The Contractor is required to copy to the Engineer any formal Occupational Health and
Safety related communication between the Contractor and enforcing authorities or
government organizations.

10.1.8

Occupational Health and Safety Performance

The Contractor shall ensure acceptable Occupational Health and Safety performance of all
Subcontractors, visitors, vendors, public and other parties that may enter the Worksite or the
amounts identified in the Bills of Quantities.

Should acceptable Occupational Health and Safety performance not be maintained by the
Contractor then the Engineer may, in addition to any other amounts withheld under the
Contract, withhold up to 10% of the amount of any interim invoice issued by the Contractor.

The Contractor shall develop and implement programmes which shall act as incentives for
their teams at all levels, to make a positive contribution to good health and safety
performance.

10.1.9

Occupational Health and Safety Leadership and Accountability

The Contractor shall be committed to Health and Safety leadership and this is to be achieved
through working in partnership with the main project stakeholders including the Engineer and
the Client.

The Contractor shall demonstrate commitment to the safety, health and welfare of all
stakeholders and workers on projects and shall demonstrate leadership in achieving the
following objectives:

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10.1.7

(a)

A safe, healthy workplace

(b)

Be consulted on their working conditions, to be heard, and to influence their working


conditions

(c)

Return home from work unharmed at the end of each working day; to which everyone
has a right to.

The Contractor shall provide opportunities through forums and meetings involving important
project stakeholders, including the Client, The Engineer, sub-contractors and other relevant
contractors to raise health and safety issues, assist in the development of leadership
programmes, share good practice and be recognised for good performance.

The Contractors senior management shall visibly demonstrate support, commitment,


Leadership and Accountability on all health and safety issues by the following actions:
(a)

The Engineers Zero Harm Initiative;

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Training employees to work safely;

(c)

Recognizing and rewarding employees;

(d)

Identify risks to health and safety and develop mitigation/control plans and
communicate these to workers;

(e)

Reinforce safe work practices;

(f)

Place health and safety as the first item on the agenda at meetings.

(g)

Allocate adequate resources for health and safety management and implementation

(h)

Develop health and safety targets and objectives and measure and review
performance;

(i)

Foster positive health and safety culture and behaviour through their own actions;

(j)

Treat health and safety as a core value equal in importance with productivity, quality
and ethical standards;

(k)

Participate in health and safety meetings and safety walkabouts;

(l)

Develop efficient contingency plans and allocate adequate emergency resources;

(m)

Provide trained and competent workforce;

(n)

Promote personal health and well-being; and

(o)

Seek to exceed current legislation in relation to welfare and labour facilities.

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10.1.10 Safe-working Arrangements

The Contractor shall have arrangements to empower their staff to make sensible decisions
about their own safety and the safety of others affected by what they do, and not put
themselves or others at risk of harm.

Contractor to have safe-working arrangement that ensures:

Employees can stop work immediately where they believe they or others are at risk of
harm

(b)

That health and safety concerns can be raised and associated actions taken

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(c)

No disciplinary action is taken against those who use the worksafe arrangement to
raise a genuine health and safety concern

(d)

That the process is cascaded to their subcontractors

All such arrangements shall be briefed to all staff, including any agency or sub contract staff
before they start work.

Where safety concerns are raised or a stop work process has been invoked employers shall
document them and the action taken to resolve them; and shall advise others working on the
project were the issue is likely to impact on them or be similar to those faced by other
organisation

10.1.11 Labour Rights, Benefits & Obligations


1

The Contractor shall document implementation of Labour Law, in particular with respect to
the following:

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Recruitment The Contractor shall maintain an up-to-date list of all agents/agencies


used and should provide copies of licences for same to the Engineer. The Contractor
shall, through their best endeavours, satisfy themselves, and the Engineer, that
recruitment agents/agencies used do not charge recruits any fees inconsistent with
those allowed for under the Labour Law (Qatar Law no.14 of the year 2004).

(b)

Contracts The Contractor shall retain, for inspection by the Engineer, copies of
written employment contracts for all employees working on the project. Such
employment contracts shall be in accordance with the requirements of the Labour Law
and no contract clause may contravene the Labour Law.

(c)

Wages A Wage Register shall be retained in accordance with the requirements of


the Labour Law. The Contractor shall update the Wage Register to ensure that
employee wages, including relevant overtime payments, are paid in a timely fashion
and in a manner consistent with the requirements of the Labour Law. These records
shall be available for inspection by the Engineer and shall clearly identify overtime
payments and rates.

(d)

Severance Pay The Contractor shall retain records to demonstrate that payment of
severance payments have been made, where appropriate, in accordance with Article
132 of the Labour Law.

(e)

Records & Files These shall be retained in accordance with the Labour Law, and
shall be made available to the Engineer for inspection.

(f)

Work Rules & Disciplinary Rules These shall be in accordance with the Labour Law,
shall be conspicuously displayed, and shall be provided to the Engineer.

(g)

Working Hours & Leave - The Contractor shall retain records to demonstrate that all
employees working hours and leave allowances are consistent with the requirements
of the Labour Law.

(h)

Collective Labour Disputes - Any/all collective labour disputes shall be dealt with in
accordance with the requirements of the Labour Law. Complete records of all such
disputes shall be retained by the Contractor for review by the Engineer. As a
minimum, the Contractor shall inform the Engineer immediately, on receipt of
complaint/claim from the employees.
Subcontracts As such, obligations, relating to Recruitment, Contracts, Wages,
Records & Files, Work Rules & Disciplinary Rules, Working Hours & Leave and
Collective Labour Disputes shall be passed on to the subcontractor in the event that
works are subcontracted by the Contractor. Similarly, subcontractor records shall be
made available to the Engineer.

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(a)

The Contractor shall provide copies of Contracts, Work Rules, Disciplinary Rules, Pay Slips,
etc. to employees in a range of appropriate languages, as widely understood by the
workforce.

The Contractor shall submit a monthly declaration to the Engineer outlining compliance with
Labour Law in relation to payment of wages and working hours for the preceding period.

The Contractor shall facilitate contact between project employees and relevant independent
bodies such consulates, NGOs, or other relevant organisations offering social support. A list
of such local contacts shall be provided to new employees during their induction process.
An up-to-date list of contact details for these organisations shall also be displayed in public
areas such as the canteen, recreational areas, etc.

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10.1.12 Language barriers and communications issues


1

The Contractors shall ensure that their workforce fully understand site health and safety
requirements, including emergency arrangements and site rules in place. The language
needs of personnel shall be addressed during induction and through training. Emphasis
should be placed on ensuring proper supervision of all staff, but in particular those who may
have difficulties in understanding verbal or written communications. Where practicable,
signage shall make maximum use of pictograms.

Those who have responsibility for managing Contractor personnel on construction site shall
be able to communicate in both written and oral English to a standard appropriate to the
tasks being performed. Note that there may be personnel who are not competent in the
English language, and this is permitted provided that the Contractor can demonstrate that:

(b)

Such team members shall receive the required health and safety training / briefing
(including any emergency procedures) before commencing work in a form that they
understand

(c)

Appropriate arrangements are made to ensure that instructions are effectively


communicated to and understood by all team members

(d)

Particular attention has been given to the communication requirements of safety


critical workers. ensuring a translator is available who is capable of instructing the nonEnglish speaking personnel in safety and other operational matters, and

(e)

Maintaining a reasonable ratio of non-English speaking personnel to each translator at


all times.

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Such team members are able to give oral instructions and warnings to others

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Special provisions for safety critical instructions conveyed by the translator shall be recorded
as being received and clearly understood by each non-English speaking person. Such
records shall include those for safety induction, emergency procedures, safety method
statements and safety awareness talks.

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10.1.13 Communications, Consultations and Participation


The Contractor shall be required to disseminate and transfer information regarding Health
and Safety issues. Typical information to be communicated should include but not be limited
to; any new policies or procedures and general awareness.

The Contractor shall ensure communications arrangements are in place to inform of key
health and safety issues. These will include lessons learnt from incidents, sharing of good
practice, health and safety campaigns and initiatives. Contractors shall have processes in
place to ensure an appropriate cascade to all site personnel.

The following methods of communication but not limited to shall be observed;

(a)

Meetings; Health and safety meetings shall be conducted on a weekly basis separate
from other meeting that have safety on the agenda

(b)

Safety Alerts; Safety alerts shall be produced by the Contractor after a Major
Accident/Incident or when appropriate.

(c)

Notice Boards; Information that shall be included as a minimum on an office notice


board is any relevant emergency procedures, policy statement, safety alerts or updates

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(d)

Campaigns; Health and safety campaigns must be initiated by the Contractor to


implement throughout the year. At least 4 campaigns must be run annually on a prorata basis. One of the campaigns must detail heat stress before the summer months.

(e)

Posters/Signs; Must be focused on themes relevant to site specific work


activities/hazards

(f)

Safety Awards; The Contractor shall initiate a scheme whereby he recognises and
rewards for positive health and safety related performance by individuals. This shall be
on a monthly basis and communicated throughout the project workforce.

10.1.14 Management Review


The Contractor has to supply evidence that their senior management have carried out a
management review, at least annually, of their OHSE systems to ensure continuous
improvement.

The review shall include, but not limited to, where appropriate, an evaluation of and / or
changes to:

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Health and safety policy;

(b)

Objectives and targets;

(c)

Action plans;

(d)

Follow-up action from previous meetings;

(e)

Health and safety system suitability;

(f)

Audit results;

(g)

Preventive and corrective actions;

(h)

Regulatory changes;

(i)

Continual improvement measures;

(j)

Performance measures;

(k)

Major procedure and risk review changes; and

(l)

Health and safety plans.

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(a)

CONTRACTOR OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY PLAN

10.2.1

General

The Contractor shall prepare a Contract specific Occupational Health and Safety Plan (the
Safety Plan) and submit a Safety Plan to the Engineer for review and approval within thirty
(30) days of the award of the Contract. The Contractor is not permitted to Work on the
Worksite until such time as the Plan has been approved by Engineer. It will be a condition
precedent to starting the works that the Contractor will have an approved Health and Safety
Plan, Traffic Management Plan, and an Emergency Response Plan.

The Safety Plan shall include the Contractors proposals for the maintenance of safety on the
Site. These proposals shall address the safety measures applicable with respect to all tasks
to be undertaken in the construction of the Works.

The Safety Plan shall include the Contractors proposals for accident prevention. Accident
prevention shall include but not be limited to training, monitoring and review of safety related
procedures, enforcement of safety related matters and promoting safety awareness.

10.2

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The Safety Plan shall include a safety organisation chart showing the names and
responsibility of all safety personnel deployed both on and off the Worksite to maintain
acceptable Occupational Health and Safety performance of the Contract and the Work at all
times, even outside the normal working hours, in particular night-time and holiday working.
(refer to 10.1.3)

The Contractor is required to work in areas where dangerous concentrations of gases may
be present in manholes, trench excavations and the like. It is the Contractors responsibility to
provide all necessary detection equipment and to ensure that, if toxic or explosive gases are
found, adequate measures are taken to protect his staff, workmen and members of the
public.

The Safety Plan shall be specific to one Contract.

The Contractor shall regularly review the suitability of the Safety Plan. The Contractor shall
undertake a full formal review of the Safety Plan annually on the date of award of the
Contract or when necessary but no less than 6 monthly intervals and submit the findings of
the review to the Engineer within 14 days of that date along with an amended plan should any
amendment be required.

The Safety Plan shall contain the Contractors Occupational Health and Safety Policy. (refer
to 10.2.2)

The Plan for construction works shall support and supported by the Contractors systems for
risk management in particular risk assessment and method statement (refer to the
Regulatory Document Section 11 Part 1 in particular section 1.1.7: Risk Assessments and
Method Statement and Guidance document Section 11 Part 2 Section 2.4: Guidance on Risk
Assessment and Method Statement). The plan shall include a schedule of risk assessments
for all work activities in relation to the project. The plan shall include a list or schedule of
identified work activities for which method statement will be developed before their
execution..

10

The Safety Plan shall include the contract risk assessment and detail the arrangements for
ensuring that it is updated to reflect any changes throughout the duration of the Work.

11

The Safety Plan shall detail the arrangements for undertaking job hazard analysis and
ensuring that such analysis is included in each and every method statement.

12

The Safety Plan shall detail the management arrangements and standards to be used for
each of the following:

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(a)

Scaffolding

(b)

Suspended Working Platforms

(c)

Fall Prevention and Fall Arrest

(d)

Prevention of Falling Objects

(e)

Excavations

(f)

Electricity

(g)

Structural Steel Erection

(h)

Demolition and Dismantling

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False work and Formwork

(j)

Reinforcement and Concreting

(k)

Cladding and Roof work

(l)

Confined Spaces

(m)

Lifting Appliances and Lifting Gear

(n)

Mobile Plant and Vehicles

(o)

Mobile Elevating Working Platforms

(p)

Construction Lifts

(q)

Machinery and Equipment

(r)

Power Tools

(s)

Hazardous Substances

(t)

Hot Work and Welding

(u)

Fire Prevention and Protection

(v)

Access and Egress

(w)

Housekeeping

(x)

Warning Signs and Barricades

(y)

Material Handling, Transportation and Storage

(z)

Lock Out and Tag Out

(aa)

Temporary Works

(bb)

Temporary Facilities

(cc)

Underground and Overhead Utilities

(dd)

Working Over or Adjacent to Water

(ee)

Working Environment

(ff)

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Personal Protective Equipment


Site Traffic Control (including setting and taking down of all temporary traffic devices)

(gg)

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(i)

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The Safety Plan shall detail the arrangements that the Contractor shall use to ensure
acceptable Occupational Health and Safety performance of all Subcontractors that may enter
the Worksite. It shall detail the arrangements for evaluating Subcontractors prior to them
being contracted to undertake Work. It shall detail the methods that the Contractor shall use
to monitor their work and the penalties that shall be imposed should acceptable standards
not be maintained.

14

The Safety Plan shall detail the manner in which the Contractor shall review, approve and
incorporate all Subcontractor Occupational Health and Safety plans, risk assessments and
method statements and incorporate them into their Occupational Health and Safety
management system.

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The Safety Plan shall detail the arrangements that the Contractor shall use to ensure
acceptable Occupational Health and Safety performance of all persons on the Worksite. In
particular it shall detail the arrangements for penalties and disciplinary action that shall be
taken should Contractor Personnel, Subcontractor employees or any other person on the
Worksite not comply with Occupational Health and Safety requirements.

16

The Safety Plan shall detail the arrangements that the Contractor shall use to control and
ensure acceptable Occupational Health and Safety performance of visitors and delivery
personnel that may enter the Worksite.

17

The Safety Plan shall detail the Contractors arrangements for effectively managing any
emergency incident that may occur as a result of Work or on the Worksite. The detail shall
include the facilities required for emergency preparedness.

18

The Safety Plan shall detail the arrangements for notification and investigation of any incident
that may occur as a result of Work or on the Worksite.

19

The Safety Plan shall detail the arrangements for the Contractors monthly performance
reporting and incident reporting.

20

The Contractor shall ensure that their project monthly health and safety statistics report is
completed and submitted by the agreed date to the Engineer and Quality & Safety
Department. The Engineer will provide the necessary format for this report. The information
collected will be submitted to the Engineer and Quality & Safety Department.

21

The Safety Plan shall detail the arrangements for assessing the general Health of employees
and any job specific Health checks that may be required.

22

The Safety Plan shall detail the arrangements for self-inspection and auditing that shall be
used to monitor the Work.

23

The Safety Plan shall detail the arrangements for tracking and effectively closing any
Occupational Health and Safety related nonconformity or deficiency that may be identified as
a result of monitoring. Written records of inspection, auditing and tracking shall be
maintained and made available to any representative of Client on request.

24

The Safety Plan shall detail the arrangements for ensuring that all Contractor Personnel and
Subcontractor employees are trained and competent to undertake their work in accordance
with the required standards. In particular the Safety plan shall detail the training and
competence requirements for the following employees;

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15

(a)

Supervisors

(b)

Electricians

(c)

Mobile plant and vehicle operators

(d)

Crane and lifting appliance operators

(e)

Riggers

(f)

Excavation Supervisors

(g)

Machinery operators

(h)

Scaffolders

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(i)

Scaffolding Supervisors

(j)

Confined space workers

(k)

Confined space supervisors

(l)

All persons working at height

Page 15

The Safety Plan shall detail the training arrangements specify the type and nature of training
to be given including but not limited to induction, pre-work briefings, tool box talks, general
awareness training, skills training and formal training conducted by training professionals or
agencies. Written records of the attendees, training given and assessment of competency
shall be maintained by the Contractor and made available for inspection by any
representative of Client upon request.

26

The Safety Plan shall detail the Contractors arrangements for promoting the awareness of
Occupational Health and Safety issues through notices, posters, newsletters, booklets,
Occupational Health and Safety alerts and any other means. All such information shall be
provided in the languages preferred by the training recipients of the training.

27

The Safety Plan shall detail the arrangements that the Contractor shall make to reinforce
good performance. Such arrangements shall include incentive schemes to reward Contractor
Personnel, Subcontractor employees or areas of Work that demonstrate exemplary
Occupational Health and Safety performance.

28

The Safety Plan shall include details of all meetings that are held to specifically deal with
Occupational Health and Safety issues. In particular the Contractor shall hold a monthly
meeting chaired by the Contractors Representative, which Client shall be invited to attend,
with the following items on the agenda;

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25

Suitability of the Contractors Occupational Health and Safety organization for the ongoing and planned Work;

(b)

Effectiveness of the Contractors


system;

(c)

Significant areas of planned activity and associated risk;

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Method statement review and job hazard analysis planning;


Tracking and closure of any identified deficiencies or nonconformities;

(e)

Occupational Health and Safety management

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(f)

Incident review;

(g)

Occupational Health and Safety promotion planning;

(h)

Training needs assessment;

(i)

Auditing and inspection planning;

The Occupational Health and Safety Plan shall describe the Contractors Safety Management
System that will be used throughout and shall conform with all requirements defined within
the Contract and related documentation The contents shall include but not be limited to the
following:
(a)

Front Cover

(b)

Table of Contents

(c)

Project Scope, Requirements and Occupational Health and Safety Objectives

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Occupational Health and Safety Policy and BS OHSAS 18001 Certificate (if applicable)

(e)

Control of Occupational Health and Safety Plan

(f)

Reference Documentation

(g)

Safety Organisation and Responsibilities

(h)

Subcontractor Occupational Health and Safety

(i)

Risk Assessments and Method Statement

(j)

Non-conformance, Corrective and Preventative Action

(k)

Incident Reporting

(l)

Audits

(m)

Training

(n)

Key Performance Indicators and Continual Improvement

(o)

Management Review

(p)

Safety Meetings

(q)

Monthly Safety Report

(r)

Appendices

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(d)

Occupational Health and Safety Policy

The Contractor shall comply with the Client vision, mission and strategic objectives.

The Contractor shall develop and implement its own written Occupational Health and Safety
Policy which shall be Project specific and demonstrate the Contractors understanding of and
commitment to maintaining standards of Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) that are
consistent with and an integral part of the Contractors business strategy.

The Contractor must set objectives and targets that shall be applicable to SMART - Specific,
Measurable, Achievable, and Realistic and to a Time scale.

10.2.3

Risk Assessment and Job Hazard Analysis

Refer to Section 11 Part 1 (Regulatory Document) in particular section 1.1.7 and Section 11
Part 2 (SAMAS) in particular section 2.4

10.2.4

Intervention

A system of positive intervention shall be used throughout the Project and the Contractor
shall adopt the system by authorizing and requiring all Contractor Personnel and
Subcontractor employees to intervene in any unsafe act or condition and take immediate
corrective action to prevent any incident occurring.

Work may be monitored by any representative of Client who may intervene in any unsafe act
or condition and require the Contractor to take immediate corrective action to prevent any
incident occurring.

The Contractor is required to acknowledge that the system of positive intervention in use on
the Project is one that shall enhance the following;

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10.2.2

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(a)

levels of understanding and awareness of Occupational Health and Safety issues


throughout the Project;

(b)

levels of personal responsibility and accountability for Occupational Health and Safety
issues;

(c)

levels of proactively towards Occupational Health and Safety issues;

(d)

levels of compliance with contractual requirements and Project Occupational Health


and Safety standards;

(e)

incident and injury prevention

The Contractor may be the focus of Occupational Health and Safety audits conducted by any
representative of Client. The Contractor is required to cooperate with such audits and to
acknowledge all audit findings. The Contractor shall take all corrective and preventive actions
that may be required to address any nonconformity identified during such auditing.

The Contractor may be the focus of Occupational Health and Safety inspections conducted
by any representative of Client. The Contractor is required to cooperate with and
acknowledge such inspections and take all corrective and preventive actions that may arise
as the result of such inspections.

The Contractor shall undertake routine Occupational Health and Safety inspections and
audits for the on-going Work. Written records of inspections and audits shall be maintained
and made available to any representative of Client upon request.

The Contractor may be issued with stop work instructions from the Engineer for any
observed cases of serious or imminent danger associated with the Work. On receipt of a
stop work instruction the Contractor shall refrain from work until such time as remedial action
has been taken to alleviate the serious or imminent danger and to prevent it reoccurring.

The Contractor shall stop work if any unknown or unplanned conditions occur that give rise to
serious or imminent danger. In such circumstances the Contractor shall assess the risks
associated with any remedial work required and revise the method statements and job
hazard analysis. The revised method statement shall be reviewed and approved by the
Contractors Occupational Health and Safety Manager. Revised method statements shall be
approved by the Engineer before recommencing Work.

10.2.5

Requirement for Training

The Contractor shall conduct training including contract specific induction, pre-work briefings,
tool box talks, general awareness training, skills training and formal training conducted by
training professionals or agencies. The contract specific induction will be at least 2 hours
duration, approved by the Engineer and provided for all persons that enter the Worksite.
Such induction training will be reviewed, revised and repeated for all persons that enter the
Worksite at periods not exceeding 6 months throughout the duration of the Work. All training
shall be provided in the languages preferred by the recipients of the training.

The Contractor is required to provide employees of Client with Occupational Health and
Safety training relating to Work undertaken by the Contractor. Training is an integral part of
job performance.

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The Contractor shall provide all Contractor Personnel and Subcontractors employees with
individually unique Contract specific photo identity cards. Such cards shall be made available
to any representative of Client on request. The Contractor shall not permit any Contractor
Personnel or Subcontractors employees to access the Worksite unless they have been
issued with their individually unique photo identity card. Such cards will not be issued prior to
the Contractor Personnel or Subcontractors employee attending the Contractors induction
training course.

The Contractor shall appoint a competent supervisor for each and every area of the following
Work activities
Temporary & permanent electrical installation

(b)

Crane and lifting appliance operations

(c)

Scaffolding erection, alteration and dismantling

(d)

Confined space entry

(e)

Excavation

(f)

Working at height

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(a)

The Contractor shall produce a health and Safety Training Matrix based on training needs
analysis of all personnel working on the project. The matrix must detail positions against the
training courses required from the analysis. All training courses provided to employees shall
be free of charge, i.e. the cost will be borne by the Contractor.

The training topics will be based on a number of factors, such as but not limited to;

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Trends in monthly statistics;

(b)

Objectives that have been set;

(c)

Recurring issues on site; and

(d)

Accident/incidents on site.

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Courses designed to meet the needs of specific operatives involved in specialized trades
including their roles and responsibilities must be provided through training. The following
training could be consider as specialist, but not limited to:
Safe entry into confined spaces;

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(b)

Crane operation;

(c)

Slingers/banks men;

(d)

Scaffolding/ false work/temporary works;

(e)

Abrasive wheels;

(f)

Woodworking machinery;

(g)

Excavation support equipment;

(h)

First aid;

(i)

Fire Marshall;

(j)

Accident Investigation;

Note any external training must be delivered by a competent organisation (i.e. 3th
Party).

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The Contractor shall provide training and instruction to their employees in relation to the
performance of their work. This training shall be provided during working hours and
immediately after an employee commences employment. It shall include:
(a)

Occupational hygiene.

(b)

Essential elements of local laws and regulations.

(c)

Policies and procedures concerning aspects of human rights those are relevant to
operations.

The Contractor shall actively encourage the following for their workforce:
Creating employment opportunities.

(b)

Facilitating training opportunities for employees with a view to improving skill levels.

(c)

Ensuring non-discrimination in hiring and promotion practices.

(d)

Promoting life-long learning and on-the-job training.

(e)

All training shall be provided in appropriate languages, based on the demographics of


the labour accommodation facility.

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(a)

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The Contractor shall retain records of all training provided to labour accommodation
residents. Such records shall include, as a minimum, the name, age and nationality of those
attending the training course/session and the type of training provided. These records shall
be available for inspection by the Engineer.

11

The Contractors shall conduct Emergency Drills to thoroughly test its emergency
preparedness and response within 6 months of the date of award of the Contract and
thereafter at periods not exceeding 6 months throughout the duration of the Work.

12

The Contractor shall hold a Contract Specific Occupational Health and Safety Meeting
chaired by the Contractors representative on a monthly basis throughout the duration of the
WORK. Additionally the Contractor shall include Occupational Health and Safety as an item
on the agenda for each and every meeting held and ensure that the subject is actively
discussed.

13

The Contractor shall provide contract specific Safe Practice Booklets for each and every
person employed on the Worksite and provide training on the content of the booklet.

10.2.6

Method Statements

Refer to Section 11 Part 1 (Regulatory Document) in particular section 1.1.7 and Section 11
Part 2 (SAMAS) in particular section 2.4

10.3

EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLAN (ERP)

10.3.1

General

The Contractor shall prepare an emergency response plans for the project and the following
but not limited to shall be addressed;

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(a)

Responsibilities;

(b)

Risk assessment and hazard identification and controls for potential emergencies;

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Hazard identifications and controls;

(d)

Coordination with outside emergency response organizations;

(e)

Arrival of outside emergency response groups;

(f)

Emergency response equipment;

(g)

Emergency drills;

(h)

Tests of emergency preparedness and response program;

(i)

Crisis management plan - major events emergency response plan;

(j)

Evacuation procedure;

(k)

Medical facilities;

(l)

Site fire prevention and response reporting;

(m)

Environmental spills and releases;

(n)

Security including (bomb threat);

(o)

Malicious threats; and

(p)

Severe weather conditions.

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(c)

It shall be mandatory that all personnel are aware and understand what actions to take and
when to take them in the event of an emergency situation. The Contractor shall provide such
information, instruction and training as may be required to assist the personnel to respond
appropriately, in the event of an emergency.

The Contractor shall develop ERPs for review by the Engineer in order to verify the suitability
and capability of arrangements. The Contractor shall ensure a schedule is produced to
conduct drills and exercises on a regular basis at the sites under its control.

Records of drills and exercises conducted shall to be kept together with details of follow up
actions and performance assessments for audit purpose.

The first emergency drill shall be conducted within first the 30 calendar days following
commencement of operations; afterwards emergency drills shall be conducted on a 6
monthly basis as a minimum.

All ERPs shall be reviewed and whenever necessary revised and updated every 6 months,
periodic auditing must be carried out to ensure compliance.

10.4

EARTHQUAKE EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT PLAN

10.4.1

Background

During the month of April 2013 earthquakes occurred in Iran with varying degrees of tremors
felt in the State of Qatar and the wider Middle East Region.

April 16th 2013 was by far the larger earthquake measuring 7.8 on the Richter scale with the
tremors physically being felt in numerous locations and buildings across the region. Whilst
events of this type are rare, the impacts could be serious both from a human and business
scale.

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Following these events it is clear that should have an earthquake evacuation procedure. This
emergency management plan has been developed; however it requires integration into the
existing emergency and evacuation plans.

It is to be advised that the earthquake procedure whilst very important is one element of a
much larger requirement for Emergency Management Planning to ensure that all scenarios
and eventualities are addressed inclusive of crisis management and business continuity.

10.4.2

Requirements

Outlined below is a suggested approach that could be taken to take into account those other
elements of emergency planning starting with a review of the current arrangements for
buildings, towers and associated structures inclusive of car parks.

The suggested overall approach would be a three phase priority approach. The first phase
identifying the as is situation to the desired outcome of to be and the future requirements,
but this is not limited and may require additional elements as recommended by other experts.

10.4.3

Phase One: Gap Analysis (as is)

Engage the relevant technical experts for the various aspects of the review, inclusive of but
not limited to Fire Design Engineer, Health and Safety Consultant, training providers etc.

Review all existing emergency process, procedures, plans and protocols within the
organisation and engage with other stakeholders such as Civil Defence to understand any
wider requirements, etc.

Review of all buildings physical emergency evacuation systems to ensure they meet relevant
codes and legislative requirements.

Review all evacuation assembly points and engage other building owners nearby the
organisation building.

Develop work assignments for the organisation personnel and Safety Wardens during
earthquakes.

Review the organisation buildings maintenance department records.

Identify relevant codes, legislative requirements and specific procedures needed for forward
planning.

Identify salient issues for consideration namely high rise building, crowded indoor public
places, indoor safety, outdoor safety, automobiles etc.

Identify non-structural hazards such as file cabinets, rack storage units, book shelves, HVAC
...etc.

10

Involve other stakeholders such as the organisation Health and Safety Section, Civil Defence,
Ministry of Environment, other building owners in the immediate district etc to ensure their
views, requirements, interests and responsibilities are established.

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Review existing business resiliency and continuity plans, process and procedure.

12

Review existing crisis management plans, process and procedure.

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Indicate future planning and requirements inclusive of the proposed new and existing car
park.

14

Include training and awareness plan for the wider organisation based upon the identified
training needs.

15

Undertake training and awareness for any developed process and procedures.

16

Produce gap analysis report detailing all required changes, upgrades to process, procedures,
plans, training requirements, emergency systems etc.

17

Present outcomes of gap analysis.

18

Develop an initial implementation plan, methodology and programme for Phase 2 and 3
based upon the outcomes of the Gap Analysis.

19

Review plans to backup computer records and equipment of vital records.

10.4.4

Phase Two: Implementation (to be)

Implement agreed gap analysis outputs/approach inclusive of all manuals, procedures,


technical information required.

Develop administrative processes and procedures to support the plan.

Communicate the plan to all those affected at different level of the business.

Include for planning of any associated drills and lessons learnt.

Implement lessons learnt into plan, processes and procedures.

Establish periodic review of emergency systems.

10.4.5

Phase Three: Future Requirements

Advise if engagement of further consultants/engineers to undertake seismic survey of


existing buildings.

Development of business continuity plans.

Development of post-earthquake assessment procedures.

Development of crisis management plans.

Undertake training and awareness for any developed process and procedures.

Include for planning of any associated drills and lessons learnt.

Development of all related support materials.

Development of coordination procedures with Civil Defence and other authorities during
earthquakes.

Periodic review of emergency planning systems.

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What Should We Do During An Earth Quake?

Stay calm!

If you're indoors, stay inside and if you're outside, stay outside.

If you're indoors, stand against a wall near the centre of the building, stand in a doorway, or
crawl under heavy furniture (a desk or table i.e. cover your head and neck).

Drop down onto your hands and knees.

Stay away from windows and outside doors.

If you're outdoors, stay in the open away from power lines or anything that might fall. Stay
away from buildings.

Don't use matches, candles, or any flame.

Broken gas lines and fire don't mix.

If you're in a car, stop the car and stay inside the car until the earthquake stops.

10

Don't use elevators or put yourself at risk.

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For impaired mobility, if you cannot drop to the ground, try to sit or remain seated so you are
not knocked down. If you are in a wheelchair lock your wheels. Protect your head and neck
with a large book, a pillow, or your arms.

10.4.7

What Should We Do After An Earth Quake?

Check yourself and others for injuries. Provide first aid for anyone who needs it.

Check the building, water, and electric lines for damage. If any are damaged, isolate if
possible and report to relevant authorities.

Turn on the radio. Don't use mobile phones unless it's an emergency.

Stay out of damaged buildings.

Stay inside buildings unless directed to do otherwise.

Evaluate and critique once a crisis situation is stabilised.

Expect further aftershocks.

Stay away from beaches. Tsunamis sometimes hit after the ground has stopped shaking.

If you're at work follow the emergency arrangements and instructions for the particular
building after the earthquake.

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10.4.6

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SPECIAL SAFETY REQUIREMENTS AND PRECAUTIONS

10.5.1

Permits

A permit-to-work system (Hot work, Excavation, Scaffolding & Electric work) shall be
observed (correctly issued, Signed & Client requirement enforced) when undertaking any
work on an existing utility, service, item of equipment or structure.

A permit-to-enter system shall be observed (correctly issued, Signed & Client requirement
enforced) when undertaking any work in a confined space.

10.5.2

Guarantee

Where the Contract requires work to be carried out within or adjacent to any pipeline or at a
sewage treatment plant, the Contractor shall comply with any requirement of the Public
Works Authority.

10.5.3

Mechanical Plant, Machinery and Equipment

Sufficient suitable standby plant shall be immediately available in cases where the safety of
the Works or of personnel depends upon mechanical plant.

Test and thorough examination by a competent person of all equipment that is capable of
storing energy, such as air receivers and pressure vessels, is required at periods not
exceeding 12 months. Reports of such test and examination will be held on the Worksite and
made available to the employer on request.

The Contractor will make arrangements for all mobile plant and vehicles that enter the
Worksite to be checked by 3rd party certification to ensure the following are provided and in
good working order:
Braking systems

(b)

Steering systems

(c)

Gauges and warning lights


Operating controls

(d)

(a)

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10.5

(e)

Windscreens and wipers

(f)

Reversing alarms

(g)

Rear view mirrors

(h)

Roll over protection devices

(i)

Wheels, tyres, track

(j)

Pneumatic and hydraulic hoses

(k)

Seat belts and anchors

(l)

Fuel lines and tanks

(m)

Electrical control systems

(n)

Suspension and stabilization systems

(o)

Bodywork, covers and panels

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Mobile plant and vehicles that are defective will be removed from use in work areas and
taken to a repair facility on the Worksite or removed from the Worksite.

Repair work will only be carried out by trained and authorised mobile plant and vehicle repair
technicians.

Whenever maintenance work is ongoing the machinery or equipment will be isolated and deenergized.

All mobile plant and vehicle operators will hold relevant Qatari driving licenses for the
category of plant or vehicle that they operate. In addition operators of mobile plant will be in
possession of a 3rd party training certificate to verify that they have the skills necessary for
safe use of the plant.

Operators will use mobile plant and vehicles only in accordance with their operating manuals.

The Contractor will conduct a job hazard analysis for each item of machinery and equipment
that will be used.

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The following site rules will be observed by all mobile plant and vehicle operators:

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Mobile plant and delivery vehicles will not be reversed without a banks man in
attendance.

(b)

No passengers will be carried on mobile plant or vehicles other that in seats that are
specifically designed for carrying passengers.

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(a)

The Contractor shall prevent oil / fuel leak causing environmentally pollution.

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The Contractor will eliminate or reduce the associated hazards for construction lift such as,
construction lift failure, falling persons and falling objects by meeting or bettering these
specifications. And:
All construction lifts will have flat base plates without holes or openings, enclosed sides
and roof that are designed to prevent from falling objects.
All construction lifts will have overload protection devices that prevent movement of the
platform if it is overloaded.

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10.5.4

Existing Utilities

Prior to excavating in any area, the location of existing utilities shall be confirmed from asbuilt drawings, contact with utility authorities and trial holes.

Excavation in the vicinity of any utility shall be carried out to the requirements of the utility
owner.

Protection for utilities is the least effective means of controlling any associated risk. Where
Contractors use this method the following will be provided:
(a)

Marker posts or blocks that clearly indicate the nature, depth and path of all
underground utilities.

(b)

Where traffic routes pass over underground utilities temporary protection will be
provided. Warning signs stating the maximum vehicle weight that may safely cross the
utility will be positioned on the access route at each side of the utility.

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(c)

Temporary barriers or fences that run parallel to the route of any overhead utilities.
Warning signs detailing the nature of any overhead utilities on the barriers or fences.

(d)

Where traffic routes pass below overhead utilities warning signs stating the maximum
vehicle height and height restrictors will be positioned on the access route at each side
of the overhead utility.

Where any construction activity adjacent to a utility is undertaken the minimum clearance
distances will be clearly established and communicated to each and every person involved
with the construction activity.

Traffic routes and material stockpile areas will be clearly identified and established prior to
excavation work commencing. All excavation areas, traffic routes and stockpile areas are to
be surveyed for overhead services. Any services identified are to be removed or clearly
marked with height restrictors and warning information.

10.5.5

Excavations

During the planning stage all materials and equipment required for the safe excavation work
must be clearly identified. Such equipment and materials may include the following:

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Shoring

(b)

Solid Barriers

(c)

Vehicle stop blocks

(d)

Access ladders or scaffolding

(e)

Ventilation

(f)

Lighting

(g)

Signage

(h)

Pumps

(i)

Generators

(j)

Air Monitoring Devices

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Movement Monitoring Equipment

(k)

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(l)

Rescue Equipment

For all excavation work a competent excavation supervisor will be appointed. The level of
training and experience required to determine competence will vary depending on the
complexity of the excavation. He will have previous experience of the type of excavation work
to be undertaken and formal Occupational Health and Safety training relating to the safety of
excavation work.

Temporary safety barriers should be used to protect workers and the travelling public from
excavations that are more than 300mm deep in accordance with the Qatar Work Zone Traffic
Management Guide.

Once the design requirements are known a job hazard analysis of the excavation work will be
completed by the excavation supervisor with the assistance of Occupational Health and
Safety staff and engineers as required. The Job Hazard Analysis will clearly identify the job
specific risks and control measures for the excavation work.

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Prior to commencement of any excavation work all persons involved will be given a pre-work
briefing based on the Job Hazard Analysis relating to the risks and required control measures
for the excavation work. The appointed excavation supervisor will be responsible for
presenting and recording the briefing.

Prior to commencement of work all materials, plant and equipment will be checked to ensure
that they are in good condition. In particular the condition of all mechanical excavators will be
checked to ensure that:
All windows in the drivers cab are clean, unbroken and unobstructed.

(b)

Rear view mirrors are securely attached, unbroken and clean.

(c)

All track plates and connectors are in good condition and secured with proprietary
locking pins.

(d)

All dipper arm joints and attachments are secured with proprietary pins and locking
pins.

(e)

All task and indicator lighting is in working order.

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(a)

Trucks will only be operated by persons with valid Qatari driving licenses. Plant such as
excavators, loading shovels etc shall only be operated by trained and competent operators
that hold valid 3rd Party certification for the type of plant being operated. This certification is
required in addition to Qatari driving license requirements.

When the reversing of trucks is necessary for the collection or delivery of materials a banks
man will be in attendance. All banks men will be provided with high visibility clothing and be
trained in the safety aspects of reversing vehicles. Where vehicles are reversing up to an
excavation or travelling alongside an excavation vehicle stop blocks or vehicle barriers will be
provided to prevent them falling into the excavation.

Continuous adequate solid barriers will be placed around all excavations over 1.2m deep at a
distance at least of 1.2m. Where night time pedestrian or vehicle access is adjacent to
excavation then all solid barriers will be fitted with warning lights.

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Pedestrian access to and from all excavations will be by means of ladder or adequately
constructed staircases. The possibility of a person falling from a height of more than 2m from
the access will be prevented. The horizontal distance between access points will not exceed
15m.

11

All ladders used on the Project will be manufactured in accordance with an internationally
recognised standard. Any ladder that is found to be defective will be removed from use
immediately.

12

All straight ladders will be positioned at an angle to minimize the risk of slipping or falling
backwards. The distance between the base of the vertical plane and the base of the ladder
will be 1 unit out for each 4 units in height of the vertical plane.

13

Ladders that are used to gain access from one level to another will extend at least 1m above
the upper level surface. Where a general access ladder run extends a distance of more than
6m a landing point with a firm level platform and fall prevention measures will be provided at
each and every 6m.

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Excavations shall be kept clean and tidy at all times. Accumulated waste and unused
materials will be removed from excavations on a daily basis. All excavations will be
thoroughly cleaned prior to any backfilling operations commencing.

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To prevent the risk associated with falling objects excavated materials, other materials and
equipment shall not be stored at the edge of any excavation. A clear distance of 2m shall be
maintained around all excavations.

10.5.6

Warning Signs

The Contractor shall set up and maintain (cleaned and legible) throughout the course of the
Contract enough traffic diversion signs in accordance with the Qatar Work Zone Traffic
Management Guide and additional warning signs & guides.

Additional areas that require warnings signs and barriers are:


Excavations over 1.2m deep

(b)

Any edge, opening or platform from where a person may fall more than 2m

(c)

Electrical transformers and substations

(d)

Confined space entry points

(e)

Areas below and around working at height and heavy lifting operations

(f)

Areas of open water more than 1m deep

(g)

Areas where flammable goods are stored

(h)

Areas where radiation sources are used or stored

(i)

Areas within Worksites that are classed as non-construction areas

(j)

Areas within non construction areas where construction activity is on-going

(k)

Areas below overhead utilities

(l)

Areas above underground services

(m)

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Areas where test and commissioning activities are on-going

Warning signs will clearly state the nature of the hazard and instruct people of the correct
actions to take. Warning signs will be manufactures in accordance with internationally
recognised standards. All signs will be in English, Arabic and the languages preferred (can
be understand) by the workers on the Worksite.

All safety barriers and barricades are to comply with the Qatar Work Zone Traffic
Management Guide..

10.5.7

Confined Spaces

Entry into a confined space will only be permitted where a competent person is appointed to
directly supervise the work. The competent person will hold a certificate of training or license
that is issued by a 3rd party. The competent person will be appointed in writing by the
Contractor and the appointment will be copied to the employer.

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Any person that enters into a confined space will have received formal training in the safe
methods of entry and working in a confined space. Such training will include the
arrangements for emergency communication and response. In addition every person that
enters into a confined space will be given a briefing by the appointed competent person
relating to the specific hazards of the work and the control measures that have been detailed
in the job hazard analysis.

Any person that acts as an attendant for confined space work will have received formal
training in the safe methods of rescue from a confined space and the arrangements for
emergency communications with external emergency services.

The contractor will only permit trained workers, under the direct supervision of an authorised
competent person, with confined space attendants present, to enter a confined space.

Internal combustion engines will not be taken into a confined space or operated in a position
where their exhaust gasses may be drawn into the confined space.

Persons entering into a confined space will wear a full body rescue harness that is attached
to a rescue line anchored outside the confined space

The contractor will implement a safe working procedure for confined space entry that
includes the following:
Preparation of a confined space entry permit

(b)

Provision of all equipment necessary for entering into and working in the confined
space including access, lighting, mechanical ventilation, gas detectors,
communication, personal protective equipment and emergency rescue equipment. All
such equipment will be manufactured in accordance with internationally recognised
standards

(c)

Provision of warning signs and barriers around the confined space entry point

(d)

Setting up emergency communication and rescue equipment

(e)

Issue of a permit to enter the confined space

(f)

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Checking of the atmosphere inside the confined space and installation of ventilation
equipment

(g)

Installation of lighting

(h)

Entry into and work in the confined space.

(i)

Monitoring of conditions in the confined space.

(j)

Continuous checking and recording of all persons entering into and exiting from the
confined space by the confined space attendant

(k)

Completion of work and removal of all equipment from the confined space

(l)

Accounting for all persons and equipment that entered the confined space

(m)

Securing the entry point to the confined space

(n)

Closing the confined space entry permit

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Lifting Operation

The Contractor will appoint a competent lifting operations supervisor for the Worksite. The
lifting operation supervisor will ensure that the requirements of this specification are met at all
times.

Rigging of loads and signalling of cranes will be undertaken only by trained and competent
persons. All riggers will be required to wear a blue construction safety helmet and a red high
visibility vest for the purpose of easy identification on the Worksite.

Cranes will only be operated by trained and competent operators who are in possession of an
operators license issued by a 3rd party. In addition appropriate Qatari driving licenses are
required for all mobile equipments.

A thorough examination of each lifting appliance will be made by a 3rd party inspector at
periods not exceeding 12 months and after substantial re-erection, alteration or repair. Load
capacity to be displayed.

All lifting appliances on the Worksite will have a copy of the manufacturers operating manual
and load rating charts available for use and kept with the operator cabinet or machine.

Before a mobile crane is positioned for a lift, attention will be paid to the condition of the
ground upon which the crane will stand, as this will be subjected to high point-loadings from
outriggers or tyres. Dependent upon the nature of the ground and/or the size of the crane to
be used, a special hard standing may have to be prepared.

The maximum safe working wind speeds for all construction activity and in particular lifting
operations and Working at height activity is 25 Knots. The construction will monitor the
weather conditions and suspend work when wind speeds in excess of the maximum safe
working speeds are anticipated.

Outriggers will be properly set and locked if a locking device is provided. When controlled
remotely from the cab, the operator will make a physical check to ensure that each pad has
an adequate bearing before a load is lifted. Sound timber packing or metal plates will be used
under each outrigger pad to distribute the load. It is essential that outriggers are supported at
the jacking points and not under the outrigger beams. Also, lifting location to be barrier off.

A method statement and job hazard analysis will be provided to the Engineer for all structural
steel erection activity. No structural steelwork erection will commence prior to approval of the
method statement and job hazard analysis by the Engineer. All structural steel erectors will
be fully conversant with the construction method, sequence and hazard control measures
prior to any work activity commencing.

10.5.9

Lifting Gear

Lifting gear means any chain sling, rope sling, or similar gear, and any ring, link, hook, plate
clamp, shackle, swivel or eye bolt, used on the Worksite.

All lifting gear will be subjected to a thorough examination by a competent person from 3rd
party at intervals not exceeding 6 months. Identity number and SWL to be check.

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10.5.8

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A wire rope used in raising, lowering or suspension of a load, will not be used if it is kinked,
significantly rusted, the core is visible or the rope has visible broken wires, exceeding 5% of
the total or in any length equal to 10 times the diameter of the rope.

Riggers will check the condition of lifting gear prior to each and every lift.

Any lifting gear that is found to be defective will be removed from service and sprayed with
red paint to indicate that it is not to be used. All defective equipment will be removed from the
Worksite.

A system will be established on the Worksite for storage of all lifting equipment not regularly
in use. Such equipment will not be left in the work areas.

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10.5.10 Scaffolding
For all scaffolding construction activity and dismantling activity a competent scaffolding
supervisor will be appointed. The level of training and experience required to determine
competence will vary depending on the complexity of the scaffolding structure to be erected
or dismantling. Industry standards and codes detail competency requirements.

All employees involved in scaffolding construction activities and dismantling activity will be
trained in the safe methods of working and in particular the manner in which fall prevention or
arrest is to be achieved. Contractors will maintain detailed information of the training provided
and the methods that they have used for assessment of competency and suitability for all
employees undertaking scaffolding construction activities.

All scaffolding erection areas and dismantling areas will be provided with barriers and
warning signs to exclude all personnel that are not specifically involved with the scaffolding
construction and dismantling activity. Where such areas are adjacent to roadways barriers
with a capability to prevent vehicles entering the area will be erected or dismantling. Where
such areas are adjacent to members of the public or 3rd parties then screening and falling
object protection will be provided. The appointed scaffolding supervisor is to be made
responsible for ensuring that exclusion zones are in place and maintained at all times whilst
scaffolding construction and dismantling activity is on-going.

All materials being used for scaffolding construction will be checked prior to them being used
to ensure they are in good condition. Any materials found to be defective will be clearly
marked as defective and discarded or removed from the construction area to ensure that
they are not used.

Scaffolding that has been constructed in accordance with the design will be inspected for use
by displaying green scaff tag at all access points of the scaffolding detailing the following
information:

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(a)

the unique identification and location of the scaffolding inspected

(b)

the name of the person making the inspection

(c)

the date that the inspection was completed

(d)

the intended use and capacity of the scaffolding

(e)

the required re-inspection frequency for the scaffolding

The person making the scaffold inspection will maintain written details of the inspection that
they have conducted to enable them to verify their scaff tag system.

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All scaffolding that does not display green scaff tag for use will be fitted with red scaff tag
states that the scaffolding is not fit for use and the access points will be removed or made
unusable.

Users of scaffolding will at all times conduct their work in a manner that eliminates the
possibility of falling objects.

Users of scaffolding are to be prohibited from altering or dismantling any part of scaffolding.

10

Users of scaffolding are required to maintain unobstructed access and egress at all times. All
debris and materials no longer required will be removed from scaffolding on a daily basis. All
materials and equipment used on scaffolding will be stored in a manner that does not
obstruct the free movement of the people using the scaffolding.

11

The frequency of re-inspection of scaffolding every 7(seven) days will be displayed on the
green scaff tag. Users of scaffolding are required to check that the period of re-inspection
has not been exceeded before using the scaffolding. In any case where the re-inspection
date has been exceeded the user will request the appointed scaffolding supervisor to make
the re-inspection and to re-sign the green scaff tag for use. The user will not access the
scaffolding until such time as the re-inspection has been made.

12

Before any dismantling activity is undertaken on scaffolding it will be removed from use. All
green scaff tag will be removed and replaced with red scaff tag which is not fit for use and all
scaffolding access points will be removed or made unusable.

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The contractor will only use electric welding equipment in accordance with the following
requirements:
Welding cables and equipment will be properly maintained and inspected before use.
Defective equipment will be removed from use and arrangement for repair will be
made.

(b)

Electric welding cables are to be kept as short as possible and routed away from
pedestrian walkway areas.

(c)

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(d)

All connections between welding equipment and welding cables will be securely bolted.

(e)

Pipelines containing flammable liquids or gases, or electrical cables will not be used as
a ground.

(f)

When electrode holders are to be left unattended, the electrodes will be removed and
the holder placed where it is protected from unintentional contact.

(g)

A fire resistant container will be provided for spent electrode stubs.

(h)

Welding machines will be turned off when being moved or when the equipment is not
in use.

Electric welding operations will only be undertaken with earth return electrodes
connected to the work piece.

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10.5.11 Hot work and Welding

Tanks, vessels and drums that have contained flammable or toxic liquids will be filled with
water or thoroughly cleaned before hot work or welding is undertaken on them.

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Where coatings are present on materials to be heated the coating will be removed to prevent
the coating being heated.

Suitable portable fire extinguishing equipment will be located within 6 meters of any hot work
location.

10.5.12 Compressed Gas Cylinders


The Contractor will only use compressed fuel gasses in accordance with the following
requirements;
Cylinders will not be transported with regulators, gauges and hoses attached.

(b)

Cylinders will be transported in an upright position and will not be hauled in equipment
beds or truck beds on their side.

(c)

Cylinders lifted from one elevation to another will be lifted only in racks or containers
designed for that purpose. Cylinders will not be hoisted by the valve cap or by means
of magnets or slings.

(d)

Cylinders will not be used as, or placed where they may become part of, an electrical
circuit.

(e)

Cylinders will be protected from extreme heat and from being struck by moving
equipment and falling objects.

(f)

Cylinders will not be taken into a confined space.

(g)

Cylinders will not be used as rollers; will be transport on appropriate trolley.

(h)

Damaged or defective cylinders will not be used or be permitted to remain on the


Worksite.

(i)

Type of gas clearly marked on cylinders and segregation of incompatible gases is


required.

(j)

Oxygen cylinders will be kept free of oil and grease.

(k)

Cylinders will be secured in place during use and storage. Securing shall be around
the body of the cylinder, securing around the cylinder neck or cap will be prohibited.

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(a)

Cylinder valves will be closed at all times when cylinders are not in use.

(m)

A key wrench is required to be in place on the valve of acetylene cylinders at all times
during use.

(n)

Fuel gas and oxygen hoses will be of different colours and will not be interchanged.

(o)

All hose, valve and regulator assemblies will incorporate a flashback arrestor.

(p)

Hoses are to be kept as short as possible and routed away from walkway areas.

(q)

Under no circumstances are damaged hoses or torches to be used.

(r)

Torches will be ignited by friction lighters or other approved devices only.

(s)

Fuel gases will only be used for the purposes of cutting or heating. They will never be
used for pressure testing or ventilation.

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10.5.13 Working at Height


Contractors are required to reduce the risk of persons falling from height by providing a
means of fall prevention or arrest for every person on the Worksite that is exposed to a risk
of falling a distance of 2m or more.

Supervisors of persons using fall arrest systems will be trained in the correct installation, use
and maintenance of fall arrest systems. Training will be provided by a 3rd party. All persons
required to use fall arrest systems will receive formal training in safe working at height prior to
using such systems.

The use of safety belts as part of a fall arrest system is prohibited.

Safe access to the point at which a person will attach themselves to a fall arrest system will
be provided. In cases where a person using a safety harness has to detach the lanyard from
the anchor point and reattach it to a different anchor point, whilst being in a position where
the risk of falling exists, double lanyards will be used with one of the lanyards remaining
attached to the anchor point at all times.

Where any form of fall arrest system is used the contractor will put in place arrangements to
rescue any person that is caught by the fall arrest system. The rescue system and equipment
will be capable of rescuing any person that may be unconscious whilst suspended and or
suffering from suspension trauma. The system will be capable of rescuing the suspended
person within 3 minutes of the fall being arrested.

All edges of working platforms and work areas that objects may fall from will be provided with
securely fixed continuous toe boards that are at least 200mm high.

All holes and openings in floor areas will be fitted with temporary covers to prevent objects
falling to lower levels of the structure.

Where work is on-going on the exterior faces of structures the working platforms that are
used to gain access will be fitted with lightweight mesh or netting to prevent objects falling
from them.

Materials and equipment will not be stored or located within 2m of edges of working areas or
platforms.

10

All materials and waste that may be blown by the wind from raised structures will be secured
and stored in a manner that prevents them from being blown from the structure.

11

Where designated pedestrian walkways, entrances or exits are located beneath edges or
openings where work is on-going steel framed and sheeted canopies will be erected to
protect pedestrians from falling objects.

12

The contractor will produce a method statement and job hazard analysis for all roof and
canopy work activity. For work on new structures safety information will be obtained from the
designers and incorporated into the method statement and job hazard analysis. For work on
existing structures where design information is not available then a survey of the existing
structure will be made to identify hazards such as:

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(a)

Fragile coverings

(b)

Holes and openings

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(c)

Exposed edges

(d)

Lack of safe access

(e)

Damage or disrepair of the existing structure

(f)

Adjacent structures, facilities or services

Page 35

A method statement and job hazard analysis will be provided to the Engineer for all roof and
canopy work activity. No work will commence prior to approval of the method statement and
job hazard analysis by the Engineer. All roof and canopy installation workers will be fully
conversant with the construction method, sequence and hazard control measures prior to any
work activity commencing.

14

The contractor will meet the following roof and canopy work specific Occupational Health
and Safety requirements:

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The storage of materials on roof surfaces will be minimized at all times

(b)

Storage of materials on roof surfaces is not permitted within 2m of any edge or eave

(c)

All openings and non-walkable areas will be protected by barriers and signage to
prevent pedestrian access

(d)

All waste will be removed from the work areas on a daily basis and prior to any areas
being left unattended

(e)

All areas of roof or canopy covering will be fully fixed at the time of positioning. The
practice of laying large areas of unfixed coverings is prohibited

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(a)

The structure that the suspended working platform is attached to or mounted on will be
surveyed and assessed to ensure that it is capable of supporting the loads that the
equipment will impose on it.

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The installation, maintenance, use and dismantling of suspended working platforms will be
under the control of a competent person that is appointed by the Contractor. The competent
person will be fully familiar with each and every type of suspended working platform in use on
the Worksite. Persons who work from suspended working platforms will have received formal
training to ensure the safety of themselves and of other persons that may be affected by the
operation with particular emphasis on the correct use of the equipment, working at height and
falling object prevention.

17

The following requirements will be met for all use of suspended working platforms;

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(a)

Users will not alter or interfere with any part of the suspended working platform, control
or safety devices.

(b)

The work area below the suspended working platform will be clearly marked a
pedestrian exclusion zone will be created.

(c)

The user will check all controls and safety devices on a daily basis to ensure that they
are functioning correctly.

(d)

Use will cease whenever wind speed in excess of the maximum permissible is
anticipated.

(e)

The suspended working platform will be maintained in a horizontal position whilst it is


in use.

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(f)

The practice of transferring people or materials from the suspended working platform
is prohibited other than at the designated access points.

(g)

Every person working from a suspended working platform shall wear a full body safety
harness that is attached to an independent lifeline.

(h)

The platform will be kept free of loose materials or articles liable to endanger or
interfere with the workers hand hold or foot hold

(i)

The power supply will be disabled whenever the suspended working platform is left
unattended.

10.5.14 Electrical
This specification applies to all temporary electrical systems on the Worksite and all electrical
equipment used for construction, commissioning and testing purposes. The requirements
given are minimum requirements and Contractors are required to equal or better them.

A competent electrician or electrical engineer will be appointed or employed on every


contract. The competency requirements will be determined by the nature of the temporary
electrical system that will be installed on the Worksite

The Contractor will reduce risk by using cordless tools or electrical equipment that is
operated at reduced voltages. Only intrinsically safe electrical equipment will be permitted for
use at any location where flammable atmospheres may exist or confined space.

All electrical equipment used on the Worksite will be manufactured in accordance with an
internationally recognised standard.

Portable Power Tools will be of a double insulated type.

Jointing of all electrical cables and wires shall be by means of proprietary terminations or
connectors. The practice of twisting and taping electrical components together to create a
connection is prohibited.

Temporary power supplies for the Worksite may be provided from generators or via a
Worksite specific transformer connected to the national power network. All generators and
transformers on the Worksite shall be located in areas that are fenced and secured to
prevent any unauthorized entry. Each such location will be provided with portable fire
extinguishers. All electrical systems shall be bonded to the earth.

All electrical circuits that are created will be protected by earth leakage circuit breakers
(ELCB). All metal components of an electrical system shall be earthed. Distribution of
electrical power shall be provided through distribution panels and switches that are enclosed
or housed in securely closed and locked boxes or cabinets.

Warning signs that clearly indicate electrical hazards shall be fixed to all electrical switch
boxes and distribution panels. Similar signs shall be displayed at all transformers, generators
and overhead power line locations.

10

All signs and notices shall be in English and Arabic and the language preferred (can be
understand) by the workers employed on the Worksite.

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All electricity supply cables shall be buried or properly supported and protected and shall be
armoured. Flexible cable shall only be allowed for hand lamps and hand held tools and shall
not exceed 6 metres in length. Industrial type plugs and sockets shall be used. All electrical
installations shall be in charge of a competent person who shall accept full responsibility for
its use and any alterations or additions thereto. The name, designation and telephone
number of such person shall be prominently displayed close to the main switch or circuit
breaker of the installation, and also in the Contractors site office.

10.6

FIRST AID

10.6.1

First Aid and Clinic

The Contractor shall provide and maintain first aid Boxes / Clinic (according to number of
workers as per Qatar Law No.14 of the Year 2004 The Labour Law) complete with all first
aid kits and equipment (as a minimum but not limited to Clean room with potable water
supply, Stretcher, Ambulance, Standby Vehicle, ... etc) necessary for the initial care of any of
the Contractors or Engineers personnel who may be injured.

The box shall be kept in a conspicuous place in the establishment and shall be available to
the workers.

The use of the box shall be entrusted to a worker trained in providing first-aid medical
services.

As a minimum, there should be a first aid box with Medical record book in all areas where
work is in progress.

The Contractor shall ensure that the first aid Kits and equipment at each first aid box / clinic
is complete and within expiration date in all respects at all times.

At each first aid box / clinic the names and contact Telephone numbers of the Contractors
staff who are trained to render first aid shall be displayed.

The Contractor shall provide and maintain Periodic medical examinations for workers and
follow up (maximum every year from employment date).

10.7

FIRE PRECAUTION AND PREVENTION

10.7.1

General

The Contractor shall take all necessary precautions against fire as required by the insurance
company insuring the Works, the Department of Civil Defence and the Engineer.

Quantities of flammable materials on site shall be kept to an absolute minimum and shall be
properly handled and stored. Any handling and storage recommendations made by Material
Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) and the manufacturers of flammable materials shall be strictly
adhered to.

All flammable materials storage areas will be located at least 20m away from other
structures, areas where combustible materials are stored and areas where sources of ignition
are found. Storage areas will be freely ventilated to eliminate any possible build up of
flammable vapour or gas. Flammable material storage facilities will not be constructed of
combustible materials.

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Except as otherwise provided herein, the Contractor shall not permit fires to be built or open
type heating devices to be used in any part of the Site.

The Contractor shall provide, regularly checked and maintain approved by Department of
Civil Defence fire fighting equipment in the site offices, the stores and about the Works where
applicable. The type, amount and location of fire fighting equipment shall be to the
requirements of the Department of Civil Defence. The Contractor shall confirm to the
Engineer in writing that the requirements of the Department of Civil Defence have been met.

The Contractor shall make arrangements with the Department of Civil Defence to inspect the
Works and promptly carry out their recommendations at his own expense if requested to do
so by the Engineer.

Combustible fuel oils shall be stored in designated storage areas. Fuel oil shall only be
contained in tanks or containers that are in good condition. Tanks and containers will be
located in bounded areas capable of containing any spillage or leak. Bounded areas will be
kept free of water and debris. All pump equipment and fuel oil lines or hoses will be
maintained regularly to ensure that there no leaking parts. Fuel oil lines and hoses will be
terminated with filler nozzles or valves that stop the flow of fuel oil when the device is not
held. Any electrical equipment such as lighting and pumps that is located in fuel oil storage
areas shall have an operating voltage of 110V or less.

Hot work and welding operations at height require particular controls to prevent people or
materials below being exposed to the risks of the work activity, the following controls will be
put in place;

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All work activity will be coordinated with other activities in areas below

(b)

Areas below will be cleared of all combustible and flammable materials.

(c)

Fire blanket / Fire retardant material will be used to cover any combustible materials
that cannot be cleared.

(d)

Fire blanket / Fire retardant material must be removed after hot work and welding
activities are completed.

(e)

A fire watchman will remain at the site of hot work activity for 30 minutes after work is
finished.

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(a)

The Contractor will provide training in the correct selection and use of portable fire
extinguishers for every person employed at the Worksite.

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Portable fire extinguishers will be provided at the following locations:

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(a)

Every electrical generator, transformer and main distribution panel

(b)

Every piece of mobile plant and equipment

(c)

Every area of flammable materials storage and use

(d)

Every area of hot work activity

(e)

Every temporary structure

(f)

Every work area where combustible materials are present.

Smoking will be prohibited in any areas where flammable or combustible materials are
stored. It will also be prohibited in any temporary structure other than in clearly designated
and defined smoking areas. Smoking areas will be cleaned on a daily basis, a means of
extinguishing cigarettes will be provided.

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Fire escape routes, exits and assembly areas will be provided for all enclosed temporary
structures and permanent structures under construction. All such areas will be kept free from
obstructions at all times. Wherever possible in permanent structures under construction the
fire escape routes, exits and assembly areas used will be those designed for use in the
occupied structure.

13

Information and warning signs will be provided at the following locations or areas:
Flammable materials stores

(b)

Combustible materials stores

(c)

Temporary fire systems

(d)

Portable fire extinguishers

(e)

Fire escape routes, exits and assembly areas.

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(a)

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The Contractor shall make all arrangements to keep access for Fire Brigade cleared and
Emergency Alarms audible in all areas.

10.7.2

Emergency Equipment

Temporary fire protection equipment for the Worksite will be provided by the Contractor for
the duration of the contract. Such equipment may include but is not be limited to:
Portable fire extinguishers

(b)

Fire sand buckets

(c)

Fire water storage and distribution systems

(d)

Fire suppression systems

(e)

Fire / Smoke / Gas detection systems

(f)

Fire warning / Alarm / Emergency Evacuation systems

(g)

Procedures

(h)

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Emergency contact telephone numbers / Communications


Breathing apparatus and / or respirators (if applicable)

(i)

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(j)

Torches

(k)

Loud Hailer

(l)

Emergency lighting

(m)

Adequate and safe Emergency Exit / Doors are provided

(n)

Assembly / Muster point

Escape routes, access ways to alarm points, extinguishers, hydrants and other fire fighting
equipment and first aid kits kept clear of obstruction at all times

All structures that are normally occupied by five to twenty five people will be provided with the
following:
(a)

Portable fire extinguisher equipment.

(b)

First aid kit.

QCS 2014

(c)

Trained first aider.

(d)

Emergency contact information notices.

(e)

Telephone or radio communication equipment.

Page 40

All temporary facility structures that are normally occupied by twenty five to one hundred
people will be provided with the above plus the following:
(a)

Smoke detectors

(b)

One first aid kit for each 25 people.

(c)

Designated emergency evacuation routes.

(d)

An emergency preparedness and evacuation plan.

(e)

An emergency alarm system.

(f)

An emergency evacuation drill at periods not exceeding 6 months.

(g)

An area set aside for the heating and consumption of food.

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All temporary facilities structures that are normally occupied by more than 100 people will be
provided with the above plus the following:
A fire water system

(b)

An appointed nurse

(c)

Emergency lighting system

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(a)

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All temporary fire protection equipment will be manufactured, inspected, tested and
maintained in accordance with the Department of Civil Defence or internationally recognised
standards.

10.7.3

Hazardous Substances

The Contractor will control the use, handling, transportation and storage of hazardous
substances to reduce the associated health risks. These requirements below are the
minimum that the Contractor will meet to comply with their contractual Occupational Health
and Safety obligations.

Radioactive materials are hazardous substances and any use of such materials on Site will
require a method statement and job hazard analysis to be submitted to the Engineer for
approval prior to any radioactive material being delivered to the Worksite.

Where any spillage of liquid occurs the contractor will take action to immediately clean the
spillage and remove any contaminated materials from the Worksite.

To effectively control the hazards associated with the use, storage, handling and
transportation of hazardous substances the Contractor will:

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(a)

Maintain a register of all hazardous substances on the Worksite

(b)

Obtain Material Safety Data Sheets for all hazardous substances

(c)

Make an assessment of the health risks associated with the intended use of each
hazardous substance

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(d)

Provide the control measures required to reduce the risks identifies to acceptable
levels. Acceptability will be based on internationally recognised best practices and
standards

(e)

Train people that use, handle or transport hazardous substances in the associated
risks and control measures

(f)

Provide routine health checks for employees that are exposed to hazardous
substances

(g)

Provide appropriate spill containment and disposal Spill kit

(h)

Toxic/ hazardous substance correctly tagged/ labelled/ signage and secured

(i)

Adequate storage provided and Class B fire extinguisher near by

SAFETY OF THE PUBLIC

10.8.1

Working in Public Areas

The Contractor must ensure that control measures are in place to protect the public,
workforce and assets by providing appropriate lighting, fencing, barricades, and lockable
units. Adequate levels of security including the use of trained security guards will be required.
The Contractor must also ensure appropriate warning signage is displayed and where
appropriate safe pedestrian walkways are identified and maintained.

Safety and security procedures shall be implemented in accordance with the Qatar Work
Zone Traffic Management Guide and as required by the Department of Civil Defence and the
police. These shall be included, as a minimum, warning signs and lights, adequate
barricades, railings, road hump for reduced & control speed and other safeguards as
required by the nature and location of the work being undertaken.

Access to all properties shall be maintained by adequately sign posted diversions, temporary
bridges or other facilities.

A night watchman shall be assigned to ensure that all barricades, lights and other protective
apparatus are maintained during the hours of darkness.

Designated pedestrian routes will be clearly signed and with firm even surfaces that are free
from distractions. Where such routes traverse level changes they will be slopped at gradients
not exceeding 10% or cut with steps of even height and a tread width of at least 400mm.
Slopes and steps will have anti-slip surfaces. Where the edges of pedestrian routes are
raised more than 1.2m above the surrounding level solid barriers will be provided at each
raised edge to prevent people from falling.

All such equipment shall be routed away from pedestrian access areas. Where such
equipment crosses pedestrian areas it will be located under the pedestrian area or over it at a
height of at least 2.5m above the surface. Where such equipment is routed over a pedestrian
area it will be clearly marked with warning signs.

No electrical cables, hoses or pipes shall be routed along any staircase, ladder access or
across any doorway. This applies to both temporary and permanent works.

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10.8

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Contractor shall provide Client with photocopies of passports, police clearances and any
similar personal security documentation necessary to obtain Client temporary identification
cards and passes for Contractor Personnel to enter Client STP / PTP / premises. Contractor
shall ensure that Contractor Personnel display such identification at all times when they are
on Client STP / PTP / premises.

The Contractor will provide a method statement and job hazard analysis for all demolition and
dismantling activities. Everyone involved in the work needs to know what measures are to be
taken to control the risks and a pre work briefing based on the method statement and job
hazard analysis will be given and recorded by the supervisor. Workers will be closely
supervised to ensure that the control measures required are put into practice. An exclusion
zone will be created around the demolition or dismantling area to prevent persons not directly
involved with the work activity around the work area gaining access. The Contractor will not
allow materials to fall into any area where people are working or passing through. Protection
screens, fences or canopies may be needed to control falling objects.

10.9

WELFARE, SAFETY AND PROTECTION OF WORKMEN

10.9.1

General

The Contractor must make arrangements for suitable welfare facilities to be present from the
start of the work. There are specific requirements for provision of welfare facilities in the
(Section 11, Part 1 Regulatory Document, 1.1.8, Appendix 1)

10.9.2

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) / Attire

All the Contractors personnel shall be provided with safety helmets, eye protection and foot
protection. Safety helmets, eye protection and foot protection shall be worn at all times by all
Contractors personnel on the Site except.

All the Contractors personnel shall be provided with gloves, hearing protection, safety
reflecting vests, dust mask and other protective clothing suitable for the nature of work they
are performing and their working environment (Shorts and sleeveless shirts are prohibited).

All the Contractors personnel shall wear high visibility clothing as the outer layer of clothing
at all times when working on a road or within a road works zone in accordance with the Qatar
Work Zone Traffic Management Guide.

The need for other types of PPE will be identified by the contractor as part of their job hazard
analysis or risk assessment process.

The Contractor will display signage detailing the requirements for mandatory PPE throughout
to Worksite. Signage shall be in a format that is easily recognisable to all persons on site
regardless of their preferred language.

10.9.3

Safety Equipment

Construction equipment must only be used in the manner and limitations for which it is
designed, inspected regularly with colour code sticker and Qatar license for driver / operators
must be available.

Adequate hard barricading, temporary bridges, temporary footpaths, lighting, warning tape
and sign posting shall be provided at all excavations.

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Adequate bracing and shoring shall be provided at all excavations. 2m spoils clearance from
the excavated pit and sloping shall be maintained (if applicable).

Correctly made ladders must be provided for access into excavations and onto scaffolding
and buildings. Contractors self-made ladders shall not be used.

Scaffolding shall be erected in accordance with the international recognize standard, best
practises and manufacturers recommendations and shall be fitted with toe boards, guardrails
(top & mid rail), proper access, fully boarded platforms, tagging system and hand railing
(refer to 10.3.10).

The following basic safety equipment is required for any works in confined spaces and shall
be supplied by the Contractor:
gas detectors/monitors complete with carrying case, rechargeable batteries and
battery charger, calibration kit, all to the approval of the Engineer; consumable items
and sensors to be replaced in accordance with the manufacturers recommendations
during the course of the Contract (2 No.)

(b)

full body rescue safety harness with lifelines and shackles (6 No.)

(c)

lifting frame complete with fall arrest device (1 No.)

(d)

constant flow escape breathing apparatus complete with storage cases (2 No.)

(e)

automatic positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus complete with


storage case (1 No.)

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(a)

The Contractor shall maintain all safety equipment in good working order with up to date
calibration and test certificates where appropriate.

The Contractor shall ensure that any personnel working above 2 m using fall protection
devices with valid 3rd party certificate and to provide them proper training in the selection and
use of fall protection devices.

The Contractor shall provide and maintain in good working order one compressed air escape
respirator set (Drger Saver Auto PP or similar) in the Contractors site office.

10

One oxygen resuscitation unit shall be provided in the Contractors site office.

11

Truck or Trailer Mounted Attenuators (TMAs), or lorry mounted crash cushions must be used
in accordance with the Qatar Work Zone Traffic Management Guide.

10.9.4

Support Facilities for Contractors Staff and Labour

The Contractor shall provide, regularly clean and maintain for the duration of the Contract
potable water, washing facilities and sufficient Toilets (with steel exhaust fan) & sanitary
facilities for use by workmen in accommodation areas, at messing facilities and in areas
where work is in progress.

The Contractor shall provide and maintain for the duration of the Contract messing facilities
and a separate designated area for the consumption of food for his staff and labourers.

Cooking and dining facilities that are provided will be operated and maintained in a clean and
hygienic condition. Food preparation and storage areas will be separated from eating areas.

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(a)

No person with any communicable disease will be permitted to work in any kitchen or
dining room

(b)

Kitchen workers who have cuts or skin conditions on their hands will not be permitted
to work in any kitchen or dining area

(c)

Kitchen workers that handle or serve food will wear latex gloves, hairnets and clean
clothing.

When allowed for in the Project Documentation, the Contractor may provide accommodation
facilities for his staff and labourers at the Site. Such facilities shall be maintained in a proper
manner and to the satisfaction of the appropriate government departments and the Engineer.

The Contractor shall provide transportation between staff accommodation and areas of work
for his staff and labourers.

The Contractor shall provide sufficient bins for waste and scrap regularly collected,
segregated and removed from site.

Arrangements for the temporary storage of waste on site shall be made in clearly designated
and defined areas that have fences and signs to clearly indicate the nature of the waste
where combustible wastes are stored portable fire extinguishers will be provided.

Waste collection points will be provided throughout the work areas and will be clearly marked
with signage to indicate the nature of the waste that is to be collected. Waste will be
separated and collected in the following categories:
Metals

(b)

Oils

(c)

Concrete & Stone

(d)

Tyre & rubber

(e)

Glass

(f)

General

(g)

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Sewage

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Chemical

Where temporary facilities are created for the storage of materials and equipment such areas
shall be clearly defined and fenced. Notices will be displayed to indicate the nature of the
storage area.
(a)

Any hazardous substances that are stored shall only be kept in accordance with the
suppliers recommendations and the requirements of the Hazardous Substances
Specifications.

(b)

Flammable materials and fuel oil storage areas must be separated from other
temporary structures or works under construction by a distance of 30m.

(c)

Where materials are stored in stacks they will not be stacked to a height of more than
1.5 m where the materials are to be manually handled. Materials for mechanical
handling that are on pallets or contained in bins will not be stacked more that 3 units
high with the base bin or pallet being on firm level ground.

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Circular materials such as pipes and tubes will be stored in a manner that prevents
item from rolling. They will be placed in a container or frame, or have timber wedges of
an adequate size inserted between the materials and the ground to prevent rolling.

The Contractors will make arrangements to maintain an adequate working environment and
take into account the requirements of this specification to fulfil their contractual obligations
relating to Occupational Health and Safety. Adequate arrangements will be based on
internationally recognised standards.
Ergonomics and proper layout of work area.

(b)

Darkness or poor visibility increases the risk of persons on the Worksite slipping,
tripping or falling. It also increased the risk of operator error for plant, vehicle,
machinery and equipment operations. To reduce such risks the Contractor will provide
the following:

(a)

Temporary lighting for all Worksite access areas and roads that will be used
during the hours of darkness.

(ii)

Task lighting for all work activity at night or in areas with poor visibility.

(iii)

Emergency lighting for pedestrian access routes in areas of poor visibility and
those used during night time working.

(iv)

Ensure the absence of glare.

(v)

Proper lighting in corridors.

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Summer Working Conditions and fatigue

During the period from June 15th until August 31st, work under direct sun rays is prohibited
from 11:30 am to 3:00 pm unless special arrangement is taken by the Contractor to control
and ease effect of the direct sun on the workers. This arrangement should be approved by
the Engineers Representative and should be agreed upon before implementation.

High outdoor temperatures expose persons on the Worksite to the risk of dehydration. The
Contractor will provide shaded rest areas, rest periods and drinking water supplies for all
persons on the Worksite.

Sunlight exposes persons on the Worksite to the risk of skin disorders. Employers will
provide work wear that covers the skin for employees working in direct sunlight. Sunlight may
also cause glare for operators of mobile plant, vehicles, machinery and equipment which
increases the risk of operator errors. The Contractor will provide shaded operating positions
to reduce such risks.

Contractor shall develop suitable management arrangements to control working hours and/
or shift patterns in order to address and manage the risk of fatigue.

10.9.6

Additional Environmental Protection and Pollution Control

The Contractor shall comply with all conditions of Environmental Clearance issued for the
Contract by the Ministry of Environment (MoE), and also where relevant, the predecessor to
the MoE, the Supreme Council for the Environment and Natural Reserves.

The Contractor shall comply with all rules and regulations regarding environmental protection
and pollution control issued by the MoE, and also where relevant, the predecessor to the
MoE, the Supreme Council for the Environment and Natural Reserves.

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10.9.5

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Plant and Equipment Test Certificates

Cranes, whether used to construct the Works or provided as part of the permanent Works,
must have a current test certificate.

Each sling, shackle or other item of loose lifting tackle, whether used to construct the Works
of provided as part of the permanent Works, must have either a current manufacturers test
certificate or a current test certificate.

Test certificates must be issued by a competent testing authority approved by the Engineer.

The Contractor must have a copy of each test certificate on site available for inspection by
the Engineer.

The following British Standards and Code of Practice shall be complied with:

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Mobile and Tower Cranes: BS 1757, BS 2799 and CP 3010

(b)

Overhead Cranes: BS 466 and BS 5744

(c)

Slings: BS 1290

(d)

Chain Blocks: BS 3243

(e)

Shackles: Alloy : BS 3551, High Tensile Steel : BS 3032

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LABOUR ACCOMODATION

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10.10.1 General

These specifications for workers' accommodation can be accepted for implementation as


long as in the interest of the worker provided they do not disturb the labour accommodation
requirements of the decision of the Minister of Labour No. (17) for the year 2005 or any other
matters developed in this context.

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10.10

10.9.7

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10.10.2 Quality of Labour Accommodation


The Contractor shall provide space per person that meets or exceeds what is required by
local legislation or 4.5 m2 per person within each room/accommodation unit.

The residential density shall not exceed (the lower of): that specified by appropriate local
regulation or 4 persons per room/accommodation unit.

The Contractor shall provide personal storage space for residents belongings including
secure storage for valuables.

The Contractor shall provide allowances for open spaces and pedestrian movement (e.g.
hard surface walkways with minimum 0.75 m width) and shaded communal areas.

Where permissible under local planning guidelines, the Contractor shall provide air
conditioned communal areas such as television/games rooms.

The Contractor shall designate pick up and drop off points (for buses) in such a way as to
minimize walking distances for residents and to minimize noise and air quality impacts on
residential buildings.

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The Contractor shall configure buildings/units in such a way as to create a sense of place
and community.

The Contractor shall provide tea and coffee making facilities in kitchen and mess areas.

The Contractor shall provide physical barriers (e.g. fencing or landscaping) to visually screen
the camp from adjacent worksites, etc.

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The Contractor shall provide written evidence that all local planning guidelines have been
adhered to when designing large scale, project related, labour accommodation facilities.
Local planning guidelines indicate the numbers and type of community facilities which should
be provided for a given population. Consideration shall be given at planning stage to the
availability and capacity of communal facilities and spaces in the surrounding area. Where
such facilities are not readily accessible, provision of public transport to access such facilities
shall be considered.

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The Contractor shall be aware of any changes in law relating to the provision of temporary
labour accommodation.

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10.10.3 Provision for Fire Safety

The Contractor shall provide for adequate fire-fighting equipment in the labour
accommodation (notwithstanding other local laws and regulations requiring same).

All relevant signage, notices, documentation and training relating to fire safety at labour
accommodation shall be provided in appropriate languages, based on the demographics of
the facility.

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10.10.4 Provision for Health Care

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The Contractor shall retain detailed records of all medical treatment carried out on-site.
Records shall be retained for all instances of residents being transported for off-site medical
attention. Such records shall include, as a minimum, the name, age and nationality of the
treated party, and the nature of the complaint. These records shall be used to identify
medical trends and implement proactive treatment to reduce absenteeism.

The Contractor shall provide all labour accommodation residents with access to a level of
healthcare beyond basic first aid. Such facilities shall be readily accessible by residents,
staffed by professional medical staff and have appropriate provisions and equipment. The
exact specification of the facility shall be determined on a case-by-case basis, depending on
the location and population of the labour accommodation.

The Contractor shall provide a facility to transport those requiring medical attention from the
labour accommodation to and from appropriate off-site medical facilities, free-of-charge and
in a timely manner.

The Contractor shall provide medical insurance for all workers in accordance with Qatar
Labour Law.

The Contractor shall include a Public Health Training module as part of induction training for
all new labour accommodation residents. As a minimum, this shall address:

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(a)

Personal hygiene and the appropriate use of the sanitary facilities provided (flush
toilets, showers, hand washing, waste disposal facilities etc.).

(b)

Awareness of communicable diseases (including Sexually Transmitted Diseases), their


transmission and prevention.

(c)

Practical information regarding residents rights and means of access to on-site and
off-site medical facilities.

(d)

Food safety.

(e)

Littering, safe disposal of waste and related community hygiene standards.

The Contractor shall promote public health awareness throughout all facets of the
accommodation. This shall include:
(a)

Signage in kitchens, bathrooms etc. promoting hygienic practices.

(b)

Educational videos and presentations.

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The Contractor shall provide access to transport, free-of-charge to/from:


Worksites, including backup services from worksite to labour accommodation for those
who failed to access scheduled services.

(b)

Availability nearby for community facilities, shops and recreation areas during leisure
time.

(c)

Religious facilities at suitable times.

(d)

Off-site medical facilities, including emergency access at all times.

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10.10.5 Access to Transport

Transport services shall be scheduled in such a way as to minimise waiting times and
maximise accessibility.

The Contractor shall use safe modes of transport only. The practice of transporting workers
in open-back trucks is forbidden.

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10.10.6 Access to Religious, Social and Domestic Facilities


1

The size and number of religious, social and domestic facilities shall be relative to and
appropriate to the population of the labour accommodation.

The Contractor shall facilitate access to religious facilities for those required to work on
Fridays.

The Contractor shall provide an on-site hall to facilitate religious practices. Alternatively,
transport may be provided to facilitate off-site worship.

The Contractor shall provide adequate shaded areas to facilitate social interaction. Similarly,
an appropriately sized, air-conditioned communal area(s) shall be provided (e.g. television
and games room). The size and number of these facilities shall be relative to and
appropriate to the population of the labour accommodation.

The Contractor shall provide preferably on-site, open spaces (for sports and recreation).
Where space constraints are such that this is impossible, readily accessible off-site spaces
shall be provided.

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The Contractor shall provide access nearby to basic domestic amenities.


include, as a minimum:

These shall

(a)

Access to banking/money transfer services, including transportation to banking/money


transfer facilities.

(b)

Laundry facilities.

(c)

Retail outlet(s) selling, as a minimum, essential items (e.g. food items, clothing,
toiletries, phone cards, stamps etc.).

(d)

Communications.

These services shall preferably be available on or within walking distance of the labour
accommodation.

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10.10.7 Access to Communications


The Contractor shall provide a telephone, available at all times, for calling the emergency
services. This facility shall be centrally located, conspicuous and all residents shall be aware
of this facility.

The Contractor shall provide access nearby to the following:

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Retail outlet selling mobile phone credit.

(b)

Postal service, both inward and outbound.

(c)

Facility for residents to receive emergency messages (e.g. in case of family


emergency abroad).

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10.10.8 Number, Quality and Location of Sanitation Facilities


The Contractor shall adhere to an appropriate standard for the provision of toilets and
showers etc. These facilities shall be maintained in good working order and shall be cleaned
regularly.

The Contractor shall develop and implement a Waste Management Plan for the labour
accommodation. This plan shall address the collection, segregation, storage, transport (offsite) and disposal (recycling) of wastes.

The Contractor shall provide adequate sanitary means for the disposal of waste water
(including sewerage) from labour accommodation. The Contractor shall provide adequate
management of surface water runoff to prevent the accumulation of standing/stagnant water
(and the associated health risks).

The Contractor shall provide laundry areas, separate from washrooms and food preparation
areas. Such laundry areas shall be adequately drained.

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10.10.9 Food Preparation Areas


1

The Contractor shall adhere to relevant local regulations relating to food preparation facilities.
In the absence of such local regulations, an appropriate regional standard shall be applied
The Contractor shall provide adequate food preparation facilities to allow cultural sensitivities
to be respected such as separate preparation areas for meat and vegetables, and
appropriate labelling and handling of food products.

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Where meals are provided to residents, the food offered shall be culturally appropriate based
on the demographics of residents.

10.10.10 Pest and Vermin Control


1

The Contractor shall engage a pest control company to service the labour accommodation
site.

Self closing doors fitted with fine mesh shall be installed at the entrances to food premises,
washrooms, living areas and any other enclosed spaces.

10.10.11 Security at Labour Accommodation


The Contractor shall provide adequate security personnel, based on the size, layout and
population of labour accommodation.

The Contractor shall provide Protocols (Codes of Conduct) for the security personnel
operating at labour accommodation. These Protocols shall clearly define the nature and
permitted magnitude of response to security incidents. They shall also set out the
circumstances under which security incidents should be handed over to Police control.
Protocols will be developed in consultation with the Engineer

The Contractor shall ensure that all security personnel are adequately trained in the Protocols
for security personnel.

The Contractor shall retain records of all security incidents arising at labour accommodation.
Such records shall include, as a minimum, the name, age and nationality of all those involved
(including security personnel), and the nature of the incident. These records shall be made
available to the Engineer.

The Contractor shall provide labour accommodation residents with secure facilities for the
storage of personal items and valuables.

The Contractor shall manage the movement of goods and personnel onto the
accommodation facility.

The Contractor shall maintain adequate lighting on and around the labour accommodation at
all times, therefore making it safer for residents to move around at all times.

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10.10.12 Social Issues


1

Any social issues arising at labour accommodation shall be addressed at regular project
Quality, Health, Safety and Environment (QHSE) meetings.

The Contractor shall include an Intercultural Understanding module as part of induction


training for all new labour accommodation residents. This shall include:
(a)

Basic introduction to cultural norms and practices of other accommodation residents.

(b)

An explanation of native or local customs, festivals or religious rites.

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The Contractor shall enforce a ban on the sale, possession and consumption of solvents,
alcohol and inhalants, for the purposes of intoxication, on labour accommodation sites. The
Contractor shall use its best endeavours to prevent these substances from entering labour
accommodation facilities.

The Contractor shall provide residents with contact details for relevant bodies such as
consulates, NGOs, or other relevant organisations offering social support. A list of such local
contacts shall be provided to new employees during their induction process. An up-to-date
list of contact details for these organisations shall also be displayed in public areas such as
the canteen, recreational areas, etc.

Any incidents of suicide or attempted suicide shall be investigated as a social issue to try to
determine the root causes with a view to reducing the likelihood of a recurrence. This may
include the engagement of qualified medical personnel to assist in this process (such as
psychiatrists or psychologists).

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10.10.13 Competence of Labour Accommodation Management

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The Contractor shall provide Protocols (Codes of Conduct) for the labour accommodation
management personnel. These Protocols shall clearly define the nature of issues and
incidents which are considered within the remit of labour accommodation management.
They shall also include guidelines outlining appropriate parties to whom incidents should be
referred and at what stage. Protocols will be developed in consultation with the Engineer

The Contractor shall retain records of all issues and incidents, at labour accommodation,
which are reported to or dealt with by labour accommodation management. Such records
shall include, as a minimum, the name, age and nationality of all those involved (including
members of the accommodation management team), and the nature of the issue or incident.
These records shall be made available to the labour accommodation management company.

The Contractor shall ensure that no member of labour accommodation management accepts
any form of payment by way of bribery or extortion or for any reason. Similarly the Contractor
shall commit to permanently removing any member of labour accommodation management,
from the accommodation, if they are found to have accepted or demanded such payments.
In this event, the Contractor shall report any such offences to the appropriate local authorities
to determine if a criminal offence has been committed.

The Contractor shall maintain labour accommodation facilities to a high standard and not
allow them to fall into disrepair.

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10.10.14 Environmental Conditions at Labour Accommodation


1

The Contractor shall provide the Engineer with copies of the relevant environmental permits
relating to the construction and operations of their labour accommodation facilities. The
nature of the permitting requirements will be dependent on the jurisdiction of the facility.

Where labour accommodation is to be sited on or close to work sites/industrial sites, the


accommodation facilities shall be located up-wind (based on prevailing wind) of the site and
the distance between the camp and air discharge points around the site shall be maximised.
Noise levels shall not exceed the requirements for night time hours residential areas, as
outlined in local laws and regulations.

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The accommodation area shall be separate from the work site and shall not be used for any
operation activities (e.g. storage, workshops, etc.).

Where on site facilities such as a Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) are located on or close to
the accommodation, planning requirements in relation to buffer zones, etc. shall be respected
and integrated into site layout. Similarly, adequate buffer zones shall be included to ensure
that sleeping accommodation is not immediately adjacent to main roads.

Appropriate waste management, storage and disposal facilities shall be provided on site.
There shall be no burning of wastes on site. Similarly, there shall be no fires onsite.

Use of labour accommodation facilities shall be restricted to those normally resident in the
accommodation. Where necessary, separate facilities, e.g. toilets, etc., shall be provided for
adjacent work sites, etc.

Roads and parking areas shall be paved, or where this is impractical, dust suppression
techniques shall be used to keep dust levels down within labour accommodation.

The Contractor shall appoint/engage a team of personnel dedicated to cleaning communal


areas around the camp on a regular (daily) basis.

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10.10.15 Health and Safety for Labour Accommodation Residents


The Contractor shall extend Workmens Compensation and Employers Liability Insurance to
cover their staff while resident in labour accommodation.

The Contractor shall extend the accident reporting requirements, to include accidents
occurring at off-site labour accommodation directly associated with the Project.

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END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
11: Engineers Site Facilities

ENGINEERS SITE FACILITIES .............................................................................. 2

11.1
11.1.1

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2
Scope
2

11.2
11.2.1
11.2.2
11.2.3
11.2.4

ENGINEERS SITE OFFICES ................................................................................. 2


General
2
Type 1 Offices
2
Type 2 Offices
3
Car Parking Facilities
6

11.3
11.3.1
11.3.2
11.3.3
11.3.4
11.3.5

UTILITY CONNECTIONS ........................................................................................ 6


General
6
Electricity
6
Water
6
Telephone
7
Internet
7

11.4
11.4.1
11.4.2
11.4.3
11.4.4
11.4.5
11.4.6
11.4.7

PROVISION OF EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES ...................................................... 7


General
7
Computers and Scanners/Printers
7
Photocopier
8
Measuring and Recording Equipment
9
Stationary Supplies
9
Safety Equipment and Clothing
10
Telephones and Facsimile Machines
10

11.5
11.5.1
11.5.2

ATTENDANCE ...................................................................................................... 11
Assistance to the Engineer
11
Contract Administration
11

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QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
11: Engineers Site Facilities

11

ENGINEERS SITE FACILITIES

11.1

GENERAL

11.1.1

Scope

This Part specifies the requirements for the Engineers temporary site facilities and includes
site offices, utility connections, provision of equipment and supplies and attendance.

Related Sections and Parts are as follows


Part 10
Part 13

Occupational Health and Safety


Setting Out of the Works

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This Section

ENGINEERS SITE OFFICES

11.2.1

General

The Contractor shall provide site offices the type and number as stated in the Project
Documentation. The position of the site offices shall be to the approval of the Engineer.

Upon removal of the site offices, the area occupied or otherwise affected by them shall be
reinstated to its original condition.

11.2.2

Type 1 Offices

Unless described elsewhere in the Project Documentation the Contractor shall provide,
maintain and remove on completion of the Works the Engineers site offices described in this
Clause.

The Contractor shall proceed with the provision of a site office for the exclusive use of the
Engineer immediately following the award of the Contract and shall provide temporary
alternative accommodation to the Engineers approval until such time as the office is made
available.

The office shall have a minimum area of 20 m and shall comply with the following:

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11.2

(a)

The structure shall be weatherproof.

(b)

The windows and doors shall be dust-proof and the windows shall be fitted with fly
screens.

(c)

The office shall be air-conditioned to maintain a maximum steady dry bulb temperature
of 25C at a relative humidity of 50% under the expected climatic conditions expected
at the Site.

(d)

Adequate effective lighting and power outlets shall be installed in accordance with the
latest requirements of the Qatar General Electricity & Water Corporation.

(e)

The walls and ceilings shall be painted with emulsion paint.

The office shall be provided with the following furniture to the approval of the Engineer:
(a)

1 No. kneehole pattern desk with a total of six lockable drawers, approximately 1500 x
800 x 760 mm in size.

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
11: Engineers Site Facilities

(b)

1 No. swivel chair with armrests.

(c)

2 No. stacking or folding chairs.

(d)

1 No. hanging file or plan chest suitable for AO size prints.

(e)

1 No. wastepaper basket.

(f)

1 No. two drawer filing cabinet.

(g)

1 No. wall mounted pin board, 1000 x 2000 mm in size.

Sanitary and washing facilities shall be provided for the exclusive use of the Engineer and
shall include a WC and a wash-hand basin an adequate supply of hot and cold water shall be
provided at all times.

The Contractor shall insure the site offices against fire, burglary and other risks.

The Contractor shall keep on site at all times an adequate supply of clean, fresh, chilled
drinking water for the consumption of the Engineer.

The Contractor shall maintain the offices in a clean and sanitary condition.

11.2.3

Type 2 Offices

The Engineers site offices described in this Clause shall be provided in lieu of Type 1 Offices
only where it is a stated requirement of the Project Documentation.

The offices shall be portable units, mounted on skids or similar and where directed in the
Project Documentation shall become the property of the Government on completion of the
Contract. On completion of the Contract, the offices which are to become the property of the
Government shall be repaired and redecorated to the satisfaction of the Engineer; they shall
then delivered to a location designated by the Engineer within 50 km of the Site.

The buildings shall conform to the general configuration shown below. The number of each
type of unit shall be as stated in the Project Documentation.

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The Contractor shall proceed with the provision of the portable offices, which shall be for the
exclusive use of the Engineer immediately following the award of the Contract and shall
provide temporary alternative accommodation to the Engineers approval until such time as
the offices are made available.

The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for approval a comprehensive specification and
drawings showing the accommodation proposed complete with furnishings, equipment and
fittings before placing any orders.

The units shall be mounted on adequate concrete foundations and shall be provided with
concrete access steps where necessary.

The units may be constructed of composite timber framed panels with wood or metal
cladding, any combination of these, or alternative forms or construction which comply with
the following levels of performance:

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Walls

Thermal conductance Fire resistance


-

0.60 w/m C
hour

Roof

Thermal conductance Roof resistance


-

0.60 m C
hour

Roof coverings shall be selected for durability, freedom from excessive maintenance, and the
ability to withstand extreme exposure to sun, heat and humidity.

The units shall be finished internally and externally with low maintenance materials.

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10

The offices shall be air-conditioned with wall mounted units to maintain each room at a
maximum steady dry bulb temperature of 25C at a relative humidity of 50% under the
expected climatic conditions expected at the Site. Extract fans capable of 10 air changes per
hour shall be provided in the kitchen and toilets.

11

The installation and testing of wiring and electrical equipment in the units shall be in
accordance with the latest requirements of the Qatar General Electricity & Water
Corporation.

12

Each office shall be provided with the following furniture to the approval of the Engineer:

1 No. swivel chair with armrests.

(c)

No. stacking or folding chairs.

(d)

1 No. hanging file or plan chest suitable for AO size prints.

(e)

1 No. wastepaper basket.

(f)

1 No. two drawer filing cabinet.

(g)

1 No. wall mounted pin board, 1000 x 2000 mm in size.

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Each toilet shall be provided with the following sanitary fittings to the approval of the Engineer
and an adequate supply of hot and cold water at all times:
1 No. low level WC suite.

(b)

1 No. Wash-hand basin.

(c)

1 No. shower tray, mixer fittings, rose and shower curtain.

(d)

1 No. toilet roll holder, towel rail, soap dish and mirror.

(e)

a suitable number of cups, saucers and drinking glasses.

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(a)

The samples and meeting room shall be provided with the following furniture to the approval
of the Engineer:
(a)
(b)

No. folding or stacking chairs.

(c)

1 No. wall mounted blackboard, 1000 x 2000 mm in size.

(d)

1 No. wall mounted pin board, 1000 x 3000 mm in size.

(e)

1 No. shelf unit for approved samples with 5 tiers of shelves 400 mm wide x 2400 mm
long overall.

2 No. tables, each approximately 1200 x 2000 mm in size.

14

1 No. kneehole pattern desk with a total of six lockable drawers and
approximately 1500 x 800 x 760 mm in size.

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(a)

15

All furniture and equipment shall remain the property of the Contractor and shall be removed
following completion of the Works unless otherwise noted in the Project Documentation.

16

The Kitchen shall be provided with the following equipment to the approval of the Engineer
(a)

1 No. stainless steel single bowl single drainer sink with hot and cold water and
cupboards underneath

(b)

1 No. floor mounted two door cupboards to match sink.

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(c)

Cabinets and shelves to match sink, as required.

(d)

2 ring cooker and microwave.

(e)

1 No. Refrigerator/Freezer with a capacity no less than 500 litres.

(f)

1 No. three pint kettle and sufficient crockery and cutlery.

(g)

A suitable number of mugs, cups, saucers and drinking glasses.

(h)

Table coasters for use on desk tops.

(i)

Hand towels and drying up cloths, laundered regularly.

(j)

Dishwashing facilities, clothes, sponges and washing up liquid, all replaceable.

(k)

Cleaning brushes, mop, bucket and floor clothes.

The Contractor shall insure the site offices against fire, burglary and other risks.

18

The Contractor shall keep on site at all times an adequate supply of clean, fresh, chilled
drinking water for the consumption of the Engineer.

19

The Contractor shall maintain the Offices in a clean and sanitary condition.

20

Each type of unit shall be provided with fire extinguishers and water cooler.

11.2.4

Car Parking Facilities

Parking areas shall be paved or have a finished surface as approved by the Engineer and
shall be covered with a suitable canopy to provide shading.

The number of shaded car parking spaces required shall be 2 No. for Type 1 Offices and 6
No. for Type 2 Offices unless otherwise stated in the Project Documentation.

11.3

UTILITY CONNECTIONS

11.3.1

General

The Contractor shall make all arrangements and pay all charges in connection with the
installation, maintenance, operation and removal of the service utilities described in this
Clause.

11.3.2

Electricity

The Contractor shall arrange for the provision of an uninterrupted electrical power supply to
the Engineers offices during all working hours and any at other time as requested by the
Engineer for the duration of the Contract.

11.3.3

Water

The Contractor shall arranged for the provision of an uninterrupted water supply to the
Engineers offices during all working hours and at any other time as requested by the
Engineer for the duration of the Contract.

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The Contractor shall provide inline filters on all water supplies into Employer and Engineers
site Facilities. The Contractor shall maintain these at regular intervals as per manufacturer
instruction throughout the duration of the Work order.

11.3.4

Telephone

The Contractor shall arrange for the provision of two (2) land lines for the sole use of the
Engineer for Type 1 Offices and three (3) land lines for the sole use of the Engineer for Type
2 Offices.

The Contractor may recover the net cost of international calls made by the Engineer.

11.3.5

Internet

.The Contractor shall arrange for the provision of a dedicated and uninterrupted internet
access to the Engineers offices during all working hours and at any other time as requested
by the Engineer for the duration of the Contract. The internet connection should be provided
with a bandwidth running at a minimum of 1 mbps upload capacity.

11.4

PROVISION OF EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES

11.4.1

General

The following items of equipment, supplies and associated level of service shall all be
provided unless detailed elsewhere in the Contract Documentation.

11.4.2

Computers and Scanners/Printers

The Contractor shall provide new network/internet capable computers and scanners/printers
for the sole use of the Engineer. The number of computers and scanners/printers required
and their performance specification shall be as detailed in the Project Documentation. The
Contractor shall also supply and install any computer software as detailed in the Project
Documentation.

The Contractor shall maintain the computers and scanners/printer for the duration of the
Contract and provide all consumables necessary for its operation.

The Contractor shall be responsible for installing legal copies of operating system and
software, trouble shooting, supplying of required consumables and maintenance of the
system.

Operating system and software requirements shall be as specified by the Engineer, with the
following as a minimum:

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(a)

Latest version of Microsoft Windows Operating System

(b)

Latest version of Microsoft Office

All software must be of latest version and Arabic enabled, to the approval of the Engineer.

The Contractor shall ensure that all computers and scanners/printers provided for the
Engineers use are networked within the Engineers facilities to the satisfaction of the
Engineer.

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The Contactor shall provide new desktop computers and laptops as shown in the Schedule
of Rates minimum 20-inch Flat Panel VGA/analogue colour monitors for use by the Engineer.

The Desktop and laptop computers shall comply with the following:
Intel Core 2 Duo Processor (1.86GHz,1066MHz,2MB cache)

(b)

1000GB(7200rpm)Serial ATA Hard Drive

(c)

56k Modem

(d)

32X DVD+/-RW Drive

(e)

Wireless network adaptor (Wi-Fi)

(f)

Wireless Keyboard & Mouse

(g)

Card Reader

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(a)

The Desktop and laptop computers shall comply with the following: New licensed copies of
MS Windows, MS Office Professional, MS Project and AUTOCAD, Primavera P6 and
Primavera Contract Manager (PCM) SOFTWARE SHALL BE PROVIDED.

10

Colour printer shall be of the laser type suitable for A3 size paper and having scanning and
copying facilities built in. It shall be quiet in operation (Hewlett Packard Desk Jet (latest
model) or similar).

11

The Computer equipment shall be returned to the Contractor at the end of Maintenance
Period. The Contractor shall be responsible for supply of all necessary cartridges and paper
and for maintenance of the equipment by the manufactures agent throughout the period of
the Work order.

12

The Contractor shall provide all necessary voltage stabilization equipment to ensure troublefree operation of the computer equipment.

13

All computers and printers shall be networked.

11.4.3

Photocopier

The Contractor shall provide a new photocopier for the sole use of the Engineer. The
performance specification for the photocopier shall be as detailed in the Project
Documentation.

The Contractor shall maintain the photocopier for the duration of the Contract and provide all
consumables necessary for its operation.

Contractors shall provide a new floor standing, stationary platen, and plain paper colour
photocopier for use and approved by the Engineer.

The photocopier shall be provided with an automatic document feeder capable of copying
both sides.

The Range of copy sizes of the photocopier shall be from A3 size (297420mm) to A4 size
(210297mm), portrait and landscape. Three paper storage trays shall be provided.

The photocopier shall be capable of reducing/enlarging originals by 50% to 200% in 1%


increments.

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The photocopier shall have an A4 size rotating paper cassette and automatic paper
size/zoom ratio selection.

Throughput shall be not lesson than 40 A4 copies per minute.

The photocopier shall be able to scan and email documents.

10

The photocopier shall be returned to the contractor at the end of period of Maintenance. The
contractor shall be responsible for supplying the necessary paper and maintenance of the
equipment by the manufactures agent throughout the work order.

11.4.4

Measuring and Recording Equipment

The Contractor shall provide measuring and recording equipment for the sole use of the
Engineer. The following items, which shall be to the approval of the Engineer, shall be
provided for the duration of the Contract:

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1 No. Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM) station.

(b)

1 No. 1 Total Station theodolite (or equivalent) including all necessary tripods, prisms
etc.

(c)

1 No. Automatic engineers level including tripod.

(d)

1 No. Metric levelling staff.

(e)

1 No. Calibrated steel survey band 50m long.

(f)

2 No. 30m nylon tapes.

(g)

2 No. 25 m metal tapes.

(h)

4 No. 5m pocket tapes.

(i)

6 No. Ranging rods.

(j)

1 No. Masons Spirit level.

(k)

1 No. Bitmac thermometer.

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1 No. digital camera.


Level and field books as required.

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(a)

Other equipment such as pegs, tools, etc, which are necessary for the checking of the Works
shall be provided as requested by the Engineer.

The Contractor shall maintain and replace as necessary the equipment for the duration of the
Contract. Surveying instruments shall be new or in as good as new condition, of an approved
make with a current certificate of adjustment.

11.4.5

Stationary Supplies

The Contractor shall supply stationary for the Engineer for the duration of the Contract.
Stationary items shall include, but not necessarily be limited to, the following:
(a)

Files and file dividers (A4 and A3 size).

(b)

Paper (A4 and A3 size).

(c)

Writing pens, marker pens, highlighter pens (various colours).

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Part
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(d)

Pencils (various colours).

(e)

Pencil sharpeners.

(f)

Erasers.

(g)

Staplers and staples.

(h)

Hole punches.

(i)

Paper chips and bull dog clips.

11.4.6

Safety Equipment and Clothing

The Contractor shall supply safety equipment and clothing for the Engineer and his staff.
Safety equipment and clothing shall include, but not necessarily be limited to, the following:
Safety helmets, boots, gloves, High visibility vests, safety glasses (Clear and tinted)

(b)

Safety belts and harnesses.

(c)

Boiler suits.

(d)

Any other PPE identified by the Contractors job hazard analysis or risk assessment
process

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(a)

The Contractor shall also supply gas detection equipment and breathing apparatus in
accordance with the relevant provisions of Part 10 of this Section, Occupational Health and
Safety.

11.4.7

Telephones and Facsimile Machines

For Type 1 Offices, the Contractor shall supply and install a telephone and facsimile
machine. The telephone and facsimile machine should conform to the relevant provisions of
any Telecom Provider standard or requirement.

For Type 2 Offices, the Contractor shall supply and install a telephone in each office and the
meeting room. Each telephone shall be connected to a private address box exchange
(PABX) system. The Contractor shall also supply and install a facsimile machine. The
telephones, PABX system and facsimile shall conform to the relevant provisions of any
Telecom Provider standard or requirement.

The Contractor shall provide a new A4 size plain paper desktop facsimile machine complying
with the following:

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(a)

2 Line 24 character LCD Display

(b)

ITU compatible

(c)

Resolution horizontal scanning 8 pixel/mm

(d)

Vertical scanning Standard 3.85 lines/mm

(e)

Fine 7.7 lines/mm

(f)

150 sheet paper tray (80g/m2

The facsimile machine shall be returned to the contractor at the end of maintenance period.
The Contractor shall be responsible for supply of all necessary toner or ink cartridges and
plain white paper and for maintenance of the equipment by the manufactures s agent
throughout the Work order.

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The Contractor shall provide six digital cameras and one digital video camera for the
exclusive use of the Engineer or his designated representative and supply software,
batteries, cables and USB flash drives or external hard drives as required. The Digital
camera shall have a minimum specification of 35-105 zoom, with a minimum of 16.0
megapixels for prints up to 2030, 8GB internal memory and video/audio facility. The
cameras shall be returned to the contractor at the end of the contract period

11.5

ATTENDANCE

11.5.1

Assistance to the Engineer

The Contractor shall provide every assistance to the Engineer in carrying out his duties.

The Contractor shall provide for the use of the Engineers Representative and his staff, any
chainman/assistants to carry out any duties whatsoever, as required by the Engineers
Representative.

11.5.2

Contract Administration

The Contractor shall provide secretaries, cleaners and tea persons for the exclusive use of
the Engineer for the duration of the Contract.

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Page 1

12

CONTRACTORS SITE FACILITIES GENERAL ........................................... 2

12.1

GENERAL ...................................................................................................... 2

12.1.1 Scope
12.1.2 References

2
2

12.2

CONTRACTORS SITE FACILITIES ............................................................. 2

12.2.1
12.2.2
12.2.3
12.2.4
12.2.5

Buildings
Site Fabrication Areas
Materials Storage Area
Power, Water, Lighting and Heating
Miscellaneous

12.3

PROJECT SIGN BOARD............................................................................... 3

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2
2
3
3

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12.3.1 Project Sign Board

ADVERTISING .............................................................................................. 4
4
4

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12.4.1 Photographs
12.4.2 Name Boards and Other Advertising

PROVISION OF HAMAD MEDICAL CORPORATION AMBULANCE SPOKE


STATION ....................................................................................................... 4

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12.5

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12.5.1 General
12.5.2 Requirements

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4

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Page 2

12

CONTRACTORS SITE FACILITIES GENERAL

12.1

GENERAL

12.1.1

Scope

This Part specifies the requirements for the Contractors temporary site facilities.

12.1.2

References

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:


Part 9 Materials.

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This Section

CONTRACTORS SITE FACILITIES

12.2.1

Buildings

The Contractor shall provide all offices, sheds, stores and other buildings necessary for him
to undertake all duties, obligations and activities associated with the construction of the
Works.

All buildings shall be supplied and maintained in good condition and shall be of neat
appearance.

The position of all the Contractors temporary site buildings shall be to the approval of the
Engineer.

The Contractor shall maintain an office at the Site for the duration of the Contract. This office
shall be open at all times during Site working hours.

Upon completion of the Contract, all temporary site buildings shall be removed and the area
occupied or otherwise affected by them reinstated to its original condition.

The Government of Qatar will grant a right of access only within the road reservation. Should
the Contractor need to use adjacent areas of land for camps, plant site etc, he shall arrange
for the right to use the said land himself.

This clause in no way invalidates the obligations of the General Conditions of Contract.

12.2.2

Site Fabrication Areas

The Contractor shall provide an area suitable for assembly and fabrication purposes.

Fabrication areas shall simulate factory conditions if required in the Project Documentation.

12.2.3

Materials Storage Area

The Contractor shall provide sufficient and appropriate materials storage areas. The storage
areas shall be suitable for the materials to be stored in them and shall offer necessary
protection where required.

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Page 3

The Contractor shall ensure that the storage areas comply with the relevant provisions of
Part 9 of this Section, Materials.

12.2.4

Power, Water, Lighting and Heating

The Contractor shall provide, maintain and subsequently remove temporary services for
power supply, water supply, lighting and heating.

All electrical installations shall be in the charge of a competent person who shall accept full
responsibility for its use and any alterations or additions thereto. The name, designation and
telephone number of such person shall be prominently displayed close to the main switch or
circuit breaker of the installation, and also in the Contractors site office.

Site work power tool supplies (except for operation of pumps) shall be of 110 volts (55 volts
to earth). All electricity supply cables shall be buried or properly supported and protected and
shall be armoured. Flexible cable shall only be allowed for hand lamps and hand held tools
and shall not exceed 6 metres in length. Industrial type plugs and sockets shall be used.

All site electrical installations shall comply with the requirements of the current regulations of
QGEWC.

12.2.5

Miscellaneous

The Contractor shall provide, maintain and subsequently remove temporary roads, paths,
parking areas and refuse disposal areas. The area occupied by temporary roads, paths,
parking areas and refuse disposal areas or otherwise affected by them shall be restored to
their original condition on completion of the Contract.

12.3

PROJECT SIGN BOARD

12.3.1

Project Sign Board

Standard Signboard: The Contractor shall provide and erect a temporary signboard at the
location of his approved site compound. In addition he shall provide signboards at the start
and end of each ongoing work location for all works whether major or minor.

Project Identification Signboard: Information signboards shall be clearly displayed on


approaches to works in the highway at each ongoing work location for all works whether
major or minor. These shall be provided by the Contractor and shall be positioned so as not
to cause hindrance to the movement of vehicular or pedestrian traffic. The signs shall be
mounted on sturdy metal frames, be mobile and reusable, and shall be illuminated at night.

The Project sign boards shall comply with the standard details, as updated by the project
drawings and specifications, and shall be to the approval of the Engineer. In addition, the
Contractor shall obtain all necessary approvals from the relevant authorities prior to erection.
The Contractor shall be responsible for the structural stability of the signboards but shall
submit details of his proposals for support to the Engineer for approval.

The Contractor shall maintain, move and adapt the signboards as required during the
progress of the Works and shall remove them upon completion.

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Page 4

ADVERTISING

12.4.1

Photographs

The Contractor shall not use photographs or any details of his work in connection with the
Contract in any form of publicity or advertisement in any part of the world without having first
obtained the Engineers approval to its content and context.

12.4.2

Name Boards and Other Advertising

Details of any further sign boards other than as designed in Clause 12.3.1 or advertisements
that the Contractor may wish to erect on site shall be to the approval of the Engineer.

12.5

PROVISION OF HAMAD MEDICAL CORPORATION AMBULANCE SPOKE


STATION

12.5.1

General

Ambulance Spoke Station is a temporary structure. This can be relocated quickly to any
location in a rapidly changing infrastructure, which is a vital component of the design. It is
designed to provide covered parking for up to two ambulances and accommodation for a
small crew room for up to four paramedics. The crew need shelter from the summer heat in a
safe environment in a prime response location to be ready for emergency calls. The stations
are versatile and designed to be completely self-contained. It doesn't require to be connected
to Electricity, Water or Sewerage or require any physical links to service providers. All of its
power is provided by solar panels. The cabin can be dismantled and moved to another site
within 48 hours, enabling Hamad Medical Corporation to relocate these small stations. The
station does not require any form of building foundations, just level ground. Depending on the
location, some stations may require minor works for access to and from the road.

The contractor will in no way be relieved of his responsibility under Qatari law to provide
medical care, facilities, insurance, etc. to workers on site, and that Hamad Medical
Corporations facility is mainly for the purpose of the general public (so that Hamad Medical
Corporation can respond more quickly to emergency incidents in a rapidly changing
infrastructure)

12.5.2

Requirements

If instructed by the Engineer, the Contractor shall make provision within or adjacent his site
facilities for an Ambulance Spoke Station.

The Contractor is only required to provide an area for the for the facilities. The Ambulance
Spoke Station and vehicles will be provided and installed by Hamad Medical Corporation or
an entity on their behalf.

The area shall be a minimum of 10 metres by 17 metres.

The area must be levelled as the surrounding area of the Contractor facilities.

The areas shall be provided with clear access to the road network.

Access to the Ambulance Spoke Station is required 24hours/day 7 days/week.

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12.4

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Page 5

Ambulance vehicle access is required to at least one long side.

Access for maintenance (water resupply, cleaning, removal of waste etc.) is required to one
short side.

The allocated area shall be approved in writing by the Engineer after consultation with
Hamad Medical Corporation.

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END OF PART

QCS 2014

13

Section 01: General


Part
13: Setting Out of the Works

Page 1

SETTING OUT OF THE WORKS .................................................................. 2

13.1
GENERAL ...................................................................................................... 2
13.1.1 Scope
2
13.2
SITE INFORMATION AND INSPECTION ..................................................... 2
13.2.1 Site Information
2
13.2.2 Site Inspection
2
13.3
LEVELS AND REFERENCE GRID ................................................................ 2
13.3.1 Temporary Bench Marks
2
13.3.2 Site Grid
3

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13.4
SURVEYING .................................................................................................. 3
13.4.1 Site Survey
3

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13.5
SETTING OUT ............................................................................................... 3
13.5.1 Setting Out of the Works
3
13.5.2 Setting Out of Works Sited on Private Land
4

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Part
13: Setting Out of the Works

Page 2

13

SETTING OUT OF THE WORKS

13.1

GENERAL

13.1.1

Scope

This Part specifies the requirements for setting out of the Works and includes locating
existing services, surveying the Site and establishment of temporary bench marks.

The Engineer reserves the right to order levels to be taken at any time considered necessary
for the full and proper supervision and measurement of the Works.

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:

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Engineers Site facilities.

Part 11

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This Section

SITE INFORMATION AND INSPECTION

13.2.1

Site Information

Before commencing the setting out of the Works the Contractor shall ascertain the location of
all existing underground services within the Site boundary. The Contractor shall prepare a
plan detailing the location of the services.

Any conflict between existing services and any part of the proposed Works shall be brought
to the attention to the Engineer without delay.

Any re-work resulting from the Contractors failure to locate and identify services shall be
undertaken at the Contractors cost.

13.2.2

Site Inspection

Before commencing the setting out of the Works, the Contractor and the Engineer shall
make an inspection of the Site.

Where appropriate, the Engineer shall require the Contractor to arrange for surveys to be
undertaken, in conjunction with the owners or occupiers, of the condition of roads, properties,
lands and crops which may be affected by the Works. Before any work affecting such roads,
properties, lands or crops is commenced, the Contractor shall confirm in writing to the
Engineer that the relevant survey is a true and accurate record of their condition.

13.3

LEVELS AND REFERENCE GRID

13.3.1

Temporary Bench Marks

. The Contractor shall establish accurate temporary bench marks on permanent blocks from
which the levels to which the Works are to be constructed may be transferred. The location
of temporary bench marks shall be agreed with the Engineer. The level of temporary bench
marks shall be related to the Qatar National Height Datum.

The Contractor shall prepare a plan detailing the location of the bench marks and temporary
bench marks and keep it up to date for the duration of the Contract.

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13.2

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Page 3

The Contractor shall protect and maintain the temporary bench marks until the Works are
complete. Upon completion of the Works the Contractor shall clear away the temporary
bench marks to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

The Contractor is responsible for checking the accuracy of temporary bench mark. Any rework resulting from incorrect or inaccurate temporary bench marks shall be undertaken at the
Contractors cost.

13.3.2

Site Grid

When it is a requirement of the Project Documentation, or unless otherwise notified by the


Engineer, the Contractor shall establish a Site Grid. The orientation of the Site Grid shall be
determined by the layout of the proposed works and as agreed with by the Engineer. Grid
spacing shall be 20m in each direction unless otherwise notified by the Engineer. Grid
notation shall be numerical in one direction (y-axis) and alphabetic in the other (x-axis).

The grid shall be tied to the Qatar National Grid. An existing control station related to the
Qatar National grid will be indicated by the Engineer for this purpose.

13.4

SURVEYING

13.4.1

Site Survey

The Contractor shall provide the Site survey and the correctness of that survey shall be
entirely the Contractors responsibility.

The Site survey shall comply with the requirements of the Qatar Survey Manual as a
minimum.

The Contractor shall, within 3 weeks of the date of commencement of the Works, carry out a
check of the co-ordinates and levels of all permanent monuments, bench marks and survey
markers used in the determination of the site survey model and proposed to be used for the
setting out of the Works.

13.5

SETTING OUT

13.5.1

Setting Out of the Works

The Contractor shall carry out at his own cost the setting out of the Works.

The Contractor shall be responsible for:

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(a)

True and proper settings out of the Works in relation to reference data given
in the Project Documentation.

(b)

Accurately setting out the positions, levels and dimensions of all parts of the Works.

Any delay or loss resulting from errors in the setting out of the Works shall be the
responsibility of the Contractor. Setting out shall be reviewed by the Engineer before
commencing the Works, but such approval shall in no way relieve the Contractor of his
responsibility for the correct execution of the Work.

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
13: Setting Out of the Works

Page 4

The Contractor shall provide measuring and recording equipment for the Engineer in
accordance with the relevant provisions of Part 11 of this Section, Engineers Site Facilities.
The Contractor shall maintain all measuring and recording equipment in good working order
at all times.

The Contractor shall provide all assistance which the Engineer may require for checking the
setting out and taking measurements of the Works, including labour, equipment and
transportation.

13.5.2

Setting Out of Works Sited on Private Land

The Contractor shall notify the Engineer in writing fourteen (14) days in advance of his
intention to set out any of part of the Works that lies in private land.

The Contractor shall ensure that all requirements and instructions of private land owners are
strictly adhered to.

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END OF PART

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QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
14: Temporary Works and Equipment

Page 1

TEMPORARY WORKS AND EQUIPMENT ............................................................. 2

14.1
14.1.1

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2
Scope
2

14.2
14.2.1

TEMPORARY WORKS ........................................................................................... 2


General
2

14.3
14.3.1

TEMPORARY EQUIPMENT .................................................................................... 2


General
2

14.4
14.4.1

TEST CERTIFICATES FOR CRANES AND LIFTING TACKLE ............................... 3


General
3

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QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
14: Temporary Works and Equipment

Page 2

14

TEMPORARY WORKS AND EQUIPMENT

14.1

GENERAL

14.1.1

Scope

This Part specifies the requirements for Temporary Works required in connection with
construction of the Works and temporary plant and equipment required in connection with
aiding the construction of the Works. It does not include overpumping activities in respect of
sewers and drains.

Related Parts and Sections are as follows:


Quality Assurance and Quality Control

Section 11

Health and Safety

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Section 2

Occupational Health and Safety concerning temporary works and equipment is covered in
Section 11 Health and Safety

Quality Controlling temporary works and equipments is covered in


Assurance and Quality Control

14.2

TEMPORARY WORKS

14.2.1

General

Everything used for and in connection with the Temporary Works shall be fit for the purpose,
in serviceable condition and in compliance with any relevant standard.

The Contractor shall design his Temporary Works to be of adequate strength, stability and
suitability.

The Contractor shall submit details of any Temporary Works proposed to the Engineer for
review before commencing the work. Such details shall include, but not be limited to design
calculations and drawings. The submission to the Engineer of any such details shall not
relieve the Contractor of his responsibility for sufficiency of the Temporary Works or of his
other duties and responsibilities under the Contract.

The Contractor is responsible for ensuring that Temporary Works are not in any way
detrimental to existing structures in any way. Particular care shall be taken with scaffolding to
avoid staining or mechanical damage to finishing.

The Contractor shall make safe and reinstate all areas affected by Temporary Works.

14.3

TEMPORARY EQUIPMENT

14.3.1

General

The Contractor shall provide and maintain in good condition on the Site all plant, tools and
vehicles necessary for the proper and safe execution of the Works.

Temporary equipment shall be fit for the purpose for which it is to be used.

Section 2 Quality

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QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
14: Temporary Works and Equipment

Page 3

Temporary equipment shall only be operated by personnel who are trained and qualified.

14.4

TEST CERTIFICATES FOR CRANES AND LIFTING TACKLE

14.4.1

General

Cranes, whether used to construct the Works or provided as part of the permanent Works,
must have a current test certificate.

Each sling, shackle or other item of loose lifting tackle, whether used to construct the Works
or provided as part of the permanent Works, must have either a current test certificate.

Test certificates must be issued by a competent testing authority approved by the Engineer.

The Contractor must have a copy of each test certificate on site available for inspection by
the Engineer.

The following Standards and Code of Practice shall be complied with and where such
documents are replaced or superseded the Contractor shall comply with the latest version:

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Mobile and Tower Cranes: BS 1757, BS 2799 and CP 3010.

(b)

Overhead Cranes: BS 466 and BS 5744.

(c)

Slings: BS 1290, BS EN 1492, ISO 4309 / 3481 Pt 2, ASME B30.9.

(d)

Chain Blocks: BS 3243.

(e)

Shackles: Alloy: BS 3551/ BS 6994.

(f)

Chain: BS 4942 part 1 & 6.

(g)

Hooks: BS 2903, ASME B30.10.

(h)

Ring and link: BS 2902.

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(a)

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A monthly inspection of lifting appliances shall be carried out by a competent person


employed by the Contractor. Full records of all such inspections and tests shall be kept by the
Contractor in an approved form and shall be made available to the Engineer immediately
upon demand. Copies of monthly inspection reports shall be submitted to the Engineer.

END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
15: Temporary Controls

Page 1

TEMPORARY CONTROLS ..................................................................................... 2

15.1
15.1.1

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2
Scope
2

15.2
15.2.1
15.2.2
15.2.3
15.2.4
15.2.5
15.2.6
15.2.7

TEMPORARY CONTROLS ..................................................................................... 2


Construction Cleaning
2
Dust Control
2
Noise
2
Nuisance and Trespass
2
Pollution Control
3
Surface Water and Groundwater Control
3
Environmental protection
4

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15

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
15: Temporary Controls

Page 2

15

TEMPORARY CONTROLS

15.1

GENERAL

15.1.1

Scope

This Part specifies the Contractors responsibilities with respect to temporary controls needed
to protect the Works and the environment.

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:


This Section

Part 5

Interference

TEMPORARY CONTROLS

15.2.1

Construction Cleaning

The Contractor shall be responsible for the proper upkeep and maintenance of the Site and
Works and shall remove from the Site all rubbish and other waste as it accumulates.
Materials and equipment shall be positioned, stored and stacked in an orderly manner.

Properly constructed rubbish chutes shall be used for clearing the debris from upper floors.
Debris shall be accumulated in suitable pre-determined areas and removed from the Site as
often as is practical.

On completion of the Works, any protective tape and other temporary coverings shall be
removed and the internal and external surface of the structure shall be thoroughly cleaned to
completely remove all dust, dirt, stains, handmarks, paint spots, plaster, mortar droppings
and other blemishes.

15.2.2

Dust Control

The Contractor shall conduct his operations and activities in such a manner that no operation
shall be included which will emit into the atmosphere any flying dust or dirt which might
constitute a nuisance.

15.2.3

Noise

The Contractor shall restrict the use of plant, machinery, equipment and work practises likely
to produce unacceptable noise levels to normal working hours.

15.2.4

Nuisance and Trespass

All reasonable means shall be used to avoid inconveniencing owners and occupiers of
adjacent properties. All plant, machinery or equipment shall be placed and used on the Site
so as to avoid any nuisance or trespass on adjoining property.

Should it be necessary for any plant, machinery or equipment to project or operate over
adjoining property, the Contractor shall obtain the permission of the adjoining owner or
occupier. Details of approvals shall be submitted to the Engineer in writing.

No workmen employed on the Works shall be allowed to trespass upon adjoining properties.

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15.2

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
15: Temporary Controls

Page 3

If in the execution of the Works it is necessary for the Contractor to enter adjacent properties,
he shall firstly obtain the permission of the owners of the property. The Contractor shall
ensure that any instructions made by the owners of the properties are strictly adhered to.

The Contractor shall be held responsible for and shall indemnify the Employer against all
claims, which may arise out of his failure to comply with provisions of items 1. 2. 3 and 4 of
Clause 1.15.2.4

15.2.5

Pollution Control

The Contractor shall ensure that none of his operations or work practises result in the
polluting of the air, underground strata or any existing watercourse, canal, lake, reservoir
borehole and aquifer.

The Contractor shall rectify any problem resulting from pollution caused by the Contractor to
the satisfaction of the Engineer.

The Contractor will be held responsible for and shall indemnify owner against all claims in
connection with noise, vibration, dust, smoke, diesel spillage and any other nuisance arising
from the execution of the Works.

15.2.6

Surface Water and Groundwater Control

The Contractor shall keep the Work well drained until the Engineer certifies that the whole of
the Works is substantially complete and shall ensure that so far as is practicable all work is
carried out in the dry. Excavated areas shall be kept well drained and free from standing
water.

The Contractor shall construct, operate and maintain all temporary dams, water courses and
other works of all kinds including pumping and well-point dewatering that may be necessary
to exclude water from the Works while construction is in progress. Such temporary works
shall not be removed without the approval of the Engineer.

Notwithstanding any approval by the Engineer of the Contractors arrangements for the
exclusion of water, the Contractor shall be responsible for the sufficiency thereof and for
keeping the Works safe at all times, particularly during periods of rainfall that may result in
flooding. Any damage to the Works arising through the Contractors failure to provide
sufficient protection against water, including flooding, shall be made good at his own
expense.

It is the Contractors responsibility to dispose of all extracted groundwater and collected


surface water. The Contractor shall submit details of his proposed disposal methods to the
Engineer for approval. Discharge of groundwater and/or surface water to existing drainage
facilities shall only be permitted if written approval is given by Public Works Authority and/or
concerned other authorities; copies of such approvals shall be submitted to the Engineer.

The Contractor is to take all necessary precautions to avoid floatation of any structure.

The Contractor shall ensure that his groundwater control activities do not adversely affect any
existing structure or service.

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QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
15: Temporary Controls

Page 4

15.2.7

Environmental protection

The Contractor shall comply with all conditions of the environmental clearance issued for the
project by the Supreme Council for the Environment and Natural Reserves.

The Contractor shall comply with all rules and regulations regarding environmental protection
and pollution control issued by the Supreme Council for the Environment and Natural
Reserves.

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END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
16: Traffic Diversions

Page 1

16

TRAFFIC DIVERSIONS................................................................................. 2

16.1

GENERAL ...................................................................................................... 2

16.1.1
16.1.2
16.1.3
16.1.4
16.1.5

Scope
Conformance
Safety
System Description
Traffic Police Requirements

16.2

TEMPORARY TRAFFIC DIVERSIONS ......................................................... 3

2
2
2
2
2
3
3

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16.2.1 General Requirements


16.2.2 Maintenance of Traffic flow

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
16: Traffic Diversions

Page 2

TRAFFIC DIVERSIONS

16.1

GENERAL

16.1.1

Scope

This Part specifies requirements associated with traffic diversions. Traffic diversions include
for work in, or affecting the use of, roads, footpaths and right of ways and may comprise the
construction and maintenance of paved and unpaved detour carriageways including all
earthworks and the provision of adequate drainage, lighting, sign posting, street furniture and
traffic control devices.

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:


Part 4

Protection

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This Section

16

Conformance

Signs, control and control devices associated with traffic diversions shall conform to the
relevant provisions of Traffic Control at Roadworks produced by the Ministry of Public
Works (latest edition/version) and shall be to the approval of the Traffic Police and the Public
Works Authority.

16.1.3

Safety

The Contractor is responsible for all safety issues associated with the installation, operation,
maintenance and removal of traffic diversions.

The Contractor shall provide lighting in accordance with the relevant provisions of Part 4 of
this Section, Protection.

16.1.4

System Description

Where the diversion of any existing road, footpath or public right or way is temporarily
necessitated by the Works, the Contractor shall provide and maintain an alternative which
shall be operational before interference with the existing facility.

Temporary traffic control devices as well as any other traffic management requirement shall
be erected and maintained by the Contractor for the duration of any activity in, or affecting the
use of, roads, footpaths and right of ways.

16.1.5

Traffic Police Requirements

Before any work in, or affecting the use of, any road, footpath, and right of way is
commenced, the Contractors proposed method of working shall be agreed with, and
confirmed in writing to, the Engineer and the Traffic Police.

Throughout the execution of the Works and the maintenance period, the Contractor shall cooperate with the Traffic Police concerning works in, or access to, roads, footpaths and right of
ways. The Contractor shall inform the Engineer of any requirements of, or arrangements
made with, the Traffic Police.

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16.1.2

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
16: Traffic Diversions

Page 3

TEMPORARY TRAFFIC DIVERSIONS

16.2.1

General Requirements

The Contractor shall prepare detailed plans showing any proposed traffic diversions. The
plans shall fully detail the diversion in all respects and shall include construction details if
necessary. The plans shall show the position of ramps, traffic signs, cones, barriers,
demarcation posts and tape, flashing lights and any other traffic control devices. The plans
shall be submitted to the Engineer for review and shall be approved by the Traffic Police.
Traffic diversion apparatus shall not be erected until the Traffic Police have reviewed and
approved the traffic diversion plans.

Persons acting as flagmen shall be physically and mentally qualified, trained in their duties
and courteous. Each flagman on duty shall be identified with appropriate and distinctive
apparel approved by the Engineer and equipped with bilingual STOP/GO signs. Reflective
apparel is required for flagging duties during darkness.

Where paved carriageways, unpaved carriageways or ramps are required, they shall be
provided and maintained to a standard suitable in all respects for the class or classes of
traffic or pedestrians requiring the use of them.

On completion, all traffic diversion works and apparatus shall be removed and land affected
by them reinstated to its original condition.

16.2.2

Maintenance of Traffic flow

The Contractor shall allow for the construction of temporary diversions to permit all existing
traffic movements for the duration of the Contract period.

All diversions shall be constructed in accordance with the latest edition/version of Qatar
Traffic Manual Traffic Control at Roadworks booklet and the Qatar Highway Design Manual,
and shall be approved prior to the implementation by both the Engineer and Traffic Police. It
is the Contractors responsibility to ensure that any traffic diversion required is properly
signed, demarcated, illuminated, controlled and maintained at all times.

Upon the Engineers request, the Contractor shall install and commission temporary traffic
signals capable of handling the diverted traffic.

Sequential arrow boards operating on a 24-hour basis (engine or solar powered) must be
used at all diversion points.

Within the limits of the project where pedestrian traffic is present, all excavated areas,
regardless of depth, must be cordoned off by means of wired mesh panels of height no less
than 1.8m connected together to form a continuous barrier wall.

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16.2

END OF PART

QCS 2014

17

Section 01: General


Part
17: Project Co-ordination

Page 1

PROJECT CO-ORDINATION ........................................................................ 2

17.1
GENERAL ...................................................................................................... 2
17.1.1 Scope
2
17.1.2 Responsibility
2

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CO-ORDINATION .......................................................................................... 2
Contractors Activities
2
Sub-Contractors
3
Other Contractors
3
Other Ministries
3
Liaison with the Public Utility Authorities and other Contractors
3

17.2
17.2.1
17.2.2
17.2.3
17.2.4
17.2.5

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
17: Project Co-ordination

Page 2

17

PROJECT CO-ORDINATION

17.1

GENERAL

17.1.1

Scope

This Part specifies the co-ordination activities for which the Contractor is responsible.

Related Parts and Sections are as follows:


Part 18

Other Contractors

Part 19

Regulatory Requirements

This Section

Responsibility

The Contractor shall be responsible for the proper co-ordination of all his activities associated
with the construction of the Works including that required between the Engineer, utility
owners, government departments, sub-contractors and other contractors.

No major operations shall be commenced or work outside the usual working hours be carried
out without the consent in writing of the Engineer or without full and complete notice also in
writing being given to him sufficiently in advance of the time of operation so as to enable him
to make such arrangements as he may deem necessary for its inspection.

17.2

CO-ORDINATION

17.2.1

Contractors Activities

The Contractor shall undertake the following co-ordination activities:

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Co-ordinate construction activities under the various Sections of these Specifications


to assure efficient and orderly installation of each part of the Works.
Co-ordinate construction operations included under the various Sections of this
Specification that is dependent upon each other for proper installation, connection, and
operation.

(b)

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17.1.2

(c)

Where installation of one part of the Work is dependent on installation of other


components, either before or after its own installation, the Contractor shall prepare
schedules and construction activities in the sequence required to obtain the best
results.

(d)

Where availability of space is limited, co-ordinate installation of different components


to assure maximum accessibility for required maintenance, service and repair.

(e)

Make adequate provisions to accommodate items scheduled for later installation.

(f)

Where necessary, prepare memoranda for distribution of each party involved outlining
special procedures required for co-ordination; include such items as required notices,
reports and attendance at meetings.

(g)

Prepare similar memoranda for the Engineer, separate contractors and subcontractors where co-ordination of their work is required.

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
17: Project Co-ordination

Page 3

(h)

Take special care and precautions for specific co-ordination requirements for the
installation of plant and items of equipment.

(i)

Co-ordinate the scheduling and timing of required administrative procedures with other
construction activities to avoid conflicts and ensure orderly progress of the work.

Sub-Contractors

The Contractor is responsible for co-ordinating the work of his sub-contractors in all respects.

17.2.3

Other Contractors

The Contractor shall co-ordinate his work as necessary with other contractors in accordance
with the relevant provisions of Part 18, Other Contractors, of this Section.

17.2.4

Other Ministries

The Contractor shall co-ordinate his work as necessary with other Ministries in accordance
with the relevant provisions of Part 19, Regulatory Requirements, of this Section.

17.2.5

Liaison with the Public Utility Authorities and other Contractors

The Contractor shall liaise with all public utility authorities for water, electricity, telephones,
etc and shall:

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17.2.2

Provide public utility authorities with storage areas where applicable.

(b)

Assist in unloading of stores and equipment.

(c)

Ensure that all services or diversions of services are installed under the carriageway
and footways before they are surfaced.

(d)

Work out an overall programme for any works to be carried out by public utility
authorities and ensure that this programme is maintained.

(e)

Keep public utility authorities informed of the Contractors own progress.

(f)

Arrange for supply of services for all the affected permanent and temporary
accommodation, buildings, shops, trading areas etc even if it is not clearly mentioned
in the Project Documentation for the duration for the Contract:

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Give the appropriate public utility authority adequate notice in writing that he intends to
install dry ducts so that a representative of the utility concerned may attend the
installation and record the location of the ducts together with the Contractor.

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(a)

The Contractor shall make due allowance for carrying out the works, whilst public utility
authorities are working on the Site, during the Contract period. This due allowance shall
include programming of the works to suit the programmes of the public utility authorities.

The Contractor shall at all times be responsible for the compliance with these requirements
of his sub-contractors.

Before final surfacing of any carriageways or footways takes place, the Contractor is
responsible for ascertaining from all public utility authorities that their underground works
have been completed. In the event that the Contractor failing to carry out this obligation to the
satisfaction of the Engineer and completed surfacing is subsequently disturbed, the Engineer
may instruct the Contractor to carry out work at his own expense.
END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
18: Other Contractors

Page 1

18

OTHER CONTRACTORS.............................................................................. 2

18.1

GENERAL ...................................................................................................... 2

18.1.1 Scope
18.2

ACCESS FOR OTHER CONTRACTORS ..................................................... 2

18.2.1 Unhindered Access


18.3

CO-OPERATION AND CO-ORDINATION WITH OTHER CONTRACTORS 2

18.3.1 Co-operation at Site Level


18.4

FACILITIES FOR OTHER CONTRACTORS ................................................. 2


2

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18.4.1 Site Facilities for Other Contractors

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
18: Other Contractors

Page 2

OTHER CONTRACTORS

18.1

GENERAL

18.1.1

Scope

This Part specifies the requirements for access to the Site for other contractors, for
co-operation and co-ordination with other contractors and for the provision of facilities with
other contractors.

18.2

ACCESS FOR OTHER CONTRACTORS

18.2.1

Unhindered Access

The Contractor shall allow other contractors unhindered access to any part of the Works
when in the opinion of the Engineer those parts are sufficiently completed.

18.3

CO-OPERATION AND CO-ORDINATION WITH OTHER CONTRACTORS

18.3.1

Co-operation at Site Level

The Contractor shall carry out his work in a manner that causes the minimum amount of
interference to other contractors working on the Site.

The Contractor shall co-ordinate his operations with the activities of other contractors where
necessary in order to avoid conflicts and ensure orderly progress of the Works.

Those works associated with existing or future service installation shall only be carried out by
a contractor or sub-contractor approved by the public utility authority concerned. The
Engineer shall require proof of such approval in writing prior to the commencement of works.

18.4

FACILITIES FOR OTHER CONTRACTORS

18.4.1

Site Facilities for Other Contractors

If specified in the Contract, the Contractor shall provide site facilities for other contractors.

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END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
19: Regulatory Requirements

Page 1

REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2


GENERAL---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2

19.1.1

SCOPE --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2

19.1.2

REFERENCES ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2

19.2

NOTICES ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3

19.2.1

GENERAL ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 3

19.2.2

NOTICE OF INTENT ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3

19.3

MISCELLANEOUS --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3

19.3.1

W ORK REQUIRED TO BE CARRIED OUT BY THE DEPARTMENT ----------------------------------------------- 3

19.3.2

REGULATIONS OF ROAD OPENINGS----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3

19.4

PROVISION FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES ----------------------------------------------------- 4

19.4.1

SCOPE --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4

19.5

THERMAL COMFORT ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5

19.6

THERMAL INSULATION --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5

19.7

ACOUSTICAL CONTROL ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5

19.8

W ASTE MANAGEMENT -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5

19.8.1

CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION W ASTE --------------------------------------------------------------------- 5

19.8.2

BULK W ASTE COLLECTION --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6

19.8.3

W ASTE STORAGE -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6

19.8.4

W ASTE COLLECTION ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6

19.8.5

RECYCLABLE W ASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES: ------------------------------------------------------------- 6

19.9

BUILDING FACADE/ EXTERNAL CLADDING MATERIAL -------------------------------------------------------- 7

19.9.1

CERTIFICATION AND APPROVAL ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7

19.9.2

MATERIAL PROPERTIES ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7

19.10

EXTERNAL FACADE CLEANING AND MAINTENANCE FOR HIGH RISE BUILDINGS -------------------------- 8

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19.1

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19.10.1 GENERAL ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 8


19.10.2 MAINTENANCE MANUAL ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8

19.10.3 ACCESS OF CLEANING AND MAINTENANCE -------------------------------------------------------------------- 8


19.10.4 CLEANING ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9
19.10.5 INSPECTION --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9
19.11

PROVISION OF ABLUTION FACILITIES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS ------------------------------------------------- 9

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
19: Regulatory Requirements

Page 2

REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS

19.1

GENERAL

19.1.1

Scope

This part specifies the requirements for co-ordination, co-operation and liaison with the
following utility and infrastructure owners:

This part also specifies the requirements for co-ordination, co-operation and liaison with the
following authorities and departments:

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ASHGHAL- Infrastructure Affairs


ASHGHAL- Building Affairs
ASHGHAL- Assets Affairs
Qatar General Electricity & Water Corporation- KAHRAMAA
Qatar Telecom - Provider
Qatar Petroleum, QP
Q Rail

19

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Civil Aviation Authority


Ministry of Awqaf and Islamic Affairs
Ministry of Environment

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Authorities having Municipal jurisdiction (Ministry of Energy & Industry, New Industrial area,
RLIC, MIC etc.)

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Ministry of Interior (Civil Defense Department, Traffic Police, Department of Immigration,


Security Systems Department, etc)

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Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Urban Planning (MMUP)


Private Engineering Office
The above shall collectively be known as Department in this Part.

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:

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Traffic Diversions
Project Co-ordination

Section 7
Section 11
Section 15
Section 25

Green Construction
Health and Safety
Insulation of Buildings
Glass and Glazing

This Section
Part 16
Part 17

Where any requirement(s) conflict with any other requirement(s) of Authorities or


Departments in the State of Qatar, the most stringent requirement(s) shall prevail.

19.1.2

References
Al Wakra City Zoning Plan and Regulations Report, 2008, Ministry of Municipality & Urban
Planning, State of Qatar
Civil Defense Regulations, Fire Prevention Department, General Administration of Civil
Defense, Ministry of Interior, State of Qatar

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
19: Regulatory Requirements

Page 3

Code on Barrier-Free Accessibility in Buildings, 2002 (ver 1.0), Building and Construction
Authority, Singapore
Conditions and Descriptions of the Expedient Workers Residences, Resolution of the
Minister of Civil Service and Housing Affairs No. (17) of 2005, State of Qatar
NFPA 101 Life Safety Code, 2012 Edition, National Fire Protection Association, U.S.A.
Planning and Building Regulations for Flats & Flat Complexes, 1994, Planning Department,
Ministry of Municipal Affairs & Agriculture, State of Qatar
Planning and Building Regulations for Villas & Villa Complexes, 1995, Planning Department,
Ministry of Municipal Affairs & Agriculture, State of Qatar
Qatar Highway Design Manual, 1997 (Rev 0), Civil Engineering Department, Ministry of
Municipal Affairs & Agriculture, State of Qatar
Qatar Survey Manual, UPDA, The Centre for GIS State of Qatar.

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Qatar Traffic Manual Vol. 1


Qatar Traffic Manual Vol. 2

Universal Design Guidelines, 2006, Building and Construction Authority, Singapore

NOTICES

19.2.1

General

All notices required to be given by the Contractor to the Department shall be in writing and
delivered by hand. The Contractor shall furnish the Engineer with a copy of all notices
issued by the Contractor.

19.2.2

Notice of Intent

The Contractor shall give at least seven days notice to the Department of the date upon
which it is intended to operate plant or equipment or carry out any work for which permission
has been given in writing by the Department: such operations or work shall only be carried
out in the presence a representative of the Department unless written confirmation shall
have been obtained that this unnecessary.

19.3

MISCELLANEOUS

19.3.1

Work required to be carried out by the Department

If the Department requires work to be carried out on its installations during the execution of
the Works, the Contractor shall provide all facilities to the Departments contractor or
workmen. The Contractor shall co-ordinate the work of the Department and his own
activities, and when necessary shall amend his programme to suit the requirements of the
Department and shall keep the Engineer informed of all arrangements made.

19.3.2

Regulations of Road Openings

For Works including road openings, the Contractor shall comply with all relevant provisions
of the following Parts of this Section or direction of the Engineer.

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19.2

Part 16
Part 21

Traffic Diversions.
Final Inspection and Handover

QCS 2014

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Part
19: Regulatory Requirements

Page 4

19.4

PROVISION FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES

19.4.1

Scope

The aim of this provision is to set out the fundamental design and construction requirements
and guidelines for making those buildings specified in Table 1 accessible to persons with
disabilities.
Table 1: Accessibility for Persons with Disabilities
No

Accessible areas

Residential buildings:
(a) 3-storeys and below

All communal areas and facilities at ground floor.

(b) 4-storeys and above

All communal areas and facilities.

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Types of buildings

Office buildings

All areas intended for access by employees or


public.

Shophouses

The ground floor for non-residential use shall be


accessible to employees or public.

Shopping complexes and multipurpose


complexes

All areas intended for access by employees or


public.

Hotels and boarding houses

All areas intended for access by employees or


public.

Religious buildings and Mosques

All areas intended for access by worshippers or


public.

Places of public resort

Cinemas, theatres, concert halls, stadia


or other places of public resort where
permanent seating arrangement is
provided

All areas intended for access by employees or


public.

Schools, colleges, universities or


institutions of learning

All areas intended for access by employees or


public.

10

Hostels, halls of residence or dormitories All areas intended for access by staff, students or
public.

11

Sports complexes and public swimming


pools

All areas intended for public access.

12

Restaurants and eating establishments

All areas intended for access by employees or


public.

13

Markets and hawker or food centres

All areas intended for public access.

14

Hospitals, clinics, dispensaries, nursing


homes, homes for the aged and welfare
homes

All areas intended for access by staff, patients,


inmates or public.

15

Factories, workshops and industrial


buildings 4-storeys and above

All areas intended for access by employees or


public.

16

Transport stations, interchanges,


passenger terminals and administration
buildings in depots

All areas intended for access by employees or


public.

17

Vehicle parks (surface parking or vehicle


parking buildings)

Prescribed areas.

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All areas intended for access by employees or


public.

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
19: Regulatory Requirements

Page 5

The Owner is recommended to follow and adopt suitable and relevant international barrier
free access guidelines which will allow persons with disabilities to enter, move around and
leave an establishment without hindrances.

Universal Design is a continuous process of innovation targeted at improving usability for


everyone. It is also known that Universal Design is the design of products and environment
to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or
specialised design. It is highly recommended that the Owner adopt Universal Design until the
authority (MMUP) approve reference.

19.5

THERMAL COMFORT

The heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system must be capable of providing
the following range of conditions for 95% of the year
Lower Limit
DB: 22.5 C

Relative humidity

RH: 30% (min)

Upper Limit

DB: 25.5 C
RH: 60% (max)

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Dry bulb temperature

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For occupant comfort, normal occupied spaces should have a terminal air velocity between
(0.2-0.3) m/s.

19.6

THERMAL INSULATION

As specified in section 15

19.7

ACOUSTICAL CONTROL

As specified in section 15

19.8

WASTE MANAGEMENT

19.8.1

Construction and Demolition Waste

For all new buildings unless or until specified otherwise, at least fifty percent (50%) by
volume or weight of waste material generated during the construction and/ or demolition of
buildings must be diverted from disposal in landfills. Diverted materials must be recycled or
reused.

This should be done through one or more of the following three paths:

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(a)

Concrete and Asphalt waste must be diverted to Construction Waste Treatment Plant.

(b)

Excavated soil, land-clearing debris and hazardous waste must be diverted to places
designated by the concerned Department of MMUP.

(c)

Other recyclable materials such as woods plastics and metals can be used at site or
diverted to a Recycling Facility.

The following materials are exempt from the calculation of the percentage of waste diverted
from disposal at landfill facilities:
(a)

Excavated soil and land-clearing debris; and

(b)

Hazardous waste

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
19: Regulatory Requirements

Page 6

Bulk Waste Collection

For all new residential apartment buildings, an area must be provided for residents to place
items of bulky waste such as furniture, electrical appliances and sanitary ware. The area
2
provided must cover a space of approximately ten square meters (10 m ). The area does not
have to be designated solely for the purpose of bulky waste collection (eg: set aside to the
car park).

The bulky waste storage area must be reachable, must not restrict access to the building
and comply with safety and fire requirement.

19.8.3

Waste Storage

For all new villas and apartments (single family units), domestic kitchen must be provided
with a minimum storage facility of two ten (10) liter waste receptacles clearly labeled for
recyclable and non-recyclable. The storage facility should be in a proper place within the
kitchen.

19.8.4

Waste Collection

All new buildings which require chute for general waste, in accordance with Qatar MMUP
Regulations, one of the following must be provided:

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19.8.2

A second chute must be provided to handle recyclable material and discharge into a
separate receptacle within the waste management area; or

(b)

The garbage room on each floor must have a minimum floor area of two square
2
meters (2 m ) where recyclable waste can be stored until collected daily by the
building operator. Waste must be transported through designated medium (chute,
service elevator etc.) into the waste management area.

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(a)

All new buildings which does not require chute for general waste, in accordance with Ministry
of Municipal Affairs and Urban Planning Regulation, the garbage room on each floor must
2
have a minimum floor area of three square meters (3 m ) where non-recyclable and
recyclable waste can be stored until collected daily by the building operator. Waste must be
transported in a service left discharge into a designated receptacle within the waste
management.

19.8.5

Recyclable Waste Management Facilities:

For all new buildings other than villas, a sorting and storage facility for recyclable materials
must be provided.

This facility must be easily accessible and comply with the requirements of the location,
access and specifications of general waste areas in accordance with Qatar Municipality
Building Regulations.

The sorting and storage facility may be part of the general waste management facility or a
separate facility.

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(a)

Recycled waste facility incorporated into the general waste collection:


2

The size of the room must be increased by 10% and not less than 5 m , to allow
additional room to sort and store the recyclable waste.

QCS 2014

(b)

Section 01: General


Part
19: Regulatory Requirements

Page 7

Recycled waste facility separated from the general waste collection:


The recycled waste facility must be sized as a percentage from the total Built Up Area
(BUA) of the building in accordance with Table 2.

Where the Total Built Up Area (BUA) of the building falls between the figures outlined in the
Table, linear interpolation must be used to determine an appropriate percentage area for the
recyclable storage space.
Table 2: Sizing Requirements for Storage of Recyclables
Built Up Area (BUA)

Minimum Space for Storage of Recyclables

Less than 500 m2

7.5m

1.5% of BUA

5,000 m

0.8% of BUA

1,000 m

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500 m

0.35% of BUA

10,000 m or greater

0.25% of BUA

BUILDING FACADE/ EXTERNAL CLADDING MATERIAL

19.9.1

Certification and approval

External Cladding material must be tested by an approved 3


manufacturer shall have certified ISO 9000 compliant QMS.

External Cladding materials that are combustible must be submitted to the Qatar Civil
Defense for review and approval. Submissions shall include copies of relevant test reports
and details on the proposed fixings used to secure the material to the building. On approval,
a Qatar Civil Defense certificate for the External Cladding material will be issued to the
submitting party.

19.9.2

Material properties

External Cladding Material (ECM) fixed to buildings shall be non-combustible and shall be
composed of environmentally friendly materials and substances.

ECM not complying with 19.8.2.1 above must have the following fire propagation and flame
spread properties.

rd

party test laboratory. The

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19.9

(a)

(b)

When tested in accordance with BS 476 Part 6:


(i)

Fire Propagation index, no greater than 4.0

(ii)

any sub index must not be greater than 2.0, and

When tested in accordance with BS 476 Part 7:


(i)

flame spread after 10 minutes must be less than 25 mm

Alternative test methods and Standards such as AS, BSI and ISO may be used to verify
compliance in test reports provided the method of testing is demonstrated to be equivalent
and verifies an equal or better fire performance result to those nominated in 19.8.2.2 above.

Details of the ECM's approval and listings, its method of fixing and the extent of usage shall
be included in the proposed Building Plans fire safety submission for compliance verification.

QCS 2014

19.10

Section 01: General


Part
19: Regulatory Requirements

Page 8

EXTERNAL FACADE CLEANING AND MAINTENANCE FOR HIGH RISE


BUILDINGS

19.10.1 General
1.

Any building measuring 28 meters or above in height is classified as a high rise building as
per Qatar Civil Defense Department. This section is intended to provide a framework for the
cleaning and maintenance of the faade for high rise buildings. The faade will require both
cleaning and maintenance to achieve its anticipated life and desired purpose. Failure to
undertake this work can considerably reduce the life of materials, components and finishes.
The provision of correct documentation and instruction at the completion of construction will
permit the building owner to gain the best achievable performance from the faade.

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A maintenance manual should be produced for the completed works. The number and
specific requirements for the manual should be specified at tender stage. The manual should
be developed in parallel with the design and should include, but not be limited to, the
following information:
The name, address and telephone number of each firm and/ or sub-contractor
involved in the supply of materials, components, assemblies and finishes.

(b)

A clear and concise description of the construction used to form the various areas of
faade on the particular project.

(c)

Copies of material, component and finishes certification and test reports as required
by the Specifier.

(d)

A method statement showing the means of access to all parts of the wall and safe
loadings.

(e)

A method statement covering the procedures for replacement of damaged or


otherwise defective materials or components, and materials and components that
have a design life less than the design of the faade and will therefore require
replacement during the life of the faade.

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(a)

Recommendations for routine maintenance, cleaning, suitable cleaning agents and


any lubrication/adjustments to working parts.

(f)

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19.10.2 Maintenance Manual

(g)

A full set of construction drawings updated to include any changes made up to the
time of completion.

(h)

The terms and conditions of any guarantees.

19.10.3 Access of Cleaning and Maintenance


1

The Building Owner/ Specifier should provide a means of access which enables all parts of
the faade to be safely reached for the purpose of cleaning, inspection and maintenance.
The intended method of access should be established at the design stage and the relevant
loads catered for. Particular care should be made to define all possible imposed loads
including impact loads and uplift forces on projections by snagging.

The access system should comply with the appropriate British Standards (BS 6037, BS
5974). Specifiers should also make themselves aware of any statutory obligations related to
Occupational Health and Safety at Work.

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
19: Regulatory Requirements

Page 9

The access system should not be capable of imparting forces upon the cladding system
exceeding those agreed at the design stage. It is important that the various parties agree the
design parameters early in the design process.

The access equipment should be maintained, examined periodically by a competent person


and certified in accordance with statutory regulations.

19.10.4 Cleaning
The supplier of the faade should provide instruction for the proper cleaning and routine
maintenance of the faade.

Cleaning of the faade should be undertaken by trained personnel working to an agreed


procedure, based upon the faade contractors recommendations, at a frequency not less
than the recommended intervals.

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19.10.5 Inspection

The faade should be inspected at regular intervals to an agreed method. The faade
contractor, in consultation with the project team, should suggest methods and procedures to
be utilized. The purpose of this inspection includes, but is not necessarily limited to, the
following:

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To review the effectiveness of cleaning methods employed.

(b)

To monitor the performance of the materials and components of the faade system
against their anticipated life.

(c)

Inspecting for damage or failure of any part of the system.

(d)

Checking on the effectiveness of maintenance or remedial work.

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(a)

It is recommended that a detailed inspection plan is drawn up at the time of construction in


consultation between the design and construction teams. The inspection plan should include
procedures and recording methods to enable a systematic monitoring of the condition of the
Curtain wall and assist in the prediction of the need for preventative maintenance or
replacement of component parts.

Inspections should be carried out by suitably experienced persons to the specific procedures
detailed in the inspection plan. The results of these inspections should be compared with
previous inspections where appropriate. The building owner should ensure these results are
available for reference.

19.11

PROVISION OF ABLUTION FACILITIES IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS

The public buildings, for the purpose of provision of Ablution facilities are considered to be
Offices, Shopping Centres, Malls and Hypermarkets.

The occupant load (population) for each building type shall be calculated as per guidelines of
Qatar Civil Defense Department.

Separate Ablution facilities are to be provided for Men and Women close to the Prayer Area.

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QCS 2014

Page 10

The number of Ablution stalls shall be calculated as per Table 3 below.


Table 3: Provision of Ablution Facility
Facility Type

Occupant Population

No. of Ablution Stalls

Up to 50

02

For 51 and above

01
For each additional 50

Up to 200

02

For 201 and above

01
For each additional 200

Up to 200

02

Office Building

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Shopping Centre
Hypermarket

Shopping Mall

01
For each additional 400
01
For each additional 1000

201- 2000 people

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For 2001 and above

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END OF PART

Section 01: General


Part
19: Regulatory Requirements

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
02: Use and Maintenance of the Site

Page 1

USE AND MAINTENANCE OF THE SITE ............................................................... 2

2.1
2.1.1

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2
Scope
2

2.2
2.2.1

USE OF THE SITE .................................................................................................. 2


General
2

2.3
2.3.1

MAINTENANCE OF THE SITE................................................................................ 2


General
2

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QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
02: Use and Maintenance of the Site

Page 2

USE AND MAINTENANCE OF THE SITE

2.1

GENERAL

2.1.1

Scope

This Part specifies the uses and maintenance requirements of the Site.

Related Sections and parts are as follows:


This Section

Part 10
Part 11
Part 12

Occupational Health and Safety


Engineers Site Facilities
Contractors Site Facilities

USE OF THE SITE

2.2.1

General

The Site shall not be used for any purpose other than that of carrying out the Works.

Temporary camps, housing and cooking facilities shall not be permitted on the Site unless
otherwise stated in the Project Documentation. When temporary camps, housing and
cooking facilities are permitted they shall comply with Section 1 Part 10.

2.3

MAINTENANCE OF THE SITE

2.3.1

General

In accordance with the Conditions of Contract the Site, the equipment used upon it and the
Works shall be kept clean at all times.

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2.2

END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
20: Clearance of the Site

Page 1

CLEARANCE OF SITE ............................................................................................ 2

20.1
20.1.1

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2
Scope
2

20.2
20.2.1
20.2.2
20.2.3
20.2.4

FINAL CLEARING ................................................................................................... 2


General
2
Internal and External Surfaces
2
The Site
2
Miscellaneous
3

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20

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
20: Clearance of the Site

Page 2

CLEARANCE OF SITE

20.1

GENERAL

20.1.1

Scope

This Part specifies the requirements for the final clearance of the Site.

20.2

FINAL CLEARING

20.2.1

General

Final clearing shall be done before the final inspection.

All waste materials shall be removed from the Site and disposed of properly.

20.2.2

Internal and External Surfaces

The Contractor shall clean all interior and external surfaces exposed to view. The Contractor
shall undertake the following to the satisfaction of the Engineer:

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20

Remove temporary labels, stains and foreign substances.

(b)

Polish transparent and glossy surfaces.

(c)

Clean roofs, gutters, downspouts, and drainage systems.

(d)

Remove debris and surface dust from limited access spaces.

(e)

Broom clean concrete floors and unoccupied spaces.

(f)

Clean light fixtures and lamps so they operate at maximum efficiency.

(g)

Other cleaning tasks as specified by the Engineer.

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(a)

The Site

The Contractor shall clean the Site and shall undertake the following to the satisfaction of the
Engineer:

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20.2.3

(a)

Sweep paved areas and rake all other surfaces.

(b)

Remove litter and foreign substances.

(c)

Remove stains, chemical spills and other foreign deposits.

(d)

Any other cleaning tasks as specified by the Engineer.

The Contractor shall abide by the latest regulations of the Ministry of Municipal Affairs and
Agriculture and relevant municipalities in clearance of construction works refuse.

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
20: Clearance of the Site

Page 3

Clearance and transportation of construction works refuse:


(a)

The Contractor shall undertake to carry out the following within a maximum period of
30 days after completion of the agreed building or project and preparing it for use or
stoppage of work for an indefinite period.
(i)

Removal of the entire Contractors equipment, machinery and other belongings


from the work site.

(ii)

Clearance of all earth, debris and refuse whatsoever and transporting them to
the location designated by the concerned municipality, delivering the building or
project absolutely clean and free of any such materials and delivery of the
surrounding area levelled to the natural level of the street pavement.

In the case of Contractors delay or refusal to carry out such a job, he shall have to pay
a penal compensation as defined in the contract for delay for each day or part of day.
This compensation shall be final and the judiciary shall not be entitled to mitigate it and
it does not require establishing the occurrence of any damage to the owner.

(c)

In addition, the Owner shall be entitled to clear the refuse himself and transport it to the
location designated by the concerned municipality. The Owner shall deduct the cost of
refuse clearance, transport and any other related costs including the office expenses
and overhead cost from the payment or the money due to the Contractor. He may also
stop the final payment due to the Contractor until such refuse has been cleared and a
certificate confirming this has been obtained from the concerned Municipality.

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(b)

Miscellaneous

The Contractor shall clean or replace all mechanical filters for equipment included in the
Works and for equipment directly affected by the construction of the Works.

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20.2.4

END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
21: Final Inspection and Handover Procedures

Page 1

21

FINAL INSPECTION AND HANDOVER PROCEDURES .............................. 2

21.1

GENERAL PROCEDURES FOR INSPECTION AND HANDOVER .............. 2

21.1.1
21.1.2
21.1.3
21.1.4

Scope
Pre-requisite for Final Inspection
Approvals from Public Authorities
Hand Over

21.2

ITEMS TO BE PROVIDED BY THE CONTRACTOR .................................... 4

2
2
3
3

21.2.1 Provision of Tools, Spare Parts and Maintenance Materials


21.2.2 Guarantee Warrantees and Bonds

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21.3.1 Operation Data


21.3.2 Operation and Maintenance Manuals
21.3.3 Operational, Field and Performance Testing

MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL WORKS ................................................. 4

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21.3

4
4
4
4
5

PROJECT RECORD DOCUMENTS.............................................................. 5

21.4.1
21.4.2
21.4.3
21.4.4

General
Record Drawings
Record Specifications
Maintenance Period Final Inspection

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21.4

5
6
6
6

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
21: Final Inspection and Handover Procedures

Page 2

21

FINAL INSPECTION AND HANDOVER PROCEDURES

21.1

GENERAL PROCEDURES FOR INSPECTION AND HANDOVER

21.1.1

Scope

This Part specifies the requirements and procedures associated with the inspection and
handover of the Works.

Related sections and Parts are as follows:


Part 7
Part 9
Part 20

Submittals
Materials
Clearance of Site

Section 2
Section 9

Quality Assurance and Quality Control


Mechanical and Electrical Equipment

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This Section

Pre-requisite for Final Inspection

The Contractor shall complete the following to the satisfaction of the Engineer before
requesting the pre-handover Inspection:

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21.1.2

Submit final manufacturer certification, guarantees, warranties and similar documents.

(b)

Submit occupancy permits, operating certificates, final inspection and test certificates
and similar releases enabling full and unrestricted use of the Works.

(c)

Submit record drawings, operation and maintenance manuals, final project


photographs, damage or settlement surveys, property surveys and similar physical
items.

(d)

Complete submittal of record documents.

(e)

Make final changeover of locks and deliver the keys to the Engineer.

(f)

Complete start-up, testing of system, and training of the Owners operations and
maintenance personnel; submit equipment operating data as well as all test reports
and test data required by the Contract.

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(a)

(g)

Dismantle and remove temporary facilities and services from the Site; this includes
utilities, construction tools, buildings and facilities, mock-ups, and similar elements

(h)

Complete final cleaning.

(i)

Repair and restore exposed finishes which have been marred or otherwise damaged.

(j)

Handover all spare parts, tools and maintenance equipment.

(k)

In Network Projects, partial handling over would be acceptable, if it completely met all
the above mentioned requirements.

(l)

Closure of all identified Non-conformance and deficiencies to the satisfaction of the


Engineer

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
21: Final Inspection and Handover Procedures

Page 3

When the Contractor has completed and cleaned the Works to the satisfaction of the
Engineer the Contractor shall request a final inspection. The request shall be forwarded to
the Owner by the Engineers Representative and a suitable date for the inspection shall be
arranged. The Contractor, Engineers Representative, maintenance department (if any) and
the supervising consultant (if any) shall be present. A list of outstanding items (if any) shall
be agreed and issued to the Contractor.

Upon completion of the listed outstanding items a further inspection shall be requested by the
Contractor, the request shall be forwarded to the Owner by the Engineers Representative
and a suitable date for the inspection shall be arranged. The Contractor, Engineers
Representative, maintenance department (if any) and the supervising consultant (if any) shall
be present.

A list of any items still outstanding shall be issued to the Contractor. If any of these are
deemed to be significant the Contractor shall complete these items and then request another
inspection as described in clause 21.1.2-2.

In respect of pumping station or Works involving mechanical or electrical equipment if items


outstanding are deemed not to be significant or if no outstanding items remain then a 7 day
commissioning and running test shall be initiated. On completion of all tests and agreement
by the Engineers Representative that the plant is considered operable then it shall be
handed over. A 14 day training period for the maintenance department staff on the operation
of the pumping station shall commence.

For works that have no mechanical or electrical equipment if the outstanding items are
deemed not to be significant or if no outstanding items remain the Works inspected shall be
handed over.

21.1.3

Approvals from Public Authorities

The Contractor shall obtain all clearance certificates and approvals required as a prerequisite
to connecting the Works to the permanent water and/or power supply.

The Contractor shall co-ordinate with the Engineer to obtain the necessary documents from
the Qatar General Electricity & Water Corporation regarding connection to the permanent
water and/or power supply.

21.1.4

Hand Over

When the Contractor considers that the Works are complete he shall submit the following:

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(a)

A certificate stating that the Works are complete and that all the requirements of the
Project Documentation have been met.

(b)

A certificate stating that the Works have been inspected.

(c)

A certificate from the appropriate Municipality regarding cleanliness of the Site.

(d)

Approval from the PWA regarding satisfactory trench reinstatement in the Highway (if
applicable).

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
21: Final Inspection and Handover Procedures

Page 4

ITEMS TO BE PROVIDED BY THE CONTRACTOR

21.2.1

Provision of Tools, Spare Parts and Maintenance Materials

The Contractor shall provide all tools, spare parts and maintenance materials specified in the
Project Documentation.

The Contractor shall provide an itemised list of all the items to be furnished under this
Clause. Each item to be furnished shall be given a unique reference number. The list shall
include the reference number, a description of the item and the appropriate Specification
Section and Paragraph.

All the items furnished under this Clause shall be packaged for long term storage. Any items
requiring special storage conditions shall be brought to the attention of the Engineer.

All items furnished under this Clause shall be provided with a mark or tag for identification
purposes. The mark or tag shall include the reference number detailed in Clause 21.2.1-2.

Unless otherwise instructed, all items furnished under this Clause shall be delivered to the
Government Stores in accordance with the relevant provision of Part 9 of this Section,
Materials.

21.2.2

Guarantee Warrantees and Bonds

The Contractor shall provide notarised copies of all guarantees, warranties and bonds as
required by the Project Documentation. The guarantees, warranties and bonds should be
assembled in a binder with a durable plastic cover, complete with a table of contents.

The start of the warranty or guarantee period shall be either:

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21.2

The date when any item is placed into full time operation for the Governments benefit
and with the Engineers approval.

(b)

The date of issue of the completion certificate.

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(a)

MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL WORKS

21.3.1

Operation Data

The Contractor shall provide all operating data for all mechanical and electrical equipment
supplied under the Contract.

The operating data shall be presented on A4 size paper in ring binder with a durable plastic
cover.

21.3.2

Operation and Maintenance Manuals

The Contractor shall provide approved Operation and Maintenance Manuals in accordance
with the relevant provisions of Section 9, Mechanical and Electrical Equipment and Part 7 of
this Section, Submittals.

21.3

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
21: Final Inspection and Handover Procedures

Page 5

Operational, Field and Performance Testing

After all construction and starting is complete and before taking-over of any part of the
Works, the Contractor shall perform operational, field and performance tests as called for in
the Project Documentation.

The Contractor shall demonstrate operation of the facilities of the Engineer showing proper
sequence of operation as well as satisfactory performance of the system and individual
components. Any improper operation of the system or any improper, neglected or faulty
construction shall be repaired or corrected to the satisfaction of the Engineer. The Contractor
shall make such changes, adjustments or replacement of equipment as may be required to
make same comply with the Specifications, or replace any defective parts or material.

Failure of the system to perform at the specified level at the time of testing will be the
responsibility of the Contractor. In the event of failure of equipment to meet the specified
performance, the Owner reserves the right to reject such equipment or system, withhold
retention money or make claims on the Performance Bond.

The Contractor shall submit a consolidated schedule of operation, field and performance
tests no later than three (3) months before the schedule start of the first test and weekly a
schedule of tests to be carried out the following week. The Contractor shall inform the
Engineer not later than 24 hours in advance of changes in the scheduling of a test.

For all specified performance tests, the Contractor shall prepare and submit the following:

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21.3.3

A draft test procedure no later than two (2) months in advance of the schedule test
date.

(b)

A final test procedure no later two (2) weeks in advance of the scheduled test date.

(c)

A test report within two (2) weeks of the successful completion of the test.

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(a)

PROJECT RECORD DOCUMENTS

21.4.1

General

Project Record Documents shall be kept separate from construction/working documents.

Project Record Documents shall be stored in facilities that provide a suitable environment to
prevent damage or deterioration and to prevent loss.

Project Record Documents shall include, but not be limited to the following:

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21.4

(a)

Drawings.

(b)

Specifications.

(c)

Addenda.

(d)

Variation orders.

(e)

Correspondence.

(f)

Transmittals

(g)

Inspection and Test Records

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
21: Final Inspection and Handover Procedures

Page 6

Record Drawings

Record drawings shall be clearly and correctly red-marked by the Contractor to show all
changes made during the construction process. The record drawings shall show the Works
as executed in accordance with the relevant provisions of Part 7 of this Section - Submittals.

21.4.3

Record Specifications

Record specifications shall be clearly and correctly annotated to show all changes made
during the construction process.

21.4.4

Maintenance Period Final Inspection

During the last month of the period of maintenance the Engineer will notify the maintenance
department that the maintenance period is about to expire. An inspection of the Works by
the Engineers Representative, maintenance department, and the Contractor shall be
undertaken to verify that all outstanding items have been completed.

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21.4.2

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END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
22: New Technologies and Innovations

Page 1

22

NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND INNOVATIONS............................................... 2

22.1

GENERAL PROCEDURES FOR APPROVAL............................................... 2

22.1.1
22.1.2
22.1.3
22.1.4
22.1.5

Scope
Pre-requisite for Approval
Technologies And Innovations Of Interest
Documentation
Final Inspection And Approval

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2
2
2
3
3

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
22: New Technologies and Innovations

Page 2

NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND INNOVATIONS

22.1

GENERAL PROCEDURES FOR APPROVAL

22.1.1

Scope

Qatar is committed to researching and using new technology and innovations within
construction industry. Because of this commitment it is open to proposals from outside
agencies in the use of new technologies and innovations.

This Part specifies the requirements associated with the proposal and approval of new
technologies and innovations for use in construction in Qatar.

22.1.2

Pre-requisite for Approval

New technologies / innovations are allowed for use in any project on experimental or
research basis after getting an approval from National Committee For Construction and
Building materials Specifications (NCCBS) of the Ministry of Environment and any other
concerned parties.

The period allowed for such an experiment or research shall be limited to a trial period of a
maximum of two years after which it will be evaluated prior to approval or otherwise by the
concerned parties.

The supplier will be required to submit a guarantee certificate for an agreed period of time.

The supplier shall submit a written warranty to bear all fiscal and legal responsibilities as a
result of using the experiment if not meeting the suppliers claims/specifications. He shall
remove any material or debris left from the experiment.

22.1.3

Technologies And Innovations Of Interest

The following are of particular interest to Qatar :


(a)

Polymer Modified Bitumen (PMB)


Superpave

(b)

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22

(c)

Performance Grade Binders suitable for the climatic conditions of Qatar (i.e. PG 76-10)

(d)

Cold Laid Asphalt

(e)

Rubber Recycling

(f)

Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA)

(g)

Glass Reinforced Plastic (GRP) pipes

(h)

Polyethylene (PE) Plain and Corrugated pipes

(i)

Fibre Reinforced Concrete

(j)

Recycling of materials from demolished buildings and roads

Notwithstanding the above Qatar wishes suppliers to propose technology and innovations
that it believes can benefit Qatar and the environment.

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Part
22: New Technologies and Innovations

Page 3

22.1.4

Documentation

The technology provider shall be requested to submit with his proposals the following
documents:
Drawings

(b)

Specifications

(c)

Technology Reference and Manual

(d)

Specifications and Source

(e)

Reference from previous clients

(f)

Transmittals

(g)

Inspection and Test Records

(h)

Health and Safety requirements

(i)

Environmental requirements

(j)

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) regarding but not limited to transportation,
handling & storage, and First Aid requirements

(k)

Financial arrangements

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(a)

Final Inspection And Approval

Final approval of the technology will be dependant on NCCBS visits, inspection and tests.
Upon satisfaction of the committee, written approval shall be given and the specifications
incorporated into the QCS.

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22.1.5

END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Page 1
Part
23: Design & Supervision Consultant Quality Requirements

DESIGN & SUPERVISION CONSULTANT QUALITY REQUIREMENTS................................ 2

23.1
23.1.1
23.1.2
23.1.3

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2
Scope
2
References
2
Definitions
2

23.2
23.2.1
23.2.2
23.2.3
23.2.4
23.2.5
23.2.6

DESIGN CONSULTANT QUALITY REQUIREMENTS ............................................ 3


Quality Responsibility and Duties
3
Quality System Documentation
3
Quality Plan
4
Construction Inspection and Test Requirements Specification
5
Design Consultant Verification of Sub Consultants
5
Quality Records
5

23.3
23.3.1
23.3.2
23.3.3
23.3.4
23.3.5
23.3.6
23.3.7
23.3.8
23.3.9
23.3.10
23.3.11
23.3.12
23.3.13
23.3.14
23.3.15

SUPERVISION CONSULTANT QUALITY REQUIREMENTS.................................. 5


Quality Responsibilities and Duties
5
Quality System Documentation
7
Quality Plan
8
Inspection and Test Plans (ITPS)
9
Technical Procedures, Work Instructions and Method Statements
9
Monitoring by Supervision Consultants
10
Review of Contractor Quality Documentation
10
Inspection Responsibilities
11
Inspections and Test Surveillance Points
11
Visits
12
Supervision Consultant Verification
12
Interfacing
12
Punch Lists
12
Protection of the Works
12
Quality Records
12

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QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Page 2
Part
23: Design & Supervision Consultant Quality Requirements

DESIGN & SUPERVISION CONSULTANT QUALITY REQUIREMENTS

23.1

GENERAL

23.1.1

Scope

This Part specifies the Quality Assurance activities to be performed by Design and
Supervision Consultants during all phases of the Contract and should be read in conjunction
with all other parts of the Contract.

The purpose of this part is to define Design and Supervision Consultants responsibility for
demonstrating that the work under the contract is executed to the quality standards required
by the contract and to outline verification activities.

23.1.2

References

The following standards are referred to in this part:

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Quality Management systems. Fundamentals and vocabulary

BS EN ISO 9001:2008

Quality Management systems. Requirements

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BS EN ISO 9000:2005

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BS ISO 10006:2003 ...Quality Management systems, Guidelines for Quality Management in


Projects
BS EN ISO 19011:2011

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BS ISO 10005:2005 ...Quality Management systems. Guidelines for Quality Plans


Guidelines for auditing management systems

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QCS Qatar Construction Specification


Definitions

Defect or Non-conformance: any part of the Works not executed, provided or completed in
accordance with the Contract. For the avoidance of doubt and without limiting the generality
of the expression the term shall be taken to include any item of Plant, material, goods or work
incorporated or used in the Works which does not or may not conform to the relevant quality
standards or pass the tests prescribed in or to be inferred from the Contract

Owner: The Ministry, Municipality, Department, Affairs, Agency, Authority, or individual for
whom the Project is being undertaken and to whom the handover of the final product will be
made.

QA & QC: Quality Assurance & Quality Control and this may be written as QA/QC.

QA: Quality Assurance. Part of quality management focused on providing confidence that
quality requirements will be fulfilled. QA involves a continuous evaluation of the adequacy
and effectiveness of the overall Quality Management System in order to evaluate the
deviation from established quality objectives.

QC: Quality Control. Part of quality management focused on fulfilling quality requirements.
The QC involves specific control points during design, fabrication or construction stages to
check the fulfilling of design criteria, acceptance criteria (tolerance, etc.), performance criteria
or functional criteria.

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23.1.3

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Page 3
Part
23: Design & Supervision Consultant Quality Requirements

QMS: Quality Management System. A set of interrelated or interacting processes, activities


or tasks to direct Project resources to achieve established quality policy and objectives.

Quality Management: Coordinated activities to direct and control an organization with


regards to quality.

23.2

DESIGN CONSULTANT QUALITY REQUIREMENTS

23.2.1

Quality Responsibility and Duties

The Design Consultant shall be responsible for setting up implementing and monitoring his
own Contract Specific Quality Management System meeting the requirements of this part.

The Design Consultant shall be responsible for quality auditing, monitoring and oversight of
any sub-consultants under their control.

The Design Consultant shall perform and or witness any examinations and tests necessary to
demonstrate conformance of the works to the requirements of the Contract and shall accept
only works by the Contractor that so conform:

The Design Consultant shall establish and maintain a system of records which shall provide
objectives evidence that the supervision Consultant is meeting the requirements of this
specification and that the Contractors control and inspections are effective in meeting the
minimum standards required under their contract. Records shall be made available to the
Engineer in accordance with the requirements stated herein or elsewhere in the contract.

The Design Consultant will be subject to monitoring through audit and surveillance by the
Engineer. In both cases the Design Consultant shall promptly rectify any negative findings
with their Quality System rectify non-conformities and corrective actions found during audit
and surveillance activities directed at them.

No part of the Quality system shall be used to preclude or otherwise negate the requirement
of any part of the contract, or the obligation of the Design Consultant pursuant to the
Contract.

The Design Consultant shall appoint a suitably qualified, Quality Manager to verify that the
requirements of this specification are met. The proposed Quality Manager shall be subject to
approval by the Engineer.

23.2.2

Quality System Documentation

The Design Consultant Quality system shall Include as a minimum the following

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(a)

Quality Plan as detailed in 23.2.3 below

(b)

Procedures and work instruction: The Design Consultant Quality system must include
all relevant technical procedures and other pertinent documentation to ensure that the
design works are completed in accordance with the contract, with specific reference to
the minimum requirements of standards reference in 23.1.2 above and including the
mandatory procedures required by ISO 9001:2008.

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Page 4
Part
23: Design & Supervision Consultant Quality Requirements

(c)

Quality Records: In addition to (and including) quality records identified in the contract
or other applicable codes, standards or procedures, the Design Consultant shall
identify project quality records in compliance with the minimum requirements
standards referenced in 23.1.2 above.

(d)

Reference and other related documents.

Quality system documents shall be submitted to the owner for review, comment and approval
within 30 days after contract award. In the event that comments are made on the contract
Quality system documentation submitted for review and comment, the design consultant
shall make adjustments, correction, amendment or alteration required. Such comment will be
made on the premise that the adjustment, correction, amendment or alteration is within the
scope of the contract and will not affect the contract conditions, specifications, guarantees,
price or the like in anyway.

Adjustments, corrections, amendments or alterations made by the Design Consultant to the


contract quality system shall, after revision be resubmitted by the Design Consultant to the
owner for review and approval.

23.2.3

Quality Plan

Design Consultants are required to submit Quality Plan (addressing their design activities)
which are specific (not generic) to the Contract, meeting as a minimum the requirements of
the standards referenced in 23.1.2 above. This plan shall reference, or include other
documentation which is relevant to the Contract. However as a stand-alone document, the
Quality Plan shall clearly indicate how the Quality process shall be applied to meet the
requirements of the contract. Particular emphasis is to be placed on the following.
Relevant extracts from the Corporate Quality Manual reference to specifications,
standards etc;

(b)

List of all procedures applicable to the project;

(c)

QA/QC Organisation;

(d)

Document Control;

(e)
(f)

(g)

List of all procedures applicable to the Consultants Project Quality System;

(h)

Audits (including internal and external Audits Plans);

(i)

Management Review;

(j)

Quality objectives, Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)

(k)

Allocation of resources;

(l)

Responsibilities and authority for all phases of work;

(m)

Control of Non-conformance, corrective and preventive actions.

(n)

Contract Changes;

(o)

Lessons learned and continual improvement;

(p)

Purchasing Process e.g. Sub Consultants.

(q)

Quality Records

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Inspection and Test;

Specific work practices;

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


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Part
23: Design & Supervision Consultant Quality Requirements

The Design Consultants Quality plan will make reference to and take into account applicable
codes, standards, specifications, quality characteristics and regulatory requirements as
necessary. It will identify the criteria by which the design and developments inputs and
outputs should be accepted, and how, at what stage(s) and by whom, the outputs should be
reviewed, verified and validated.

The Design Consultants Quality Plan will also state the following.
How request for changes and development will be controlled to meet Contractual
requirements;

(b)

Who is authorised to initiate a change request;

(c)

How changes will be reviewed in terms of their impact;

(d)

Who is authorised to approve or rejects changes;

(e)

How the implementation of changes will be verified;

(f)

When design and development reviews take place;

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(a)

Construction Inspection and Test Requirements Specification

The Design Consultant shall provide a specification addressing the complete inspection and
testing regime related to their design output, taking into account the requirements of the
QCS. This shall be guiding document by which Supervision Consultants and Contractors will
be held accountable for all on and off site tests and inspections to be performed. The
Inspection and Test Requirements Specifications must be sufficiently detailed to leave no
questions regarding the number of samples required or types of tests to be made over and
above the requirements of the QCS and which standards must be complied with.

23.2.5

Design Consultant Verification of Sub Consultants

The Design Consultant is required to perform audits and verification activities at any sub
consultants premises to gain assurance that the subcontracted product conforms to specified
requirements.

23.2.6

Quality Records

In addition to (and including) quality records identified in the contract or other applicable
codes, standards or procedures, the Design Consultant shall determine project Quality
records in compliance with requirements of ISO 9001:2008 and other relevant standards
stated in contract documents and 23.1.2 above.

The list of quality records generated during the life of the contract, and made available upon
request for review by the Owner, shall be indexed by the Design Consultant in his Quality
Plan.

The Design Consultant shall maintain Registers for all incoming and outgoing documents.

23.3

SUPERVISION CONSULTANT QUALITY REQUIREMENTS

23.3.1

Quality Responsibilities and Duties

The Supervision Consultant shall be responsible for setting up implementing and monitoring
his own Contract Specific Quality Management System meeting the requirements of this part

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23.2.4

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Page 6
Part
23: Design & Supervision Consultant Quality Requirements

The Supervision Consultant shall be responsible for quality auditing, monitoring and oversight
of themselves any consultants, contractors, sub-contractors (Including laboratories) under
their control.

The Supervision Consultant shall perform and/or witness any examinations and tests
necessary to demonstrate conformance of the works to the requirements of the Contract and
shall accept only works by the Contractor that comply with the specified requirements.

The Supervision Consultant shall witness sampling and related testing performed on as well
as testing performed in external Third Party Laboratories.

The Supervision Consultant shall establish and maintain a system of records which shall
provide objectives evidence that the supervision Consultant is meeting the requirements of
this specification and that the Contractors control and inspections are effective in meeting the
minimum standards required under their contract. Records shall be made available to the
Engineer in accordance with the requirements stated herein or elsewhere in the contract.

The Supervision Consultant will be subject to monitoring through audit and surveillance by
the Engineer. In both cases the Supervision Consultant shall promptly rectify any negative
findings with their quality system rectify non-conformities and corrective actions found during
audit and surveillance activities directed at them.

The Supervision Consultants shall follow up on all findings (NCRs, CARs Observations)
issued on the project to, or by the contractor or other entities under the contract.

No part of the quality system shall be used to preclude or otherwise negate the requirement
of any part of the contract, or the obligation of the Supervision Consultant pursuant to the
Contract.

The Supervision Consultant is responsible for ensuring the contactors Work meets all
technical and quality requirements of the contract and shall keep continuous records of
action taken and shall advise the Engineer in writing of significant alteration to construction or
manufacturing techniques to ensure that specified requirements are met.

10

The Supervision Consultant shall conduct audit and surveillance activities to provide
evidence of the use and effectiveness of the Contractors quality system throughout the
execution of the contract.

11

The Supervision Consultant will ensure that the Contractor has included the quality
assurance requirements of the contract into subcontracts entered into by the Contractor.

12

The Supervision Consultant shall provide an effective audit and surveillance process for
works performed by a Contractors Subcontractors..

13

The Supervision Consultant shall verify that the Contractors Project Quality Plan, Inspection
and Test Plans and other such quality documentation includes or references the Quality
Plans, and Inspection and Test Plans of subcontractors and vice versa. All of these
documents must be reviewed and approved by the Supervision Consultant.

14

The Supervision Consultant shall hold contract specific QA/QC meetings chaired by the
Consultant on a monthly basis throughout the duration of the Work. Topics to be addressed
at the site quality meeting shall include, but shall not be limited too:

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QCS 2014

Section 01: General


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Part
23: Design & Supervision Consultant Quality Requirements
Reviewing of the previous months Quality

(b)

Current Performance of the activities

(c)

Providing 4 week look ahead of planned activities

(d)

Non Conformance of activities

(e)

Key performance indicators

(f)

Audit schedule

(g)

Status of inspection of test plans and method statements

(h)

Quality Training

(i)

Contractors Project quality plan and quality control plans review and on-going
effectiveness

(a)

The Supervision Consultant shall be responsible for providing a Monthly Quality Report
template, meeting the Owner requirements, to the Contractor and reviewing the completed
reports submitted by the Contractor.

16

The Supervision Consultant shall be responsible for completing any QA/QC Questionnaires
or Reports required by the Owner.

17

The Supervision Consultant shall appoint a suitably qualified, full time, Quality Manager to
verify that the requirements of this specification are met. The proposed Quality Manager shall
be subject to approval by the Owner.

23.3.2

Quality System Documentation

The Supervision Consultant Quality System shall include as a minimum the following
elements.

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15

Quality Plan as detailed in 23.2.3 below

(b)

Procedures and work instruction: The Supervision Consultant Quality system must
include all relevant technical procedures and other pertinent documentation to ensure
that the design works are completed in accordance with the contract, with specific
reference to the minimum requirements of standards reference in 23.1.2 above
including the mandatory procedure required by ISO 9001:2008

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(a)

(c)

Quality Records: In addition to (and including) quality records identified in the contract
or other applicable codes, standards or procedures, the Supervision Consultant shall
identify project quality records in compliance with the minimum requirements
standards referenced in 23.1.2 above

(d)

Reference and other related documents

These Quality system documents shall be submitted to the Owner for review, comment and
approval within 30 days after contract award. In the event that comments are made on the
contract quality system documentation submitted for review and comment, the Supervision
Consultant shall make adjustments, correction, amendment or alteration required. Such
comment will be made on the premise that the adjustment, correction, amendment or
alteration is within the scope of the contract and will not affect the contract conditions,
specifications, guarantees, price or the like in anyway.

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Page 8
Part
23: Design & Supervision Consultant Quality Requirements

Adjustments, corrections, amendments or alterations made by the Supervision Consultant to


the contract quality system shall, after revision be resubmitted by the Supervision Consultant
to the Owner for review and approval.

23.3.3

Quality Plan

Supervision Consultants are required to submit Quality Plans (addressing their supervision
activities) which are specific (not generic) to the Contract, meeting as a minimum the
requirements of the standards referenced in 23.1.2 above. This plan shall reference, or
include other documentation which is relevant to the Contract. However as a stand-alone
document, the Quality Plan shall clearly indicate how the Quality process shall be applied to
meet the requirements of the contract. Particular emphasis is to be placed on the following
requirements of ISO 9001:2008.
Relevant extracts from the Corporate Quality Manual reference to specifications,
standards etc;

(b)

List of all procedures applicable to the project;

(c)

QA/QC Organisation;

(d)

Document Control;

(e)

Inspection and Test;

(f)

Specific work practices;

(g)

List of all procedures applicable to the Consultants Project Quality System;

(h)

Audits (including internal and external Audits Plans);

(i)

Management Review;

(j)

Quality objectives, Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)

(k)

Allocation of resources;

(l)

Responsibilities and authority for all phases of work;

(m)

Control of Non-conformance, corrective and preventive actions.

(n)
(o)
(p)

Purchasing Process e.g. Sub Consultants.

(q)

Quality Records;

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(a)

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Contract Changes;

Lessons learned and continual improvement;

The Supervision Consultants Quality Plan will make reference to applicable codes,
standards, specifications, quality characteristics and regulatory requirements as appropriate.
It will identify the criteria by which inputs and outputs should be accepted, and how, at what
stage(s), and by whom, the outputs should reviewed, verified and validated.

The Supervision Consultants Quality Plan will also address the following:
(a)

How request for changes and development will be controlled to meet Contractual
requirements;

(b)

Who is authorised to initiate a change request;

(c)

How changes will be reviewed in terms of their impact;

QCS 2014

Section 01: General


Page 9
Part
23: Design & Supervision Consultant Quality Requirements

(d)

Who is authorised to approve or reject changes;

(e)

How the implementation of changes will be verified;

(f)

When reviews take place;

(g)

Redline and As-Built process;

Where design is required by the Contractors contract, the Supervision Consultant


responsibilities for the Contractors design work shall be as defined under the contract,
however not withstanding this the Supervision Consultant shall responsible for auditing this
function of the Contractors quality system.

23.3.4

Inspection and Test Plans (ITPS)

As per the requirements of QCS, the Supervision Consultants shall require the Contractor to
submit Inspection and Test Plans to the Supervision Consultant a minimum 30 days prior to
the programmed work start date covered by each Inspection and Test Plan.

The Minimum requirements for the Contractors Inspection and Test Plan are defined in QCS,
and the supervision Consultant is responsible for ensuring the Contractors Inspection and
Test Plan as a minimum meet these requirements or the recommendations of the Design
Consultants.

The Supervision Consultants shall ensure that the Contactors Inspect and Test Plan
adequately cover any Inspections and test points (Hold/Witness/Surveillance/Record Review)
required for the Supervision Consultant to ensure that the works are completed in
accordance with the contract.

Where the Design Consultant for the Contract has detailed specific specifications or
inspection and test requirements, the supervision Consultants shall ensure these have been
addressed within the Contractors Inspect and Test Plan. Where a discrepancy exits between
Inspections and Test requirements of the Design Consultant and the requirements of QCS,
the more stringent requirements shall be adopted.

The Supervision Consultant is responsible for reviewing and approving all Inspection and
Test Plans and other such documentation submitted by the Contractor and returning to the
Contractor within two weeks of their receipt unless otherwise agreed.

The Supervision Consultant shall ensure that inspection of processes, materials, good,
services and subcontracted works are described in the Inspection and Test plan submitted by
the Contractor.

23.3.5

Technical Procedures, Work Instructions and Method Statements

The Supervision Consultants shall verify through audit and surveillance that the Contractors
quality system includes all relevant Technical Procedures, Work Instructions Method
Statements and Inspection and Test Plans to ensure that the Works are completed in
accordance with the contract. These shall be submitted by the contractor in accordance with
the submission schedule agreed with the Supervision Consultant including those which form
part of the Contractors Quality System.

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The Supervision Consultants own Quality system likewise shall include relevant Technical
Procedures, Work Instructions Method Statements and Inspection and Test Plans to ensure
that the works are completed in accordance with the contract with specific reference to the
development and implementation of Quality Procedures specified in ISO 9001:2008. These
shall be submitted to the Owner by the Supervision Consultant in accordance with the
submission schedule agreed with the Owner including those which form part of the
Supervision Consultants corporate quality system.

23.3.6

Monitoring by Supervision Consultants

Surveillance by the Supervision Consultants will include a variety of typical activities:


review of contractor documentations

(b)

audits of Contractor

(c)

attendance at Hold/Witness/Surveillance Points

(d)

Record Review

(e)

Visits to Contractors off site works etc

(f)

Factory Acceptance Tests

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(a)

With the exception of visits, these activities will be announced to the Contractors in advance.
The Supervision Consultants shall give reasonable notice to the Contractor who is required to
make or arrange to be made available all facilities, documentations records and personnel,
including those of any subcontractors, which are required for any surveillance activity to be
taken.

The Supervision Consultants shall advise the Contractor in writing of any deficiency or
deviation in the contract quality system which comes to the Supervision Consultants
attention as a result of surveillance activities. The Contractor shall be required to rectify the
system within as short a period as may be reasonably expected considering the deficiency or
deviation. The Supervision Consultant may direct the Contractor in writing to stop the
operation and immediately carry out any corrective action, and the Contractor must comply
with such direction at his cost. All deficiencies uncovered shall be documented with a NonConformance Report or Corrective Action Request as appropriate (Refer to QCS, Section 2
for a NCR template).

23.3.7

Review of Contractor Quality Documentation

All audits of the Contractor shall be conducted in accordance with a schedule establish by the
Supervision Consultant. These audits are to be performed in accordance with formal
procedures by trained and qualified auditors.

The types of audit to be conducted are as follow:

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(a)

Systems Audit: One System audit will undertaken at or before the start of work on the
contract deliverables (the specified Works). The audit will be conducted against the
requirements of ISO9001:2008

(b)

Compliance Audits: A number of compliance audits will be conducted at defined


milestones in the contract deliverable period. The scope of a compliance audit shall be
set by the supervision Consultant to suit the timing of activities, and the findings of the
system audit. For example, the scope of a compliance audit could cover any of the
following:

QCS 2014

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Part
23: Design & Supervision Consultant Quality Requirements
(i)

the complete requirements of the standards and the contract,

(ii)

specific elements of the standard

(iii)

specific clauses of the contract

(iv)

the whole or a part of a single end-to-end process.

Product audit: This is a Quality audit of particular deliverable products to check their
compliance with specified requirements. Such audits should include performance
testing where appropriate.

The Audit Notification shall also be copies to the Owner for information and they may attend
these audits as an observes. The Audit Reports shall be submitted to the Owner within 7
days.

23.3.8

Inspection Responsibilities

For all work the Supervision Consultant shall:

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Review and check that the contractors Method statement and Inspection & Test Plans
are in accordance with the contract Surveillance Points.

(b)

Inspect all works to verify Contractors compliance with the Method Statements,
Inspections and Test Plans, Construction Drawings and Specifications.

(c)

Verify that notices of nonconformity have been properly actioned.

(d)

Oversee the sampling and testing of materials to ensure conformity to the


specifications and the contract.

(e)

Review all test results and verify that they are in conformity with the Specifications and
the Contract.

(f)

Maintain comprehensive records to verify the above.

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(a)

Inspections and Test Surveillance Points

The Supervision Consultant shall nominate his own surveillance points to observe the
Contractors and Subcontractors activities and maintain evidence of such surveillance.

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23.3.9

(a)

Hold Points Specific critical task in procurement, manufacturing, inspection and


testing for which the Supervision Consultant is pre-notified, in advance of the task and
for which no further work is carried out until the supervision Consultant has verified and
confirmed conformity by signing off the relevant Records Forms

(b)

Witness Points- Specific critical task in procurement, manufacturing, inspection and


testing for which the Supervision Consultant is pre-notified in advance of the task and
for which the Supervision Consultant may elect to attend or waive. When attended, the
Supervision Consultant shall confirm conformity by signing off the relevant Record
Forms. When then Supervision Consultant waives his right to inspect, it should be
recorded as such on the appropriate Record Forms.

(c)

Surveillance points- Any procurement, manufacturing, inspection and testing task, so


identified on the Inspection and Test Plan, performed on a random basis, without
notification by the supervision Consultant.

(d)

Record Review- When specified this point requires the Supervision Consultant to
Collect and review for approval the contractor Inspection & Rest Records.

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23.3.10 Visits
1

The Supervision Consultants is empowered to visit any of the Contractors or Subcontractors


work sites for any purpose at reasonable times. The Contractors will assist with such visits
and make available those records and personnel necessary to satisfy the supervision
Consultants requirements. Such visits may include surveillance points identified by the
Contractor and Subcontractors. These visits may include works situated outside of Qatar.

23.3.11 Supervision Consultant Verification


1

The Supervision Consultant has the right to perform verification activities at the Contractors
and the Subcontractors premises (including the construction site) to gain assurance that the
subcontracted product conforms to specified requirements.

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The Supervision Consultant is responsible for ensuring that the interfaces between the
contract works and different packages of work and different Contracting entities are managed
appropriately and that technical integrity and configuration control is maintained.

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23.3.12 Interfacing

The Supervision Consultants shall be responsible to ensure that the Contractor prepares
punch lists at appropriate inspection and acceptance stages to record the outstanding work.
Defects identified during the punch list walk downs will also require NCRs to be raised, other
than for minor defects. The Owner or its nominee may at any time add pending items or
defects or Nonconformances to Punch Lists.

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23.3.13 Punch Lists

The Supervision Consultant has the responsibility to ensure that the Contractor is taking
necessary precautions for the protection of works before the Initial/Final
Acceptance/Handover to owner or its nominee.

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23.3.14 Protection of the Works

23.3.15 Quality Records

In addition to (and including) quality records identified in the contract or other applicable
codes, standards or procedures, the Supervision Consultant shall determine project Quality
records in compliance with requirements of ISO 9001:2008 and other relevant standards
stated in contract documents and 23.1.2 above.

The list of quality records generated during the life of the contract, and made available upon
request for review by the Owner, shall be indexed by the Supervision Consultant in his
Quality Plan.

The Supervision Consultant shall maintain Registers for all incoming and outgoing
documents.

END OF PART

QCS 2014

Page 1

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CONSTRUCTION DEWATERING
GENERAL
Scope
REQUIREMENTS
Current Procedure Requirements
Relevant Qatari Laws and Regulations
EIA Requirements
Air Quality Standards
Noise Standards
Discharge to Surface and Groundwater Network Standards
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
Geotechnical and Geo-Environmental Study Requirements
Existing Groundwater Monitoring Documents
Risk Assessment of Construction Dewatering
Dewatering Monitoring Plan
Training Requirements
DEWATERING TECHNIQUES
Construction Dewatering Methods Guide Lines
Sump Pits
Well System
Deep Wells
Ditches/ French Drains
Cut-Off Excavation Barriers
Dewatering Effluent Treatment
Settlement Tank
Settlement Tank Types
Tank Size
OTHER TREATMENT
Silt and Fine Grained Soils
Contamination of Groundwater
DISPOSAL OPTIONS
DISCHARGE TO SEA
Discharge to Sea via Surface and Groundwater Network
Direct Discharge to Sea
Discharge to Lagoons:
Discharge by injection to deep groundwater aquifer (Deep well injection)
Groundwater Recycle & Reuse Onsite
Integrated Management of Construction Dewatering
Construction Environmental Management Plan (CEMP)
Monitoring Plan
Training Plan
Odour Control
Health & Safety Considerations
Site Investigation
Design Considerations
Housekeeping Considerations

24
24.1
24.1.1
24.2
24.2.1
24.2.2
24.2.3
24.2.4
24.2.5
24.2.6
24.2.7
24.2.8
24.2.9
24.2.10
24.2.11
24.2.12
24.3
24.3.1
24.3.2
24.3.3
24.3.4
24.3.5
24.3.6
24.3.7
24.3.8
24.3.9
24.3.10
24.4
24.4.1
24.4.2
24.5
24.6
24.6.1
24.6.2
24.6.3
24.6.4
24.6.5
24.6.6
24.6.7
24.6.8
24.6.9
24.6.10
24.6.11
24.6.12
24.6.13
24.6.14

Section 01: General


Part
24: Construction Dewatering

Appendices

2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
5
6
7
7
8
8
8
9
9
9
9
9
10
10
10
12
12
13
13
15
16
17
18
19
19
19
20
20
20
21
21
21
22

QCS 2014

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Part
24: Construction Dewatering

Page 2

CONSTRUCTION DEWATERING

24.1

GENERAL

24.1.1

Scope

This Part specifies the general procedures and requirements for construction dewatering.

It should be noted that legislative requirements, standards and requirements detailed in this
Part are minimum standards, and methods should be employed with the intent to continually
improve on these standards.

Related Parts and Sections are as follows:


Earthworks
Mechanical and Electrical Equipment

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Section 8
Section 9

24

REQUIREMENTS

24.2.1

Current Procedure Requirements

There are four types of construction dewatering disposal options that require licensing in
Qatar, as follows:

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24.2

Discharge to the Sea via surface and groundwater network; the licensing authority
should be ASHGHAL and MOE.

(b)

Direct discharge to the Sea; if the discharge is pumped directly to the sea, then the
Ministry of Environment (MOE) should be the licensing authority.

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Discharge to Lagoon totally covered with geotextile from all sides. This method
of disposal requires a license from MOE.

(ii)

Discharge to Lagoon not covered. This method of disposal requires a license


from MOE.

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(i)

Discharge through Deep Well Injection. This method of disposal requires a license
from MOE.

(c)

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24.2.2

Relevant Qatari Laws and Regulations

The list of parameters required by MoE for dewatering permit is included in Appendix A
together with Annex 4 of Law 30 of 2002 which specifies the limits for the discharged water
into the marine environment (refer to Appendix A). The annex controls the parameters of
pollutants in the water disposed to the marine environment whether via the Surface and
Groundwater Network, or direct discharge to the sea.

If the construction dewatering effluent is discharged to foul network, the discharging party is
liable to having committed a criminal offence.

In the case of illegal discharge to Surface and Groundwater Network, the discharging party
will be subjected to legal actions taken by the licensing authorities.

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Page 3

EIA Requirements

Environmental approvals from the MoE as per Article 7 of the Law No. 30 of 2002.

24.2.4

Air Quality Standards

The air quality standards are controlled by the Law No. 30 of 2002 under Annex (3/First).The
standards applicable to dewatering activities may include the following:

Maximum limits (of air pollutants) allowed for emissions from the movable sources; and
Ambient air quality standards.

24.2.5

Noise Standards

The noise levels are also controlled by the Qatari Legislation under Law No. 30 of 2002
Annex (2/Fifth).

24.2.6

Discharge to Surface and Groundwater Network Standards

Executive Bylaws of Environment Protection Law Issued under Ordinance Law No. (30) Of
2002. Annex No. (4) Criteria and Specifications of the Hazardous Materials when disposed
of in the Water Environments (MoE regulations).

24.2.7

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

For projects requiring an EIA at the design stage, the EIA should be carefully reviewed by
the Design Consultant / Contractor. The EIA should be forwarded to MoE for their approval
and for issuing the relevant Environmental Permit.

Where available, the EIA will contain details of geotechnical surveys including groundwater,
adopted from the previously mentioned report.

Although the EIA may not directly contribute to the construction dewatering design, it will
document possible contamination in the area and environmental constraints, and should
therefore be considered when preparing construction dewatering application papers. Existing
contamination, or potential for contamination, should be carefully considered and must be
taken into account when dewatered groundwater is tested for compliance.

To ensure that dewatering systems are designed to maximise environmental protection and
to assist in expediting license approval processes, the above investigations shall be taken
into consideration as early in the project as possible and included when applying for the
discharge permit.

24.2.8

Geotechnical and Geo-Environmental Study Requirements

After the awarding of the Contract to the Contractor and prior to obtaining the discharge
permit, if required by the Contract or requested by the Engineer, the Contractor shall carry
out a geotechnical and geo-environmental investigations in order to confirm the geotechnical
and environmental conditions on site and groundwater levels.

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24.2.3

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Page 4

The geotechnical and geo-environmental study must as a minimum identify soil types,
permeability, groundwater hydrology, and the required drawdown for the construction
activities. This study is required if the area is suspected for contamination or if the EIA at the
design stage has indicated the existence of contamination.

The output of the geotechnical and geo-environmental study should include as a minimum
the following items:
(a)

Time required for construction dewatering.

(b)

Flow rate of the dewatering discharge.

(c)

Required drawdown.

(d)

Method of construction dewatering based on all of the above findings.

To assist in the approval process all of the above information must be provided in the
application for discharge.

It is important to note that the requirements of the Geotechnical and Geo-environmental


study are completely subject to project settings, type of contamination, and MoEs specific
requirements of each project.

24.2.9

Existing Groundwater Monitoring Documents

It is the Contractors responsibility to ensure he has been providing the latest existing
groundwater level information from Ashghal and the MoE. This information should be used
by the Contractor to assist in determining the current site conditions.

All groundwater information gathered during studies by the Contractor, are to be submitted to
Ashghal for reference and inclusion in the country database. The collection of this
information is paramount to the continuous improvement of government information
databases.

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24.2.10 Risk Assessment of Construction Dewatering


It is important to note that risks are site specific and depend on the intent of the Contractor.
The Contractor is responsible for developing, implementing and managing a Risk
Management System and conducting a Risk Assessment in terms of dewatering activities
and otherwise onsite.

This Risk Management System and Risk Assessment shall be the submitted to the Engineer
for the approval within the 30 days of the contract award.

Risk assessment in this instance can be defined as the identification and characterisation of
the nature of existing and potential adverse effects to humans and the environment resulting
from dewatering activities employed on site.

Risk is a function of the probability of an event occurring and the degree of damage that
would result should it happen.

Details and information gathered during the concept design and associated site studies
(geotechnical, groundwater & environmental) are needed to assess the risks associated with
the proposed activities. The assessment allows significant risks to be identified so that they
can be targeted for action.

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Part
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Page 5

The initial risk assessment needs to also be regularly reviewed and will become an integral
part of the Construction Environmental Management Plan. This includes a review of existing
risks and the identification of new risks detected through the surveillance or the monitoring
program.

To conduct the Risk Assessment the Contractor should undertake the following key steps:
(a)

Information gathering:
A risk assessment requires information about site conditions.

(b)

Risk identification:

Risk analysis:

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(c)

Hazard identification involves the identification of risks/hazards that could lead to an


adverse effect on the receiving environment and/or health & safety.

Risk analysis considers the likelihood of the risk being realised.


Consequence analysis:

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Consequence analysis determines the effect on the environment and health & safety
should a risk be realised.
The overall risk is a function of the likelihood of the activity or event causing environmental
harm or impacting on health & safety and the consequence should that risk be realised.

The risks are then ranked according to their magnitude and mitigation strategies developed.

10

The objective of this process is to identify and rank all potential risks that may arise from the
dewatering of the construction site and then reduce risks to acceptable levels by
implementing a suitable method of dewatering and/or action plan.

11

Risks generally associated with dewatering activities onsite include but not limited to the
following:
(a)

Soil and slope stability and soil erosion due to dewatering activities.
Soil contamination. Whether contamination exists in the project area prior to
commencement of construction or is caused by dewatering activities.

(b)

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(c)

Change of groundwater properties due to dewatering practices.

(d)

Excessive abstraction (dewatering) of groundwater which affects nearby groundwater


related activities.

(e)

Health and safety related issues.

(f)

Risks associated with impacts of dewatering activities on surrounding environment


and sensitive receptors.

(g)

Risks associated with failure of dewatering system and/or disposal methods.

24.2.11 Dewatering Monitoring Plan


1

When dewatering activities are included within the project site, the Contractor shall prepare a
Dewatering Monitoring Plan as detailed below.

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Part
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Page 6

The Dewatering Monitoring Plan shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval within 30
days of contract award.

The monitoring plan will assist the licensing authority, as well as the Contractor, in keeping
track of dewatering activities onsite, and identify corrective actions to be carried out.

The monitoring plan can also assist in identifying liability issues concerned with reported
dewatering problems and accidents.

Outline and components of monitoring plan are as follow:


Identification of opportunities to reuse the dewatering effluent onsite in order to reduce
the amount of disposed effluent.

(b)

Dewatering techniques being employed on site

(c)

Disposal methods employed on-site and relevant monitoring plan to ensure


compliance with discharge limits.

(d)

Copy of discharge limits.

(e)

Roles and responsibilities of the Environmental Advisor on site.

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(a)

Roles and responsibilities have to be clearly defined when designing a dewatering system.
These roles and responsibilities are to be submitted as an essential element to satisfy the
Construction Environmental Management Plan requirements when applying for the
dewatering effluent discharge permit.

Refer to Appendix B for an example of inspection sheet for the dewatering process.

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24.2.12 Training Requirements

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The Contractor shall prepare a Construction Dewatering Training Plan submitted along with
the necessary documentation for a discharge permit.

The construction dewatering training plan shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval
within 30 days of contract award.

The training plan will assist the licensing authority in evaluating the level of knowledge
passed on to the Contractors staff, and is therefore an indirect indication on how well the
dewatering process is being executed. The components of the submitted training plan are
detailed below.

The integration of construction dewatering training into the Training Plan of the Contractor is
essential to introduce all staff to construction dewatering related information.

It is recommended that information on dewatering equipment and related emergencies are


included in the training provided to staff entering or working on the site.

The training for all staff does not have to be comprehensive; however, it should include basic
items such as:

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(a)

Brief explanation of the construction dewatering purpose

(b)

Introduction to the dewatering equipment. Inclusion of photos in the training


presentation.

QCS 2014

(c)

Section 01: General


Part
24: Construction Dewatering

Page 7

Health and safety related concerns, education on related emergencies, and contact
information of person in charge of dewatering to be provided in the presentation.

24.3

DEWATERING TECHNIQUES

24.3.1

Construction Dewatering Methods Guide Lines

The design of effective construction dewatering methods should be based on a number of


information sources:
Geotechnical and groundwater site investigations undertaken at the commencement
of any project;

(b)

Information provided by any geotechnical study undertaken during the concept design
stage[if applicable];

(c)

Groundwater information sourced from relevant authorities; and,

(d)

A site risk assessments.

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(a)

The Contractors choice of dewatering method will depend primarily on the soil type and
permeability and the amount of groundwater to be removed. Whilst the Contractor will be
trying to find the most cost effective method of dewatering (based on the geotechnical report)
he shall implement the most effective dewatering method which minimises environmental
damage, protects the health & safety of on-site personnel and meets all legislative discharge
limits.

It is important to note that if contamination exists in the area all precautions need to be
implemented. Contamination will be dealt with in coordination with MoE by safe disposal in
designated areas as per the Environmental Law number 30 for 2002.

The figure below demonstrates the range of common dewatering techniques, whilst
accounting for soil permeability and drawdown.

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Range of Application of Pumped Well Groundwater Control Techniques


** Source: Preene, M. Roberts, T. Powrie, W. Dyer, M R (2000)- Groundwater Control Design &
Practice (CIRIA C515), London, CIRIA.

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Section 01: General


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Page 8

As seen in the above figure, the choice of dewatering method depends on the required
drawdown and permeability. The drawdown is determined during the design stage of
structures and the groundwater investigation stage at the start of the project and the
permeability is tested during the geotechnical investigation stage.

After the drawdown is determined, the Contractor shall choose the method of dewatering
based on the permeability of soil. The method can vary during the stages of the project
depending on the required drawdown. The shaded areas near the methods boundaries
indicate that the choices can overlap, and then the Contractor can decide between the two
(or more) options.

Filtering and filling materials of aggregate is required by most dewatering methods.


Therefore when required, aggregates to be used shall be free draining, washed and free of
debris (organic or non-organic). Preference is for a single sized aggregate (less than 10%
fines).

Whilst the range of dewatering practices varies across sites depending on their size,
construction depth and site conditions, the most commonly used methods of dewatering in
Qatar are indicated below. Each methods use depends on the requirements and stage of
project.

24.3.2

Sump Pits

The Sump Pit method is the simplest form of dewatering system on a construction site.
Sump pits are generally utilised as a quick, least cost, solution and can be seen to be used
at the start of projects as the excavation stage commences. Provided with an aggregate
lining, as per O&M requirements, sump pits can be an effective means of filtering
groundwater, unless the groundwater has come into contact with silt and/or limestone, which
usually results in reported high turbidity.

If soil has silty characteristics; it is recommended that proper installation of geotextile and
aggregates in sump pits be implemented in order to improve the quality of dewatering
effluent and significantly decrease turbidity.

24.3.3

Well System

The most common practice of dewatering used in Qatar is the implementation of a Well
System. Wells are systematically drilled around the construction area and submersible
pumps placed into these wells. This practice appears to work effectively for many projects,
especially those building projects that require excavations for deep basements.

24.3.4

Deep Wells

Deep wells are rarely used in Qatar. Deep wells are usually equipped with filter packs &
submersible pumps, and are operated using a control cabin.

Although not found to be present in Qatar at present, deep wells have unlimited drawdown,
they require a minimum spacing of 10 meters, and have far greater efficiency.

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Ditches/ French Drains

Ditches and French drains (commonly known as trenches in construction projects in Qatar)
are also used on Qatars construction sites. The ditches are formed in a pre-planned
manner, allowing groundwater flow to surface in the deeper level trenches. Perforated pipes
are then placed in the trenches, and groundwater extracted through these pipelines to be
filtered. These trenches were particularly common in infrastructure network projects.

Graded aggregates and geotextile layer to be used when laying out the pipelines.

24.3.6

Cut-Off Excavation Barriers

Cut Off barriers are designed to limit and/or control groundwater entering the construction
site from a neighbouring property. An assessment of groundwater infiltration is required to
determine to what extent barriers are required and how they are constructed.

Commonly used excavation barriers in Qatar include structural concrete walls and secant
piles. Both techniques are applicable to most types of soil and provide slope stability for
deep excavated areas.

24.3.7

Dewatering Effluent Treatment

24.3.8

Settlement Tank

The settlement tank is the most common and most effective methods of treatment in Qatar.
The settlement tank is primarily used to maximise the distance that the effluent has to travel
prior to reaching the discharge point, and therefore increasing the settlement efficiency.

All projects in Qatar which apply for a discharge permit are obligated to provide a settlement
tank.

When choosing the settlement tank, the choice should be based on the following factors:
The type of soil to be dewatered.

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24.3.5

(d)

Retention time required for solids to settle. This will also be based on the soil type.

Flow rate quantity and frequency.


Possible peak factors flows.

(b)

24.3.9

Settlement Tank Types

The common types of weir tanks used are Regular tank and V-notch tanks (30, 60, and
90). The V-notch tanks serve to accelerate the passing of the effluent through the tank.

For safety purposes, it is recommended that tanks be suitably covered with a top cover or
specific lid, to ensure unauthorised access is not permitted.

It is important to note that sometimes these tanks are used onsite as a discharge tanks.
Therefore, it is important that tanks are used as settlement tanks and be marked clearly as
such.

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Part
24: Construction Dewatering

Page 10

24.3.10 Tank Size


1

In order to make a decision on the tank size, the volume of tank are to be estimated as per
the below equations.

The volumes calculated depend primarily on the retention time of water in the tank, and the
flow rate of discharge.

Equation
3

V=Qt

The tank's depth

d = V/A

d: depth (m)
3
V: volume(m )
2
A: surface area(m )

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Tank volume

V: Volume (m )
3
Q: Expected flow rate (m /hour)
t: retention period (hour)

It is important to note that these equations are to be used as a guide only, but do provide a
basis for calculating the minimum tank size required based on the flow rate provided by the
Contractor.

For fine grained type of soils, it is preferred to have secondary methods of treatment as
detailed below.

24.4

OTHER TREATMENT

24.4.1

Silt and Fine Grained Soils

For the removal of silt and fine grained suspended particles, the following inexpensive
methods can be effectively applied:

Dewatering Tank:

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(a)

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a dewatering tank can remove sediment (sand, silt, and visible oil). The dewatering
tank is equipped with a fabric filter. The flow passes through the filter before being
discharged at the bottom end of the tank. The tank can be used in addition to the weir
tank or any other treatment method. It is portable, inexpensive and many types of filter
clothes can be used.
Yet, the dewatering tanks should be subjected to periodic cleaning based on the visual
inspection or reduced flow, through lifting the sand and silt from the tank.

(b)

Gravity Bag Filter:


(Also known as dewatering bag) is made of geotextile fabric that can filter out silt and
fine grained soil particles. This filter is easy to install, inexpensive, and becomes more
effective as sediment builds up inside the bag. The type of bag should be selected
based on the flow rates of discharge and permeability of soil.
This method is to be used as a secondary treatment for groundwater. It requires
continuous monitoring to avoid hose failure, particularly if sediment builds up in a
manner that interferes with the acquisition of a reasonable flow rate discharge.

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The Gravity Bag Filter does not require cleaning, as it is a disposable filter. The filter is
to be disposed of in accordance with the waste management guidelines of the project.
The filter is to be replaced when it starts passing solids, or blocks the passing of water
at a rate that is adequate.
(c)

Slurry Water
The drilling [slurry] muds containing substantial quantities of organic liquids and
water-soluble salts are treated to render them environmentally acceptable for
disposal (C M Wilwerding 1989)

Slurry water occurrence is common during dewatering processes in Qatar. While there
is filtration equipment and water treatment technology available to treat slurry water,
these are best used in countries with a different climate to that of Qatars.
The best option for treating slurry by filtration is using a Centrifugal Filter. However, as
previously mentioned, this is not a preferable to be used in Qatar as slurry can be dried
easily in a more environmentally friendly manner.

It is also important to note that even when treatment equipment is used, the resulting silt will
have to be disposed at a licensed landfill, along with having to dispose of the equipment at
its end of service life.

If the silt contains hazardous material, then a license should be issued from MoE as per the
procedures detailed in Annex (7.2) of the Qatari Law of Environment (Copy of the
procedures together with the form of application is provided in Appendix (C)). And if the silt
has no hazardous materials then the license shall be issued from the concerned
Municipality.

To eliminate the issues with incompatible equipment and hot climates, it is recommended
that treatment methods be designed to manage the slurry either onsite by drying the first
instance before transfer to landfill, or by transfer to the landfill directly.

The conventional drying process comprises laying out of slurry mud on an air permeable
drying bed lined with suitable material.

The drying process must commit to the following environmental considerations:

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(a)

Amount of slurry generated must not exceed the capacity of the spreading system.

(b)

Drying process must not impose nuisance or emit odor.

(c)

Drying process must not impose health and safety risks.

The choice of drying process, whether by using a centrifuge machine or a drying lagoon is
subject to project settings and expected amount of slurry to be generated.

The slurry handling process is to be submitted with the dewatering permit application if
generation of slurry is expected to occur.

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24.4.2

Contamination of Groundwater

In the event of discovering the contamination of the receiving environment such as


groundwater by dewatering effluent, the contractor is obligated to report the discovery to the
licensing authority (ASHGHAL, MoE) and the effluent is to be dealt with as per the
construction Environmental Management Plan (CEMP). Samples of groundwater should be
taken and tested. Reasonable suspicion can be established by one of the following
methods:
Possible history of contamination in the area; such as prior land use (eg. petrol
station), or the area is known to have septic tank issues.

(b)

EIA: if there is an EIA prepared for the project, it should be reviewed and approved by
MoE in order to eliminate the possibility of contamination. If the EIA indicates the
presence of contamination, the Contractor is obligated to report the findings to MoE for
their feedback, and test for the type of contamination detected in the EIA.

(c)

The Contractor shall use the following Water Quality Assessment to establish the
possibility of contamination in the area.

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(a)

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Water Quality Assessment

The following questions provide n initial assessment of the quality of the water to be
discharged from the dewatering operation.

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Common
Sense Test

1. Review the project records. Is there any reason to suspect that the
water may be polluted by something other than sediment?
No
Yes
2. Is the water located in an area of known contamination?
No
Yes
Does the water have an abnormal visual feature, such as: (circle)
Oily Sheen, Floating Foam, Murky Appearance, Unusual
Colour
Other

Smell Test

Does the water have an odor? No


Yes
Possible odors include gasoline, petroleum, ammonia, sewage,
etc.

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Sight Test

If you answered YES to any of the above questions, explain:


If you answered YES to any of the questions in the assessment or suspect that the
water contains pollutants other than sediments, contact the Engineer for assistance
with additional testing and management options.

Water Quality Assessments


** Adapted from Source: The office of Environmental Engineering, California Department of
Transportation (Caltrans), Field Guide to Construction Site Dewatering, USA, 2001.
In the event of discovering groundwater contamination, the Contractor is obligated to report the
discovery to the Engineer and Licensing Authority (MOE / ASHGHAL) and the effluent is to be dealt
with as per the Construction Environmental Management Plan (CEMP), or as directed by the
Engineer.

24.5

DISPOSAL OPTIONS

Qatar construction sites use four (4) common means of disposal, namely:
(a)

Discharge to sea via the Surface and Groundwater Network;

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(b)

Direct Discharge to the sea;

(c)

(A) Discharge to lagoon totally covered by geotextile from all sides;


(B) Discharge to lagoon not covered, and;

(d)

Discharge by injection to deep groundwater aquifer (Deep well injection).

The following section discusses the options available in Qatar in terms of dewatering effluent
disposal, and describes the best option depending on the circumstances of the project.

24.6

DISCHARGE TO SEA

24.6.1

Discharge to Sea via Surface and Groundwater Network

Disposal of dewatering effluent to the Surface and Groundwater Network is the most
common practice in Qatar. The Surface and Groundwater Network eventually leads to
outfalls that discharge to Sea.

The disposal to the network directly via pipelines, or via tankers, depends on the availability
of Surface and Groundwater Network in the project area.

The Surface and Groundwater Network is an acceptable option for disposal given that
Contractor is also reusing the effluent on site whenever possible.

If a Contractor chooses to discharge to the Surface and Groundwater Network, obtaining a


license from ASHGHAL is required to allow the discharge of groundwater to the Surface and
Groundwater Network. A license from the Ministry of Environment is also required through
the submission of an Environmental Permit Application.

Measurements of flow rates must be undertaken in order to monitor the discharge flow and
ensure that it is within the limits provided to the licensing authority (refer Appendix A for
discharge limits).

The Contractor must provide the licensing authority with the maximum expected flow rate (i.e
the peak flow) and the expected average flow rate, in order to avoid back flooding when
flows exceed the capacity of the manhole assigned to the Contractor. Therefore, the
contractor should install a flow meter at the construction site in order to measure the
quantities of groundwater flow.

The Contractor should also notify the licensing authority if peak flows are expected to be
reached frequently during the winter season, particularly when heavy rain is forecast, so as
to avoid penalties if the manhole back floods.

If a Contractor is operating from an area which is not served by a Surface and Groundwater
Network, and determines that the most cost effective solution is to use tankers to transport
dewatering effluent to the nearest assigned manhole, the Contractor is then obligated to
provide a brief statement demonstrating the traffic impacts caused by their tankers.

If the resultant traffic impact proves to be significant, the Contractor is either to consider
other options of disposal, or retain dewatering effluent onsite and then transport the effluent
when traffic is less congested, therefore minimising traffic impacts.

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In the event that tankers are used to transport dewatering effluent, in order to monitor
discharge to Surface and Groundwater Network the Contractor must record all particulars
associated with its removal, such as:
(a)

Installing a flow meter at the construction site in order to measure the quantities of
groundwater flow.

(b)

Record of tankers coming to and leaving the site (eg. registration plate no., capacity,
records of water quality)

(c)

Volumes of effluent transported.

The recording of tanker movements is in addition to the installation of a meter on the


weir/sediment tank.

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When applying for the discharge permit the following documents are required:

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Official letter from the company addressed to: The Manager of Drainage Networks
O&M Dept- Asset Affairs- ASHGHAL. (Includes start and end date of dewatering
works & method of statement for dewatering).

(b)

Application form for pumping groundwater to be filled and stamped.

(c)

Copy of building permit.

(d)

Copy of the site map.

(e)

Copy of ID card of the applicants engineer.

(f)

Copy of the registration company.

(g)

Copy of Road Opening (RO) Permit.

(h)

Copy of Traffic Department Approval, as part of the RO Permit

(i)

Testing of samples, and conformation of compliant results prior to obtaining the twomonth permit. The Contractor must note that the sample testing is to be carried out
after obtaining the five-day temporary permit, and is to be submitted after the previous
requirements are submitted and a temporary permit is granted.

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(a)

Once the application is submitted, the project is given a reference number which includes a
serial number, type of discharge (e.g groundwater) and the date of application. Drawing and
comments are then returned to the applicant for information and/or action and the applicant
will be advised the applicable disposal option and a manhole to be assigned for the
discharge.

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The applicant is issued a temporary permit for five days. The purpose of the temporary
permit is to allow the applicant to obtain approvals from the concerned authorities, and install
the equipment in order to take water samples.

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During the temporary dewatering permit; only discharge is allowed for collecting samples
and to proceed with other department requirements. All samples are taken by laboratory
representative from the list of laboratories approved by ASHGHAL and MOE; its prohibited
for samples to be taken by the Contractor. The collected samples should be tested for Total
Suspended Solids (TSS, turbidity and the short list of parameters included in Appendix A.
Test results should be uploaded online to QSD by the laboratory. Yet, it should be
highlighted here that any testing activities are not only limited to the parameters provided on
the short list developed by QSD; it should also cover the list of parameters required by MOE
for dewatering permit. Approval is then granted if the test results meet the requirements of
discharge. The Quality Limits are attached in Appendix A.

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If the installation requires a road crossing, a RO permit is required. If not, a RO is not


required. The applicant must obtain a license from the concerned authorities for installation
of all tanks and hoses.

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Following the issuance of the permit, regular inspections by the O&M staff are carried out.
The Contractor is then required to undertake weekly laboratory tests for TSS and turbidity of
effluent samples, and bi-monthly tests prior to renewing the permit. Permit renewal request
should be submitted in 7 days advance before expiry day of the previous permit. The bimonthly tests are for TSS, turbidity and the short list of parameters included in Appendix A
together with the parameters listed under Annex (4) of the law of Environment number
30/2002.

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A copy of the Permitting Application and pro-forms are attached in Appendix C.

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Refer to Appendix D for a flowchart of the permitting procedure for the discharge to sea via
Surface and Groundwater network.

24.6.2

Direct Discharge to Sea

MOE is the licensing authority for discharging dewatering effluent direct to the Sea.

If a Contractor found that the applicable option for dewatering is the direct discharge to sea,
a secondary method of treatment must be installed to allow the dewatering effluent to settle
before reaching the discharge outfall point. The discharge to the outfall point is achieved
through the use of pipelines or transportation via tankers. Based on the number of tankers,
the transportation may be subjected to a traffic impact assessment study based on the
requirements of MOE.

The Contractor may therefore be subject to a number of pertinent laws and regulations:

When issuing direct sea discharge permits, MOE have the following concerns that need to
be addressed as per Annex 4 of the Qatari Law of Environment and the list of parameters
required by MOE for dewatering permit (included in Appendix A), which includes the test of
the following parameters:

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(a)

Bacterial counts

(b)

Turbidity and TSS levels

(c)

Presence of Petroleum compounds.

(d)

Presence of heavy metals.

(e)

Others, as per MoE requirements.

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Refer to Appendix D for a flowchart of the permitting procedure for the direct discharge to
sea. A copy of the environmental permit application form is included in Appendix E.

For more information, contact MoE on:


Telephone +974 4420 7777

24.6.3

Fax

+ 974 4420 7000

Email

Responsibility@moe.gov.qa

Discharge to Lagoons:

A. Discharge to Lagoon totally covered with geotextile from all sides


Lagoons are licensed by MOE.

It is recommended that a lagoon totally covered with geotextile from all sides, formed in a
depressive area, is used in locations where it is logistically impossible or cost and socially
prohibitive to deliver effluent to the Surface and Groundwater Network using other means.

If Contractor chooses to discharge the dewatering effluent to a lagoon, license is given by


MOE. The dewatering to lagoons is mainly based on the requirements by MOE which is
given for case by case. The use of this option is depending on the water quality. Yet, the
general requirements of MOE can be summarised in the following information:

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Dewatering effluent quantity.

(b)

Detailed Engineering drawings for the lagoon showing the geotextile lining of the
lagoon.

(c)

Duration of dewatering discharge

(d)

Dewatering effluent quality. Dewatering effluent quality is tested initially against the list
of parameters required by MoE for dewatering permit (included in Appendix A). And
then tested weekly. Monthly testing is also required for selected parameters.

(e)

Coordinates of lagoon, inclusive of dewatering discharge points.

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Location map
Others, as per MOE requirements.

(g)

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(a)

Refer to Appendix D for a flowchart of the permitting procedure for the discharge through
the use of lagoons. A copy of the environmental permit application form is included in
Appendix E.

For more information, contact MOE on:


Telephone +974 4420 7777
Fax

+ 974 4420 7000

Email

Responsibility@moe.gov.qa

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B. Discharge to Lagoon not covered


6

The discharge to a logon which is not covered is depending on the discharged water quality.
Similar to the above option, the licensing authority for this option is the Ministry of
Environment. The list of parameters required by MOE for dewatering permit is included in
Appendix A. The general requirements of MOE are similar to the above option.

Refer to Appendix C for a flowchart of the permitting procedure for the discharge through
the use of lagoons. A copy of the environmental permit application form is included in
Appendix E.

For more information, contact MOE on:


Telephone +974 4420 7777
+ 974 4420 7000

Email

Responsibility@moe.gov.qa

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Fax

Discharge by injection to deep groundwater aquifer (Deep well injection)

Disposal by injection to groundwater aquifer is a common method in Qatar to dispose of


treated effluent of sewage treatment plants. Yet, the use of deep well injection for the
discharge of dewatering effluent to groundwater aquifer is also done in few big projects.

However and prior to the discharge to the deep well, a careful assessment of geological
conditions must be conducted in order to determine the suitable depth and location of porous
aquifer reservoirs and identifying the safe rate of injection to the deep aquifer. Generally, the
depth of the deep well should not be less than 400 600 m deep, which is the expected
depth of Umm Er Radhumma (UER) aquifer.

In all cases, MOE require the contractor to conduct an Environmental Assessment for the
impact from the project as soon as drilling of the deep well and the analysis of the samples is
achieved. This shall be done by a qualified consultant with previous experience in similar
projects.

The general requirements of MOE for the use of the deep well injection can be summarised
in the following information:

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24.6.4

(a)

Duration of dewatering discharge.

(b)

Dewatering effluent quality. Dewatering effluent quality is tested initially against the
parameters specified in the standards for the water use for irrigation purpose of the
Qatari Law of Environment. And then periodically testing each week based on MoE
requirements.

(c)

The parameters required for the physical, chemical, biological, microbiological


analysis includes but not limited to: EC, Temperature, DO, pH, Turbidity, FRC, TPH,
O&G, Sulphide, Metals, BOD, COD, TOC, surfactants, VOC, BETX, TDS, TSS, PAHs,
TAlk, Nitrate, Nitrite, Ammonia, TKN, Phosphorus, Chloride, Sodium, Sulphite, Total
Phenol, Carbonate, E-Coli, Faecal Coliform, Bacteria and SAR.

(d)

A0 design map for the whole project including the location of the injection well and
network of shallow trenches connecting the wells.

(e)

Comparison study between the use of the shallow networking and the perforated
pipelines.

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(f)

Drilling of monitoring wells to suitable depth to monitor the impact on the shallow
aquifer.

(g)

Providing the injection wells with emergency valves to stop injection in case of
contamination.

Refer to Appendix D for a flowchart of the permitting procedure for the discharge through
the use of deep well injection. A copy of the environmental permit application form is
included in Appendix E.

As mentioned above, the injection of dewatering effluent to groundwater aquifer is licensed


by MOE and is completely subject to their approval, therefore for further information, please
contact MOE on:

Fax

+ 974 4420 7000

Email

Responsibility@moe.gov.qa

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Telephone +974 4420 7777

Groundwater Recycle & Reuse Onsite

It is recommended, where environmentally safe and cost effective, that dewatering effluent is
reused or recycled onsite.

The reuse options onsite will depend on a number of factors, including the type of project.
The contractor should propose the treatment in case the water is polluted by organic and
inorganic chemicals or subjected to biological contamination. The treatment should focus but
not limited to low DO, presence of Bacteria, elevated levels of TSS or turbidity and presence
of oil.

The CEMP should be used to identify all opportunities of reuse onsite. Yet, the options for
the reuse of the groundwater should be discussed with MOE and shall be subjected to the
approval by MOE.

Options could include but not be limited to:


Control of dust onsite. (Subject to the level of safety and quality of dewatering
effluent).

(a)

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24.6.5

(b)

Reuse of dewatering effluent.

(c)

Concrete curing.

(d)

Excavation activities requiring water.

(e)

Washing of machinery and site equipment.

(f)

Watering of onsite landscaping, when the turbidity is very low to avoid compromising
the integrity of the soil.

(g)

If the dewatering effluent quality is within limits of soil compaction parameters


requirements (refer to QCS), it can be used for soil compaction purposes.

Contractor to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate whether its feasible to erect an RO


system for dewatering effluent treatment, in order to use the dewatering effluent instead of
fresh potable water.

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The feasibility study is to compare both options in terms of financial viability.

24.6.6

Integrated Management of Construction Dewatering

Construction dewatering practices are better managed if they are integrated with existing
construction management systems, such as a CEMP, monitoring plan and training
programmes. The dewatering practice will then form part of the regular construction
inspection/monitoring program.

24.6.7

Construction Environmental Management Plan (CEMP)

The CEMP is prepared to minimise the impacts of the project and its activities on the
receiving environment. The CEMP is prepared prior to mobilising to site.

The Contractor should uses the geotechnical investigations and previous EIA (if applicable)
as guidelines when preparing the CEMP.

When dewatering activities are included within the project site, the preparation of the CEMP
should include the following:

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Identification of opportunities to reuse the dewatering effluent onsite in order to reduce


the amount of disposed effluent.

(b)

Dewatering techniques being employed on site

(c)

Disposal methods employed on-site and relevant monitoring plan to ensure


compliance with discharge limits.

(d)

Copy of discharge limits.

(e)

Roles and responsibilities of the Environmental Advisor on site.

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(a)

Roles and responsibilities have to be clearly defined when designing a dewatering system.
These roles and responsibilities are to be submitted as an essential element to satisfy the
CEMP requirements when applying for the dewatering effluent discharge permit.

Refer to Appendix B for an example of inspection sheet for the dewatering process.

24.6.8

Monitoring Plan

The environmental monitoring plan is used to monitor the anticipated impacts of the project o
the surrounding and receiving environments. It is imperative that, should dewatering
activities exist on site, there is integration all testing and monitoring requirements.

Integration of monitoring plans may be between systems within individual sites or between
several sites, depending on management systems or owners

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(a)

Environmental monitoring plan: The environmental monitoring plan is to outline the


steps required for monitoring of construction dewatering practices. The integration of
dewatering practices into the monitoring plan will pave the way to introduce a
dewatering monitoring plan.

(b)

The findings of the dewatering monitoring reports are to be summarised and included
in the environmental monitoring reports.

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The dewatering practices monitoring plan: Introduction of a dewatering practices


monitoring plan, sampling points, variables, frequencies and reporting. This plan
should be cyclic which stands to be audited as part of the master environmental
monitoring plan. Corrective actions from audits are to be implemented to ensure
improved performance.

Training Plan

The integration of construction dewatering training into the training plan of the Contractor is
essential to introduce all staff to construction dewatering related information.

It is recommended that information on dewatering equipment and related emergencies are


included in the training provided to staff entering or working on the site.

The training for all staff does not have to be comprehensive; however, it should include basic
items such as:

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Brief explanation of the construction dewatering purpose

(b)

Introduction to the dewatering equipment. Inclusion of photos in the training


presentation.

(c)

Health and safety related concerns, education on related emergencies, and contact
information of person in charge of dewatering to be provided in the presentation.

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Training for dewatering staff, however, should be the responsibility of the Project Consultant
and as per each Project needs and requirements. The training should be comprehensive and
should include all components dewatering staff need to be familiar with.

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24.6.10 Odour Control

The odour levels have been given a threshold value as indicated in the Qatar Construction
Specifications (QCS). Therefore, it is highly recommended to measure the level of odour
parameters, a devise should be installed within the construction site to measure odour
parameters (eg: H2S).

The QCS has identified two types of odour control equipment; control equipment carbon type
and control equipment scrubber type. Refer to Section 9 Part 9 and Part 10 for details.

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24.6.11 Health & Safety Considerations


1

Health and safety issues are the most important part of any construction project. It is
recommended that health and safety measures in relation to dewatering practices are
enforced strictly, in order to prevent and/or minimise on-site accidents.

In addition to the conventional health and safety measures implemented in construction


sites, the following considerations are to be incorporated to contribute to the health and
safety practices relating to construction dewatering:

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24.6.12 Site Investigation


1

During the initial site investigations, the Contractor has to identify potential health and safety
risks in the project area. Examples of risks are: potential contamination posing health and
safety concern to labour workers and site staff, slope stability issues due to dewatering
practices... etc.

Identified risks have to be considered and mitigated against during design and execution of
dewatering.

This exercise can be undertaken during the Risk Assessment process as described earlier in
this Guideline.

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24.6.13 Design Considerations


The design of dewatering stage is the most convenient stage to plan properly in order to
prevent foreseeable health and safety issues arising during operational dewatering.

All designs must take into account the health & safety considerations associated with
dewatering, which include but are not limited to:

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Preparation of layout plan for dewatering equipment.

(b)

Ensure access to dewatering equipment, without compromising the safety of staff.

(c)

Ensure that all dewatering equipment especially equipment placed offsite- is marked
clearly with name of project and Contractor, and contact person details.

(d)

Provide protective covers for assigned manholes which do not hinder the discharged
flow.

(e)

The mandatory use of PPE. All staff entering a projects safe zone have to be wearing
appropriate safety gear. This also applies to staff managing dewatering equipment
offsite.

(f)

The Contractor is to exercise duty of care when designing, installing and operating the
dewatering equipment and process.

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(a)

24.6.14 Housekeeping Considerations


It is recommended that during the regular inspection of projects, the licensing authority is to
observe the status of housekeeping of dewatering equipment. Inadequate housekeeping can
expose staff and visitors to injury.

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APPENDICES
Short List of Parameters as provided by ASHGHALMoE list of Parameters for Dewatering Permit Environmental Laws and Regulations- Annex 4, Law 30 of 2002

23

Appendix B:

Dewatering Process Inspection Sheet

32

Appendix C:

Discharge Permit Forms

36

Appendix D:

Application for Permit- Procedure Flowchart for each Dewatering Option

40

Appendix E:

Environmental Permit Application- MoE

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Appendix A:

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23
23
23

Appendix B
DEWATERING PROCESS INSPECTION SHEET

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Appendix C
DISCHARGE PERMIT FORMS

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Appendix A
SHORT LIST OF PARAMETERS AS PROVIDED BY ASHGHAL
MOE LIST OF PARAMETERS REQUIRED FOR DEWATERING PERMITS
ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS ANNEX 4, LAW 30 OF 2002

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36
40

Appendix E
ENVIRONMENTAL PERMIT APPLICATION MOE

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Appendix D
APPLICATION FOR PERMIT PROCEDURE FLOWCHART FOR
EACH DEWATERING OPTION

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Appendix A

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Short List of Parameters as provided by Ashghal

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MoE list of Parameters required for Dewatering Permits

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Environmental Laws and Regulations Annex 4, Law 30 of 2002

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Appendix B

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Dewatering Process Inspection Sheet

Section 01: General


Part
24: Construction Dewatering

Page 33

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Appendix C

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Discharge Permit Forms

Section 01: General


Part
24: Construction Dewatering

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Section 01: General


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Page 40

Appendix D

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Application for Permit Procedure Flowchart for each Dewatering Option

Section 01: General


Part
24: Construction Dewatering

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Appendix E

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Environmental Permit Application MoE

Section 01: General


Part
24: Construction Dewatering

Page 46

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Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control


Part
15: Appendix B - Templates

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Page 7

Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control


Part
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15: Appendix B - Templates

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CONTRACTORS INSPECTION AND TEST PLAN TEMPLATE

15.2

Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control


Part
15: Appendix B - Templates

Page 16

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QUALITY NON-CONFORMANCE TEMPLATE

15.3

Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control


Part
15: Appendix B - Templates

END OF PART

Page 17

QCS 2014

Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control


Part
02: Submittals

Page 1

SUBMITTALS .......................................................................................................... 2

2.1
2.1.1
2.1.2
2.1.3
2.1.4
2.1.5
2.1.6
2.1.7

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2
Project Quality Plan
2
Quality Organisation Plan
3
Inspection and Test Plans
4
Quality Checklists
5
Key Performance Indicators
5
Method Statements
6
Commissioning Plan
6

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Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control


Part
02: Submittals

Page 2

SUBMITTALS

2.1

GENERAL

2.1.1

Project Quality Plan

The Contractor shall prepare the necessary Contract specific Project Quality Plan as
specified in this Section, the Contract Documents and as a minimum meeting the
requirements ISO 9001 and ISO 10005 and submit them to the Engineer for review and
approval within 30 days of the award of Contract. The Contractor is not permitted to Work on
the worksite until such time as the plan has been approved by the Engineer.

The Contractor shall regularly review the suitability of the Project Quality Plan. The Contractor
shall undertake a full formal review of the quality plans annually with reference to the date of
award of the Contract and submit the findings of the review to the Engineer within 14 days of
that date along with an amended plan should any amendments be required.

The Project Quality Plan shall describe the Contractors Quality Management System that will
be used throughout the Contract and the contents shall include but not be limited to the
following:
Front Cover

(b)

Table of Contents

(c)

Project Scope, Requirements and Quality Objectives

(d)

Quality Policy and ISO 9001 Certificate (if applicable)

(e)

Control of Project Quality Plan

(f)

Reference Documentation

(g)

Project Management, Planning and Resources

(h)

Management, Organisation and Responsibilities

(i)

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Contract Review
Project Deliverables

(j)

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(a)

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(k)

Communication with the Engineer

(l)

Management of Documents, Data and Records

(m)

Design (Including Temporary Works)

(n)

Procurement of Services, Equipment and Materials

(o)

Method Statements

(p)

Inspection and Test

(q)

Product Identification and Traceability

(r)

Owner Supplied Product

(s)

Handling, Storage, Packaging and Delivery

(t)

Non-conformance, Corrective and Preventative Action

(u)

Control of Inspection, Measuring and Test Equipment

QCS 2014

Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control


Part
02: Submittals
Audits

(w)

Training

(x)

Key Performance Indicators and Continual Improvement

(y)

Management Review

(z)

Quality Meetings

(aa)

Monthly Quality Report

(bb)

Commissioning

(cc)

Interface Management

(dd)

Project Completion and Handover

(ee)

Appendices

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And include as a minimum:

a detailed description of procedures, instructions, and reports to be used to ensure


compliance with the Project Documentation

(b)

a detailed description of procedures for reviewing shop drawings, samples, certificates


and other submittals necessary for compliance with the Project Documentation

(c)

a detailed description of procedures used to identify, report and resolve problems

(d)

a description of the services provided by outside organisations such as testing


laboratories, architects, and consulting engineers

(e)

a detailed description of inspections and tests required

(f)

copies of forms and reports to be used to document quality assurance operations

(g)

the names of personnel responsible for each part of the Works

(h)

a submittal status log listing required submittals and action required by the Contractor
and Engineer

(i)

a detailed description of document and submittal control procedures

(j)

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an inspection and test schedule keyed to the construction programme


procedures to identify and control the use of items and materials

(k)

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(v)

Page 3

No construction shall begin and no requests for payment from the Contractor shall be
processed until the Contractors Project Quality Plan is approved.

A Contractors Project Quality Plan Template with guidance notes is included in Part 15
Appendix B of this Section. The format of the Contractors Project Quality Plan must follow
this template including all clauses contained within.

2.1.2

Quality Organisation Plan

The Contractor shall submit a Quality Organisation Plan to the Engineer for approval no later
than thirty (30) days from the start of the Contract.

The Quality Organisation Plan shall provide the names, qualifications, experience and skills
of all the QA/QC Team including Corporate QA/QC Manager, Quality Management
Representative and key support staff.

QCS 2014

Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control


Part
02: Submittals

Page 4

The Quality Organisation Plan shall show the organisation of Contractors quality team and
shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
(a)

an organisation chart identifying all personnel responsible for quality

(b)

Identify the quality team showing that the team is independent of the job supervisory
staff with clear lines of authority to top tier management.

(c)

Indicate and describe the area of responsibility and authority of each individual in the
quality assurance team.

The Quality Organisation Plan should also define quality responsibilities of any of the
Contractors team with responsibilities under the Contractors Project Quality Plan.

The Contractors Quality staff shall have relevant educational and professional qualifications,
and training as defined in 3.1.7 (1). The Contractor is not permitted to execute any form of
the works at the worksite until such time as approved quality personnel have been deployed
on a fulltime basis to the worksite. The Contractor shall not remove or replace the appointed
quality personnel without prior approval from the Engineer.

The Quality Organisation Plan may form part of the Project Quality Plan or be prepared as a
standalone document and cross-referenced within the Project Quality Plan.

2.1.3

Inspection and Test Plans

As part of the Project Quality Plan the Contractor shall submit an Inspection and Test Plan
Schedule to the Engineer for approval no later than thirty (30) days from the start of the
Contract.

The Inspection and Test Plan schedule shall define the Inspection and Test Plans to be
prepared for the Works and the target dates for their submission to the Engineer for his
approval.

The Inspection and Test Plans shall consider the requirements of each Section of the
Specification and shall identify, as a minimum, the following:

(b)

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(c)

the required inspection and testing frequency

(d)

the acceptance/rejection criteria

(e)

whom from the Contractors team is responsible and qualified to perform the inspection
or test

(f)

Quality Records to be generated

(g)

Hold, Witness, surveillance and Record Review points of the Contractors team, the
Engineer and any other agencies having jurisdictional authority over the work relating
to each inspection and test to be performed.

Details each activity, inspection and test to be performed


Reference to specifications, standards etc.

(a)

Each inspection and test shall have a unique reference number.

Inspection and Test Plans are required to address the Contractors on and off site Work and
preparation, submission and approval of related documentation.

QCS 2014

Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control


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02: Submittals

Page 5

Inspection and Test Plans are required for all operations including major temporary works
and commissioning.

No work covered by the Inspection and Test Plan shall begin until the plan has been
approved by the Engineer.

A Contractors Inspection and Test Plan Template with guidance notes is included in
Appendix B of this Section and must be used by the Contractor

2.1.4

Quality Checklists

The Contractor shall develop specific quality checklists for all activities to be checked as per
the Inspection and Test Plans and submit to the Engineer for the approval with the Inspection
Test Plans submission prior to the start of the activity.

The Contractor shall inspect the work and sign off the relevant checklist and Inspection
Request prior to the final inspection with the Engineer.

The checklist shall be attached with the Inspection Request and other relevant attachments
and submitted to the Engineer.

2.1.5

Key Performance Indicators

The Contractor shall develop and report Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). KPIs are a set
of quantifiable measures that are used to gauge performance of the Contractors
Performance.

The KPIs shall be defined in the Contractors Project Quality Plan and be subject to
Engineers approval.

The Contractor is responsible for developing his own KPIs for all elements of his contract
(Contractual, Commercial, Safety etc.) but as a minimum shall address the following KPIs.

Time between opening and closure of Nonconformance Reports (NCR) and Corrective
Action Requests (CAR).

(b)

Time between identification of a Nonconformance or Corrective Action and actual


raising on the system.

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(c)

NCR and CAR statistics per areas, sections, discipline, subcontractor etc.

(d)

Percentage of reoccurring NCRs and CARs Trends on NCRs and CARs.

(e)

Approval status of critical documentation for the progress of the works (Method
Statements, ITPs etc.).

(f)

Statistical data from inspections as per the Inspection & Test Plans (Pass vs failed,
pass first time, etc.).

(g)

Completion packages (As-Built folders) progress.

Reporting of the KPIs shall include a graphical bar chart representation on a month by month
basis from the start of the Contract.

QCS 2014

Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control


Part
02: Submittals

Page 6

Method Statements

Contractor shall ensure that Method Statements address quality issues. Refer to Section 11
Part 1 (Regulatory Document) in particular section 1.1.7 and Section 11 Part 2 (SAMAS) in
particular section 2.4

2.1.7

Commissioning Plan

The Contractor shall submit a Commissioning Plan to the Engineer for approval no later than
sixty (60) days unless agreed otherwise with the engineer before the start of the
commissioning of the Works or any part thereof.

The Commissioning Plan shall consider the requirements of each Section of the Specification
in turn and shall identify the following:

2.1.6

all required commissioning work required by that Section of the Specification

(b)

any prerequisites to commissioning

(c)

a list of the commissioning procedure

(d)

a detailed description of the duties and responsibilities on the personnel involved in the
commissioning process

(e)

a detailed list of the tests/checks/activities that will be performed, linked to the relevant
construction activities and referenced to any links/documents to the ITPs performed
during the construction

(f)

specific reference to the witness/hold and review points of the engineer

(g)

a detailed list of the standards /specifications/regulatory requirements that need to be


performed

(h)

a detailed description of the interactions/communication


organization/public service or other legal/regulatory institutions

(i)

a detailed description of the test/activities of the maintenance needed during the life
time of the project, with reference to any special requirements/qualifications of the
personnel involved in the maintenance activities

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a detailed description of any spare parts/equipment/fixtures and other type of the of


consumables that might be needed, with an estimation of quantities, for the life time of
the project

(j)

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(a)

(k)

a detailed description of the as built project file that will be created after the
commission phase

(l)

a procedure for up-date and revision of the commissioning plan

No work covered by the Commissioning Plan shall begin until the plan has been approved.
END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control


Part
03: Contractors Quality Personnel

Page 1

CONTRACTORS QUALITY PERSONNEL ............................................................. 2

3.1
3.1.1
3.1.2
3.1.3
3.1.4
3.1.5
3.1.6
3.1.7
3.1.8

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 2
General
2
Quality Assurance Manager
2
Quality Control Manager
2
Quality Engineer
2
Quality Inspector
3
Personnel Qualifications
3
Quality Staff Requirement
3
Quality Training for Contractors Employees and Labour
5

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QCS 2014

Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control


Part
03: Contractors Quality Personnel

Page 2

CONTRACTORS QUALITY PERSONNEL

3.1

INTRODUCTION

3.1.1

General

Contractor shall, throughout the execution and completion of the Works and the remedying
defects therein have on his staff at the Site office(s) a dedicated Quality Team dealing only
with matters regarding the quality and protection against damage before, during and after
execution of Works as specified in this section. This team shall be qualified and experienced
in their work and shall have the authority to issue instructions and shall take protective
measures to prevent execution of Works that do not comply with the Specifications.

The Contractor shall notify the Engineer in writing prior to re-assigning or replacement of any
of the quality team designated in the Quality Organisation Plan.

The Contractor shall have adequate quality personnel on the site during all production
operations, including adequate coverage during night shift operations and off site work.

The Contractor's quality team shall have the authority to stop any portion of the work which
does not comply with the requirements of the Project Documentation.

Minimum qualifications and experience of the Contractors Quality Personnel shall be as


defined in the Contract.

3.1.2

Quality Assurance Manager

Where required by this section, the Contractor shall designate and assign a full time Quality
Assurance Manager who shall be responsible for overseeing the implementation and
operation of the Project Quality Plan at all levels. The Quality Assurance Manager shall report
directly to Top Tier Management and be independent of the Contractors organisation
responsible for construction.

3.1.3

Quality Control Manager

Where required by this section, the Contractor shall designate and assign a full time Quality
Control Manager who reports directly to the Quality Assurance Manager and shall be
responsible for supervision of the construction quality control management activities and
ensuring compliance with the Contractors Inspection and Test Plans and associated
specification and contract documentation.

3.1.4

Quality Engineer

Where required by this section, the Contractor shall designate and assign a Quality Engineer
who reports directly to the Quality Assurance Manager or Quality Control Manager and shall
be responsible for assisting
them with their day to day responsibilities and may be
assigned to cover several locations or areas of work relating to the Contract. Where a Quality
Assurance Manager or Quality Control Manager are not required by this section the Quality
Engineer shall be assigned all the responsibilities defined in clause 3.1.2, 3.13, and 3.1.7.

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Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control


Part
03: Contractors Quality Personnel

Page 3

Quality Inspector

The Contractor shall designate and assign a Quality Inspector for each shift for each location
where work is being performed. Each Quality Inspector shall be qualified by training and
experience in all the construction or fabrication activities being conducted at the location of
work and is directly responsible for ensuring compliance with the Contractors Inspection and
Test Plans and associated specification and contract documentation.

3.1.6

Personnel Qualifications

The Contractor shall identify activities requiring qualified production, inspection, and test
personnel and establish their minimum competence level.

The Contractor shall maintain records of personnel qualifications as quality records.

3.1.7

Quality Staff Requirement

Unless otherwise specified by the Engineer the Contractor shall employ fulltime qualified
quality personnel for the Work as per below tables.

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3.1.5

No of workers on Worksite

Requirement

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Quality Staff Requirement

1 Quality Inspector (Part time, 15 hours of duty per


week)

Less than 10

2.

More than 11 but less than 50

3.

More than 51 but less than 500

4.

More than 501 but less than 1500

1 Quality Assurance Manager and


1 Quality Engineer per 500 workers and
1 Quality Inspector per 100 workers

More than 1501

1 Quality Assurance Manager and


1 Quality Control Manager and
1 Quality Engineer per 500 workers and
1 Quality Inspector per 100 workers

1 Quality Inspector

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5.

1 Quality Engineer and


1 Quality Inspector per 100 workers

QCS 2014

Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control


Part
03: Contractors Quality Personnel

Page 4

Quality Management and Control staff Qualifications & Experience Matrix


Minimum Qualifications
Required

Position

Minimum Years of
Experience

Minimum Key
Competencies

Degree in relevant
12 years, 5 of which at
Engineering discipline and Management Level and 3
related training in Quality
years Regional experience
Management Techniques.
Internationally recognised
Lead Auditor Certificate

Qualified Professional who


can manage a Quality
Management System and
coordinate specialised
activities. Excellent written
& verbal communication
skills in English

Quality Control
Manager

Degree in relevant
12 years, 5 of which at
Excellent written & verbal
Engineering discipline and Management Level and 3 communication skills in
related training in Quality
years Regional experience English
Management Techniques.
Internationally recognised
Lead Auditor Certificate

Quality Engineer

Degree in relevant
Engineering discipline.
Internationally recognised
Lead Auditor Certificate

Quality Inspector

Certificate or Diploma in
the appropriate
engineering discipline

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Quality
Assurance
Manager

Good written & verbal


communication skills in
English

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10 years experience in
related Quality Control
Activities and 3 years
Regional experience

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5 years experience in
Good written & verbal
related Quality Control and communication skills in
Materials Testing activities English
along with 2 years
Regional Experience

The Contractor shall appoint deputy quality personnel who are capable of performing all the
duties of the quality personnel in the event of their absence.

The Contractor shall appoint support staff in sufficient numbers to ensure the effective
function of the quality related work within the Contractors organisation.

The Contractor shall ensure that every Sub-contractor employed on the Worksite appoints
suitably qualified quality staff to ensure the effective function of the quality related issues
within the Sub-contractors organisation. The Sub-contractor shall appoint and deploy fulltime
on the Worksite one Quality Inspector for every 100 workers that they employ at the
Worksite. Any Sub-contractor that employs more than 100 workers will appoint a Quality
Engineer. This shall be in addition to the Contractors Quality Team.

QCS 2014

Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control


Part
03: Contractors Quality Personnel

Page 5

Quality Training for Contractors Employees and Labour

The Contractor shall conduct quality training including Contract specific induction, pre-work
briefings, skills training, tool box talks and formal training conducted by training professionals
or agencies for all the Contractors employees. The Contract specific induction will be at least
1 hour duration, approved by the Engineer and provided for all persons involved in the
Works. Such induction training will be reviewed, revised and repeated at intervals not
exceeding 12 months throughout the duration of the Work. All training shall be provided in the
languages preferred by the recipients of the training. Training shall focus on improving
competency and skill for those performing activities that impact quality.

The Contractor must conduct regular tool box talks to his Labour workforce Such training
should include as a minimum Health and Safety issues and Construction Method best
practice.

The Owner may organise quality related training, meetings, seminars, workshops or similar
events at any time throughout the Contract Period. The Contractor is required to participate
in such events when requested at his own expense.

The Contractor shall maintain records of all training conducted including details of the training
given and a list of attendees, including attendees signature and ID numbers.

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3.1.8

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END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control


Part
04: Document & Data Control

Page 1

DOCUMENT & DATA CONTROL ............................................................................ 2

4.1
4.1.1
4.1.2
4.1.3

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 2
General
2
Document and Data Approval and Issue
2
Document and Data Changes
2

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Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control


Part
04: Document & Data Control

Page 2

DOCUMENT & DATA CONTROL

4.1

INTRODUCTION

4.1.1

General

The Contractor shall establish and maintain documented procedures to control all documents
and data that relate to the requirements of the Specification. Documents and data can be in
the form of any type of media, such as hard copy or electronic media.

The Contractor shall maintain up to date copies of all industry codes and standards that apply
to the Contract.

4.1.2

Document and Data Approval and Issue

The documents and data shall be reviewed and approved for adequacy by authorised
personnel prior to issue. A master list or equivalent document control procedure identifying
the current revision status of documents shall be established and be readily available to
preclude the use of invalid and/or obsolete documents. This control shall ensure that:

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The pertinent issues of appropriate documents are available at all locations where
operations essential to the effective functioning of the quality system are performed

(b)

Invalid and/or obsolete documents are promptly removed from all points of issue or
use, or otherwise assured against unintended use

(c)

Any obsolete documents retained for legal and/or knowledge preservation purposes
are suitably identified

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(a)

Document and Data Changes

Where practicable, the nature of the change shall be identified in the document or
appropriate attachments.

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4.1.3

END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control


Part
05: Quality Records

Page 1

QUALITY RECORDS..................................................................................... 2

5.1
5.1.1

INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................... 2
General
2

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QCS 2014

Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control


Part
05: Quality Records

Page 2

QUALITY RECORDS

5.1

INTRODUCTION

5.1.1

General

The Contractor shall establish and maintain documented procedures for identification,
collection, indexing, access, filing, storage, maintenance and disposition of quality records.

The Contractor shall supplement these quality records as necessary to monitor quality
throughout the Contract period.

Quality records shall be maintained to demonstrate conformance of materials and equipment


to specified technical requirements and the effective operation of the quality system.

All quality records shall be legible and shall be stored and retained in such a way that they
are readily retrievable in facilities that provide a suitable environment to prevent damage or
deterioration and to prevent loss.

As a minimum, the quality record for any particular item shall include:
name of item

(b)

item number

(c)

item description

(d)

suppliers name

(e)

serial number or other identification (where applicable)

(f)

Specification reference (where applicable)

(g)

verification of receipt of all required supporting documentation

(h)

quantity of items

(i)

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location and installation of item


inspection/test procedure reference

(j)

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(k)

non-conformance number (if applicable)

(l)

Observations / comments.

(m)

Signatures of responsible person

END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control


Part
06: Quality Audits

Page 1

QUALITY AUDITS ................................................................................................... 2

6.1
6.1.1
6.1.2

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2
Contractors Quality Audit
2
Engineers Quality Audit
2

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QCS 2014

Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control


Part
06: Quality Audits

Page 2

QUALITY AUDITS

6.1

GENERAL

6.1.1

Contractors Quality Audit

The Contractor shall establish and maintain documented procedures in line with ISO 190011
for planning and implementing internal quality audits to verify whether quality activities and
related results comply with planned arrangements and to determine the effectiveness of the
quality system.

Internal quality audits shall be scheduled on the basis of the status and importance of the
activity to be audited and shall be carried out by personnel independent of those having direct
responsibility for the activity being audited. Unless otherwise agreed with the Engineer in
writing, the Contractor shall carry out a full system quality audit every three months.

The results of the audits shall be recorded and brought to the attention of the personnel
having responsibility in the area audited. The management personnel responsible for the
area shall take timely corrective action on deficiencies found during the audit.

Follow-up audit activities shall verify and record the implementation and effectiveness the
corrective action taken.

The results of the Contractors quality audits shall be made available for review by the
Engineer. The Contractor shall implement any recommendations made by the Engineer
based on the results of the internal audit.

The Contractor shall allow the Engineer to observe the Contractors internal audit upon
request.

Quality audits must be undertaken by suitably qualified personnel with an internationally


recognized audit qualification to recognized standards.

6.1.2

Engineers Quality Audit

The Engineer may undertake a quality audit of any of the Contractors activities at any time
during the course of the Contract. The Contractor shall make all personnel and facilities
available to the Engineer as necessary to undertake quality audits.

The Engineer shall make the results of his quality audit available to the Contractor for review.
The Contractor shall implement any recommendations made by the Engineer based on the
results of the Engineers quality audit.

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END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control


Part
07: Inspection and Test

Page 1

INSPECTION AND TEST ........................................................................................ 2

7.1
7.1.1
7.1.2
7.1.3
7.1.4
7.1.5
7.1.6
7.1.7

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 2
General
2
Inspections and Tests
2
Inspection and Test Status
3
Inspections by the Engineer during construction
3
Inspections by the Engineer during Defects Liability Period
4
Workmanship
4
Measuring and Test Equipment
4

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QCS 2014

Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control


Part
07: Inspection and Test

Page 2

INSPECTION AND TEST


INTRODUCTION

7.1.1

General

The Contractor shall provide equipment, instruments, qualified personnel, and facilities
necessary to inspect the work and perform the tests required by the Project Documentation.

The Contractor shall repeat tests and inspections after correcting non-conforming work until
all work complies with the requirements. All re-testing and re-inspections shall be performed
at no additional cost to the Client.

The Engineer may elect to perform additional inspections and tests at the place of the
manufacture or the shipping point to verify compliance with applicable Specifications.
Inspections and tests performed by the Engineer shall not relieve the Contractor of his
responsibility to meet the Specifications. Inspections and tests by the Engineer shall not be
considered a guarantee that materials delivered at a later time will be acceptable. All costs
associated with the foregoing shall be borne by the Contractor.

Inspections and tests conducted by persons or agencies other than the Contractor, shall not
in any way relieve the Contractor of his responsibility and obligation to meet all Specifications
and referenced standards.

7.1.2

Inspections and Tests

All inspections and tests shall be conducted in accordance with written test procedures as
detailed in the Project Quality Plan and Inspection and Test Plans that have been reviewed
and approved by the Engineer.

Mandatory Products and Materials Sampling and Testing Frequencies are included in Part
14, Appendix A of this section. The Contractor shall follow the Sampling and Testing
Frequencies stipulated in Appendix A unless otherwise stated in the Contract. The table in
Appendix A shall be read and understood in tandem with the footnotes in Appendix A.

Inspection and test procedures submitted for approval shall include, but not be limited to, the
following:

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7.1

(a)

inspection/test procedure reference

(b)

references to Clauses of this Specification and other standards along with applicable
inspection/test levels specified therein

(c)

prerequisites for the given inspection/test

(d)

required tools, equipment

(e)

necessary environmental conditions

(f)

acceptance criteria

(g)

data to be recorded

(h)

reporting forms

(i)

Identification of items inspected and tested.

(j)

Contractors and Engineers Hold, Witness, Surveillance and Record Review Points

QCS 2014

Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control


Part
07: Inspection and Test

Page 3

Approved procedures and instructions shall be readily available and used by inspection and
test personnel at the time of inspection or test. All revisions to these procedures and
instructions shall be approved prior to being used to inspect or test the work. No deviations
from the approved procedures and instructions shall be allowed without written authorisation
from the Engineer.

Inspection and testing work shall be performed by personnel designated by the Contractor.
Such personnel shall not be the same as those performing the work.

The Contractor shall furnish the Engineer with a signed inspection report for each item of
work inspected and tested. The report shall indicate whether the item of work, material
and/or equipment complies with all the inspection/test criteria. The Contractor shall submit
inspection/test results to the Engineer prior to incorporating the item(s) into the work.
Inspection/test failures shall be reported to the Engineer immediately.

Inspection and test reports shall, as a minimum, identify the following:


inspection/test procedure reference

(b)

name of inspector/tester

(c)

observations/comments

(d)

specified requirements

(e)

acceptability

(f)

deviations/non-conformance

(g)

corrective action

(h)

evaluation of results

(i)

authorised signature

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The Contractor shall clearly document and identify the inspections and test status of
all materials and equipment throughout construction. Identification may be by means of
stamps, tags, or other control devices attached to, or accompanying, the material or
equipment.

7.1.3

Inspection and Test Status

The inspection and test status of materials, equipment and construction work shall be
identified by suitable means, which indicates the conformance or non-conformance of
materials, equipment and construction work with regard to inspection and tests performed.
The identification of inspection and test status shall be maintained, as defined in the Quality
Assurance Plan and/or documented procedures, throughout the course of construction to
ensure that only materials, equipment and construction work that have passed the required
inspections and tests are used or installed.

7.1.4

Inspections by the Engineer during construction

The Contractors Inspection and Test Plans will define Hold, Witness, Surveillance and
Record Review points for the Engineer during construction. The contractor shall prepare,
document and implement a Request for Inspection system that defines how the Engineer will
be given sufficient notice to inspect the works in accordance with the Inspection and Test
Plans.

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QCS 2014

Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control


Part
07: Inspection and Test

Page 4

Inspections by the Engineer during Defects Liability Period

The Engineer will give the Contractor due notice of his intention to carry out any inspections
during the defects liability period.

The Contractor shall arrange for a responsible representative to be present at the times and
dates named by the Engineer.

The Contractors representative shall render all necessary assistance and take note of all
matters to which his attention is directed by the Engineer

7.1.6

Workmanship

The Contractor shall comply with industry standards except when more restrictive tolerances
or specified requirements indicate more rigid standards or more precise workmanship.

Only persons qualified to produce workmanship of the required quality shall perform works

The Contractor shall comply with manufactures published installation instructions / guides in
full, including each step in sequence. Should instructions conflict with project documentation,
the Contractor shall request clarification from the Engineer before proceeding.

7.1.7

Measuring and Test Equipment

The Contractor shall establish and maintain documented procedures which conform to
accepted and approved national or international standards to control, calibrate and maintain
inspection, measuring and test equipment used by the Contractor to demonstrate the
conformance of materials, equipment and/or construction work with the requirements of the
Project Documentation.

Inspection, measuring and test equipment shall be used in a manner which ensures that the
measurement uncertainty is known and is consistent with the required measurement
capability

The Contractor shall establish a unique identification number for each item of measuring and
test equipment. This unique identification number shall be permanently affixed to each item
of measuring and test equipment

The Contractor shall ensure that each item of inspection, measuring and test equipment is
calibrated at intervals recommended by the manufacturer. Valid calibration certificates for
measuring and testing equipment shall be present and available for inspection during
inspections and tests.

The Contractor shall establish a log of all measuring and test equipment and record:

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7.1.5

(a)

equipment description

(b)

identification number

(c)

date of the last calibration

(d)

date that the next calibration is due.

QCS 2014

Page 5

The Contractor shall assess and record the validity of the previous measuring results when
the equipment is subsequently found not to confirm to requirements. The Contractor shall
take appropriate action on the equipment and any product affected.

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END OF PART

Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control


Part
07: Inspection and Test

QCS 2014

Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control


Part
08: Materials

Page 1

MATERIALS .................................................................................................. 2

8.1
8.1.1
8.1.2
8.1.3

GENERAL ...................................................................................................... 2
Plant, Materials, Goods and Workmanship
2
Handling and Storage of Materials
2
Identification and Control of Items and Materials
2

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QCS 2014

Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control


Part
08: Materials

Page 2

MATERIALS

8.1

GENERAL

8.1.1

Plant, Materials, Goods and Workmanship

All Plant, materials, goods and workmanship shall be of the respective kinds described in the
Contract with necessary approvals from the concerned authorities and in accordance with the
Engineer's instructions and shall be subjected from time to time to such tests as the Engineer
may direct at the place of manufacture or fabrication or on the Site or at all or any such
places. The Contractor shall provide such assistance, instruments, machines, labour and
material as are normally required for examining, measuring and testing any work and the
quality, weight or quantity of any materials used and shall supply samples of materials before
incorporation in the Works for testing as may be selected and required by the Engineer.

8.1.2

Handling and Storage of Materials

The Contractor shall establish procedures for handling and storage of materials and
equipment.

The Contractors storage and handling procedures shall be designed to prevent damage,
deterioration, distortion of shape or dimension, loss, degradation, loss of identification, or
substitution.

The handling procedures shall address the use, inspection and maintenance of special
devices such as crates, boxes, containers, dividers, slings, material handling and
transportation equipment and other facilities.

The Contractor shall identify equipment and/or material requiring special handling or storage.

8.1.3

Identification and Control of Items and Materials

The Contractor shall establish control procedures to ensure that equipment and materials are
properly used and installed.

The Contractor shall identify all items and materials so that they are traceable throughout all
inspections, test activities, and records. For stored items, the identification method shall be
consistent with the expected duration and type of storage.

The Contractor shall record equipment and material identifications and ensure that they are
traceable to the location where they are incorporated into the Works.

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END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control


Part
09: Nonconformance Monitoring

Page 1

NONCONFORMANCE MONITORING .................................................................... 2

9.1
9.1.1
9.1.2
9.1.3
9.1.4
9.1.5
9.1.6

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 2
General
2
Review and Disposition of Nonconforming Items
2
Corrective Action
3
Identification of Nonconforming Items
3
Acceptance and Approval of Nonconforming items
4
Nonconformance Records
4

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QCS 2014

Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control


Part
09: Nonconformance Monitoring

Page 2

NONCONFORMANCE MONITORING

9.1

INTRODUCTION

9.1.1

General

The Contractor shall ensure that product which does not conform to Specification
requirements is identified and controlled to prevent its unintended use or delivery. A
documented procedure shall be established to define the controls and relate responsibilities
and authorities for dealing with nonconforming product:
by taking action to estimate the detected nonconformity

(b)

by authorizing its use, release or acceptance under concession by the Engineer

(c)

by taking action to preclude its original intended use or application

(d)

by taking action appropriate to the effects, or potential effects, of the nonconformity


when nonconformity product is detected after delivery or use has started .

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(a)

When Conforming product is corrected it shall be subject to re-verification to demonstrate


conformity to requirements.

Records of the nature of nonconformities and any subsequent actions taken, including
concessions obtained by the engineer, shall be maintained.

The monitoring system shall apply to material and equipment as well as installation and
construction which fail to conform to the Contract.

A Contractors Quality Nonconformance Template is included in Part 15 Appendix B of this


Section and must be used for recording Nonconformance.

9.1.2

Review and Disposition of Nonconforming Items

The responsibility for review and authority for the disposition of nonconforming items shall be
defined in the Quality Plan.

Nonconforming items shall be reviewed in accordance with documented procedures. A


nonconforming item may be:

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(a)

reworked to meet the specified requirements

(b)

accepted with or without repair if agreed in writing by the Engineer

(c)

re-graded for alternative applications

(d)

rejected or scrapped.

The proposed use or repair of an item which does not conform to the requirements of the
Project Documentation shall be reported to the Engineer.
The description of the
nonconformity and of repairs shall be recorded to denote the actual condition.

Repaired and/or reworked products shall be inspected in accordance with the Quality
Assurance Plan and/or documented procedures

QCS 2014

Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control


Part
09: Nonconformance Monitoring

Page 3

9.1.3

Corrective Action

The Contractor shall take action to eliminate the causes of nonconformities in order to
prevent recurrence. Corrective actions shall be appropriate to the effects of the
nonconformity encountered.
A documented procedure shall be established to define requirements for:
Reviewing nonconformities (including Engineer complaints)

(b)

Determining the causes of nonconformities

(c)

Evaluating the need for action to ensure that conformities do not occur

(d)

Determining and implementing actions needed

(e)

Records of the results of action taken and

(f)

Reviewing the effectiveness of the corrective action taken

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(a)

Any corrective or preventive action taken to eliminate the causes of actual or potential
nonconformities shall be to a degree appropriate to the magnitude of problems and
commensurate with the risks encountered.

The Contractor shall implement and record any changes to the documented procedures for
implementing corrective and preventive action.

The Contractor shall take prompt action to identify the causes of each nonconformance and
the corrective action necessary prevent recurrence. The results of failure and discrepancy
report summaries, Contractor evaluations, and any other pertinent applicable data shall be
used for determining corrective action. Information developed during construction, tests, and
inspections that support the implementation of required improvements and corrections shall
be used to support the adequacy of corrective action taken.

The procedures for preventive action shall include:

determination of the steps needed to deal with any problems requiring preventive
action

(b)

the use of appropriate sources of information such as processes and work operations
which affect product quality, concessions, audit results, quality records and service
reports to detect, analyse and eliminate potential causes of nonconformities

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(c)

initiation of preventive action and application of controls to ensure that it is effective

(d)

ensuring that relevant information on actions taken is submitted for management


review

9.1.4

Identification of Nonconforming Items

The Contractor shall clearly identify each nonconforming item with a status tag or other
distinguishing mark. The Contractor shall establish procedures for installing, monitoring, and
removing these status tags and identify personnel authorised to remove status tags.

QCS 2014

Section 02: Quality Assurance and Quality Control


Part
09: Nonconformance Monitoring

Page 4

9.1.5

Acceptance and Approval of Nonconforming items

Acceptance of the Contractors proposed disposition of Nonconforming items should be his


obtained in writing from the Engineer prior to the undertaking of any remedial works by the
his Contractor.

Close out of Nonconforming items must be agreed in writing by the Engineer.

9.1.6

Nonconformance Records

The Contractor shall provide the Engineer with the following information for each
nonconformance:

(b)

description of nonconformance

(c)

evaluation of nonconformance to establish the cause

(d)

recommended corrective action

(e)

date nonconformance was identified

(f)

date corrective action was completed

(g)

description of final corrective action.

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identification of nonconformance

unique sequential reference number

(b)

date issued

(c)

originator

(d)

description of item deemed to be in nonconformance

(e)

description of nonconformance

(f)
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The Contractor shall establish and maintain a nonconformance log. The log shall contain the
following information as a minimum:

Contractors recommended and final disposition


Engineers acceptance of Contractors recommended and final disposition

(a)

(h)

date closed

(i)

remarks, as applicable

END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation


Part
01: General

Page 1

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2

1.1
1.1.1
1.1.2
1.1.3

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 2
Scope
2
References
2
Definitions
2

1.2
1.2.1
1.2.2
1.2.3
1.2.4
1.2.5
1.2.6
1.2.7

SUBMITTALS .......................................................................................................... 3
Programme of Works
3
Preliminary Logs
3
Exploratory Hole Logs
4
Preliminary Laboratory Test Results
5
Digital Data
5
Form of Report
5
Approval of Report
6

1.3

QUALITY ASSURANCE .......................................................................................... 6

1.4
1.4.1
1.4.2
1.4.3
1.4.4
1.4.5
1.4.6
1.4.7
1.4.8
1.4.9
1.4.10
1.4.11
1.4.12
1.4.13
1.4.14
1.4.15
1.4.16

GENERAL PROJECT/SITE CONDITIONS .............................................................. 7


General
7
Working Areas
7
Turf and Topsoil
7
Paved Areas
7
Paving Slabs and Blocks
7
Claims for Damage
8
Geotechnical and Environmental Personnel
8
Location of Exploratory Holes
8
Ground Elevation of Exploratory Holes
8
Exploratory Work
8
Methods of Investigation
8
Safety and Management
9
Anomalous Conditions
9
Surface Water Control
9
Photographs
9
Facilities for the Engineer
10

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QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation


Part
01: General

Page 2

GENERAL

1.1

INTRODUCTION

1.1.1

Scope

General requirements and information for the execution of ground investigations.

Related Sections are as follows:

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Section 1 ......... General


Section 2 ......... Quality Assurance and Quality Control
Section 4 ......... Foundations and Retaining Structures
Section 6 ......... Roadworks
Section 8 ......... Drainage Works
Section 12 ....... Earthworks Related to Buildings
References

The following standards and other documents are referred to in this Part:

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1.1.2

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BS 5930......................Code of practice for site investigations


BS EN 1997................Ground Investigation and testing

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ASTM D 420 ...............Site Characterization for Engineering, Design, and Construction


Purposes

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ASTM D 2488 .............Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)

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Deere D. U. et al., Design of surface and near-surface construction in rock. Proc. 8th US
symposium on rock mechanics. AIME, New York, 1967

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Code of Practice and Specifications for Road Openings in the Highway issued by the
Government.
Definitions

Topsoil: the surface layer of earth that contains organic material and can also support
vegetation.

Soil: earthen material not classified herein as topsoil or hard stratum.

Hard stratum and obstruction: The words 'hard stratum' and 'obstruction' shall mean
natural or artificial material, including rock, which cannot be penetrated except by the use of
chiselling techniques, rotary drilling, blasting or powered breaking tools. The term 'hard
stratum' shall apply during boring, where it is shown that condition (1) or condition (2) below
are fulfilled, provided that the boring rig involved is in good working order and is fully manned:

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1.1.3

(a)

Condition (1) 100 mm diameter undisturbed sample tubes cannot be driven more
than 300 mm

(b)

Condition (2) a standard penetration resistance test shows a resistance in excess


of 35 blows/75 mm.

QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation


Part
01: General

Page 3

Fill: deposits or embankments which have been formed by persons, as distinct from
geological agencies.

Exploratory Hole/Trench/Excavation: any boring, pit trench, ditch or shaft formed for the
purpose of ground investigation.

Boring: hole in earth, excavated by either percussion or auger equipment.

Drilling: any hole in rock, excavated by rotary equipment.

Borehole: exploratory hole excavated by boring or drilling techniques.

1.2

SUBMITTALS

1.2.1

Programme of Works

The Geotechnical Investigation Contractor shall prepare a programme of works for the
investigation which will give a detailed schedule showing proposed time schedule for all
aspect of the work, details of all plant and equipment to be used in addition to a list of
personnel who will work on the project.

1.2.2

Preliminary Logs

The Geotechnical Investigation Contractor shall prepare a preliminary log of each exploratory
hole. For trial pits and trenches, a trial pit or trench map showing each face of the pit or
trench shall be provided, as appropriate. Preliminary logs shall be submitted to the Engineer
in duplicate within seven working days of completion of the explorations to which they refer
to, and shall contain the information required for the exploratory hole logs.

Geotechnical Investigation Contractor activities shall fully comply with Ministry of Environment
(MOE) requirements and/or those of other Government Departments, Ministries and
Statutory Organizations.

The Geotechnical Investigation Contractor shall obtain all necessary work permits and
security permits prior to commencement of Geotechnical investigation of the site.

The investigation shall provide detailed information on the nature of the sub-strata, superficial
deposits and ground water table at the site together with general recommendations for
designing foundations and earthworks, new road pavements, culverts, retaining walls, etc.

The geotechnical investigation Exploratory Boreholes shall be spaced as mentioned in


Section 2.

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QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation


Part
01: General

Page 4

The geotechnical investigation Exploratory Boreholes depths shall be as mentioned in Table


1.1.
Table 1.1: Minimum Depth of Boreholes
No of floors

Depth of Boreholes (m)

3 or Less

10

12

13
0.7

3S

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>8

2m below the inverted level;


1.5width of excavation.
2D (D=Diameter or equivalent diameter of the tunnel/underground structure.

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For trenches, pipeline and Tunnels, the depth of Boreholes shall be the larger value of:

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Notes:
The depth of boreholes is measured from foundation level.
S is the number of floors.
For structures small in plan area, exploration should be made at a minimum of three points,
unless other reliable information is available in the immediate vicinity. Where a structure
consists of a number of adjacent units, one exploration point per unit may suffice.
For piles the depth of Boreholes is at least below the depth of pile tip by 5m or 5D (D is the
diameter of the pile at the toe) whichever is greater.
For roads, the depth of Boreholes shall be greater than 2m below the proposed formation
Level.

Exploratory Hole Logs

The exploratory hole logs shall be prepared and presented to a suitable vertical scale. The
logs shall include all the information that follows, such information having been updated as
necessary in the light of laboratory testing and further examination of samples and cores.

Information for exploratory hole logs:

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1.2.3

Drilling

Pit and
Trench

Static
and
Dynamic
Probing

National grid co-ordinates

Ground level related to the datum

Elevation of each stratum referred to the datum

()

Rotary
Borehole

All the designated information

QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation


Part
01: General

Page 5

Drilling

Pit and
Trench

Static
and
Dynamic
Probing

()

Details of groundwater observations

()

Symbolic legend of strata in accordance with BS


5930

()

Rotary
Borehole
Description of each stratum in accordance with BS
5930 and initials of person who carried out the
logging (and responsible Supervisor if under
training)

Core recovery as percentage of each core run

Rock Quality Designation, RQD (Deere et al. 1967)

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_____
Note: means information required; () means information required if applicable.
Preliminary Laboratory Test Results

Laboratory test results shall be submitted to the Engineer in batches at the completion of
each week's testing. Legible photocopies of work sheets are acceptable.

1.2.5

Digital Data

Data from the investigation shall be provided in digital form to the approval of the Engineer.

1.2.6

Form of Report

The report shall comprise of a factual or interpretative or both types of reports as required by
the Employer or Engineer. Reports shall begin with a cover page showing the name of the
Contract and the names of the Employer, Engineer and Geotechnical Investigation
Contractor. Report pages shall be numbered consecutively.

The factual report shall contain, as a minimum, the following information:


A statement from the Engineer on the purpose and rationale of the investigation.

(a)

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1.2.4

(b)

A description of the work carried out, including reference to specification and


standards adopted and any deviations from them.

(c)

Exploratory hole logs.

(d)

In-situ test records.

(e)

Laboratory test results.

(f)

Plan with locations of exploratory holes.

(g)

Site location plan.

(h)

Geological cross-sections (if appropriate).

The plans shall be to a stated scale and shall include a north arrow. Additional information
shall be provided as designated.

QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation


Part
01: General

Page 6

The interpretative report shall contain the following information:


(a)

A written appraisal of the ground and water conditions.

(b)

Analysis and recommendations as designated.

When so designated, the Geotechnical Investigation Contractor shall supply the calculations
and analyses on which recommendations are based.
Approval of Report

A draft copy of the factual report and the interpretative report shall be submitted to the
Engineer for approval before submission of the final report.

1.3

QUALITY ASSURANCE

Only Geotechnical Investigation Contractors holding a current approval certificate from the
Central Materials Laboratory shall be permitted to carry out ground investigations.

The work shall be carried out in accordance with the relevant British Standards or equivalent.

Where specifically designated, all work shall be carried out in accordance with a quality
management system established in accordance with Section 2 Quality Assurance and Quality
Control of the QCS. Records to indicate compliance with quality management shall be made
available to the Engineer on request.

The Geotechnical Investigation Contractor shall provide full time professional attendance on
site. The professional attendant shall be approved by the Engineer, and shall be responsible
for the technical direction of all fieldwork.

The Geotechnical Investigation Contractors geotechnical and environmental personnel


employed on the Contract shall be competent to undertake the work required. Categories of
personnel who may be required by the Contract are as follows:

(b)

Graduate Engineer/Geologist/Environmental Scientist.


Graduate Engineer/Geologist/Environmental Scientist with at least three years of

(c)

Technician.

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1.2.7

relevant experience since graduation.

(d)

Professional Engineer/Geologist/Environmental Scientist with at least five years of


relevant experience.

(e)

Professional Engineer/Geologist/Environmental Specialist with at least ten years of


relevant experience.

All drillers employed on the Contract shall be experienced and competent in percussion or
auger boring or rotary drilling, to the complete satisfaction of the Engineer. One competent
drilling supervisor per site shall be permanently on the Site during borehole operations.

QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation


Part
01: General

Page 7

GENERAL PROJECT/SITE CONDITIONS

1.4.1

General

Geotechnical Investigation Contractor shall only use access routes to and between
exploration sites that are approved by the Engineer.

Where the presence of underground services is likely, exploratory holes shall be started by
means of a hand excavated inspection pit.

In addition to any designated notice, at least one working day's notice of the intended time of
entry shall be given to the land owner and occupier of the exploration site.

All work shall be carried out with the least possible damage to the Site and its environs.

All barriers breached or otherwise disturbed during the execution of site operations shall be
immediately repaired or replaced to the same standard.

Working hours shall be restricted to those designated.

Daily allocation sheets detailing the work carried out shall be submitted in duplicate at the
end of each days work.

1.4.2

Working Areas

Operations shall be confined to the minimum area of ground required for the Works. Unless
otherwise designated, on completion of each exploration all equipment, surplus material and
rubbish of every kind shall be cleared away and removed from the Site. Damage to land or
property in the vicinity of the exploratory hole and on access routes shall be made good. The
whole of the Site and any ancillary works shall be left in a clean and tidy condition.

1.4.3

Turf and Topsoil

Turf and topsoil shall be stripped from the site of each exploration and stockpiled for future
replacement. Vegetation and topsoil adjacent to the exploration which may be damaged by
the operations shall either be removed and stockpiled as above, or otherwise protected from
damage. After completion of the exploration all topsoil shall be replaced and the Site
restored to its original condition.

1.4.4

Paved Areas

Pavement from paved areas (other than paving slabs and blocks) shall be broken out to the
minimum extent necessary for each exploration. After completion of the exploration and
backfill of the excavation, the disturbed subgrade shall be compacted and the paving
replaced.

Restoration of highway pavement shall be in accordance with the current Code of Practice
and Specification for Road Openings in the Highway issued by the Government.

1.4.5

Paving Slabs and Blocks

Paving slabs and blocks shall be removed from the Site, as required for each exploration,
and stored for reuse.

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1.4

QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation


Part
01: General

Page 8

Contiguous paving slabs and blocks which are liable to be damaged by the operations shall
either be removed and stored as above or otherwise protected from damage.

After completion of the exploration and backfill of the excavation, the disturbed subgrade
shall be compacted and the paving slabs and blocks relayed.

1.4.6

Claims for Damage

Any damage, or claim for compensation for damage by owners or occupiers of the Site, shall
be reported to the Engineer.

1.4.7

Geotechnical and Environmental Personnel

In addition to the provision of the designated personnel by the Geotechnical Investigation


Contractor, the Engineer may specifically require the services of geotechnical and
environmental personnel for advice, assistance or preparation of interpretative reports. The
form of interpretative reports shall be agreed with the Engineer. Details of the qualifications
and experience of the personnel shall be supplied to the Engineer.

1.4.8

Location of Exploratory Holes

The location of each exploratory hole shall be measured from an approved grid co-ordinate
system, and shall be accurate to within 1 m, and the position recorded on a plan as

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designated.

Ground Elevation of Exploratory Holes

The elevation of the ground at each exploratory hole shall be established, on the basis of the
Qatar National Datum unless otherwise designated or approved by the Engineer, to the
nearest 0.05 m.

1.4.10

Exploratory Work

The location and depth of each exploratory hole shall be as designated. The Engineer may,
after consultation with the Geotechnical Investigation Contractor, vary the location and depth
of any exploratory hole and the sequence or quantity of in-situ testing depending on the
actual ground conditions encountered. When the position of an exploratory hole has been
varied, the Geotechnical Investigation Contractor shall take all necessary measurements and
shall inform the Engineer of the revised co-ordinates and ground elevation or other
measurements required to locate the exploratory hole.

1.4.11

Methods of Investigation

The Engineer will have the option to require any of the following methods of investigation.
These options will comprise, but not necessarily be limited to, the following:

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1.4.9

(a)

Desk study.

(b)

Geological mapping.

(c)

Topographic survey.

(d)

Aerial photographs.

or any other methods described in this Section.

QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation


Part
01: General

Page 9

Safety and Management

The Geotechnical Investigation Contractor shall submit detailed Job Hazard Analysis (JHA)
to all site activities including but not limited to potential hazard, who/what might be harmed,
control/ recovery measure, responsible personetc.

The presence and nature of known areas of hazardous or contaminated ground are
designated, based on available records. If evidence of further hazardous or contaminated
ground is encountered, the Geotechnical Investigation Contractor shall immediately so inform
the Engineer. If required by the Engineer, the Geotechnical Investigation Contractors work
plan shall be revised appropriately to take into account the nature and level of contamination
encountered. Where contaminated land is present or suspected the Geotechnical
Investigation Contractor shall take the appropriate health and safety precautions as directed
by the Engineer and where appropriate by the Civil Defence Department of the Government.
Care shall be taken to avoid contaminating the egress from the Site.

A method statement indicating the safety procedures to be followed during the investigation
of hazardous or contaminated ground shall be provided by the Geotechnical Investigation
Contractor before beginning the investigation in the hazardous or contaminated ground.

Traffic safety and management measures shall be provided, in accordance with the
provisions of traffic control of Section 1, General. Where the circumstances of any particular
case are not designated, proposals for dealing with such situations shall be submitted to the
Engineer for approval.

1.4.13

Anomalous Conditions

Where anomalous or unexpected features are revealed, the Geotechnical Investigation


Contractor shall immediately inform the Engineer.

1.4.14

Surface Water Control

Surface water or other water shall be prevented from entering the exploratory hole, except as
permitted by the Engineer.

1.4.15

Photographs

Colour photographs shall be taken and supplied by the Geotechnical Investigation Contractor
as designated. Each photograph shall clearly show all necessary details, and shall have its
scale identified.

A single gloss colour print (size 150 mm by 100 mm) copy of each photograph shall be
submitted to the Engineer for his approval, within seven working days of the photography. In
the event that the photographs are of a quality unacceptable to the Engineer, they shall be
retaken.

On acceptance of the quality of the photograph, two complete sets of prints of all the
photographs shall be presented, annotated and submitted in bound volumes, together with
the original photograph digital format with the factual report.

Particular requirements for photographs of cores and pits and trenches are given in Parts 3
and 4

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1.4.12

QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation


Part
01: General

Page 10

1.4.16

Facilities for the Engineer

When required by the particular contract documentation, facilities to the designated standard
shall be provided for the use of the Engineer, as described in Section 1.

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END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation


Part
02: Boreholes

Page 1

BOREHOLES .......................................................................................................... 2

2.1
2.1.1
2.1.2

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2
Scope
2
References
2

2.2
2.2.1
2.2.2
2.2.3

BOREHOLES GENERALLY .................................................................................... 2


Method and Diameter
2
Addition of Water to the Borehole
3
Backfilling
3

2.3
2.3.1

PERCUSSION BORING .......................................................................................... 3


Hard Stratum or Obstruction in Percussion Boring
3

2.4
2.4.1
2.4.2
2.4.3

AUGER BORING ..................................................................................................... 3


Hand Auger
3
Continuous Flight Auger Boring
3
Hollow Stem Flight Auger
3

2.5
2.5.1
2.5.2
2.5.3
2.5.4
2.5.5
2.5.6

ROTARY DRILLING ................................................................................................ 3


General
3
Drilling Fluid
4
Rotary Drilling with Core Recovery
4
Rotary Drilling without Core Recovery
6
Backfilling
6
Photographs
6

2.6

BOREHOLES OVERWATER .................................................................................. 6

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QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation


Part
02: Boreholes

Page 2

BOREHOLES

2.1

GENERAL

2.1.1

Scope

Advancement of boreholes by percussion boring, auger boring, and rotary drilling.

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:


This Section

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Section 4, ........ Foundations and Retaining Structures


Section 6, ........ Roadworks
Section 8, ........ Drainage Works
Section 12, ...... Earthworks Related to Buildings

Part 1 ............... General

References

The following standards and other documents are referred to in this Part:

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BS 5930 ......................Code of practice for site investigations.

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BS EN 1997 ................Ground Investigation and testing

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ASTM D 420 ...............Site Characterization for Engineering, Design, and Construction


Purposes
ASTM D 2488 .............Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)

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Engineering Group of the Geological Society Working Party Report The logging of rock cores
for engineering purposes (1970).

BOREHOLES GENERALLY

2.2.1

Method and Diameter

The method of advancement and the diameter of a borehole shall be such that the boring
can be completed and logged to the designated depth, and samples of the designated
diameter can be obtained, in-situ testing carried out and instrumentation installed.

The following methods may be employed for advancement of a borehole unless otherwise
designated:

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2.2

(a)

Percussion boring.

(b)

Auger boring (If hollow stem augering is proposed, the Contractor shall satisfy the
Employer that the SPT values obtained are not effected by disturbance of the soil by
the auger head, or the presence of material within the hollow stem.).

(c)

Rotary drilling.

QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation


Part
02: Boreholes

Page 3

Addition of Water to the Borehole

Jetting with water shall not be used to assist the advance of the borehole, except where
approved by the Engineer. Where the borehole penetrates below the water table and
disturbance of the soils is likely, a positive hydraulic head shall be maintained in the borehole.

2.2.3

Backfilling

The Contractor shall backfill boreholes in such a manner as to minimise subsequent


depression at the ground surface due to settlement of the backfill. In some circumstances,
grout or special infilling may be required by the Engineer. Where artesian or other water
conditions make normal backfilling impracticable, the Contractor shall consult and agree with
the Engineer a procedure for sealing the borehole.

2.3

PERCUSSION BORING

2.3.1

Hard Stratum or Obstruction in Percussion Boring

In a borehole where percussion boring is employed and a hard stratum or obstruction is


encountered, the Contractor shall employ chiselling techniques for a period of up to 1 h.

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2.2.2

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Should this not penetrate through the hard stratum or obstruction the Contractor shall inform
the Engineer, who may instruct the use of one or more of the following:
continuation of chiselling techniques

(b)

rotary or other approved drilling until the stratum is penetrated

(c)

abandonment of the borehole.

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(a)

AUGER BORING

2.4.1

Hand Auger

Hand auger boring may be appropriate in suitable self-supporting strata.

2.4.2

Continuous Flight Auger Boring

Where continuous flight auger boring is used, it shall be carried out under the full-time
supervision of a person meeting the requirements of Part 1 Clause 1.5 Paragraph 5 Item (c)
who shall produce, as boring proceeds, a record of the material and groundwater
encountered.

2.4.3

Hollow Stem Flight Auger

Where hollow stem flight auger boring is used, the equipment used shall be such as to bore
and recover samples as designated. Sampling shall be carried out through the hollow stem.

2.5

ROTARY DRILLING

2.5.1

General

Rotary drilling may be required for the recovery of cores, or for the advancement of a hole in
rock, with or without core recovery.

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QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation


Part
02: Boreholes

Page 4

Drilling Fluid

The drilling fluid shall normally be clean water, air or air mist. However, with the approval of
the Engineer, drilling muds, additives or foam may be used.

2.5.3

Rotary Drilling with Core Recovery

Unless otherwise designated rotary core drilling shall be carried out by a double or triple tube
coring system incorporating a removable inner liner or split tube. The triple tube system may
be affected by use of a double tube barrel with an approved semi-rigid liner.

Rotary core drilling shall produce cores of not less than the designated diameter throughout
the core length. Care shall be exercised in the drilling so as to optimise core recovery.

The first drill run in each hole shall not exceed 1 m in length. Subsequent drill runs shall not

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2.5.2

normally exceed 3 m in length and the core barrel shall be removed from the drill hole as

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Removal of cores and labelling of liners shall be carried out as follows:


All operations entailed in recovering the cores from the ground after completion of
drilling shall be carried out in a manner such as to minimise disturbance to the cores.

(b)

Core barrels or inner tube in case of wireline shall be held horizontally while the
innermost liner containing the core is removed without vibration and in a manner to
prevent disturbance to the core. The core should be rigidly supported at all times while
it is being extruded and during subsequent handling, and the liner containing the core
must not be allowed to flex

(c)

Immediately after removing the liner the top and bottom shall be marked in indelible
ink. The ends of liners shall be capped and sealed using adhesive tape. Liners shall

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often as is required to obtain the best possible core recovery or alternatively the core
samples shall be retrieved by means of wireline. The Engineer may designate in-situ testing
between drill runs.

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be cut to the length of the enclosed core. Alternatively, should a metallic split tube be
used, the samples shall be placed in half cut PVC pipes sealed with the second half
after core samples description with marking of the core run on the PVC tube and the
core box.

(d)

Where the length of core recovered from any single core run is such that it cannot be
accommodated in one channel of the core box, the liner shall be cut to coincide, if
possible, with existing fractures. The liner either side of the cut shall be marked 'cut'
and the ends capped as above.

(e)

Each section of liner shall be marked with the contract title, exploratory hole reference
number, date and the depths of the top and bottom of the drill run.

(f)

Core obtained without a liner and that from within the core catcher but not inside the
liner shall be wrapped in two layers of plastic cling film and labelled to indicate the
depth and exploratory hole reference number.

Core boxes, packing, labelling, storing shall be carried out as follows:


(a)

Core boxes shall be soundly constructed and fitted with stout carrying handles,
fastenings and hinged lids. The total weight of the cores and box shall together not
exceed 60 kg.

QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation


Part
02: Boreholes

Page 5

Cores shall be rigidly and securely packed at the site of drilling and during all
subsequent handling and storage the cores shall remain packed unless required for
examination or testing. Cores shall be placed in the box, in their liners where used,
with the shallowest core to the top left hand corner, the top being considered adjacent
to the hinged section. Cores from the core catcher shall also be placed in the core
boxes at the correct relative depth.

(c)

Depth shall be indicated on the core box by durable markers at the beginning and end
of each drill run. Rigid core spacers shall be used to indicate missing lengths. The
contract title, exploratory hole reference number and the depth of coring contained in
each bore shall be clearly indicated in indelible ink inside, on top and on the right-hand
end of the box and on the inside of the box lid.

(d)

Core boxes containing core shall be kept horizontal and moved and handled with care
at all times. Cores shall be protected from direct sunlight. At the end of each day's
work, core boxes shall be stored secure from interference and protected from the
weather.

Cores shall be prepared for examination as follows:


(a)

Cores shall be prepared for examination by the removal of sealing materials and
splitting of liners in such a way as not to damage the cores. Plastic liners shall be cut
lengthways such that at least half the core circumference is exposed. If half PVC is
used, care should be taken while removing and replacing the split half.

(b)

Before examination of the core, the Contractor shall photograph the cores. The time
between beginning preparation and the examination of the prepared and photographed
cores shall be minimised to prevent loss of moisture from the core samples.

(c)

Cores shall be examined and described on site by a person meeting the requirements
of Part 1 Clause 1.5 Paragraph 5 Item (c) in accordance with BS 5930 or ASTM D
2488 and the recommendations of the Engineering Group of the Geological Society
Working Party Report The logging of rock cores for engineering purpose (1970).

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(b)

When the examination of the cores has been completed, the Contractor may be required to
retain separately designated core sub-samples for possible laboratory testing. The Contractor
shall cut the liner and cap and seal the core sub-samples in such a way as to prevent loss of
moisture and sample disturbance. They shall be clearly labelled so that the location, depth
and origin of the sub-samples can be readily identified. Cores in their liners remaining after
the designated sub-samples have been removed shall be end-capped and resealed and
replaced in the original core box location. Rigid spacers shall be placed in the spaces in the
cores boxes previously occupied by the core sub-samples to prevent movement of adjacent
cores and these shall be labelled identically to the core sub-samples that they replace. The
core sub-samples shall be retained in separate core boxes clearly marked to indicate the
origin of the cores contained within.

The Contractor shall protect all cores and transport them including loading and unloading to

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(a)

The Contractor's premises.

(b)

For a number of selected cores, to the designated address.

After submittal of the approved final report, the Contractor shall retain cores, other than those
delivered to the designated address, for a period of time required by the Engineer. The
Engineer's written permission shall be obtained before disposal of the cores, but the required
retention period will normally not exceed three months.

QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation


Part
02: Boreholes

Page 6

2.5.4

Rotary Drilling without Core Recovery

Rotary blind bit or rotary percussive drilling may be used to advance a hole. The hole
diameter shall be as designated.

When used for the purpose of locating mineral seams, mineworkings, adits, shafts, other
cavities or anomalous conditions, drilling shall be under the full-time supervision of a person
meeting the requirements of Part 1 Clause 1.5 Paragraph 5 Item (c). As drilling proceeds a
systematic record shall be made of the drilling methods, rate of penetration, loss of flushing
medium, the material penetrated and any cavities or broken ground encountered.
Backfilling

Except where otherwise designated, the Contractor shall backfill rotary drill holes with clean,
well graded aggregate. The aggregate size and gradation shall be approved by the Engineer.
Under special circumstances grout may be required to backfill the holes. The grout shall
consist of equal portions by weight of ordinary Portland cement and bentonite mixed by
machine or hand to a uniform colour and consistency before placing, with a moisture content
not greater than 250 %. The grout shall be introduced at the bottom of the hole by means of

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2.5.5

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a tremie pipe, which shall be raised but kept below the grout surface as the filling proceeds.
Where artesian water conditions or voids make normal grouting impracticable, the Contractor
shall consult and agree with the Engineer a procedure for sealing the drill hole.

2.5.6

Photographs

In addition to the requirements of Part 1, the Contractor shall photograph cores where
required in a fresh condition before logging and ensure that the following criteria are fulfilled:

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A graduated scale in centimetres is provided.

(b)

Labels and markers are clearly legible in the photograph.

(c)

A clearly legible reference board identifying the project title, exploratory hole number,
date, and depth of drill runs shall be included in each photograph.

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Core boxes are evenly and consistently lit.

(d)

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(a)

(e)

The length of the core box in each photograph fills the frame.

(f)

The focal plane of the camera and the plane of the core box are parallel.

(g)

The camera is placed in the same position with respect to the core box in every
photograph.

(h)

The resolution of the camera is not less than 8Mpixels.

(i)

The photograph taken should be in focus along all the core samples length.

2.6

BOREHOLES OVERWATER

When boreholes are required overwater the method of drilling and sampling shall comply in
general with the other requirements given in this Section, with the exception of backfilling.

Overwater boreholes shall be undertaken by the use of overwater staging, work over platform
(WOP) jack-up vessels, anchored floating vessels or any other methods agreed with the
Engineer.

QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation


Part
02: Boreholes

Page 7

Control of the elevation related to the borehole/seabed surface or varying stratums shall be
related to the top of the casing installed. Anchored floating vessels will keep a constant
record of tidal movement between the vessel and the fixed casing elevation and make any
allowances necessary.

Boring or drilling operations will cease when the wave height exceeds the designated
maximum value relating to standing time due to inclement weather, if this item is applicable
to the Contract under the contract specific documentation.

An accurate method of measuring wave height from trough to crest will be installed on the
drilling vessel or platform and calibrated and approved by the Engineer before beginning
drilling operations.

All overwater operations will comply with all local government regulations related to such
work and will also comply fully with any Safety of Lives at Sea (SOLAS) regulations in force at
the time.

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END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation


Part
03: Pits and Trenches

Page 1

PITS AND TRENCHES ........................................................................................... 2

3.1
3.1.1
3.1.2
3.1.3

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2
Scope
2
References
2
Quality Assurance
2

3.2
3.2.1
3.2.2
3.2.3
3.2.4
3.2.5
3.2.6

PITS AND TRENCHES GENERALLY ..................................................................... 2


Pit and Trench Dimensions
2
Contaminated Ground
2
Groundwater
3
Protection to Pits and Trenches Left Open
3
Backfilling and Restoration
3
Photographs
3

3.3
3.3.1
3.3.2
3.3.3

INSPECTION PITS .................................................................................................. 3


Excavation Method
3
Services
3
Sidewall Stability
4

3.4
3.4.1
3.4.2
3.4.3
3.4.4

TRIAL PITS AND TRENCHES ................................................................................ 4


Excavation Method
4
Services
4
Sidewall Stability
4
Trial Pits Examination
4

3.5
3.5.1
3.5.2
3.5.3

OBSERVATION PITS AND TRENCHES ................................................................. 4


Excavation Method
4
Services
5
Sidewall Stability
5

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QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation


Part
03: Pits and Trenches

Page 2

PITS AND TRENCHES

3.1

GENERAL

3.1.1

Scope

Inspection pits, trial pits and trenches, observation pits and trenches.

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:


This Section

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Section 1, ....... General


Section 4, ....... Foundations and Retaining Structures
Section 6, ....... Roadworks
Section 8, ....... Drainage Works
Section 12, ..... Earthworks Related to Buildings.

Part 1, .............. General

References

The following standards and other documents are referred to in this Part:

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3.1.2

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BS 5930 ...................... Code of practice for site investigations

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BS EN 1997 ................Ground Investigation and testing

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ASTM D 420 ...............Site Characterization for Engineering, Design, and Construction


Purposes

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ASTM D 2488 .............Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)

Code of Practice and Specifications for Road Openings in the Highway issued by the
Government.
Quality Assurance

Trial pits and trenches and observation pits and trenches shall be examined and described
by a geotechnical person meeting the requirements of Part 1 Clause 1.5 Paragraph 5 Item
(c) and photographed, if required.

3.2

PITS AND TRENCHES GENERALLY

3.2.1

Pit and Trench Dimensions

Unless otherwise designated

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3.1.3

2.

(a)

Trial pits and observation pits shall have a minimum base area of 1.5 m

(b)

Trial trenches and observation trenches shall not be less than 1 m wide.

3.2.2

Contaminated Ground

Ground that is suspected of being contaminated shall be described by an environmental or


geotechnical person, as appropriate, meeting the requirements of Part 1 Clause 1.5
Paragraph 5 Item (c).

QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation


Part
03: Pits and Trenches

Page 3

Groundwater

The Contractor shall divert surface water runoff from entering pits and trenches.

Groundwater shall be controlled by the use of wellpoints or sump pumps to permit continuous
work if required.

3.2.4

Protection to Pits and Trenches Left Open

Where pits and trenches are required to be left open and unattended, the Contractor shall
provide fencing together with all necessary lighting and signing.

Precautions shall be taken to protect the pits and trenches from the adverse effects of
weather during this period.

3.2.5

Backfilling and Restoration

Pits and trenches shall be backfilled as soon as practicable and reinstated to their original
condition.

The backfill shall be placed in lifts of 150 mm thickness and compacted in such a manner as
to minimise any subsequent settlement of the ground surface.

The use of sand backfill compacted by flooding may be permitted, but this method requires
the approval of the Engineer.

In paved areas, the pavement shall be restored.

3.2.6

Photographs

In addition to the requirements of Part 1, photographs shall clearly show details of the ground
conditions in the pit and trench with any support in place and shall contain a graduated scale.

Material derived from the excavation shall be photographed, when directed by the Engineer.
Artificial lighting shall be used where necessary.

Unless directed otherwise by the Engineer, three photographs will normally be required at
every pit and trench.

3.3

INSPECTION PITS

3.3.1

Excavation Method

Inspection pits for the location of underground services shall be excavated by hand to a
depth of 1.2 m unless otherwise designated.

Hand-operated power tools may be used to assist excavation where necessary.

3.3.2

Services

The locations, depths and dimensions of all services encountered shall be measured and
recorded in the daily report with other designated information.

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3.2.3

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Section 03: Ground Investigation


Part
03: Pits and Trenches

Page 4

Sidewall Stability

Due care shall be exercised to ensure the stability of the sides of the excavation at all times.

3.4

TRIAL PITS AND TRENCHES

3.4.1

Excavation Method

Trial pits and trenches shall be excavated by hand to a maximum depth of 1.2 m or by
machine to the required depth to enable visual examination and sampling from outside the pit
or trench as required.

Where dewatering is required, the pumping equipment used shall be adequate to lower the
water table to the required level.

3.4.2

Services

The locations, depths and dimensions of all services encountered shall be measured and
recorded in the daily report with other designated information.

3.4.3

Sidewall Stability

Excavations deeper than 1.2 m shall be braced if necessary.

3.4.4

Trial Pits Examination

All recovered materials from the Trial Pits shall be examined in accordance with BS 5930 or
ASTM D 2488 and the recommendations of the Engineering Group of the Geological Society
Working Party.

Disturbed samples shall be obtained from the trial pits for laboratory testing and geological
description purposes. The samples shall be taken to be representative of the actual site
conditions (i.e. from each layer) and placed in airtight bags, labeled and taken to laboratories
for examination and testing.

Color photographs shall be taken for each excavated trial pit with a metric scale laid into the
pit after cleaning it, indicating the pits details such as trial pit number, date and depth.

3.5

OBSERVATION PITS AND TRENCHES

3.5.1

Excavation Method

Observation pits and trenches shall be excavated by hand or machine and shall be
adequately supported to enable personnel to enter safely and to permit in-situ examination,
soil sampling and testing as required. In areas where dewatering is required, the equipment
and methods proposed must be approved by the Engineer before beginning the work.

All recovered materials from the pit/trench shall be examined in accordance with BS 5930 or
ASTM D 2488.

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3.3.3

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Section 03: Ground Investigation


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03: Pits and Trenches

Page 5

Disturbed samples shall be obtained for laboratory testing and geological description
purposes (if required). The samples shall be taken to be representative of the actual site
conditions (i.e. from each layer) and placed in airtight bags, labeled and taken to laboratories
for examination and testing.

Color photographs shall be taken for each excavated pit with a metric scale laid into the pit
after cleaning it, indicating the pits details such as trial pit number, date and depth.

3.5.2

Services

The locations, depths and dimensions of all services encountered shall be measured and
recorded in the daily report with other designated information.

3.5.3

Sidewall Stability

Due care shall be exercised to ensure the stability of the sides of the excavation at all times.

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END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation


Part
04: Soil Sampling

Page 1

SOIL SAMPLING ..................................................................................................... 2

4.1
4.1.1
4.1.2

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2
Scope
2
References
2

4.2
4.2.1
4.2.2
4.2.3
4.2.4
4.2.5

SAMPLING GENERALLY ........................................................................................ 2


Sampling and Testing Frequency
2
Recording depths of samples
3
Description of samples
3
Labelling, Protection and Transportation of Samples
3
Retention and Disposal of Samples
3

4.3
4.3.1
4.3.2
4.3.3
4.3.4

SOIL SAMPLES....................................................................................................... 3
Small Disturbed Samples
3
Bulk Disturbed Samples
3
Open Tube and Piston Samples
4
Standard Penetration Test Samples
4

4.4

GROUNDWATER SAMPLES .................................................................................. 4

4.5

SAMPLES OF SUSPECTED CONTAMINATED GROUND, GROUNDWATER AND


LEACHATE FOR CHEMICAL ANALYSIS ................................................................ 4

4.6

GAS SAMPLING...................................................................................................... 5

4.7

SPECIAL SAMPLING .............................................................................................. 5

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Section 03: Ground Investigation


Part
04: Soil Sampling

Page 2

SOIL SAMPLING

4.1

GENERAL

4.1.1

Scope

Taking of samples of soil, groundwater, gas and contaminants. Sample handling,


transportation, storage, retention and disposal.

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:


This Section

References

The following documents are referred to in this Part:

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4.1.2

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Part 1, .............. General


Part 2, .............. Boreholes
Part 3, .............. Pits and Trenches.

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ASTM D 420 ...............Site Characterization for Engineering, Design, and Construction


Purposes

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ASTM D 2488 .............Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)


BS 5930 ......................Code of practice for site investigations

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BSI DD 175 ..............Code of practice for the identification of potentially contaminated land
and its investigation (draft for development).

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BS EN 1997--- ............ Ground Investigation and testing

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ICE et al, Soil Investigation Steering Group (SISG) Publication, Soil investigation in
construction, Part 4, Guidelines for the safe investigation by drilling of landfills and
contaminated land, Thomas Telford, (1993).

SAMPLING GENERALLY

4.2.1

Sampling and Testing Frequency

The frequency of sampling and in-situ testing is dependent on the ground conditions. In the
absence of designated requirements the intervals observed shall be as follows:

4.2

(a)

(b)

in boreholes
(i)

first open tube sample (generally in clay soils) or standard penetration test
(SPT) (generally in granular soils) at 0.5 m depth, the next at 1.0 m depth,
thereafter at 1 m intervals to 5 m depth then at 1.5 m intervals.

(ii)

small disturbed samples shall be taken from the topsoil, at each change in soil

(iii)

type or consistency and midway between successive open tube samples or


SPTs.

(iv)

Bulk disturbed samples shall be taken of each soil type.

in pits and trenches

QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation


Part
04: Soil Sampling

Page 3

(i)

Small disturbed samples shall be taken of the topsoil, at each change in soil
type or consistency and between successive bulk disturbed samples.

(ii)

Bulk disturbed samples shall be taken at 1 m depth intervals, with at least one
large bulk disturbed sample of each soil type.

Recording depths of samples

The depths below ground level at which samples are taken shall be recorded. For open tube
and piston samples the depth to the top and bottom of the sample, and the length of sample
obtained shall be given. For bulk samples the limits of the sampled zone shall be recorded.

4.2.3

Description of samples

All samples shall be examined and described by a geotechnical person meeting the
requirements of Part 1, Clause 1.3.1, Paragraph 5 Item (c) in accordance with BS 5930.
Samples of suspected contaminated ground and leachate shall be described by an
environmental or geotechnical person meeting the requirements of Part 1, Clause 1.5,
Paragraph 5 Item (c) in accordance with DD 175. Descriptions shall include colour and smell
with reference to specific inclusions.

4.2.4

Labelling, Protection and Transportation of Samples

Samples shall be clearly labelled in accordance with BS 5930. Samples of fill, groundwater,
leachate or contaminated ground suspected to be toxic or hazardous shall be tagged with a
red label.

Samples shall be protected from direct heat and sunlight.

Samples shall be transported to the Contractor's premises. Where required by the Engineer,
selected samples shall be delivered to the designated address.

4.2.5

Retention and Disposal of Samples

Samples shall be kept for the designated period after submission of the approved final report.
This period shall not exceed three months, unless specifically designated otherwise. The
Contractor shall ultimately dispose of all samples other than those delivered to the
designated address.

4.3

SOIL SAMPLES

4.3.1

Small Disturbed Samples

Small disturbed samples shall weigh not less than 0.5 kg. They shall be placed immediately
in airtight containers, which they should sensibly fill.

4.3.2

Bulk Disturbed Samples

Bulk disturbed samples shall be representative of the zone from which they have been taken.

Normal bulk disturbed samples shall weigh not less than 10 kg.

Large bulk disturbed samples shall weigh not less than 30 kg.

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4.2.2

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Section 03: Ground Investigation


Part
04: Soil Sampling

Page 4

Open Tube and Piston Samples

Open tube and piston samples shall be taken using the sampling equipment and procedures
as described in BS 5930. The diameter shall be 100 mm unless otherwise designated.

Before an open tube or piston sample is taken, the bottom of the hole shall be carefully
cleared of disturb materials and where a casing is being used the sample shall be taken
below the bottom of the casing. Following a break in the work exceeding one hour, the
borehole shall be advanced by 250 mm before open tube or piston sampling is resumed.

Where an attempt to take an open tube or piston sample is unsuccessful the hole shall be
cleaned out for the full depth to which the sampling tube has penetrated and the recovered
soil saved as a bulk disturbed sample. A fresh attempt shall then be made from the level of
the base of the unsuccessful attempt. Should this second attempt also prove unsuccessful
the Contractor shall agree with the Engineer as to alternative means of sampling.

The samples shall be sealed immediately to preserve their natural moisture content and in
such a manner as to prevent the sealant from entering any voids in the sample.

Soil from the cutting shoe of an open tube shall be retained as an additional small disturbed
sample.

4.3.4

Standard Penetration Test Samples

When a standard penetration test (SPT) is made, the sample from the split barrel sampler
shall be retained as a small disturbed sample.

4.4

GROUNDWATER SAMPLES

Groundwater samples shall be taken from each exploratory hole where groundwater is
encountered. Where more than one groundwater level is found, each one shall be sampled
separately. Where water has been previously added, the hole shall be bailed out before

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4.3.3

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sampling so that only groundwater is present. The sample volume shall be not less than 0.25
l.

SAMPLES OF SUSPECTED CONTAMINATED GROUND,


GROUNDWATER AND LEACHATE FOR CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

Samples of suspected contaminated ground, groundwater and leachate shall be taken in


accordance with DD 175 and the SISG publication under the supervision of an environmental
or geotechnical person meeting the requirements of Part 1, Clause 1.5, Paragraph 5 Item (c).

The size and type of sample and container, method of sampling and time limitations for
carrying out specific analyses shall be commensurate with the range of analyses to be
carried out or as designated.

4.5

QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation


Part
04: Soil Sampling

Page 5

GAS SAMPLING

Samples of gas for chromatographic analysis shall be obtained from exploratory holes or
standpipes in accordance with DD 175 and the SISG publication. The sampling method shall
relate to the volume of gas available and the type of laboratory analysis. The sampler
receptacle shall be airtight and may include lockable syringes, Teflon-lined bags or gas
bombs.

4.7

SPECIAL SAMPLING

The Engineer may require special sampling. This work will normally require supervision on
site by a geotechnical person and shall be carried out in accordance with BS 5930 or as
designated.

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4.6

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END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation


Part
05: In-Situ Testing, Instrumentation and Monitoring

Page 1

IN-SITU TESTING, INSTRUMENTATION AND MONITORING............................... 2

5.1
5.1.1
5.1.2

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2
Scope
2
References
2

5.2
5.2.1
5.2.2

TESTING, INSTRUMENTATION AND MONITORING GENERALLY ...................... 2


Testing
2
Instrumentation and Monitoring
3

5.3
5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3
5.3.4
5.3.5
5.3.6

TESTS ..................................................................................................................... 3
Tests in accordance with BS 1377 or BS EN 1997
3
Tests in accordance with BS 5930
4
Geophysical Methods of Investigation
4
Special In-Situ Testing
4
Hand Penetrometer and Hand Vane for Shear Strength
5
Self-boring Pressuremeter
5

5.4
5.4.1
5.4.2
5.4.3

INSTRUMENTATION AND MONITORING .............................................................. 6


Groundwater
6
Installation of Standpipes and Piezometers
6
Installation of Gas Monitoring Standpipes
6

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QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation


Part
05: In-Situ Testing, Instrumentation and Monitoring

Page 2

IN-SITU TESTING, INSTRUMENTATION AND MONITORING

5.1

GENERAL

5.1.1

Scope

Testing of soils in place, and provision of instrumentation and monitoring of groundwater and
subsurface gases.

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:


This Section

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Part 1 ............... General


Part 2 ............... Boreholes
Part 3 ............... Pits and Trenches.
References

The following standards and other documents are referred to in this Part:

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5.1.2

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ASTM D 420 ...............Site Characterization for Engineering, Design, and Construction


Purposes
ASTM D 2488 .............Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)

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BS 1377......................Methods of tests for soils for civil engineering purposes


BS 5930......................Code of practice for site investigations

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BS 7022......................Geophysical logging of boreholes for hydrogeological purposes

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BS EN 1997................Ground Investigation and testing

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The Geological Society Engineering Group Working Party Report on Engineering


Geophysics, Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology, 21, pp. 207-271, 1988.

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Clarke B.G. and Smith A., A model specification for radial displacement measuring
pressuremeters, Ground Engineering, Volume 25, No. 2, March, 1992.

TESTING, INSTRUMENTATION AND MONITORING GENERALLY

5.2.1

Testing

The following information shall be submitted for each test record to be included in the daily
report, preliminary log and factual report:

5.2

(a)

Date of test.

(b)

Project name, exploratory hole number and location.

(c)

Depth and location of test or depths covered by test.

(d)

Information on water levels in exploratory hole during testing.

(e)

Original ground level at test site.

(f)

Soil type and description as identified from the sample.

All results shall be reported in SI units.

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Section 03: Ground Investigation


Part
05: In-Situ Testing, Instrumentation and Monitoring

Page 3

Where load, displacement or other measuring equipment is used which necessitates regular
calibration, then this shall be carried out in accordance with the relevant standard (the
preferred method) or the manufacturer's instructions, by a calibration service approved by the
Central Materials Laboratory. Evidence of calibrations and copies of calibration charts shall
be supplied to the Engineer prior to commencing work and when otherwise requested.

5.2.2

Instrumentation and Monitoring

The top of each standpipe, gas monitoring standpipe and piezometer tube shall be protected
by a cover. The type of protective cover shall be approved by the Engineer.

When instructed by the Engineer, the Contractor shall install a protective fence around the
top of a standpipe or piezometer. The fence shall be constructed of corrosion treated angle
iron, galvanised wire, and corrosion resistant wire mesh fencing suitable for use in the
climate of Qatar or a fence as a agreed upon with the Engineer.

Daily readings of depths to water in groundwater monitoring standpipes and piezometers


shall be made by the Contractor, with an instrument approved by the Engineer.

Where the presence of gas is suspected or when directed by the Engineer, gas
measurements, using an approved in-situ meter, shall be made by the Contractor during
construction of exploratory holes and in gas monitoring standpipes. The depth to water and
barometric pressure shall be measured immediately after each gas measurement.

Unless otherwise designated, piezometers, and standpipes protection shall not be removed
from the site.

Other instrumentation and monitoring shall be carried out as designated.

5.3

TESTS

5.3.1

Tests in accordance with BS 1377 or BS EN 1997

The following in-situ tests shall be carried out and reported in accordance with BS 1377 or
BS EN 1997:
in-situ density by

(a)

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(i)

Small pouring cylinder method.

(ii)

Large pouring cylinder method.

(iii)

Water replacement method.

(iv)

Core cutter method.

(v)

Nuclear method.

(b)

Static cone penetration test (CPT), capacity to suit scheduled depths unless otherwise
designated

(c)

Dynamic probing (DPH or DPSH).

(d)

Standard penetration test (SPT).

(e)

Plate loading test.

(f)

Shallow pad maintained load test.

QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation


Part
05: In-Situ Testing, Instrumentation and Monitoring

(g)

California bearing ratio (CBR).

(h)

Vane shear strength.

(i)

Apparent resistivity of soil.

(j)

Redox potential.

(k)

Pressurementer or Self-boring Pressuremeter (PMT)

(l)

Pocket Penetrometer.

Page 4

5.3.2

Tests in accordance with BS 5930

The following in-situ tests shall be carried out where applicable and reported in accordance
with BS 5930:

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Constant head permeability test.


Variable head permeability test.
Packer permeability test.

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(a)
(b)
(c)

Geophysical Methods of Investigation

Geophysical testing shall be carried out as designated. The Contractor shall submit to the
Engineer a full description of equipment and procedure for each geophysical method
required.

The equipment and procedure, and information to be submitted for the following geophysical
methods of investigation, shall be as described in BS 5930, BS 7022 and the Geological
Society Engineering Group Working Party Report on Engineering Geophysics:

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5.3.3

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electrical resistivity method

(b)

seismic refraction and reflection method

(c)

magnetic method

(d)

gravity method

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electromagnetic method

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(a)

(i)

Ground conductivity.

(ii)

Transient electromagnetic.

(iii)

Ground probing radar (optional).

(f)

Borehole geophysical logging.

(g)

Cross-hole seismic method.

(h)

Multi Channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW)

(i)

Refraction Microtremor (ReMi)

5.3.4

Special In-Situ Testing

Special in-situ testing shall be carried out as designated.

The Contractor shall allow for the excavation of boreholes, trenches or trial pits necessary for
the execution of inspection tests.

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Section 03: Ground Investigation


Part
05: In-Situ Testing, Instrumentation and Monitoring

Page 5

Inspection tests shall be decided as directed by the Engineer. These tests shall include but
not limited to those in Table 3.2.
Table 3.2: Quality Assurance Tests for Completed Work
Recommended Test per Layer
Deep Fill
(boreholes)

In-situ CBR

Field density

Plate load Test

Layer Thickness

Field density

DCP Test

Layer Thickness

SPT

DCP Test

Pressure meter

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Shallow Fill
(trench or test pit)

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Large Scale Loading


Hand Penetrometer and Hand Vane for Shear Strength

Hand penetrometer and hand vane tests shall be carried out where required to give a
preliminary estimate of undrained shear strength of the soil tested.

Hand (or pocket) penetrometer equipment shall be of an approved proprietary make with
2
stainless steel tip of end area 31 mm with an engraved penetration line 6 mm from the tip.

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5.3.5

Hand vane equipment shall be of an approved proprietary make with stainless steel vanes
having a length of 19 mm or 33 mm and a length-to-diameter ratio of 2:1. The scale shall be

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The scale shall be suitably graduated. The procedure for the test shall be in accordance with
the manufacturer's instructions. Both unconfined compressive strength and estimated shear
strength shall be reported for the soil tested.

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suitably graduated. The procedure for test shall be in accordance with BS 5930 and the
manufacturer's instructions. Peak shear strength and residual shear strength shall be

recorded.
4

The reported shear strengths for the hand penetrometer and handvane shall be the average
of 3 tests in close proximity. Tests giving inconsistent results shall be reported and
comments on the relevance of the tests noted.

5.3.6

Self-boring Pressuremeter

The equipment shall be of the Cambridge type (soft ground) self-boring pressuremeter (SBP)
unless otherwise designated. The instruments, calibration, operator, installation, testing
procedure, on-site data processing and analysis, information to be submitted, report data
processing and analysis and information to be submitted in the report shall be as described
by Clarke and Smith (1992) and as designated..

QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation


Part
05: In-Situ Testing, Instrumentation and Monitoring

Page 6

5.4

INSTRUMENTATION AND MONITORING

5.4.1

Groundwater

When groundwater is encountered in exploratory holes, the depth from ground level of the
point of entry shall be recorded together with depth of any casing. Exploratory hole
operations shall be stopped and the depth from ground level to water level recorded with an
approved instrument at 5 minutes intervals for a period of 20 minutes. If at the end of the

period of 20 minutes the water level is still rising, this shall be recorded together with the
depth to water below ground level, unless otherwise instructed by the Engineer, and the
exploratory hole shall then be continued. If casing is used and this forms a seal against the
entry of groundwater, the Contractor shall record the depth of casing at which no further entry
or only insignificant infiltration of water occurred.
Water levels shall be recorded as required by the Contract and at the beginning and end of
each shift. On each occasion when groundwater levels are recorded, the depth of the
exploratory hole, the depth of any casing and the time shall also be recorded.

Where artesian conditions are encountered, the Contractor shall immediately inform the
Engineer and agree a method for dealing with the conditions.

5.4.2

Installation of Standpipes and Piezometers

Standpipes for monitoring groundwater levels and changes in groundwater levels shall be
installed in exploratory holes, as instructed by the Engineer. They shall be to the designated
form and detail, and appropriate dimensions and depths shall be recorded at the time of
installation.

Standpipe piezometers for monitoring groundwater levels in exploratory holes shall be


installed as instructed by the Engineer. They shall be to the designated form and detail, and
appropriate dimensions. The installation details of the standpipe piezometers shall be
recorded.

The Contractor shall install piezometers of the hydraulic, electrical or pneumatic type
described in BS 5930 or as designated by the Engineer.

5.4.3

Installation of Gas Monitoring Standpipes

Standpipes for monitoring gas concentration in exploratory holes shall be installed as


instructed by the Engineer. Warning signs or other safety measures required by the Civil
Defence Department of the Government shall be complied with. Standpipes shall be of the
designated form and detail. All dimensions and depths shall he recorded at the time of
installation.

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END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation


Part
06: Laboratory Testing

Page 1

LABORATORY TESTING ........................................................................................ 2

6.1
6.1.1
6.1.2

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2
Scope
2
References
2

6.2

SCHEDULE OF TESTS ........................................................................................... 2

6.3
6.3.1
6.3.2
6.3.3
6.3.4

TESTING PROCEDURES ....................................................................................... 3


General
3
Geotechnical Testing on Contaminated Samples
3
Soil Testing
3
Rock Testing
3

6.4
6.4.2
6.4.3

CHEMICAL TESTING FOR CONTAMINATED GROUND ....................................... 4


Laboratory Testing On Site
6
Special Laboratory Testing
6

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QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation


Part
06: Laboratory Testing

Page 2

LABORATORY TESTING

6.1

GENERAL

6.1.1

Scope

Geotechnical tests and testing procedures carried out in the laboratory or, when designated,
on site.

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:


This Section

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Part 1, .............. General


Part 3, .............. Soil Sampling

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Section 6, ........ Roadworks


Section 8, ........ Drainage Works
Section 12, ...... Earthworks Related to Buildings
References

The following standards and other documents are referred to in this Part:

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ASTM D 420 ...............Site Characterization for Engineering, Design, and Construction


Purposes

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ASTM D 2488 .............Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)

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ASTM SP 402.............Special Technical Publications No. 402

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BS 1377 ......................Methods of tests for soils for civil engineering purposes


BS 1881 ......................Analysis of hardened concrete

BS 812 ........................Testing aggregates

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BS EN 1997--------- .....Ground Investigation and testing

Brown E.T. (Editor). Rock characterisation testing and monitoring. International Society for
Rock Mechanics Suggested Methods. 1981. Pergamon Press.
C2 through C25 and C27 through C31, Methods for examination of waters and associated
materials, HMSO
IRSM Commission on Testing Methods. Suggested method for determining Point Load
Strength (revised version). Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. and Geomech. Abst., 22,
51-60 (1985).

6.2

SCHEDULE OF TESTS

The Contractor shall prepare a schedule of tests for approval by the Engineer. It may be
necessary to designate additional testing after the results of the original tests are available.
Unless otherwise agreed, testing schedules are to be provided within six working days of the
receipt by the Engineer of the relevant preliminary logs. The Contractor shall inform the
Engineer within six working days from the receipt of the approved testing schedule if a
sample referred to in the schedule is not available for testing.

QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation


Part
06: Laboratory Testing

Page 3

TESTING PROCEDURES

6.3.1

General

Where applicable, all preparation, testing and reporting shall be in accordance with the
relevant Qatar National Standard or British Standards or ASTM Standards. Where tests are
not covered by these Standards, they shall be performed in accordance with the procedures
in the references or as designated.

Calibration of load-displacement or other measuring equipment shall be carried out in


accordance with the relevant standard (the preferred method) or the manufacturers
instructions by a calibration service approved by the Central Materials Laboratory. Evidence
of current calibrations shall be supplied to the Engineer.

6.3.2

Geotechnical Testing on Contaminated Samples

Where geotechnical testing is required on samples of suspected contaminated material,


indicative chemical testing shall be carried out and a safe method of working approved by the
Engineer before any such work is started. It should be noted that this may include but is not
limited to the safe storage, transportation and handling of all suspect material.

6.3.3

Soil Testing

Soil testing shall be carried out and reported in accordance with BS 1377 or ASTM Standards
unless otherwise designated.

6.3.4

Rock Testing

Rock testing shall be carried out and reported in accordance with the following references
and as designated:
Classification.

Natural water content - Brown (1981).

(ii)

Porosity/density - Brown (1981).

(iii)

Void index - Brown (1981).

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6.3

(b)

(c)

(d)

(iv)

Carbonate content - BS 1881.

(v)

Petrographic description -Brown (1981).

Durability.
(i)

Slake durability index - Brown (1981).

(ii)

Soundness by solution of magnesium sulphate - BS 812.

Hardness.
(i)

Shore sclerometer -Brown (1981).

(ii)

Schmidt rebound hardness - Brown (1981).

Aggregates.
(i)

Aggregate crushing value - BS 812.

(ii)

Ten percent fines - BS 812.

(iii)

Aggregate impact value - BS 812.

(iv)

Aggregate abrasion value - BS 812.

(v)

Polished stone value - BS 812.

(vi)

Aggregate frost heave - BS 812.

Strength.
(i)

Uniaxial compressive strength - Brown (1981).

(ii)

Deformability in uniaxial compression -Brown (1981).

(iii)

Tensile strength-Brown (1981).

Direct tensile strength.


Indirect tensile strength by the Brazilian method.

Undrained triaxial compression without measurement of porewater pressureBrown (1981).

(v)

Direct shear strength - Brown (1981).

(vi)

Swelling pressure - Brown (1981).

(vii)

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Swelling pressure index under conditions of zero volume change.


Swelling strain index for a radially confined specimen with axial surcharge.
Swelling strain developed in an unconfined rock specimen.

Point load test - IRSM Commission on Testing Methods (1985).

Geophysical.
Seismic velocity-Brown (1981).

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(i)

(iv)

(f)

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Section 03: Ground Investigation


Part
06: Laboratory Testing

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QCS 2014

CHEMICAL TESTING FOR CONTAMINATED GROUND

Chemical testing for contaminated ground shall be carried out and reported in accordance
with the following references and as designated:

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Primary contaminants in soil.


Arsenic total - C4.

(ii)

Cadmium total - C2.

(iii)

Chromium total - C2.

(iv)

hexavalent chromium (undertaken if total chromium content >25 mg/kg dry

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6.4

Mass) -C2.

(v)

Lead total - C2.

(vi)

Mercury total - C3.

(vii)

Selenium total - C4.

(viii)

Boron, water-soluble - C5.

(ix)

Copper total - C2.

(x)

Nickel total - C2.

(xi)

Zinc total - C2.

(xii)

Cyanide total (alkali extraction methods) - C6.

(xiii)

Cyanide complex - C6.

(xiv) Cyanide free - C6.


(xv)

Thiocyanate - C6.

QCS 2014

Section 03: Ground Investigation


Part
06: Laboratory Testing

Page 5

(xvi) (Tests xiii, xiv and xv undertaken if total cyanide >25 mg/kg dry mass. Methods
shall follow alkali extraction.)
(xvii) Phenols total - C7.
(xviii) Sulphide - C8.
(xix) Sulphate - total, acid, soluble - C9.
(xx)

Sulphate - water soluble, 2 : 1 extract - C9.

(xxi) Sulphur free - C10.


(xxii) PH value - C9.
(xxiii) Toluene extractable matter - Cl1.

(xxiv) Coal tar/polyaromatic hydrocarbons (undertaken if toluene extractable matter>


2000 g/kg dry mass of soil) - C12.

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Antimony total - C13.

(ii)

Barium total - C13.

(iii)

Beryllium total - C15.

(iv)

Vanadium total - C13.

(v)

Cyclohexane extractable matter - C14.

(vi)

Freon extractable matter - C15.

(vii)

Mineral oils - C31.

(viii)

Chloride - C9.

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(i)

Contaminants in water.

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(c)

Secondary contaminants in soil.

(i)

Arsenic - C4.

(ii)

Cadmium - C2 and C23.


Chromium - C2 and C24.

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(b)

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(xxv) Asbestos. Asbestos content determination shall be carried out by visual


examination and polarised light microscopy.

Hexavalent chromium - C2.

(v)

Lead - C2 and C25.

(vi)

Mercury - C3.

(vii)

Selenium - C4.

(viii)

Boron - C5 and C6.

(ix)

Copper - C2 and C27.

(x)

Nickel - C2 and C28.

(xi)

Zinc - C2 and C29.

(xii)

Cyanide total - C6.

(xiii)

Cyanide complex - C6.

(xiv)

Cyanide free - C6.

(xv)

Thiocyanate - C6.

(xvi)

Phenols total - C7.

(xvii)

Sulphide - C8.

(iv)

Section 03: Ground Investigation


Part
06: Laboratory Testing

Page 6

Sulphate - C9.

(xix)

Sulphur free - C10.

(xx)

PH value - C9.

(xxi)

Polyaromatic hydrocarbons - C 12.

(xxii)

Antimony-C13.

(xxiii)

Barium-C13.

(xxiv)

Beryllium-C15.

(xxv)

Vanadium - C 13.

(xxvi)

Chloride - C9.

(xxvii)

Ammoniacal nitrogen - C16.

(xxviii)

Nitrate nitrogen - Cl7.

(xxix)

Chemical oxygen demand - C18.

(xxx)

Biochemical oxygen demand - C19.

(xxxi)

Total organic carbon - C20.

(xxxii)

Volatile fatty acids - C21.

(xxxiii)

Iron - C22.

(xxxiv)

Manganese - C22.

(xxxv)

Calcium - C31.

(xxxvi)

Sodium - C31.

(xxxvii)

Magnesium - C31.

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(xviii)

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Constituents of gas samples.


Carbon dioxide - C30.

(ii)

Hydrogen - C30.

(iii)

Hydrogen sulphide - C30.

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(xxxviii) Potassium - C21.

Methane - C30.

(v)

Nitrogen - C30.

(vi)

Oxygen - C30.

(vii)

Ethane- C30.

(viii)

Propane- C30.

(ix)

Carbon monoxide - C30.

(iv)

6.4.2

Laboratory Testing On Site

When designated, tests listed under laboratory testing shall be carried out on site.

6.4.3

Special Laboratory Testing

When designated, special laboratory testing shall be carried out.


END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
01: General Requirements for Piling Work

Page 1

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PILING WORK ................................................. 2

1.1
1.1.1
1.1.2
1.1.3
1.1.4
1.1.5

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2
Scope
2
References
2
General Contract Requirements
2
Submittals
3
Records
3

1.2
1.2.1
1.2.2

GROUND CONDITIONS ......................................................................................... 3


Ground Investigation Reports
3
Unexpected Ground Conditions
4

1.3
1.3.1
1.3.2
1.3.3

MATERIALS AND WORKMANSHIP........................................................................ 4


General
4
Sources of Supply
4
Rejected materials
5

1.4
1.4.1
1.4.2
1.4.3
1.4.4
1.4.5
1.4.6

INSTALLATION TOLERANCES .............................................................................. 5


Setting Out
5
Position
6
Verticality
6
Rake
6
Tolerance Variations
6
Forcible Corrections to Pile
6

1.5
1.5.1
1.5.2
1.5.3
1.5.4

NUISANCE AND DAMAGE ..................................................................................... 6


Noise and Disturbance
6
Damage to Adjacent Structures
7
Damage to Piles
7
Temporary Support
7

1.6
1.6.1
1.6.2
1.6.3

SAFETY .................................................................................................................. 7
General
7
Life-Saving Appliances
7
Driving
7

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QCS 2014

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
01: General Requirements for Piling Work

Page 2

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PILING WORK

1.1

GENERAL

1.1.1

Scope

This Part is concerned with all works associated with installation of piles by any of the
recognised techniques.

1.1.2

References

The following standards and codes of practice are referred to in this Part:

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BS 5228......................Noise control on construction and open sites

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Part I, Code of practice for basic information and procedures for noise
control
Part IV, Code of practice for noise and vibration control applicable to
piling operations

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BS 8008......................Safety precautions and procedures for the construction and descent of


machine-bored shafts for piling and other purposes

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BS EN 1997................Eurocode 7, Geotechnical Design.

General Contract Requirements

The following matters, where appropriate, are described in the contract specific
documentation for the Works:
general items related to Works
Nature of the Works.

(ii)

Classes of loads on piles.

(iii)

Contract drawings.

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1.1.3

(b)

(iv)

Other works proceeding at the same time.

(v)

Working area.

(vi)

Order of the Works.

(vii)

Datum.

(viii)

Offices for the Engineer's Representative.

(ix)

Particular facilities and attendance items where not included in this section.

(x)

Details of soil investigation reports.

specific items related to particular type of pile


(i)

Soil sampling, laboratory testing and in-situ soil testing.

(ii)

Designed concrete or grout mixes, grades of concrete or grout, type of cement


and aggregate, grout or concrete admixtures, concreting of piles.

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
01: General Requirements for Piling Work

Page 3

Grades and types of reinforcement and prestressing tendons.

(iv)

Pile dimensions, length and marking of piles.

(v)

Type and quality of pile shoe/splice.

(vi)

Type and quality of permanent casing.

(vii)

Specified working loads.

(viii)

Sections of proprietary types of pile, grades of steel, minimum length to be


supplied, thickness of circumferential weld reinforcement.

(ix)

Surface preparation, types and thickness of coatings.

(x)

Test piles, driving resistance or dynamic evaluation and penetration.

(xi)

Detailed requirements for driving records.

(xii)

Acceptance criteria for piles under test.

(xiii)

Disposal of cut-off lengths.

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(iii)

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QCS 2014

(xiv) Preboring.
Submittals

The Contractor shall supply for approval all relevant details of the method of piling and the
plant he proposes to use. Any alternative method to that specified shall be subject to
approval.

The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer on the first day of each week, or at such longer
periods as the Engineer may from time to time direct, a progress report showing the current
rate of progress and progress during the previous period on all important items of each
section of the Works.

The Contractor shall inform the Engineer each day of the intended programme of piling for
the following day and shall give adequate notice of his intention to work outside normal hours
and at weekends.

1.1.5

Records

The Contractor shall keep records, as indicated by an asterisk in Table 1.1, of the installation
of each pile and shall submit two signed copies of these records to the Engineer not later
than noon of the next working day after the pile is installed. The signed records will form a
record of the work. Any unexpected driving or boring conditions shall be noted briefly in the
records.

1.2

GROUND CONDITIONS

1.2.1

Ground Investigation Reports

Factual information and reports on site investigations for the Works and on the previous
known uses of the Site will be provided by the Engineer where they exist as part of the
specific contract documentation. However, even if a full report is given, including
interpretations, opinions or conclusions, no responsibility is accepted by the Engineer for any
opinions or conclusions which may be given in the reports.

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1.1.4

QCS 2014

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
01: General Requirements for Piling Work

Page 4

Before the start of work the Contractor shall be given a copy of any subsequent information
which may have been obtained relating to the ground conditions and previous uses of the
Site.

1.2.2

Unexpected Ground Conditions

The Contractor shall report immediately to the Engineer any circumstance which indicates
that in the Contractor's opinion the ground conditions differ from those reported in or which
could have been inferred from the site investigation reports or test pile results.

1.3

MATERIALS AND WORKMANSHIP

1.3.1

General

All materials and workmanship shall be in accordance with the appropriate British Standards,
codes of practice and other approved standards current at the date of tender except where
the requirements of these standards or codes of practice are in conflict with this Section in
which case the requirements of this Section shall take precedence.

1.3.2

Sources of Supply

The sources of supply of materials shall not be changed without prior approval.

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Table 1.1

Driven segmental
concrete piles

Driven cast-in-place
concrete piles

Bored cast-in-place
concrete piles

Continuous flight
auger concrete or
grout piles

Nominal cross-sectional dimensions or diameter

Nominal diameter of underream/base

Length of preformed pile

Standing groundwater level from direct observation or given site


investigation data.

Date and time of driving, redriving or boring

Date of concreting

Ground level/sea bed level at pile position at commencement of


installation of pile (commencing surface)

Working elevation of pile driver

Depth from ground level at pile position to pile tip

Tip elevation

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Data

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Driven steel, precast


concrete and steel
sheet piles

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Records to be Kept (Indicated by an Asterisk)

Contract

Pile type

Pile reference number (location)

Bored cast-in-place
concrete piles

Continuous flight
auger concrete or
grout piles

Pile head elevation, as constructed

Pile cut-off elevation

Length of temporary casing

Length of permanent casing

Type, weight, drop and mechanical condition of hammer and


equivalent information for other equipment

Number and type of packings used and type and condition of


dolly used during driving of the pile

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Set of pile or pile tube in millimetres per 10 blows or number of


blows per 25 mm of penetration

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Data

Driven cast-in-place
concrete piles

Page 5

Driven segmental
concrete piles

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
01: General Requirements for Piling Work
Driven steel, precast
concrete and steel
sheet piles

QCS 2014

If required, temporary compression of ground and pile from time


of a marked increase in driving resistance until pile reached its
final level

Soil samples taken and in-situ tests carried out during pile
installation

Length and details of reinforcements

Concrete mix

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If required, the sets taken at intervals during the last 3 m of


driving

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If required, driving resistance taken at regular intervals over the


last 3 m of driving

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Volume of concrete supplied to pile


obstructions

delays

All information regarding


interruptions to the work

and

other

1.3.3

Rejected materials

Rejected materials are to be removed promptly from the Site.

1.4

INSTALLATION TOLERANCES

1.4.1

Setting Out

Setting out of the main grid lines shall be by the Contractor. The installation of marker pins at
pile positions, as required by the Contract, shall be located by the Contractor from the main
grid lines of the proposed structure. Before installation of the pile, the pile position relative to
the main grid lines shall be verified.

QCS 2014

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
01: General Requirements for Piling Work

Page 6

Position

For a pile cut off at or above ground level the maximum permitted deviation of the pile centre
from the centre-point shown on the drawings shall be 75 mm in any direction. An additional
tolerance for a pile head cut off below ground level will be permitted in accordance with
Clauses 1.4.3 and 1.4.4.

1.4.3

Verticality

At the commencement of installation, the pile, or pile-forming equipment in the case of a


driven pile, or the relevant equipment governing alignment in the case of the bored pile, shall
be made vertical to a tolerance of within 1 in 100. The maximum permitted deviation of the
finished pile from the vertical is 1 in 75.

1.4.4

Rake

As in clause 1.4.3, the pile, or driving or other equipment governing the direction and angle of
rake shall be set to give the correct alignment of the pile to within a tolerance of 1 in 50. The
piling rig shall be set and maintained to attain the required rake. The maximum permitted
deviation of the finished pile from the specified rake is 1 in 25 for piles raking up to 1:6 and 1
in 15 for piles raking more than 1:6.

1.4.5

Tolerance Variations

In exceptional circumstances where these tolerances are difficult to achieve, the tolerances
of Clauses 1.4.2, 1.4.3 and 1.4.4 may be relaxed by the Engineer, subject to consideration of
the implications of such action.

1.4.6

Forcible Corrections to Pile

Forcible corrections to concrete piles to overcome errors of position or alignment shall not be
made. Forcible corrections may be made to other piles only if approved and where the pile
shaft is not fully embedded in the soil.

1.5

NUISANCE AND DAMAGE

1.5.1

Noise and Disturbance

The Contractor shall carry out the work in such a manner and at such times as to minimise
noise, vibration and other disturbance in order to comply with current environmental
legislation.

The Contractor shall endeavour to ascertain the nature and levels of noise produced by the
mechanical equipment and plant that will be used. He shall than take steps to reduce either
the level or the annoying characteristics, or both, of the noise. Reference should be made to
BS 5228 Part 1 for prediction of noise level due to different types of mechanical equipment
and plant, and to BS 5228 Part 4 for noise and vibration control techniques applicable to
piling operations.

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1.4.2

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
01: General Requirements for Piling Work

Page 7

Damage to Adjacent Structures

If in the opinion of the Contractor, damage will be, or is likely to be, caused to mains, services
or adjacent structures, he shall submit to the Engineer his proposals for making
preconstruction surveys, monitoring movements or vibrations, and minimising or avoiding
such damage.

1.5.3

Damage to Piles

The Contractor shall ensure that during the course of the work, displacement or damage
which would impair either performance or durability does not occur to completed piles.

The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer his proposed sequence and timing for driving or
boring piles, having the intent of avoiding damage to adjacent piles.

1.5.4

Temporary Support

The Contractor shall ensure that where required, any permanently free-standing piles are
temporarily braced or stayed immediately after driving to prevent loosening of the piles in the
ground and to ensure that the pile will not be damaged by oscillation, vibration or ground
movement.

1.6

SAFETY

1.6.1

General

A competent person, properly qualified and experienced, should be appointed to supervise


the piling operations. This person should be capable of recognising and assessing any
potential dangers as they arise; e.g., unexpected ground conditions that may require a
change in construction technique, or unusual smells which may indicate the presence of
noxious or dangerous gases.

Safety precautions throughout the piling operations shall comply with BS 8008 and BS EN
1997. Refer Section 1 for general safety standards to be adopted at a construction site.

1.6.2

Life-Saving Appliances

The Contractor shall provide and maintain on the Site sufficient, proper and efficient lifesaving appliances to the approval of the Engineer. The appliances must be conspicuous and
available for use at all times.

Site operatives shall be instructed in the use of safety equipment and periodic drills shall be
held to ensure that all necessary procedures can be correctly observed.

1.6.3

Driving

Before any pile driving is started, the Contractor shall supply the Engineer with two copies of
the code of signals to be employed, and shall have a copy of the code prominently displayed
adjacent to the driving control station on the craft, structure or site from which the piles will be
driven.

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1.5.2

END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
02: Concrete Works for Piling

Page 1

CONCRETE WORKS FOR PILING ......................................................................... 2

2.1
2.1.1
2.1.2

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2
Scope
2
References
2

2.2
2.2.1
2.2.2
2.2.3
2.2.4
2.2.5

MATERIALS ............................................................................................................ 2
Cementitious
2
Aggregate
2
Water
2
Admixtures
2
Steel Reinforcement and Prestressing Steel
2

2.3
2.3.1
2.3.2
2.3.3
2.3.4
2.3.5

CONCRETE MIXES FOR PILING WORK ............................................................... 3


General
3
Grade Designation
3
Designed Mix
3
Durability
3
Exposure Classes
3

2.4
2.4.1
2.4.2
2.4.3
2.4.4
2.4.5
2.4.6
2.4.7

PLACING CONCRETE ............................................................................................ 3


General
3
Inspection
4
Cleanliness of Pile Bases
4
Workability of Concrete
4
Compaction
4
Placing Concrete in Dry Borings
5
Placing Concrete under Water or Drilling Fluid
5

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QCS 2014

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
02: Concrete Works for Piling

CONCRETE WORKS FOR PILING

2.1

GENERAL

2.1.1

Scope

This part applies to cast in-situ as well as precast concrete work.

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:

Section 5

Concrete.

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General Requirements for Piling Work


Shallow Foundations
Deep Foundations
Retaining Structures

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This Section
Part 1,
Part 3
Part 4
Part 5

Page 2

References

The following Standards are referred to in this Part:

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2.1.2

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BS 8008......................Safety precautions and procedures for the construction and descent of


machine-bored shafts for piling and other purposes

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All Standards mentioned in Section 5

MATERIALS

2.2.1

Cementitious

All cementitious materials shall comply with the requirements of Section 5, Part 3.

All cementitious materials shall be stored in separate containers according to type in


waterproof stores or silos.

2.2.2

Aggregate

Aggregates shall comply with the requirements of Section 5, Part 2.

2.2.3

Water

If water for the Works is not available from a public supply, approval shall be obtained
regarding the source of water. For quality of water refer to Section 5, Part 4.

2.2.4

Admixtures

Admixtures shall comply with the requirements of Section 5, Part 5

2.2.5

Steel Reinforcement and Prestressing Steel

Steel reinforcement shall be stored in clean and dry conditions. It shall be clean, and free
from loose rust and loose mill scale when installed in the Works. For requirements of steel
reinforcement refer to Section 5, Part 11.

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
02: Concrete Works for Piling

Page 3

The number of joints in longitudinal steel bars shall be kept to a minimum. Joints in
reinforcement shall be such that the full strength of each bar is effective across the joint and
shall be made so that there is no detrimental displacement of the reinforcement during the
construction of the pile.

For requirements of prestressing steel refer to Section 5, Part 18.

2.3

CONCRETE MIXES FOR PILING WORK

2.3.1

General

For general requirements of concrete mixes, trial mixes, batching, mixing and transportation
of fresh concrete and testing of hardened concrete refer to Section 5.

2.3.2

Grade Designation

Grades of concrete shall be as given in Section 5, Part 6.

2.3.3

Designed Mix

The Contractor shall be responsible for selecting the mix proportions to achieve the required
strength and workability..

Complete information on the mix and sources of aggregate for each grade of concrete and
the water/cementitious ratio and the proposed degree of workability shall be approved before
work commences.

Where low-alkali, sulphate-resisting cement to BS EN 197 is specified, the alkali content


(equivalent sodium oxide) of the cement shall not exceed 0.6 % by weight.

The Contractor shall submit the slump value for approval before work commences.

2.3.4

Durability

For piles exposed to aggressive ground or groundwater, approved measures shall be taken
to ensure durability. Reference shall be made to Section 5, Part 6.

2.3.5

Exposure Classes

The minimum cementitious content and type and the concrete grades shall be specified
based on the exposure classes as given in Table 6.8, Section 5, Part 6.

2.4

PLACING CONCRETE

2.4.1

General

The workability and method of placing and vibrating the concrete shall be such that a
continuous monolithic concrete shaft of the full cross-section is formed.

The concrete shall be placed without such interruption as would produce a cold joint in the
pile. The method of placing shall be approved.

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QCS 2014

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
02: Concrete Works for Piling

Page 4

The Contractor shall take all precautions in the design of the mix and placing of the concrete
to avoid arching of the concrete in a temporary casing. No soil, liquid or other foreign matter
which would adversely affect the performance of the pile shall be permitted to contaminate
the concrete.

2.4.2

Inspection

Each pile bore which does not contain standing water or drilling fluid shall be inspected
directly or indirectly before to concrete is placed in it. This inspection shall be carried out from
the ground surface in the case of piles of less than 750 mm diameter. Torches or other
approved means of lighting, measuring tapes, and a means of measuring verticality shall be
provided. For piles of 750 mm diameter or larger, equipment shall be provided by the

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Contractor to enable his representatives and the Engineer to descend into the bore for the
purpose of inspection. Any method of descent and the equipment used shall comply with the
requirements of BS 8008.
Cleanliness of Pile Bases

On completion of boring and where inspection of a dry pile bore indicates the necessity,
loose, disturbed or softened soil shall be removed from the bore. Where pile bores contain
water or drilling fluid, a cleaning process shall be employed before concrete is placed, or the
concrete shall be placed by tremie method. Large debris or accumulated sediment, or both
of them, shall be removed using appropriate approved methods, which shall be designed to
clean while at the same time minimising ground disturbance below the pile bases. Water or
drilling fluid shall be maintained at such levels throughout and following the cleaning
operation that stability of the bore is preserved.

2.4.4

Workability of Concrete

Slump measured at the time of discharge into the pile bore shall be in accordance with the
standards shown in Table 2.1.

2.4.5

Compaction

Internal vibrators may be used to compact concrete, with the approval of the Engineer
obtained in advance for each specific use.

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2.4.3

Piling mix
workability

Table 2.1
Standards for Concrete Slump
Slump
Minimum

Range

mm

mm

Typical conditions of use

75

75-150

Placed into water-free unlined or permanently lined bore


of 600 mm diameter or over, or where concrete is placed
below temporary casing, and where reinforcement is
widely spaced leaving ample room for free movement of
concrete between bars.

100

100-200

Where reinforcement is not spaced widely, where


concrete is placed within temporary casings, where pile
bore is water-free, and the diameter less than 600 mm

150

150 or more

Where concrete is to be placed by tremie under water or


drilling mud, or by pumping

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


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02: Concrete Works for Piling

Page 5

Placing Concrete in Dry Borings

Approved measures shall be taken to ensure that the structural strength of the concrete
placed in all piles is not impaired through grout loss, segregation or bleeding.

Concrete shall be placed by elephant trunk, and the free fall shall not exceed 1.2 m.

2.4.7

Placing Concrete under Water or Drilling Fluid

Before placing concrete, measures shall be taken in accordance with Clause 2.4.3 to ensure
that there is no accumulation of silt or other material at the base of the boring, and the
Contractor shall ensure that heavily contaminated bentonite suspension, which could impair
the free flow of concrete from the tremie pipe, has not accumulated in the bottom of the hole.

Concrete to be placed under water or drilling fluid shall be placed by tremie and shall not be
discharged freely into the water or drilling fluid. Pumping of concrete may be approved where
appropriate.

A sample of the bentonite suspension shall be taken from the base of the boring using an
approved sampling device. If the specific gravity of the suspension exceeds 1.20 the placing
of concrete shall not proceed. In this event the Contractor shall modify or replace the
bentonite as approved to meet the specification.

The concrete shall be a rich, coherent mix and highly workable, and cement content shall be
in accordance with Clause 2.3.5.

The concrete shall be placed in such a manner that segregation does not occur.

The hopper and pipe of the tremie shall be clean and watertight throughout. The pipe shall
extend to the base of the bore and a sliding plug or barrier shall be placed in the pipe to
prevent direct contact between the first charge of concrete in the tremie and the water or
drilling fluid. The pipe shall at all times penetrate the concrete which has previously been
placed and shall be withdrawn at a rate such that there shall be a minimum concrete cover of
2 m over the end of the tremie pipe, until completion of concreting. A sufficient quantity of

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2.4.6

concrete shall be maintained within the pipe to ensure that the pressure from it exceeds that
from the water or drilling fluid. The internal diameter of the tremie pipe shall be not less than
150 mm, and the maximum sized aggregate shall be 20 mm. It shall be so designed that
external projections are minimised, allowing the tremie to pass within reinforcing cages
without causing damage. The internal face of the pipe of the tremie shall be free from
projections.
END OF PART

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Part
03: Shallow Foundations

Page 1

SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS .................................................................................... 2

3.1
3.1.1
3.1.2
3.1.3
3.1.4

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2
Scope
2
Definition
2
References
2
Limit States Considerations
2

3.2
3.2.1
3.2.2
3.2.3
3.2.4
3.2.5
3.2.6

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS .................................................................................. 3


General
3
Allowable Bearing Pressure
3
Selection of Types of Shallow Foundation
3
Pad foundations
4
Strip foundations
4
Raft foundations
5

3.3
3.3.1
3.3.2
3.3.3

BASIS OF GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN .................................................................... 5


Design Requirements
5
Design Situations
7
Durability
8

3.4
3.4.1
3.4.2
3.4.3
3.4.4
3.4.5
3.4.6
3.4.7
3.4.8
3.4.9
3.4.10
3.4.11

GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN BY CALCULATION ...................................................... 9


General
9
Actions
10
Ground Properties
12
Geometrical Data
13
Characteristic and Representative Values of Actions
13
Characteristic Values of Geotechnical Parameters
13
Characteristic Values of Geometrical Data
14
Geotechnical Design Report
14
Actions and Design Situations
15
Design and Construction Considerations
15
Foundations on Rock; Additional Design Considerations
16

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


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03: Shallow Foundations

Page 2

SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS

3.1

GENERAL

3.1.1

Scope

The provisions of this Section apply to shallow foundations including isolated, pads, strips and
rafts.

3.1.2

Definition

Shallow foundations are taken to be those where the depth below finished ground level is
less than 3 m and include isolated, pad, strip and raft foundations. The choice of 3 m is
arbitrary; shallow foundations where the depth/breadth ratio is high may need to be designed
as deep foundations.

3.1.3

References

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BS 8004,.....................Code of practice for foundations.

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BS EN 1990................Eurocode 0: Basis of Structural Design


BS EN 1991................Eurocode 1: Actions on structures
BS EN 1992................Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures -

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BS EN 1993................Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures

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BS EN 1994................Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures


BS EN 1995................Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures

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BS EN 1996................Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures

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BS EN 1997-1 ............Eurocode 7, Geotechnical design Part 1: General Rules


BS EN 1997-2 ............Eurocode 7, Geotechnical design Part 2: Ground investigation and
testing

BS EN 1998................Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance

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BS 5930......................Code of Practice for Site Investigation


Limit States Considerations

The following limit states shall be considered and an appropriate list shall be compiled:

3.1.4

(a)

Loss of overall stability;

(b)

Bearing resistance failure, punching failure, squeezing;

(c)

Failure by sliding;

(d)

Combined failure in the ground and in the structure;

(e)

Structural failure due to foundation movement;

(f)

Excessive settlements;

(g)

Excessive heave due to swelling, frost and other causes;

(h)

Unacceptable vibrations.

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03: Shallow Foundations

Page 3

3.2

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

3.2.1

General

The depth to which foundations should be carried depends on two principal factors:
(a)

Reaching an adequate bearing stratum;

(b)

Penetration below the zone in which trouble may be expected from seasonal weather
changes.

Other factors such as ground movements, changes in groundwater conditions, long-term


stability and heat transmitted from structures to the supporting ground may be important.

Shallow foundations are particularly vulnerable to certain soil conditions, e.g. loose waterbearing sands and soils that change structure when loaded. Specialist advice should be
sought where such conditions are indicated by ground investigation.

3.2.2

Allowable Bearing Pressure

The center of area of a foundation or group of foundations should be arranged vertically


under the centre of gravity of the imposed loading. If this is not possible, the effects on the
structure of rotation and settlement of the foundation need to be considered.

Where foundation support is provided by a number of separate bases these should, as far as
practicable, be proportioned so that differential settlement is minimal.

3.2.3

Selection of Types of Shallow Foundation

The selection of the appropriate type of shallow foundation will normally depend on the
magnitude and disposition of the structural loads, the bearing capacity and settlement
characteristics of the ground and the need to found in stable soil.

A pad foundation is used for the purpose of distributing concentrated loads. Unless special
conditions control the design, relatively heavy column loads make it advantageous to use pad
foundations.

Strip foundations may be more appropriate where column loads are comparatively small and
closely spaced or where walls are heavy or heavily loaded.

Adjacent pad foundations can be combined or joined together with ground beams to support
eccentric loads, to resist overturning or to oppose horizontal forces. Walls between columns
may be carried on ground beams spanning between the pad foundations.

Where the allowable bearing pressure would result in large isolated foundations occupying
the majority of the available area, it may be logical to join them to form a raft and spread the
loads over the entire area. The combination of isolated foundations to form a raft sometimes
results in a complex design and a large increase in the reinforcement requirement.

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Page 4

In connection with the provision of foundations to an extension of an existing building,


allowance should be made for differential movement of the foundations between the new and
existing structure; such movement affects the structure above foundations. Where a degree
of cracking and subsequent remedial work is not acceptable, provision for a joint between the
extension and existing building should be considered. Where the foundations of an extension
about the foundations of the existing building, the stability of the existing foundations should
be ensured.

3.2.4

Pad foundations

For buildings such as low rise dwellings and lightly framed structures, pad foundations may
be of unreinforced concrete provided that the angle of spread of load from the pier or base
plate to the outer edge of the ground bearing does not exceed one (vertical) in one
(horizontal) and that the stresses in the concrete due to bending and shear do not exceed
tolerable limits. For buildings other than low rise and lightly framed structures, it is customary
to use reinforced concrete foundations.

The thickness of the foundation should under no circumstances be less than 150 mm and will
generally be greater than this to maintain cover to reinforcement where provided.

Where concrete foundations are used they should be designed in accordance with the design
method appropriate to the loading assumptions.

3.2.5

Strip foundations

Similar considerations to those for pad foundations apply to strip foundations. On sloping
sites strip foundations should be on a horizontal bearing, stepped where necessary to
maintain adequate depth.

In continuous wall foundations it is recommended that reinforcement be provided wherever


an abrupt change in magnitude of load or variation in ground support occurs. Continuous wall
foundations will normally be constructed in mass concrete provided that the angle of spread
of load from the edge of the wall base to the outer edge of the ground bearing does not
exceed one (vertical) in one (horizontal). Foundations on sloping ground, and where
regarding is likely to take place, may require to be designed as retaining walls to
accommodate steps between adjacent ground floor slabs or finished ground levels. At all
changes of level unreinforced foundations should be lapped at the steps for a distance at
least equal to the thickness of the foundation or a minimum of 300mm. Where the height of
the step exceeds the thickness of the foundation, special precautions should be taken. The
thickness of reinforced strip foundations should be not less than 150mm, and care should be
taken with the excavation levels to ensure that this minimum thickness is maintained. For the
longitudinal spread of loads, sufficient reinforcement should be provided to withstand the
tensions induced. It will sometimes be desirable to make strip foundations of inverted tee
beam sections, in order to provide adequate stiffness in the longitudinal direction. At corners
and junctions the longitudinal reinforcement of each wall foundation should be lapped.

Where the use of ordinary strip foundations would overstress the bearing strata, wide strip
foundations designed to transmit the foundation loads across the full width of the strip may be
used. The depth below the finished ground level should be the same as for ordinary strip
foundations.

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


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Page 5

Where the nature of the ground is such that narrow trenches can be neatly cut down to the
bearing stratum, an economical foundation may be achieved by filling the trenches with
concrete. When deciding the trench width, account should be taken of normal building
tolerances in relation to setting out dimensions. Where the thickness of such a foundation is
500mm or more, any step should be not greater than the concrete thickness and the lap at
such a step should be at least 1 m or twice the step height, whichever is the greater?

Where fill or other loose materials occur above the bearing stratum adequate support is
required to any excavation. Consideration may be given to the use of lean mix mass concrete
replacement under ordinary strip footings placed at shallow depth. This mass concrete can
be poured against either permanent or recoverable shuttering. This form of foundation
provides a method of dealing with local areas where deeper foundations are required.

3.2.6

Raft foundations

General. Suitably designed raft foundations may be used in the following circumstances.

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For lightly loaded structures on soft natural ground where it is necessary to spread the
load, or where there is variable support due to natural variations, made ground or
weaker zones. In this case the function of the raft is to act as a bridge across the
weaker zones. Rafts may form part of compensated foundations.

(b)

Where differential settlements are likely to be significant. The raft will require special
design, involving an assessment of the disposition and distribution of loads, contact
pressures and stiffness of the soil and raft.

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(a)

BASIS OF GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN

3.3.1

Design Requirements

For each geotechnical design situation it shall be verified that no relevant limit state is
exceeded.

When defining the design situations and the limit states, the following factors should be
considered:
Site conditions with respect to overall stability and ground movements;

(a)

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3.3

(b)

Nature and size of the structure and its elements, including any special requirements
such as the design life;

(c)

Conditions with regard to its surroundings (e.g.: neighboring structures, traffic, utilities,
vegetation, hazardous chemicals);

(d)

Ground conditions;

(e)

Ground-water conditions;

(f)

Regional seismicity;

(g)

Influence of the environment (hydrology, surface water, subsidence, seasonal changes


of temperature and moisture).

Limit states can occur either in the ground or in the structure or by combined failure in the
structure and the ground.

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03: Shallow Foundations

Page 6

Limit states should be verified by any appropriate method such as calculation method as
described in 3.4;

In practice, experience will often show which type of limit state will govern the design and the
avoidance of other limit states may be verified by a control check.

Buildings should normally be protected against the penetration of ground-water or the


transmission of vapor or gases to their interiors.

If practicable, the design results should be checked against comparable experience.

In order to establish minimum requirements for the extent and content of geotechnical
investigations, calculations and construction control checks, the complexity of each
geotechnical design shall be identified together with the associated risks. In particular, a
distinction shall be made between:

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L ight and simple structures and small earthworks for which it is possible to ensure that
the minimum requirements will be satisfied by experience and qualitative geotechnical
investigations, with negligible risk;

(b)

Other geotechnical structures.

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(a)

For structures and earthworks of low geotechnical complexity and risk, such as defined
above, simplified design procedures may be applied.

10

To establish geotechnical design requirements, three Geotechnical Categories, 1, 2 and 3,


may be introduced.

11

A preliminary classification of a structure according to Geotechnical Category should


normally be performed prior to the geotechnical investigations. The category should be
checked and changed, if necessary, at each stage of the design and construction process.

12

The procedures of higher categories may be used to justify more economic designs, or if the
designer considers them to be appropriate.

13

The various design aspects of a project can require treatment in different Geotechnical
Categories. It is not required to treat the whole of the project according to the highest of these
categories.

14

Geotechnical Category 1 should only include small and relatively simple structures:

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(a)

For which it is possible to ensure that the fundamental requirements will be satisfied on
the basis of experience and qualitative geotechnical investigations;

(b)

With negligible risk.

15

Geotechnical Category 1 procedures should be used only where there is negligible risk in
terms of overall stability or ground movements and in ground conditions, which are known
from comparable local experience to be sufficiently straightforward. In these cases the
procedures may consist of routine methods for foundation design and construction.

16

Geotechnical Category 1 procedures should be used only if there is no excavation below the
water table or if comparable local experience indicates that a proposed excavation below the
water table will be straightforward.

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03: Shallow Foundations

Page 7

17

Geotechnical Category 2 should include conventional types of structure and foundation with
no exceptional risk or difficult soil or loading conditions

18

Designs for structures in Geotechnical Category 2 should normally include quantitative


geotechnical data and analysis to ensure that the fundamental requirements are satisfied.

19

Routine procedures for field and laboratory testing and for design and execution may be used
for Geotechnical Category 2 designs.
the following are examples of conventional structures or parts of structures complying
with Geotechnical Category 2:
Shallow foundations;

(ii)

Pile foundations;

(iii)

Walls and other structures retaining or supporting soil or water;

(iv)

Excavations;

(v)

Bridge piers and abutments;

(vi)

Embankments and earthworks;

(vii)

Ground anchors and other tie-back systems;

(viii)

Tunnels in hard, non-fractured rock and not subjected to special water tightness
or other requirements.

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(a)

Geotechnical Category 3 should include structures or parts of structures, which fall outside
the limits of Geotechnical Categories 1 and 2.

21

Geotechnical Category 3 should normally include alternative provisions and rules to those in
this standard.
Geotechnical Category 3 includes the following examples:
Very large or unusual structures;

(ii)

Structures involving abnormal risks, or unusual or exceptionally difficult ground


or loading conditions;

(iii)

Structures in highly seismic areas;

(iv)

Structures in areas of probable site instability or persistent ground movements


that require separate investigation or special measures.

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3.3.2

Design Situations

Both short-term and long-term design situations shall be considered.

In geotechnical design, the detailed specifications of design situations should include, as


appropriate:
(a)

The actions, their combinations and load cases;

(b)

The general suitability of the ground on which the structure is located with respect to
overall stability and ground movements;

(c)

The disposition and classification of the various zones of soil, rock and elements of
construction, which are involved in any calculation model;

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
03: Shallow Foundations

(d)

Dipping bedding planes;

(e)

Mine workings, caves or other underground structures;

(f)

In the case of structures resting on or near rock:


(i)

inter bedded hard and soft strata;

(ii)

faults, joints and fissures;

(iii)

possible instability of rock blocks;

(iv)

solution cavities, such as swallow holes or fissures filled with soft material, and
continuing solution processes;

The environment within which the design is set, including the following:
(i)

effects of scour, erosion and excavation, leading to changes in the geometry of


the ground surface;

(ii)

effects of chemical corrosion;

(iii)

effects of weathering;

(iv)

effects of long duration droughts;

(v)

variations in ground-water levels, including, e.g. the effects of dewatering,


possible flooding, failure of drainage systems, water exploitation;

(vi)

the presence of gases emerging from the ground;

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(g)

Page 8

Earthquakes;

(i)

Ground movements caused by subsidence due to mining or other activities;

(j)

The sensitivity of the structure to deformations;

(k)

The effect of the new structure on existing structures, services and the local
environment.

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Durability

At the geotechnical design stage, the significance of environmental conditions shall be


assessed in relation to durability and to enable provisions to be made for the protection or
adequate resistance of the materials.

In designing for durability of materials used in the ground, the following should be considered:

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3.3.3

(a)

For concrete:
(i)

(b)

Aggressive agents in the ground-water or in the ground or fill material, such as


acids or sulfate salts;

For steel:
(i)

Chemical attack where foundation elements are buried in ground that is


sufficiently permeable to allow the percolation of ground-water and oxygen;

(ii)

Corrosion on the faces of sheet pile walls exposed to free water, particularly in
the mean water level zone;

(iii)

The pitting type of corrosive attack on steel embedded in fissured or porous


concrete, particularly for rolled steel where the mill scale, acting as a cathode,
promotes electrolytic action with the scale-free surface acting as an anode;

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(c)

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
03: Shallow Foundations
For timber:
(i)

(d)

Page 9

Fungi and aerobic bacteria in the presence of oxygen;

For synthetic fabrics:


(i)

The ageing effects of UV exposure or ozone degradation or the combined


effects of temperature and stress, and secondary effects due to chemical
degradation.

Reference should be made to durability provisions in construction materials standards.

3.4

GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN BY CALCULATION

3.4.1

General

Design by calculation shall be in accordance with the fundamental requirements of EN 1990


and with the particular rules of this specification. Design by calculation involves:

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Actions, which may be either imposed loads or imposed displacements, e.g. from
ground movements;

(b)

Properties of soils, rocks and other materials;

(c)

Geometrical data;

(d)

Limiting values of deformations, crack widths, vibrations etc;

(e)

Calculation models.

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(a)

It should be considered that knowledge of the ground conditions depends on the extent and
quality of the geotechnical investigations. Such knowledge and the control of workmanship
are usually more significant to fulfilling the fundamental requirements than is precision in the
calculation models and partial factors.

The calculation model shall describe the assumed behavior of the ground for the limit state
under consideration.

If no reliable calculation model is available for a specific limit state, analysis of another limit
state shall be carried out using factors to ensure that exceeding the specific limit state
considered is sufficiently improbable. Alternatively, design by prescriptive measures,
experimental models and load tests, or the observational method, shall be performed.

The calculation model may consist of any of the following:

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(a)

An analytical model;

(b)

A semi-empirical model;

(c)

A numerical model.

Any calculation model shall be either accurate or err on the side of safety.

A calculation model may include simplifications.

If needed, a modification of the results from the model may be used to ensure that the design
calculation is either accurate or errs on the side of safety.

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03: Shallow Foundations

Page 10

If the modification of the results makes use of a model factor, it should take account of the
following:
(a)

The range of uncertainty in the results of the method of analysis;

(b)

Any systematic errors known to be associated with the method of analysis.

10

If an empirical relationship is used in the analysis, it shall be clearly established that it is


relevant for the prevailing ground conditions.

11

Limit states involving the formation of a mechanism in the ground should be readily checked
using a calculation model. For limit states defined by deformation considerations, the
deformations should be evaluated by calculation or otherwise assessed.

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NOTE: many calculation models are based on the assumption of a sufficiently ductile
performance of the ground/structure system. A lack of ductility, however, will lead to an
ultimate limit state characterized by sudden collapse.
Numerical methods can be appropriate if compatibility of strains or the interaction between
the structure and the soil at a limit state are considered.

13

Compatibility of strains at a limit state should be considered. Detailed analysis, allowing for
the relative stiffness of structure and ground, may be needed in cases where a combined
failure of structural members and the ground could occur. Examples include raft foundations,
laterally loaded piles and flexible retaining walls. Particular attention should be paid to strain
compatibility for materials that are brittle or that have strain-softening properties.

14

In some problems, such as excavations supported by anchored or strutted flexible walls, the
magnitude and distribution of earth pressures, internal structural forces and bending
moments depend to a great extent on the stiffness of the structure, the stiffness and strength
of the ground and the state of stress in the ground.

15

In these problems of ground-structure interaction, analyses should use stress-strain


relationships for ground and structural materials and stress states in the ground that are
sufficiently representative, for the limit state considered, to give a safe result.

3.4.2

Actions

The definition of actions shall be taken as:

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12

(a)

Set of forces (loads) applied to the structure (direct action);

(b)

Set of imposed deformations or accelerations caused for example, by temperature


changes, moisture variation, uneven settlement or earthquakes (indirect action).

The values of actions shall be taken from EN 1991 or equivalent international standard,
where relevant.
2

The values of geotechnical actions to be used shall be selected, since they are known before
a calculation is performed; they may change during that calculation.
NOTE: Values of geotechnical actions may change during the course of calculation. In such
cases they will be introduced as a first estimate to start the calculation with a preliminary,
known value.

Any interaction between the structure and the ground shall be taken into account when
determining the actions to be adopted in the design.

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Page 11

In geotechnical design, the following should be considered for inclusion as actions:


the weight of soil, rock and water;

(b)

stresses in the ground;

(c)

earth pressures and ground-water pressure;

(d)

free water pressures, including wave pressures;

(e)

ground-water pressures;

(f)

seepage forces;

(g)

dead and imposed loads from structures;

(h)

surcharges;

(i)

mooring forces;

(j)

removal of load or excavation of ground;

(k)

traffic loads;

(l)

movements caused by mining or other caving or tunneling activities;

(m)

swelling and shrinkage caused by vegetation, climate or moisture changes;

(n)

movements due to creeping or sliding or settling ground masses;

(o)

movements due to degradation, dispersion, decomposition, self-compaction and


solution;

(p)

movements and accelerations caused by earthquakes, explosions, vibrations and


dynamic loads;

(q)

temperature effects, including frost action;

(r)

imposed pre-stress in ground anchors or struts;

(s)

down drag.

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Consideration shall be given to the possibility of variable actions occurring both jointly and
separately.

The duration of actions shall be considered with reference to time effects in the material
properties of the soil, especially the drainage properties and compressibility of fine-grained
soils.

Actions, which are applied repeatedly, and actions with variable intensity shall be identified
for special consideration with regard to, e.g. continuing movements, liquefaction of soils,
change of ground stiffness and strength.

Actions that produce a dynamic response in the structure and the ground shall be identified
for special consideration.

Actions in which ground- and free-water forces predominate shall be identified for special
consideration with regard to deformations, fissuring, variable permeability and erosion.

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NOTE Unfavorable (or destabilizing) and favorable (or stabilizing) permanent actions may in
some situations be considered as coming from a single source. If they are considered so, a
single partial factor may be applied to the sum of these actions or to the sum of their effects.

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Ground Properties

Properties of soil and rock masses, as quantified for design calculations by geotechnical
parameters, shall be obtained from test results, either directly or through correlation, theory
or empiricism, and from other relevant data.

Values obtained from test results and other data shall be interpreted appropriately for the limit
state considered.

Account shall be taken of the possible differences between the ground properties and
geotechnical parameters obtained from test results and those governing the behavior of the
geotechnical structure.

The above differences can be due to the following factors:


many geotechnical parameters are not true constants but depend on stress level and
mode of deformation;

(b)

soil and rock structure (e.g. fissures, laminations, or large particles) that may play a
different role in the test and in the geotechnical structure;

(c)

time effects;

(d)

the softening effect of percolating water on soil or rock strength;

(e)

the softening effect of dynamic actions;

(f)

the brittleness or ductility of the soil and rock tested;

(g)

the method of installation of the geotechnical structure;

(h)

the influence of workmanship on artificially placed or improved ground;

(i)

the effect of construction activities on the properties of the ground.

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(a)

When establishing values of geotechnical parameters, the following should be considered:

the value of each geotechnical parameter compared with relevant published data and
local and general experience;

(b)

published and well recognized information relevant to the use of each type of test in
the appropriate ground conditions;

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3.4.3

(c)

the variation of the geotechnical parameters that are relevant to the design;

(d)

the results of any large scale field trials and measurements from neighboring
constructions;

(e)

any correlations between the results from more than one type of test;

(f)

any significant deterioration in ground material properties that may occur during the
lifetime of the structure.

Calibration factors shall be applied where necessary to convert laboratory or field test results
according to EN 1997-2 into values that represent the behavior of the soil and rock in the
ground, for the actual limit state, or to take account of correlations used to obtain derived
values from the test results.

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Page 13

Geometrical Data

The level and slope of the ground surface, water levels, levels of interfaces between strata,
excavation levels and the dimensions of the geotechnical structure shall be treated as
geometrical data.

3.4.5

Characteristic and Representative Values of Actions

Characteristic and representative values of actions shall be derived in accordance with EN


1990:2002 and the various parts of EN 1991.

3.4.6

Characteristic Values of Geotechnical Parameters

The selection of characteristic values for geotechnical parameters shall be based on results
and derived values from laboratory and field tests, complemented by well-established
experience.

The characteristic value of a geotechnical parameter shall be selected as a cautious estimate


of the value affecting the occurrence of the limit state.

The selection of characteristic values for geotechnical parameters shall take account of the
following:

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3.4.4

geological and other background information, such as data from previous projects;

(b)

the variability of the measured property values and other relevant information, e.g.
from existing knowledge;

(c)

the extent of the field and laboratory investigation;

(d)

the type and number of samples;

(e)

the extent of the zone of ground governing the behavior of the geotechnical structure
at the limit state being considered;

(f)

the ability of the geotechnical structure to transfer loads from weak to strong zones in
the ground.

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Characteristic values can be lower values, which are less than the most probable values, or
upper values, which are greater.

For each calculation, the most unfavorable combination of lower and upper values of
independent parameters shall be used.

The zone of ground governing the behavior of a geotechnical structure at a limit state is
usually much larger than a test sample or the zone of ground affected in an in situ test.
Consequently the value of the governing parameter is often the mean of a range of values
covering a large surface or volume of the ground. The characteristic value should be a
cautious estimate of this mean value.

If the behavior of the geotechnical structure at the limit state considered is governed by the
lowest or highest value of the ground property, the characteristic value should be a cautious
estimate of the lowest or highest value occurring in the zone governing the behavior.

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Part
03: Shallow Foundations

Page 14

When selecting the zone of ground governing the behavior of a geotechnical structure at a
limit state, it should be considered that this limit state may depend on the behavior of the
supported structure. For instance, when considering a bearing resistance ultimate limit state
for a building resting on several footings, the governing parameter should be the mean
strength over each individual zone of ground under a footing, if the building is unable to resist
a local failure. If, however, the building is stiff and strong enough, the governing parameter
should be the mean of these mean values over the entire zone or part of the zone of ground
under the building.

If statistical methods are employed in the selection of characteristic values for ground
properties, such methods should differentiate between local and regional sampling and
should allow the use of a prior knowledge of comparable ground properties.

10

If statistical methods are used, the characteristic value should be derived such that the
calculated probability of a worse value governing the occurrence of the limit state under
consideration is not greater than 5%.

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NOTE : In this respect, a cautious estimate of the mean value is a selection of the mean
value of the limited set of geotechnical parameter values, with a confidence level of 95%;
where local failure is concerned, a cautious estimate of the low value is a 5% fractal.
When using standard tables of characteristic values related to soil investigation parameters,
the characteristic value shall be selected as a very cautious value.

3.4.7

Characteristic Values of Geometrical Data

Characteristic values of the levels of ground and ground-water or free water shall be
measured, nominal or estimated upper or lower levels.

Characteristic values of levels of ground and dimensions of geotechnical structures or


elements should usually be nominal values.

3.4.8

Geotechnical Design Report

The assumptions, data, methods of calculation and results of the verification of safety and
serviceability shall be recorded in the Geotechnical Design Report.

The level of detail of the Geotechnical Design Reports will vary greatly, depending on the
type of design. For simple designs, a single sheet may be sufficient.

The Geotechnical Design Report should normally include the following items, with crossreference to the Ground Investigation Report :

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(a)

a description of the site and surroundings;

(b)

a description of the ground conditions;

(c)

a description of the proposed construction, including actions;

(d)

design values of soil and rock properties, including justification, as appropriate;

(e)

statements on the codes and standards applied;

(f)

statements on the suitability of the site with respect to the proposed construction and
the level of acceptable risks;

(g)

geotechnical design calculations and drawings;

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Part
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Page 15

(h)

foundation design recommendations;

(i)

a note of items to be checked during construction or requiring maintenance or


monitoring.

The Geotechnical Design Report shall include a plan of supervision and monitoring, as
appropriate. Items, which require checking during construction or, which require maintenance
after construction shall be clearly identified. When the required checks have been carried out
during construction, they shall be recorded in an addendum to the Report.

In relation to supervision and monitoring the Geotechnical Design Report should state:
the purpose of each set of observations or measurements;

(b)

the parts of the structure, which are to be monitored and the locations at which
observations are to be made;

(c)

the frequency with which readings is to be taken;

(d)

the ways in which the results are to be evaluated;

(e)

the range of values within which the results are to be expected;

(f)

the period of time for which monitoring is to continue after construction is complete;

(g)

the parties responsible for making measurements and observations, for interpreting
the results obtained and for maintaining the instruments.

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(a)

An extract from the Geotechnical Design Report, containing the supervision, monitoring and
maintenance requirements for the completed structure, shall be provided to the owner/client.

3.4.9

Actions and Design Situations

Design situations shall be selected in accordance with 3.3.2.

The actions listed in 3.4.2(4) should be considered when selecting the limit states for
calculation.

If structural stiffness is significant, an analysis of the interaction between the structure and
the ground should be performed in order to determine the distribution of actions.

3.4.10

Design and Construction Considerations

When choosing the depth of a shallow foundation the following shall be considered:

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(a)

reaching an adequate bearing stratum;

(b)

the depth above which shrinkage and swelling of clay soils, due to seasonal weather
changes, or to trees and shrubs, may cause appreciable movements;

(c)

the level of the water table in the ground and the problems, which may occur if
excavation for the foundation is required below this level;

(d)

possible ground movements and reductions in the strength of the bearing stratum by
seepage or climatic effects or by construction procedures;

(e)

the effects of excavations on nearby foundations and structures;

(f)

anticipated excavations for services close to the foundation;

(g)

high or low temperatures transmitted from the building;

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Part
03: Shallow Foundations

Page 16

(h)

the possibility of scour;

(i)

the effects of variation of water content due to long periods of drought, and subsequent
periods of rain, on the properties of volume-unstable soils in arid climatic areas;

(j)

the presence of soluble materials, e.g. limestone, clay stone, gypsum, salt rocks;

In addition to fulfilling the performance requirements, the design foundation width shall take
account of practical considerations such as economic excavation, setting out tolerances,
working space requirements and the dimensions of the wall or column supported by the
foundation.

One of the following design methods shall be used for shallow foundations:
a direct method, in which separate analyses are carried out for each limit state. When
checking against an ultimate limit state, the calculation shall model as closely as
possible the failure mechanism, which is envisaged. When checking against a
serviceability limit state, a settlement calculation shall be used;

(b)

an indirect method using comparable experience and the results of field or laboratory
measurements or observations, and chosen in relation to serviceability limit state loads
so as to satisfy the requirements of all relevant limit states;

(c)

a prescriptive method in which a presumed bearing resistance is used.

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(a)

Foundations on Rock; Additional Design Considerations

The design of shallow foundations on rock shall take account of the following features:
the deformability and strength of the rock mass and the permissible settlement of the
supported structure;

(b)

the presence of any weak layers, for example solution features or fault zones, beneath
the foundation;

(c)

the presence of bedding joints and other discontinuities and their characteristics (for
example filling, continuity, width, spacing);

(d)

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3.4.11

disturbance of the natural state of the rock caused by construction activities, such as,
for example, underground works or slope excavation, being near to the foundation.

(e)

the state of weathering, decomposition and fracturing of the rock;

Shallow foundations on rock may normally be designed using the method of presumed
bearing pressures. For strong intact igneous rocks, gneissic rocks, limestone and
sandstones, the presumed bearing pressure are limited by the compressive strength of the
concrete foundation.

The settlement of a foundation may be assessed on the basis of comparable experience


related to rock mass classification.
END OF PART

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
04: Deep Foundations

Page 1

DEEP FOUNDATIONS ............................................................................................ 4

4.1
4.1.1
4.1.2
4.1.3
4.1.4
4.1.5
4.1.6
4.1.7
4.1.8
4.1.9

PRECAST REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED CONCRETE PILES .................... 4


General
4
Limit States Considerations
4
Precast Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Piles
4
Materials and components
5
Prestressing
7
Driving Piles
8
Risen Piles
10
Repair and lengthening of piles
10
Cutting off pile heads
10

4.2
4.2.1
4.2.2
4.2.3
4.2.4
4.2.5
4.2.6
4.2.7
4.2.8
4.2.9
4.2.10
4.2.11

PRECAST REINFORCED CONCRETE SEGMENTAL PILES............................... 10


Scope
10
References
11
Submittals
11
Quality Assurance
11
Tolerances in Pile Dimensions
11
Handling, Transportation, Storage and Acceptance of Piles
12
Materials and components
12
Driving piles
13
Risen Piles
14
Repair and lengthening of piles
15
Cutting off pile heads
15

4.3
4.3.1
4.3.2
4.3.3
4.3.4
4.3.5
4.3.6

BORED CAST IN PLACE PILES ........................................................................... 15


Scope
15
References
16
Quality Assurance
16
Materials
16
Boring
17
Extraction of casing
19

4.4
4.4.1
4.4.2
4.4.3
4.4.4
4.4.5

BORED PILES CONSTRUCTED USING CONTINUOUS FLIGHT AUGERS AND


CONCRETE OR GROUT INJECTION TROUGH HOLLOW AUGER STEMS ....... 21
Scope
21
Materials
21
Boring
22
Placing of concrete or grout
23
Cutting off pile heads
23

4.5
4.5.1
4.5.2
4.5.3
4.5.4
4.5.5
4.5.6

DRIVEN CAST IN PLACES PILES ........................................................................ 23


Scope
23
Submittals
24
Quality Assurance
24
Materials
24
Driving piles
25
Risen Piles
26

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


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Page 2

Extraction of casing

26

4.6
4.6.1
4.6.2
4.6.3
4.6.4
4.6.5
4.6.6
4.6.7
4.6.8
4.6.9
4.6.10
4.6.11

STEEL PILES ........................................................................................................ 28


Scope
28
References
28
Submittals
28
Quality Assurance
28
Delivery, Storage and Handling
29
Materials
29
Acceptance Standards For Welds
30
Acceptability and inspection of coatings
31
Driving of piles
31
Risen Piles
33
Preparation of pile heads
33

4.7

MICROPILES (TO BE ADDED LATER) ................................................................. 33

4.8
4.8.1
4.8.2
4.8.3
4.8.4
4.8.5

REDUCTION OF FRICTION ON PILES ................................................................ 33


Scope
33
Submittals
33
Friction Reducing Methods
33
Inspection
34
Driving resistance
35

4.9
4.9.1
4.9.2
4.9.3
4.9.4
4.9.5
4.9.6
4.9.7
4.9.8

PILE LOAD TESTING ........................................................................................... 35


Static Load Testing of Piles
35
Presentation of results
45
Low strain Integrity test
47
Grosshole Sonic Logging Test
48
Calliper Logging Test
48
Axial Tensile Load Test
48
Lateral Load Test
48
Alternative Methods for Testing Piles
48

4.10
4.10.1
4.10.2
4.10.3

DESIGN METHODS AND DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS ...................................... 51


Design method
51
Verification of Resistance for Structural and Ground Limit States in Persistent and
Transient Situations
51
Design Considerations
51

4.11
4.11.1
4.11.2
4.11.3
4.11.4
4.11.5
4.11.6
4.11.7
4.11.8
4.11.9
4.11.10

AXIALLY LOADED PILES ..................................................................................... 52


Limit state design
52
Compressive Ground Resistance
53
Ultimate compressive resistance from static load tests
54
Ultimate compressive resistance from ground test results
55
Ultimate compressive resistance from dynamic impact tests
56
Ultimate compressive resistance by applying pile driving formulae
56
Ultimate compressive resistance from wave equation analysis
56
Ground tensile resistance
57
Ultimate tensile resistance from pile load tests
57
Ultimate tensile resistance from ground test results
57

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4.5.7

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
04: Deep Foundations

Page 3

4.11.11 Vertical displacements of pile foundations


4.11.12 Pile foundations in compression
4.11.13 Pile foundations in tension

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TRANSVERSELY LOADED PILES ....................................................................... 58


Design method
58
Transverse load resistance from pile load tests
59
Transverse load resistance from ground test results and pile strength parameters 59
Transverse displacement
60

4.12
4.12.1
4.12.2
4.12.3
4.12.4

58
58
58

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
04: Deep Foundations

Page 4

DEEP FOUNDATIONS

4.1

PRECAST REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED CONCRETE PILES

4.1.1

General

The provisions of this Part apply to end-bearing piles, friction piles, tension piles and
transversely loaded piles installed by driving, by jacking, and by screwing or boring with or
without grouting.

4.1.2

Limit States Considerations

The following limit states shall be considered and an appropriate list shall be compiled:

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Loss of overall stability;

(b)

bearing resistance failure of the pile foundation;

(c)

Uplift or insufficient tensile resistance of the pile foundation;

(d)

Failure in the ground due to transverse loading of the pile foundation;

(e)

Structural failure of the pile in compression, tension, bending, buckling or shear;

(f)

combined failure in the ground and in the pile foundation;

(g)

combined failure in the ground and in the structure;

(h)

Excessive settlement;

(i)

Excessive heave;

(j)

Excessive lateral movement;

(k)

Unacceptable vibrations.

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(a)

Precast Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Piles

Scope

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This Part applies to precast concrete driven piles usually supplied for use in a single
length without facility for joining lengths together.

(a)

4.1.3

(b)
2

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:

References
(a)

The following Standards are referred to in this Part:

BS 7613,.....................Hot rolled quenched and tempered weldable structural steel plates


BS 3100,.....................Steel castings for general engineering purposes
BS 2789,.....................Spheroidal graphite or nodular graphite cast iron
BS 8110,.....................Structural use of concrete.
3

Submittals
(a)

The Contractor shall order the piles to suit the construction programme and seek the
Engineer's approval before placing the order. When preliminary piles are specified,
the approval of the piles for the main work will not necessarily be given until the results
of the driving and loading tests on preliminary piles have been received and evaluated.

QCS 2014

Page 5

Quality Assurance
(a)

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
04: Deep Foundations

After a pile has been cast, the date of casting, reference number, length and, where
appropriate, the prestressing force shall be clearly inscribed on the top surface of the
pile and also clearly and indelibly marked on the head of the pile. Lifting positions shall
be marked at the proper locations on each pile.

Tolerances in Pile Dimensions


(a)

The cross-sectional dimensions of the pile shall be not less than those specified and
shall not exceed them by more than 6 mm. Each face of a pile shall not deviate by
more than 6 mm from any straight line 3 m long joining two points on that face, nor
shall the centre of area of the pile at any cross section along its length deviate by more

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than 1/500 of the pile length from a line joining the centres of area at the ends of the
pile. Where a pile is less than 3 m long, the permitted deviation from straightness shall

Handling, Transportation and Storage of Piles

The method and sequence of lifting, handling, and storage of piles transporting and
storing piles shall be such as to avoid shock loading and to ensure that the piles are
not damaged. Only the designated lifting and support points shall be used. During
transport and storage, piles shall be appropriately supported under the marked lifting
points or fully supported along their length.

(b)

All piles within a stack shall be in groups of the same length. Packing of uniform
thickness shall be provided between piles at the lifting points.

(c)

Concrete shall at no time be subjected to loading, including its own weight, which will
induce a compressive stress in it exceeding 0.33 of its strength at the time of loading
or of the specified strength, whichever is the lesser. For this purpose the assessment
of the strength of the concrete and of the stresses produced by the loads shall be
subject to the agreement of the Engineer.

(d)

Pile may be rejected when the width of any transverse crack exceeds 0.3 mm. The

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(a)

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be reduced below 6 mm on a pro rata basis in accordance with actual length.

measurement shall be made with the pile in its working attitude.

Materials and components

Fabricated Steel Components

4.1.4

(a)

Pile Toes
(a)

In the manufacture of precast concrete piles, fabricated steel components shall comply
with BS 7613 grades 43A or 50B, cast steel components with BS 3100 grade A, and
ductile iron components with BS 2789.

Pile toes shall be constructed so as to ensure that damage is not caused to the pile
during installation. Where positional fixity is required on an inclined rock surface or in
other circumstances, an approved shoe may be required.

Pile Head Reinforcement


(a)

The head of each pile shall be so reinforced or banded as to prevent bursting of the
pile under driving conditions.

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
04: Deep Foundations

Page 6

Main Reinforcement
(a)

The main longitudinal reinforcing bars in piles not exceeding 12 m in length shall be in
one continuous length unless otherwise specified. In piles more than 12 m long, lap
splicing will be permitted in main longitudinal bars at 12 m nominal intervals, with no
more than 25 % of the bars lapped at one location, and laps staggered by a minimum
of 1.2 m. Laps in reinforcement shall be such that the full strength of the bar is
effective across the joint.
Lap or splice joints shall be provided with sufficient link bars to resist eccentric forces.

(c)

Sufficient reinforcement shall be provided for lifting and handling purposes.

Unless otherwise agreed by the Engineer, concrete shall be compacted with the
assistance of vibrators. Internal vibrators shall be capable of producing not less than
150 Hz and external vibrators not less than 50 Hz. Internal vibrators shall operate not

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(a)

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Concrete

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closer than 75 mm to shuttering.

Vibrators shall be operated in such a manner that neither segregation of the concrete
mix constituents nor displacement of reinforcement occurs.

(c)

Immediately after compaction, concrete shall he adequately protected from the harmful
effects of the weather, including wind, rain, rapid temperature changes and frost. It
shall be protected from drying out by an approved method of curing.

(d)

Piles shall not be removed from formwork until a sufficient pile concrete strength has
been achieved to allow the pile to be handled without damage.

(e)

The period of curing at an ambient temperature of 10 C shall not be less than that

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(b)

shown in Table 4.1. If the temperature is greater or less than 10 C, the periods given

When steam or accelerated curing is used the curing procedure shall be approved.
Four hours must elapse from the completion of placing concrete before the
temperature is raised. The rise in temperature within any period of 30 min shall not
exceed 10 C and the maximum temperature attained shall not exceed 70 C. The rate

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(f)

shall be adjusted accordingly and shall be approved.

(b)

of subsequent cooling shall not exceed the rate of heating.


Table 4.1
Period of Curing at 10 C
Type of cement

Wet curing time after


completion of placing concrete, d

Ordinary Portland

Sulphate-resisting Portland

Portland blast-furnace

Super-sulphated

Rapid-hardening Portland

QCS 2014

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
04: Deep Foundations

Page 7

Formwork
(a)

shaped point or shoe, then the end of the pile shall be symmetrical about the
longitudinal axis of the pile. Holes for handling or pitching, where provided in the pile,
shall be lined with steel tubes; alternatively, approved inserts may be cast in.

(b)

Formwork shall be robust, clean and so constructed as to prevent loss of grout or


aggregate from the wet concrete and ensure the production of uniform pile sections,
free from defects. The piles are to be removed from the formwork carefully so as to
prevent damage.

4.1.5

Prestressing

General
Tensioning shall be carried out only when the Engineer is present, unless otherwise
approved. In cases where piles are manufactured off site, the Contractor shall ensure
that the Engineer is given adequate notice and every facility for inspecting the
manufacturing process.

(b)

Prestressing operations shall be carried out only under the direction of an experienced
and competent supervisor. All personnel operating the stressing equipment shall have
been trained in its use.

(c)

The calculated extensions and total forces, including allowance for losses, shall be
agreed with the Engineer before stressing is commenced.

(d)

Stressing of tendons and transfer of prestress shall be carried out at a gradual and
steady rate. The force in the tendons shall be obtained from readings on a recently
calibrated load cell or pressure gauge incorporated in the equipment. The extension of
the tendons under the agreed total forces shall be within 5 % of the agreed calculated
extension.

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Concrete Strength

The Contractor shall cast sufficient cubes, cured in the same manner as the piles, to
be able to demonstrate by testing two cubes at a time, with approved intervals between
pairs of cubes, that the specified transfer strength of the concrete has been reached.

(b)

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(a)

Post-Tensioned Piles
(a)

Unless otherwise permitted, concrete shall not be stressed until two test cubes attain
the specified transfer strength.

Ducts and vents in post-tensioned piles shall be grouted after the transfer of prestress.

Grouting Procedure
(a)

Grout shall be mixed for a minimum of 2 min and until a uniform consistency is
obtained.

(b)

Ducts shall not be grouted when the air temperature in the shade is lower than 3 C.

(c)

Before grouting is started all ducts shall be thoroughly cleaned by means of


compressed air.

(d)

Grout shall be injected near the lowest point in the duct in one continuous operation
and allowed to flow from the outlet until the consistency is equivalent to that of the
grout being injected.

(e)

Vents in ducts shall be provided in accordance with Clause 8.9.2 of BS 8110.

QCS 2014

Page 8

Grout
(a)

Unless otherwise directed or agreed by the Engineer


(i)

the grout shall consist only of ordinary Portland cement, water and approved
admixtures; admixtures containing chlorides or nitrates shall not be used

(ii)

the grout shall have a water/cement ratio as low as possible consistent with the
necessary workability, and the water/cement ratio shall not exceed 0.45 unless
an approved mix containing an expanding agent is used

(iii)

the grout shall not be subject to bleeding in excess of 2 % after 3 h, or in excess


of 4% maximum, when measured at 18 C in a covered glass cylinder
approximately 100 mm in diameter with a height of grout of approximately 100
mm, and the water shall be reabsorbed after 24 h.

Records

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
04: Deep Foundations

The Contractor shall keep detailed records of times of tensioning, measured


extensions, pressure gauge readings or load cell readings and the amount of pull-in at
each anchorage. Copies of these records shall be supplied to the Engineer within
such reasonable time from completion of each tensioning operation as may be
required, and in any case not later than noon on the following working day.

(b)

The Contractor shall keep records of grouting, including the date, the proportions of
the grout and any admixtures used, the pressure, details of interruption and topping up
required. Copies of these records shall be supplied to the Engineer within such
reasonable time after completion of each grouting operation as may be required, and
in any case not later than noon on the following working day.

Driving Piles

Strength of Piles
(a)

Piles shall not be driven until the concrete has achieved the specified strength.

At all stages during driving and until incorporation into the substructure, the pile shall
be adequately supported and restrained by means of leaders, trestles, temporary
supports or other guide arrangements to maintain position and alignment and to
prevent buckling. These arrangements shall be such that damage to the pile does not
occur.

(a)

Leaders and Trestles

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(a)

Performance of Driving Equipment


(a)

The Contractor shall satisfy the Engineer regarding the suitability, efficiency and
energy of the driving equipment. Where designated, dynamic evaluation and analysis
shall be provided.

(b)

Where a drop hammer is used, the mass of the hammer shall be at least half that of
the pile unless otherwise approved by the Engineer. For other types of hammer the
energy delivered to the pile per blow shall be at least equivalent to that of a drop
hammer of the stated mass. Drop hammers shall not be used from floating craft in
such a manner as to cause instability of the craft or damage to the pile.

Length of Piles
(a)

The length of pile to be driven in any location shall be approved prior to the
commencement of driving.

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
04: Deep Foundations

Page 9

Driving Procedure and Redrive Checks


(a)

The driving of each pile shall be continuous until the specified depth or resistance
(set), or both, has been reached. In the event of unavoidable interruption to driving,
the pile will be accepted provided it can subsequently be driven to the specified depth
or resistance (set), or both, without damage. A follower shall not be used unless
approved, in which case the Engineer will require the set where applicable to be
revised in order to take into account reduction in the effectiveness of the hammer blow.

(b)

The Contractor shall inform the Engineer without delay if an unexpected change in
driving characteristics is noted. A detailed record of the driving resistance over the full
length of the nearest available pile shall be taken if required.

(c)

At the start of the work in a new area or section, a detailed driving record shall be
made over the full length of the first pile and during the last 3 m of subsequent piles

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until consistency of behaviour is established. Where required, detailed driving records


shall also be made for 5 % of the piles driven, the locations of such piles being

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specified by the Engineer.

The Contractor shall give adequate notice and provide all necessary facilities to enable
the Engineer to check driving resistance. A set or resistance measurement shall be
taken only in the presence of the Engineer unless otherwise approved.

(e)

Redrive checks, if required, shall be carried out to an approved procedure.

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Final Set
(a)

When driving to a set criterion, the final set of each pile shall be recorded either as the
penetration in millimetres per 10 blows or as the number of blows required to produce
a penetration of 25 mm.

(b)

When a final set is being measured, the following requirements shall be met:

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(d)

The exposed part of the pile shall be in good condition without damage or
distortion.

(ii)

The helmet, dolly and any packing shall be in sound condition.

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(i)

(iii)

(iv)

The hammer shall be in good condition, delivering adequate energy per blow,
and operating correctly.

(v)

The temporary compression of the pile shall be recorded, if required.

Preboring
(a)

The hammer blow shall be in line with the pile axis and the impact surfaces shall
be flat and at right angles to the pile and hammer axis, and the head of the pile
protected against damage from hammer impact.

If preboring is specified, the diameter and depth of prebore shall be as designated.

Jetting
(a)

Jetting shall be carried out only when the Contractor's detailed proposals have been
approved.

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Page 10

Risen Piles
Piles shall be driven in an approved sequence to minimise the detrimental effects of
heave and lateral displacement of the ground.

(b)

When required, levels and measurements shall be taken to determine the movement
of the ground or of any pile resulting from the driving process.

(c)

When a pile has risen as a result of adjacent piles being driven, the Engineer may call
for redriving or other testing to demonstrate that the performance of the pile is
unimpaired. If required, the Contractor shall make proposals for correcting
detrimentally affected piles and for avoidance or control of heave effects in subsequent
work.

4.1.8

Repair and lengthening of piles

Repair of Damaged Pile Heads

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If it is necessary to repair the head of a pile during driving, the Contractor shall carry
out such repair in an approved way which allows the pile-driving to be completed
without further damage. If the driving of a pile has been accepted but sound concrete
of the pile is below the required cut-off level, the pile shall be made good to the cut-off
level, using an approved method so that it will safely withstand the imposed design
load.

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Lengthening of Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Piles


Any provision for lengthening piles incorporated at the time of manufacture shall be as
designed or approved.

(b)

If no provision for lengthening piles was incorporated at the time of manufacture, any
method for lengthening shall be such that splices are capable of safely resisting the
stresses during driving and under service load and shall be subject to approval.

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(a)

Driving Repaired or Lengthened Piles


Repaired or lengthened piles shall not be driven until the added concrete has reached
the specified strength of the concrete of the pile.

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4.1.7

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
04: Deep Foundations

Cutting off pile heads

Unless otherwise directed by the Engineer, when the driving of a pile has been approved the
concrete of the head of the pile shall be cut off to the designated level. The length of splice
reinforcing bars projecting above this level shall be as designated.

Care shall be taken to avoid shattering or otherwise damaging the rest of the pile. Any
cracked or defective concrete shall be cut away and the pile repaired in an approved manner
to provide a full and sound section at the cut-off level.

4.2

PRECAST REINFORCED CONCRETE SEGMENTAL PILES

4.2.1

Scope

This Part applies to piles made of elements cast at a precasting works away from the site,
where work cannot normally be closely supervised by the Engineer. The elements are joined
together as necessary on site during driving using special proven steel joints incorporated
into the pile elements when cast.

4.1.9

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
04: Deep Foundations

Page 11

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:


This Section
Part 1, .............. General Requirements for Piling Works
Part 2, .............. Concrete Works for Piling
Section 5,

Concrete.

4.2.2

References

The following Standards are referred to in this Part:


Eurocode 7, EN1997-1, Section 7 Pile foundation
BS 7613,.....................Hot rolled quenched and tempered weldable structural steel plates
BS 3100,.....................Steel castings for general engineering purposes

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BS 2789,.....................Spheroidal graphite or nodular graphite cast iron

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BS 8110,.....................Structural use of concrete.


Submittals

The Contractor shall order the piles to suit the construction programme and seek the
Engineer's approval before placing the order. When preliminary piles are specified the
approval for the piles for the main work will not necessarily be given until the results of the
driving and tests on preliminary piles have been received and evaluated.

4.2.4

Quality Assurance

A certificate of quality from the pile manufacturer shall be provided to the Engineer when
required stating that the designated requirements have been fulfilled during manufacture.

Each pile element shall be marked in such a manner that it can be identified with the records
of manufacture, which shall state the date of casting, the cement type, concrete grade,
element length and any other relevant data. On delivery, the pile elements shall be
accompanied by records of manufacture.

4.2.5

Tolerances in Pile Dimensions

The cross-sectional dimensions of the pile shall be not less than those designated.

The head of a pile element or the end of the pile upon which the hammer acts shall be
square to the pile axis within a tolerance of 1 in 50.

Each pile joint shall be square to the axis of the pile within a tolerance of 1 in 150. The
centroid of the pile joint shall lie within 5 mm of the true axis of the pile element.

Each face of a pile element shall not deviate by more than 6 mm from any straight line 3 m
long joining two points on that face, nor shall the centre of area of the pile at any crosssection along its length deviate by more than 1/500 of the pile length from a line joining the
centres of area at the ends of the element. Where a pile element is less than 3 m long the
permitted deviation from straightness shall be reduced below 6 mm on a pro rata basis in
accordance with actual length.

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4.2.3

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
04: Deep Foundations

Page 12

Handling, Transportation, Storage and Acceptance of Piles

The method and sequence of lifting, handling, transporting and storing piles shall be such as
to avoid shock loading and to ensure that the piles are not damaged. Only designed lifting
and support points shall be used. During transport and storage, piles shall be appropriately
supported under the marked lifting points or fully supported along their length.

All pile elements within a stack shall be in groups of the same length. Packing of uniform
thickness shall be provided between piles at the lifting points.

Concrete shall at no time be subjected to loading, including its own weight, which will induce
a compressive stress in it exceeding 0.33 of its strength at the time of loading or of the
specified strength, whichever is the less. For this purpose the assessment of the strength of
the concrete and of the stresses produced by the loads shall be subject to the approval of the
Engineer.

A pile element shall be rejected when the width of any transverse crack exceeds 0.3 mm.
The measurement shall be made with the pile in its working attitude.

4.2.7

Materials and components

Fabricated Steel Components

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In the manufacture of jointed precast concrete segmental piles, fabricated steel


components shall comply with BS 7613 grades 43A or 50A, cast steel components
with BS 3100 grade A, and ductile iron components with BS 2789.

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Pile Splices
(a)

The splice joints shall be close-fitting face to face and the locking method shall be
such as to hold the faces in intimate contact. The design and manufacture of the
splicing system shall be approved by the Engineer prior to the commencement of the
Contract.

(b)

A spliced pile shall be capable of withstanding the same driving stresses or service
axial loads, moments and shear stresses as a single unspliced pile of the same crosssectional dimensions and materials.

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4.2.6

(c)

Pile Toes
(a)

Pile toes shall be constructed so as to ensure that damage is not caused to the pile
during installation. Where fixity is required or socketing into rock, or in other
circumstances, an approved shoe may be required.

Pile Head Reinforcement


(a)

The welding of a joint to main reinforcement in lieu of a lapped connection with


projecting bars affixed to the joint will not be permitted.

Where the pile head is not furnished with a joint, it shall be so reinforced or banded as
to prevent bursting of the pile under driving conditions.

Main Reinforcement
(a)

The main longitudinal reinforcing bars shall be in one continuous length. Splicing of
bars will not be permitted except at element ends.

QCS 2014

Page 13

(b)

Concrete cover to steel reinforcement shall be in accordance with the requirements of


BS 8110.

(c)

In very aggressive ground or exposure conditions, cover greater than 25 mm may be


required, but alternative protection methods may be approved.

Formwork
(a)

If a pile is constructed with a shaped point or shoe, then the end of the pile shall be
symmetrical about the longitudinal axis of the pile.

(b)

Holes for handling or pitching, where provided in the pile, shall be lined with steel
tubes; alternatively, approved inserts may be cast in.

(c)

Formwork shall be robust, clean and so constructed as to prevent loss of grout or


aggregate from the wet concrete and ensure the production of uniform pile sections.
The piles are to be removed from the formwork carefully so as to prevent damage.

Driving piles

Strength of Piles

Leaders and Trestles

At all stages during driving and until incorporation into the substructure, the pile shall
be adequately supported and restrained by means of leaders, trestles, temporary
supports or other guide arrangements to maintain position and alignment and to
prevent buckling. These arrangements shall be such that damage to the pile does not
occur.

Performance of Driving Equipment

The Contractor shall satisfy the Engineer regarding the suitability, efficiency and
energy of the driving equipment. Where required in the particular specification,
dynamic evaluation and analysis shall be provided.
Where a drop hammer is used, the mass of the hammer shall be at least half that of
the pile at the moment of driving unless otherwise approved by the Engineer. For
other types of hammer, the energy delivered to the pile per blow shall be at least
equivalent to that of a drop hammer of the stated mass. Drop hammers shall not be
used from floating craft in such a manner as to cause instability of the craft or damage
to the pile.

(b)

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Piles shall not be driven until the concrete has achieved the specified characteristic
strength.

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4.2.8

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
04: Deep Foundations

Length of Piles
(a)

The length of pile supplied to be driven in any location and any additional lengths to be
added during driving shall he approved prior to the commencement of pile-driving.
During the execution of the Works, any changes to the supplied lengths shall be
approved.

QCS 2014

Page 14

Driving Procedure and Redrive Checks


(a)

Except when making field splices, the driving of each pile shall he continuous until the
specified depth or resistance (set), or both, has been reached. In the event of
unavoidable interruption to driving, the pile will be accepted provided it can
subsequently be driven to the specified depth or resistance (set), or both, without
damage. A follower shall only be used when approved, in which case the Engineer will
require the set where applicable to be revised in order to take into account reduction in
the effectiveness of the hammer blow.

(b)

The Contractor shall inform the Engineer without delay if an unexpected change in
driving characteristics is noted. A detailed record of the driving resistance over the full
length of the nearest available pile shall be taken if required.

(c)

At the start of the work in a new area or section a detailed driving record shall be made
over the full length of the first pile and during the last 3 m of subsequent piles until
consistency of behaviour is established. Where required, detailed driving records shall
also be made for 5 % of the piles driven, the positions of such piles being specified by
the Engineer.

(d)

The Contractor shall give adequate notice and provide all necessary facilities to enable
the Engineer to check driving resistance. A set or resistance measurement shall be
taken only in the presence of the Engineer unless otherwise approved.

(e)

Redrive checks, if required, shall be carried out to an approved procedure.

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Final Set

When driving to a set criterion, the final set of each pile shall be recorded either as the
penetration in millimetres per ten blows or as the number of blows required to produce
a penetration of 25 mm.

(b)

When a final set is being measured, the following requirements shall be met:

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(a)

The exposed part of the pile shall be in good condition, without damage or
distortion.

(ii)

The helmet, dolly and any packing shall be in sound condition.

(iii)

The hammer blow shall be in line with the pile axis and the impact surfaces shall
be flat and at right angles to the pile and hammer axis.

(i)

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


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04: Deep Foundations

(v)

The temporary compression of the pile shall be recorded if required.

If preboring is specified, the diameter and depth of prebore shall be as designated.

Jetting
(a)

4.2.9

The hammer shall be in good condition, delivering adequate energy per blow,
and operating correctly.

Preboring
(a)

(iv)

Jetting shall be carried out only when the Contractor's detailed proposals have been
approved.

Risen Piles
(a)

Piles shall be driven in an approved sequence to minimise the detrimental effects of


heave and lateral displacement of the ground.

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
04: Deep Foundations

Page 15

(b)

When required, levels and measurements shall be taken to determine the movement
of the ground or of any pile resulting from the driving process.

(c)

When a pile has risen as a result of adjacent piles being driven, the Engineer may call
for redriving or other testing to demonstrate that the performance of the pile is
unimpaired. If required, the Contractor shall make proposals for correcting piles
detrimentally affected and for avoidance or control of heave effects in subsequent
work.

4.2.10

Repair and lengthening of piles

Repair of Damaged Pile Heads


If it is necessary to repair the head of a pile during driving, the Contractor shall carry
out such repair in an approved way which allows the driving of the pile to be completed
without further damage. If the driving of a pile has been accepted but sound concrete
of the pile is below the required cut-off level, the pile shall be made good to the cut-off
level, using an approved method so that it will safely withstand the imposed design
load.

Where piles are required to be driven to depths exceeding those expected, leaving
insufficient projection for bonding into the following works, the piles shall be extended
or replaced as required by the Engineer using approved materials and methods.

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Lengthening of Piles

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(a)

Cutting off pile heads

Unless otherwise specified, when the driving of a pile has been approved the concrete of the
head of the pile shall be cut off to the designated level. The length of splice reinforcing bars
projecting above this level shall be as designated.

Care shall be taken to avoid shattering or otherwise damaging the rest of the pile. Any
cracked or defective concrete shall be cut away and the pile repaired in an approved manner
to provide a full and sound section at the cut-off level.

4.3

BORED CAST IN PLACE PILES

4.3.1

Scope

This Part applies to bored piles in which the pile bore is excavated by rotary or percussive
means, or both, using short augers, buckets, grabs or other boring tools to advance the open
bore. Where the open bore is unstable, temporary or permanent casing or bentonite
suspension may be used to support the wall of the bore prior to concreting.

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:

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4.2.11

This Section
Part 1, .............. General Requirements for Piling Works
Part 2, .............. Concrete Works for Piling
Section 3, Ground Investigation
Section 5, Concrete

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
04: Deep Foundations

4.3.2

References

The following codes of practice are referred to in this Part:

Page 16

BS 5573,.....................Code of practice for safety precautions in the construction of large


diameter boreholes for piling and other purposes
BS 5930,.....................Code of practice for site investigation.
4.3.3

Quality Assurance

Inspection
Each pile bore which does not contain standing water or drilling fluid shall be inspected
directly or indirectly prior to concrete being placed in it. This inspection shall be carried
out from the ground surface in the case of piles of less than 750 mm diameter.
Torches or other approved means of lighting, measuring tapes, and a means of
measuring verticality shall be provided. For piles of 750 mm diameter or larger,
equipment shall be provided, by the Contractor to enable his representatives and the
Engineer to descend into the bore for the purpose of inspection. Any method of
descent and the equipment used shall comply with the requirements of BS 5573.

Cleanliness of pile bases

On completion of boring and where inspection of a dry pile bore indicates the
necessity, loose, disturbed or softened soil shall be removed from the bore. Where
pile bores contain water or drilling fluid, a cleaning process shall be employed before
concrete is placed. Large debris and accumulated sediment shall be removed using
appropriate approved methods, which shall be designed to clean while at the same
time minimising ground disturbance below the pile bases. Water or drilling fluid shall
be maintained at such levels throughout and following the cleaning operation that
stability of the bore is preserved.

Samples and Testing

The taking of samples and all subsequent handling, transporting and testing shall be
carried out in accordance with Section 3, Ground Investigation.

(b)

If required in the Contract, soil, rock or groundwater samples shall be taken or soil
tests carried out in-situ while the pile is being bored. The samples shall be taken to an
approved laboratory for testing as specified.

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(a)

4.3.4

Materials

Permanent Casings
(a)

Permanent casings shall be as specified.

Drilling Fluid Supply


(a)

A certificate shall be obtained by the Contractor from the manufacturer of the bentonite
powder showing the properties of each consignment delivered to the Site. This
certificate shall be made available to the Engineer on request. The properties to be
given by the manufacturer are the apparent viscosity range (in Pascal seconds) and
the gel strength range (in Pascal) for solids in water.

QCS 2014

Page 17

Drilling Fluid Mixing


(a)

Bentonite shall be mixed thoroughly with clean fresh water to make a suspension
which will maintain the stability of the pile bore for the period necessary to place
concrete and complete construction. The temperature of the water used in mixing the
bentonite suspension, and of the suspension when supplied to the borehole, shall be
not lower than 5 C.

(b)

Where saline or chemically contaminated groundwater occurs, special precautions


shall be taken to modify the bentonite suspension or prehydrate the bentonite in fresh
water so as to render it suitable in all respects for the construction of piles.

Drilling Fluid Tests


(a)

The frequency of testing drilling fluid and the method and procedure of sampling shall
be proposed by the Contractor for approval prior to the commencement of the work.
The frequency may subsequently be varied as required, depending on the consistency
of the results obtained, subject to approval.

(b)

Control tests shall be carried out on the bentonite suspension, using suitable
apparatus. The density of freshly mixed bentonite suspension shall be measured daily
as a check on the quality of the suspension being formed. The measuring device shall
be calibrated to read to within 0.005 g/ml. Tests to determine density, viscosity, shear
strength and pH value shall be applied to bentonite supplied to the pile bore. For
average soil conditions the results shall generally be within the ranges in Table 4.2.

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
04: Deep Foundations

Table 4.2.Tests on Bentonite

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Viscosity

Less than 1.10 g/ml

Mud density balance

30 - 90 s
or
less than 0.020 Pa s

Marsh cone method

1.4-10 Pa
Or
4-40 Pa

Shear meter

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Fann viscometer*

Fann viscometer
pH indicator paper strips
or electrical pH meter

Where the Fann viscometer is specified, the fluid sample should be screened by a
number 52 sieve (300 m) prior to testing.

Shear strength
(10 minute gel strength)
pH

Test method

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Density

Range of results at 20 C

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Property to be measured

(c)

The tests shall be carried out until a consistent working pattern has been established
account being taken of the mixing process, any blending of freshly mixed bentonite
suspension and previously used bentonite suspension, and any process which may be
used to remove impurities from previously used bentonite suspension. When the
results show consistent behaviour, the tests for shear strength and pH value may be
discontinued, and tests to determine density and viscosity shall be carried out as
agreed with the Engineer. In the event of a change in the established working pattern,
tests for shear strength and pH value shall be reintroduced for a period if required.

4.3.5

Boring

Boring Near Recently Cast Piles


(a)

Piles shall not be bored so close to other recently completed piles as to damage them.

QCS 2014

Page 18

Temporary Casings
(a)

Temporary casing of approved quality or an approved alternative method shall be used


to maintain the stability of a pile bore which might otherwise collapse.

(b)

Temporary casings shall be free from significant distortion. They shall be of uniform
cross-section throughout each continuous length. During concreting they shall be free
from internal projections and encrusted concrete which might adversely affect the
proper formation of piles.

(c)

The use of a vibrator to insert and withdraw temporary casing may be permitted by the
Engineer subject to compliance with Noise and Disturbance and Damage to Adjacent
Structures of this section and to the method not causing disturbance of the ground
which would adversely affect the construction or the capacity of piles.

(d)

Where piles are bored under water or bentonite suspension in an unlined state, the
insertion of a full-length loosely fitting casing to the bottom of the bore prior to placing
concrete will not be permitted.

(e)

Where permanent casing is specified to ensure the integrity of a pile, the Contractor
shall submit for approval his proposals regarding the method of installation.

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Stability of Pile

Where boring takes place through unstable water-bearing strata, the process of
excavation and the depth of temporary casing employed shall be such that soil from
outside the area of the pile is not drawn into the pile section and cavities are not
created outside the temporary casing as it is advanced.

(b)

Where the use of drilling fluid is specified or approved for maintaining the stability of a
bore, an adequate temporary casing shall be used in conjunction with the method so
as to ensure stability of the strata near ground level until concrete has been placed.
During construction the level of drilling fluid in the pile excavation shall be maintained
within the cased or stable bore so that it is not less than 1.0 m above the level of
external standing groundwater at all times.

(c)

In the event of a rapid loss of drilling fluid from a pile excavation, the bore shall be
backfilled without delay and the instructions of the Engineer shall be obtained before
boring at that location is resumed.

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
04: Deep Foundations

Spillage and Disposal of Drilling Fluid


(a)

Pumping from Pile Bores


(a)

All reasonable steps shall be taken to prevent the spillage of bentonite suspension on
the Site in areas outside the immediate vicinity of boring. Discarded bentonite shall be
removed from the Site without undue delay. Any disposal of bentonite shall comply
with the regulations of the local controlling authority.

Pumping from pile bores shall not be permitted unless the bore has been sealed
against further water entry by casing or unless the soil is stable and will allow pumping
to take place without ground disturbance below or around the pile.

Continuity of Construction
(a)

For a pile constructed in a stable cohesive soil without the use of temporary casing or
other form of support, the pile shall be bored and the concrete shall be placed without
such delay as would lead to significant impairment of the soil strength.

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
04: Deep Foundations

Enlarged Pile Bases


(a)

A mechanically formed enlarged base shall be no smaller than the dimensions


specified and shall be concentric with the pile shaft to within a tolerance of 10 % of the
shaft diameter. The sloping surface of the frustum forming the enlargement shall make
an angle to the axis of the pile of not more than 35 .

4.3.6

Extraction of casing

Workability of Concrete
(a)

Temporary casings shall be extracted while the concrete within them remains
sufficiently workable to ensure that the concrete is not lifted. During extraction the
motion of the casing shall be maintained in an axial direction relative to the pile.

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Concrete Level

When the casing is being extracted, a sufficient quantity of concrete shall be


maintained within it to ensure that pressure from external water, drilling fluid or soil is
exceeded and that the pile is neither reduced in section nor contaminated.

(b)

The concrete level within a temporary casing shall be topped up where necessary
during the course of casing extraction in such a way that the base of the casing is
always below the concrete surface until the casting of the pile has been completed.

(c)

Adequate precautions shall be taken in all cases where excess heads of water or
drilling fluid could occur as the casing is withdrawn because of the displacement of
water or fluid by the concrete as it flows into its final position against the walls of the
pile bore. Where two or more discontinuous lengths of casing (double casing) are
used in the construction the proposed method of working shall be approved.

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(a)

For piles cast in dry bores using temporary casing and without the use of a permanent
lining, pile heads shall be cast to a level above the specified cut-off so that, after
trimming, a sound concrete connection with the pile can be made. The casting level
shall be within the tolerance above the cut-off level shown in Table 4.3, but shall not be
above the original ground level. No pile shall be cast with its head below standing
water level unless approved measures are taken to prevent inflow of water causing
segregation of the concrete as temporary casing is extracted, and, where approved by
the Engineer, the groundwater level for each pile shall be treated as the cut-off level for
the purpose of calculating tolerance.

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Pile Head Casting Level Tolerances

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(b)

For piles cast in dry bores within permanent lining tubes or permanent casings, or
where their cut-off levels are in stable ground below the base of any casing used, pile
heads shall be cast to a level above the specified cut-off so that, after trimming, a
sound concrete connection with the pile can be made. The casting level shall be within
the tolerance above the cut-off level shown in Table 4.4, but shall not be above the
original ground level.

QCS 2014

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
04: Deep Foundations

Page 20

(c)

For piles cast under water or drilling fluid, the pile heads shall be cast to a level above
the specified cut-off so that, after trimming to remove all debris and contaminated
concrete, a sound concrete connection with the pile can be made. The casting level
shall be within the tolerance above the cut-off level shown in Table 4.4, but shall not be
above the commencing surface level. Cut-off levels may be specified below the
standing groundwater level, and where this condition applies the borehole fluid level
shall not be reduced below the standing groundwater level until the concrete has set.

(d)

Where the cut-off level of piles lies at depths greater than 10 m below the original
ground level, then the tolerances given in Tables 4.3, 4.4 and 4.5 will be varied after
discussion with the Contractor and before the commencement of the piling to take
account of the special conditions which apply.
Table 4.3

Casting tolerance above cut-off level, m

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Cut-off distance below commencing surface,


H, m

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Casting Tolerance above Cut-off Level for Piles Cast In Dry Bores Using Temporary Casing
and Without the Use of a Permanent Lining

ta

0.3 + H/12 + C/8


where C = length of temporary casing
below the commencing surface*

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0.15-10.00
*

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If H is greater than C, then this tolerance is no longer applicable and the tolerances in
Table 4.4 will apply.

Table 4.4

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Casting Tolerance above Cut-off Level for Piles Cast in Dry Bores within Permanent Lining
Tubes or Permanent Casings, or Where Their Cut-Off Levels is in Stable Ground below the
Base of Any Casing Used

Cut-off distance below commencing surface,


H, m

0.3 + H/10

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0.15-10.00

Casting tolerance above cut-off level, m

Table 4.5
Casting Tolerance above Cut-off Level for Piles Cast Under Water or Drilling Fluid**
Cut-off distance below commencing surface,
H, m

0.15-10.00

**
4

Casting tolerance above cut-off level, m

1.0 + H /12 + C/8


where C = length of temporary casing
below the commencing surface

In cases where a pile is cast so that the cut-off is within a permanent lining tube, the appropriate
tolerance is given by deletion of the casing term C/8 in the table.

Water levels
(a)

During extraction of temporary casings, where circumstances are such that newly
placed unset concrete is brought into contact with external groundwater, precautions
shall be taken to ensure that the internal concrete pressure at all levels within the pile
exceeds the external groundwater pressure.

QCS 2014

After each pile has been cast, any empty bore remaining shall be protected and shall
be carefully backfilled as soon as possible with approved materials.

Disposal of excavated material


(a)

Page 21

Temporary backfilling above pile casting level


(a)

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
04: Deep Foundations

Disposal of excavated material shall be carried out by the Contractor as necessary to


facilitate the Works and to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

Cutting off pile heads


(a)

When cutting off and trimming piles to the specified cut-off level, the Contractor shall
take care to avoid shattering or otherwise damaging the rest of the pile. Any cracked
or defective concrete shall be cut away and the pile repaired in an approved manner to
provide a full and sound section at the cut-off level

BORED PILES CONSTRUCTED USING CONTINUOUS FLIGHT AUGERS


AND CONCRETE OR GROUT INJECTION TROUGH HOLLOW AUGER
STEMS

4.4.1

Scope

This Part applies to bored piles which employ a continuous flight auger for both advancing
the bore and maintaining its stability. The spoil-laden auger is not removed from the ground
until concrete or grout is pumped into the pile bore from the base of the hollow-stemmed
auger to replace the excavated soil.

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:

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ta

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4.4

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This Section

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Part 1, .............. General Requirements for Piling Works


Part 2, .............. Concrete Works for Piling

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Section 3, Ground Investigation.


Section 5, Concrete
Materials

Concrete Mix Design and Workability

4.4.2

(a)

Where not otherwise stated in this Part, the concrete shall comply with Section 5. The
design and workability of concrete to be used in the formation of a pile shall produce a
mix which is suitable for pumping. It shall have a minimum slump of 150 mm unless
3
otherwise approved and a minimum cement content of 340 kg/m . The mix shall be
designed so that segregation does not occur during the placing process, and bleeding
of the mix shall be minimised.

Grout Mix Design and Workability


(a)

Mix design of grout shall be subject to approval. Cement, water and aggregates for
grout shall be according to Section 5. Course aggregate to be used shall be of 6 mm
nominal size and shall be rounded and evenly graded.

QCS 2014

(b)

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
04: Deep Foundations

The workability of grout mixes, where used, shall be measured by a suitable and
approved means. The procedure for monitoring the suitability of grout throughout the
Works shall be stated in writing to the Engineer before beginning of the Works and
shall be subject to approval.

(c)

Additives to the grout shall require prior approval of the Engineer.

Reinforcement
All reinforcement shall be placed with the minimum delay after the completion of the
concreting or grouting operation. It shall be designed and fabricated in cages to permit
it to be placed in the correct position and to the depth specified through the concrete or
grout of the pile. Suitable approved spacers shall be provided to maintain the specified
concrete or grout cover to steel.

(b)

The transverse reinforcement of any reinforcing cage shall be approved and may
consist of either spirals, hoops or links.

(c)

Longitudinal main steel reinforcement shall be continuous over the specified length.
Where splices are necessary, the number of laps shall be kept to a minimum and bars
shall be welded or joined together in an approved manner.

(d)

Reinforcement shall be supported and centred so that it will provide the required
projection above the cut-off level, and the proper concrete cover.

Boring

General

During uncased boring with continuous flight auger, the feed forward and speed
(revolutions per minute) are to be adjusted according to the soil conditions in a way
that the excavation of soil will be limited to a quantity that the lateral support of the
uncased borehole wall will be ensured.

Boring Near Recently Cast Piles

Removal of Augers from the Ground

Piles shall not be bored so close to other piles which have recently been cast as to
damage them.

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4.4.3

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(a)

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Page 22

(a)

Depth of Piles
(a)

Augers shall not be extracted from the ground during the boring or construction of a
pile in such a way that an open unsupported bore or inflow of water into the pile section
would result. While withdrawing the continuous flight auger, the auger shall be rotated
in the same direction as during drilling into the soil or shall be withdrawn without
rotation.

Any failure of a pile to reach the designated depth shall be reported to the Engineer
without delay and a full statement of the reasons given.

Suitability of Boring Equipment


(a)

The piles shall be bored using approved and suitable equipment capable of
penetrating the ground without drawing surrounding soils laterally into the pile bore.

QCS 2014

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
04: Deep Foundations

4.4.4

Placing of concrete or grout

Equipment for Supply of Concrete or Grout to Piles


(a)

Grout or concrete shall be supplied to the pile through suitable tubing and the hollow
auger stem. All pipe fitments and connections shall be so constructed that grout does
not leak during the injection process.

Commencement of Concrete or Grout Supply to Each Pile


(a)

The base of the auger stem shall be fitted with a suitable means of sealing it against
ingress of water and soil until concrete or grout placing begins.

(b)

At the beginning of concrete or grout placement this sealing device shall be removed
by the application of concrete or grout pressure. Care shall be taken to ensure that the
auger is lifted only sufficiently to initiate the flow of concrete or grout, and that water
inflow and soil movement at the base of the auger are minimised. The technique and
equipment used to initiate and maintain the concrete or grout flow shall be such that a
pile of the full specified cross-section is obtained from the maximum depth of boring to
the final pile cut-off level.

The concrete or grout shall be supplied to the pile at a sufficient rate during auger
withdrawal to ensure that a continuous monolithic shaft of the full specified crosssection is formed, free from debris or any segregated concrete or grout.

(b)

The rate of withdrawal of the auger, the injection pressures and the rate of supply of
concrete or grout shall be measured and recorded throughout the phase of auger
withdrawal for each pile.

(c)

The Contractor shall submit proposals for his method of monitoring construction for
approval before beginning the Works.

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Completion of Piles

If the concrete or grout placing in any pile cannot be completed in the normal manner,
then the pile shall be rebored before concrete has hardened and shall be completely
replaced.

(a)

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(a)

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Rate of Supply of Concrete or Grout

Casting Level of Pile Head


Concrete or grout shall be cast to the original ground level in all cases, and the
reinforcing cage set, as appropriate.

(a)

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Page 23

4.4.5

Cutting off pile heads

When cutting off and trimming piles to the specified cut-off level, the Contractor shall take
care to avoid shattering or otherwise damaging the rest of the pile. Any laitance, or
contaminated, cracked or defective concrete shall be cut away and the pile repaired in an
approved manner to provide a full and sound section up to the cut-off level.

4.5

DRIVEN CAST IN PLACES PILES

4.5.1

Scope

This Part applies to piles for which a permanent casing of steel or concrete is driven,
reinforcement placed within it if required, and the casing filled with concrete. It also applies to
piles in which a temporary casing is driven, reinforcement placed within it and the pile formed
in the ground by filling the temporary casing with concrete before and during its extraction.

QCS 2014

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
04: Deep Foundations

Page 24

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:


This Section
Part 1, .............. General Requirements for Piling Works
Part 2, .............. Concrete Works for Piling
Section 5, Concrete
Section 3, Ground Investigation.
Submittals

Where the Contractor wishes to form a pile with an enlarged base, details of the proposed
method of forming the base and the materials to be used shall be submitted at the time of
tendering.

4.5.3

Quality Assurance

Before placing concrete in a pile casing, the Contractor shall check in an approved manner
that the casing is undamaged, and free from water or other foreign matter. In the event of
water or foreign matter having entered the pile casing, either the casing shall be withdrawn,
repaired if necessary and re-driven, or other action shall be taken as may be approved to
continue the construction of the pile.

4.5.4

Materials

Permanent Casings

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Permanent casings shall be as specified. Where a permanent casing is to be made


from a series of short sections it shall be designed and placed so as to produce a
continuous water-free shaft. The dimensions and quality of the casing shall be
adequate to withstand the stresses caused by handling and driving without damage or
distortion.

Temporary casings shall be free from significant distortion. They shall be of uniform
external cross-section throughout each continuous length. During concreting they
shall be free from internal projections and encrusted concrete which might prevent the
proper formation of piles.

(a)

Temporary Casings

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(a)

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4.5.2

Pile Shoes
(a)

Pile shoes shall be manufactured from durable material capable of withstanding the
stresses caused by driving without damage, and shall be designed to give a watertight
joint during construction.

Reinforcement
(a)

This type of pile shall normally be reinforced over its full length unless permanently
cased. The use of shorter reinforcement in piles which are not permanently cased
shall be subject to the approval of the Engineer.

(b)

The number of splices in longitudinal steel bars shall be kept to a minimum. The full
strength of each bar shall be effective across each splice, which shall be made so that
there is no detrimental displacement of the reinforcement during the construction of
the pile.

QCS 2014

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
04: Deep Foundations

4.5.5

Driving piles

Piling Near Recently Cast Piles


(a)

Casings shall not be driven or piles formed so close to other piles which have recently
been cast as to damage them.

Performance of Driving Equipment


(a)

The Contractor shall satisfy the Engineer regarding the suitability, efficiency and
energy of the driving equipment

(b)

Drop hammers shall not be used from floating craft in such a manner as to cause
instability of the craft.

Length of Piles

Driving Procedure
(a)

Each pile casing shall be driven continuously until the specified or approved depth or
resistance (set), or both, has been reached. In the event of unavoidable interruption to
driving, the pile will be accepted provided on resumption the casing can be driven to
the specified depth or resistance (set), or both, without damage.

(b)

The Contractor shall inform the Engineer without delay if an unexpected change in
driving characteristics is encountered. A detailed record of the driving resistance over
the full length of the nearest available subsequent pile shall be taken if required.

(c)

At the start of the work in a new area or section a detailed driving record shall be made
over the full length of the first pile to be installed and over the last 3 m of the driving of
subsequent piles until consistency of behaviour is established. Where required,
detailed driving records shall also be made for 5 % of the piles driven, the positions of
such piles being specified by the Engineer.

(d)

The Contractor shall give adequate notice and provide all facilities to enable the
Engineer to check driving resistance. A set shall be taken only in the presence of the
Engineer unless otherwise approved.

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Final Set

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The length of pile to be driven in any location shall be approved.

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(a)

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Page 25

(a)

Where piles are driven to a set, the final set of each pile, pile shell or casing shall be
recorded either as the penetration in millimetres per ten blows or as the number of
blows required to produce a penetration of 25 mm.

(b)

When a final set is being measured, the following requirements shall be met:
(i)

The exposed part of the pile casing shall be in good condition, without damage
or distortion.

(ii)

The dolly, helmet and packing, if any, shall be in sound condition.

(iii)

The hammer blow shall be in line with the pile axis and the impact surfaces shall
be flat and at right angles to the pile and hammer axis.

(iv)

The hammer shall be in good condition, delivering adequate energy per blow,
and operating correctly.

(v)

Temporary compression of the pile casing shall be recorded if required.

QCS 2014

If preboring is specified the pile casing shall be pitched after preboring to the
designated depth and diameter.

Jetting
(a)

Page 26

Preboring
(a)

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
04: Deep Foundations

Jetting shall be carried out only when the Contractor's detailed proposals have been
approved by the Engineer

Internal Drop Hammer


Where a casing for a pile without an enlarged base is to be driven by an internal drop
hammer, a plug consisting of concrete grade 20 with a water/cement ratio not
exceeding 0.25 shall be placed in the pile. This plug shall have a compacted height of
not less than 2.5 times the diameter of the pile. Fresh concrete shall be added to
ensure that this height of driving plug is maintained in the casing throughout the period
of driving, and in any event a plug of fresh concrete shall be added after 1.5 h of
normal driving or after 45 min of hard driving, or, should the driving of a pile be
interrupted for 30 min or longer, fresh concrete shall be added prior to driving being
resumed.

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(a)

Risen Piles

Piles shall be driven in an approved sequence to minimise any detrimental effects of heave
and lateral displacement of the ground.

When required, levels and measurements shall be taken to determine the movement of the
ground or any pile resulting from the driving process.

When a pile has risen with detrimental effects as a result of adjacent piles being driven the
Contractor shall, if required, submit to the Engineer his proposals for correcting or
compensating for this and for avoidance or control of heave effects in subsequent work.

4.5.7

Extraction of casing

Workability of Concrete

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4.5.6

(a)

Temporary casings shall be extracted while the concrete within them remains
sufficiently workable to ensure that the concrete is not lifted.

Concrete Level
(a)

When the casing is being extracted, a sufficient quantity of concrete shall be


maintained within it to ensure that pressure from external water or soil is exceeded and
that the pile is neither reduced in section nor contaminated.

(b)

Concrete shall be topped up as necessary while the casing is extracted until the
required head of concrete to complete the pile in a sound and proper manner has been
provided. No concrete is to be placed once the bottom of the casing has been lifted
above the top of the concrete.

Vibrating Extractors
(a)

The use of vibrating casing extractors will be permitted subject to Part 1 (Noise and
Disturbance) and (Damage to Adjacent Structures).

QCS 2014

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
04: Deep Foundations

Page 27

Concrete Casting Tolerances


(a)

For piles constructed without the use of a rigid permanent lining, pile concrete shall be
cast to the original ground level.

(b)

Where piles are constructed inside rigid permanent lining tubes or permanent casings,
pile heads shall be cast to a level above the specified cut-off so that, after trimming, a
sound concrete connection with the pile can be made. In this case, the tolerance of
casting above the cut-off level shall be determined according to Table 4.6.
Table 4.6

Casting Tolerance above Cut-off Level for Piles Constructed Inside Rigid Permanent Lining
Tubes or Permanent Casings
Cut-off distance below original
ground, H, (m)

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Casting tolerance above cut-off level


(m)

2.2 + H/10

qa

Repair of damaged pile heads and making-up of piles to the correct level
When repairing or extending the head of a pile, the head shall be cut off square in
sound concrete, and all loose particles shall be removed by wire brushing, followed by
washing with water.

(b)

If the driving of a pile has been accepted but sound concrete of the pile is below the
cut-off level, the pile shall be made good to the cut-off level with concrete of a grade
not inferior to that of the concrete of the pile.

as

(a)

Lengthening of cast-in- place piles after driving


When it is required to extend a cast-in-place driven pile above ground, the materials to
be used and procedures to be adopted shall be subject to the approval of the
Engineer.

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(a)

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0.15 to any depth

Lengthening of permanent pile casings during construction


The lengthening of permanent steel pile casings by adding an additional length of the
same steel casing during construction shall be carried out in accordance with the
relevant clauses of this Section or by other approved methods. The use of casing
extension materials and methods other than those specified shall be subject to
approval.

(a)

Temporary backfilling above pile casting level


(a)

After each pile has been cast, any hole remaining shall be protected and shall be
carefully backfilled as soon as possible with approved materials.

Cutting off pile heads


(a)

When cutting off and trimming piles to the specified cut-off level, the Contractor shall
take care to avoid shattering or otherwise damaging the rest of the pile. Any cracked
or defective concrete shall be cut away and the pile repaired in an approved manner to
provide a full and sound section to the cut-off level.

QCS 2014

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
04: Deep Foundations

Page 28

4.6

STEEL PILES

4.6.1

Scope

This Part applies to driven steel piles designed to act as bearing piles.

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:


This Section
Part 1, .............. General Requirements for Piling Works
Part 2, .............. Concrete Works for Piling

.l.
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Section 3, Ground Investigation.


Section 5, Concrete
References

The following standards and other documents are referred to in this Part:

rw

4.6.2

ta

BS 4, ..........................Structural steel sections

BS 3100, ....................Steel casting for general engineering purposes.

qa

BS 5135, ....................Process of arc-welding of carbon and carbon manganese steels


BS 6265, ....................Resistance steam welding of uncoated and coated low carbon steel

as

BS 7613, ....................Hot rolled quenched and tempered weldable structural steel plates

se

API 5L,........................Interpretation of non-destructive testing.


Submittals

Where coatings are specified, the Contractor shall submit for approval full details of the
coating procedure and surface preparation according to relevant British or Swedish
Standards.

4.6.4

Quality Assurance

The Contractor shall provide the Engineer with Works test certificates, analyses, and mill
sheets, together with a tube manufacturer's certificate showing details of the pile number,
cast number of the steel and a record of all tests and inspections carried out. The Engineer
has the right to inspect any stage of the manufacturing processes and shall be given
adequate notice by the Contractor of such processes and production tests, provided that,
once he has been notified, any delay in his attendance does not cause delay to, or disrupt,
the manufacturing process. The Contractor shall provide the Engineer with samples for
independent testing when requested.

The Contractor shall submit for approval full details of the welding procedures and
electrodes, with drawings and schedules as may be necessary. Tests shall be undertaken as
may be required by the relevant British Standard or as may be required by the Engineer.
Only welders who are qualified in the approved welding procedure in accordance with the
tests laid down in the relevant British Standard, or who have a proven record over the
previous six months, or who have attained a similar standard, shall be employed on the
Works. Proof of welders' proficiency shall be made available to the Engineer on request.

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4.6.3

QCS 2014

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
04: Deep Foundations

4.6.5

Delivery, Storage and Handling

The Contractor shall


(a)

Order the piles to suit the construction programme.

(b)

Obtain the Engineer's approval before placing the order.

Page 29

When preliminary piles are specified, the approval for the piles for the main work will not
necessarily be given until the results of the driving and tests on preliminary piles have been
received and evaluated.

Each pile shall be clearly numbered and its length shown near the pile head using white
paint. In addition, before being driven, each pile shall be graduated at appropriate intervals
along its length and at intervals of 250 mm along the top 3 m.

All piles within a stack shall be in groups of the same length and on approved supports. All
operations such as handling, transporting and storing of piles shall be carried out in a manner
such that damage to piles and their coatings is minimised.

4.6.6

Materials

Pile Shoes

ta
qa

Cast steel shoes shall be of steel to BS 3100, grade Al. Flat plate and welded
fabricated steel shoes shall be grade 43A or 50A, conforming to BS 7613 and related
standards.

Strengthening of Piles

The strengthening to the toe of a pile in lieu of a shoe or the strengthening of the head
of a pile shall be made using material of the same grade as the pile unless otherwise
approved.

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(a)

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Manufacturing Tolerance
All piles shall be of the type and cross-sectional dimensions specified. For standard
rolled sections the dimensional tolerances and weight shall comply with the relevant
standard. The tolerance on length shall be -0 and +75 mm unless otherwise specified.
For proprietary sections the dimensional tolerances shall comply with the
manufacturer's standards. The rolling or manufacturing tolerances for proprietary
sections shall be such that the actual weight of section does not differ from the
theoretical weight by more than +4 % or -2 % unless otherwise agreed. The rolling
or manufacturing tolerances for steel tubular piles shall be such that the actual weight
of section does not differ from the theoretical weight by more than 5 %.

(a)

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Straightness of Piles
(a)

For standard rolled sections the deviation from straightness shall be within the
compliance provisions of BS 4, Part 1. When two or more rolled lengths are joined by
butt-jointing, the deviation from straightness shall not exceed 1/600 of the overall
length of the pile.

(b)

For proprietary sections made up from rolled sections, and for tubular piles, the
deviation from straightness on any longitudinal face shall not exceed 1/600 of the
length of the pile nor 5 mm in any 3 m length.

QCS 2014

Page 30

Fabrication of Piles
(a)

For tubular piles where the load will be carried by the wall of the pile, and if the pile will
be subject to loads that induce reversal of stress during or after construction, the
external diameter at any section as measured by using a steel tape on the
circumference shall not differ from the theoretical diameter by more than 1.

(b)

The ends of all tubular piles as manufactured shall be within a tolerance on ovality of
1 % as measured by a ring gauge for a distance of 100 mm at each end of the pile
length.

(c)

The root edges or root faces of lengths of piles that are to be shop butt-welded shall
not differ by more than 25 % of the thickness of pile walls not exceeding 12 mm thick
or by more than 3 mm for piles where the wall is thicker than 12 mm. When piles of
unequal wall thickness are to be butt-welded, the thickness of the thinner material shall
be the criterion.

Matching of Pile Lengths

Longitudinal seam welds and spiral seam welds of two lengths of tubular piles being
joined shall, whenever possible, be evenly staggered at the butt. However, if in order
to obtain a satisfactory match of the ends of piles or to meet specified straightness, the
seams cannot be staggered evenly, then they shall be staggered by at least 100 mm.

as

Welding

Welding of H-piles and piles that will be subjected to stress reversal, during or after
construction, shall be in accordance with BS 5135.

(b)

For a tubular pile where the load will be compressive and non-reversible and will be
carried by the wall of the pile or by composite action with a concrete core, the welding
shall be to BS 5135 or BS 6265.

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(a)

Coating Piles for Protection against Corrosion


Where coatings are specified they shall be provided in accordance with the Particular
Specification. In general, coatings will not be called for where piles are fully in contact
with undisturbed natural soils or below the standing water table. Cathodic protection
may be called for when there is a possibility of stray electrical current from the
supported structure flowing to earth through the piles.

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
04: Deep Foundations

4.6.7

Acceptance Standards For Welds

Acceptance Standards for Shop Welds


(a)

Longitudinal or spiral welds made in the manufacture of tubular piles are subject to the
acceptance standard for interpretation of non-destructive testing specified in latest
edition of API 5L. The maximum projecting height of weld reinforcement shall not
exceed 3 mm for wall thicknesses not exceeding 13 mm and 5 mm for wall
thicknesses greater than 13 mm.

(b)

Longitudinal welds joining the constituent parts of the box or proprietary section shall
be in accordance with the manufacturer's specification.

(c)

The maximum projecting height of weld reinforcement for circumferential welds in


tubular piles shall be the same as specified above for longitudinal welds in tubular
piles.

QCS 2014

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
04: Deep Foundations

Page 31

Acceptance Standards for Site Butt Welds


(a)

Welds shall comply with the requirements of the Weld Quality Acceptance Standards
for Site Butt Welds in Steel Bearing Piles published by British Steel Corporation,
General Steels Group.

Acceptability and inspection of coatings

The finished coating shall be generally of smooth and uniform texture and free from sharp
protuberances or pin holes. Excessive sags, dimpling or curtaining will not be acceptable.

Any coat damaged by subsequent processes, or which has deteriorated to an extent such
that proper adhesion of the coating is in doubt, shall be removed and the surface shall be
cleaned to the original standard and recoated with the specified number and thicknesses of
coats.

The completed coating shall be checked for thickness by an approved magnetic thickness
gauge. Areas where the thickness is less than that specified shall receive approved
additional coating.

Average measured thickness should be equal to or greater than the specified thickness and
no single reading should be less than 85 % of the specified thickness. The completed
coating shall also be checked for adhesion by the cross-hatching method with lines spaced at
ten times the thickness of the coating. Adhesion tests should not be carried out prior to
seven days after coating.

The tests shall be made on 10 % of the piles. Areas where the adhesion is not approved
shall be sand blasted and recoated. The coating shall be approved before pitching and
driving of the piles.

4.6.9

Driving of piles

Leaders and Trestles

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At all stages during driving and until incorporation in the superstructure, the free length
of the pile shall be adequately supported and restrained by means of leaders, trestles,
temporary supports or other guide arrangements to maintain position and alignment
and to prevent buckling. In marine works, lengths which remain unsupported after
driving shall be adequately restrained until incorporated into the permanent Works.
These constraint arrangements shall be such that damage to piles and their coatings is
minimised.

(a)

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4.6.8

Performance of Driving Equipment


(a)

The Contractor shall satisfy the Engineer regarding the suitability, efficiency and
energy of the driving equipment. Where required in the Contract, dynamic evaluation
and analysis shall be provided.

(b)

Where a drop hammer is used, the mass of the hammer shall be at least half that of
the pile unless otherwise approved by the Engineer. For other types of hammer the
energy delivered to the pile per blow shall be at least equivalent to that of a drop
hammer of the stated mass. Drop hammers shall not be used from floating craft in
such a manner as to cause instability of the craft.

QCS 2014

Length of Piles
(a)

The length of pile to be driven and any additional lengths of pile to be added during
driving shall be approved by the Engineer.

Driving Procedure and Redrive Checks


The driving of each pile shall be continuous until the specified depth or resistance
(set), or both, has been reached. In the event of unavoidable interruption to driving,
the pile will be accepted provided it can be driven to the specified depth or resistance
(set), or both, without damage.

(b)

A follower shall not be used unless approved, in which case the Engineer will require
the set where applicable to be revised in order to take into account reduction in the
effectiveness of the hammer blow.

(c)

The Contractor shall inform the Engineer as soon as an unexpected change in driving
characteristics is noted. A detailed record of the driving resistance over the full length
of the nearest subsequent pile shall be taken, if required by the Engineer.

(d)

At the start of the work in a new area or section a detailed record shall be made over
the full driving length of the first pile, and during the last 3 m of the driving of
subsequent piles, to establish the driving behaviour. Where required, detailed driving
records shall also be made for 5 % of the piles driven, the locations of such piles being
specified by the Engineer.

(e)

The Contractor shall give adequate notice and provide all necessary facilities to enable
the Engineer to check driving resistance. A set or resistance measurement shall be
taken only in the presence of the Engineer unless otherwise approved.

(f)

Redrive checks, if required, shall be carried out in accordance with an approved


procedure.

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When driving to a set criterion, the final set of each pile shall be recorded either as the
penetration in millimetres per ten blows or as the number of blows required to produce
a penetration of 25 mm.
When a final set or resistance is being measured, the following requirements shall be
met:

(b)

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Final Set or Resistance

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04: Deep Foundations

(i)

The exposed part of the pile shall be in good condition, without damage or
distortion.

(ii)

The dolly and packing, if any, shall be in sound condition.

(iii)

The hammer blow shall be in line with the pile axis and the impact surfaces shall
be flat and at right angles to the pile and hammer axis.

(iv)

The hammer shall be in good condition, delivering adequate energy per blow
and operating correctly.

(v)

The temporary compression of the pile shall be recorded, if required by the


Engineer.

Preboring
(a)

If preboring is specified the pile shall be pitched after preboring to the designated
depth and diameter.

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04: Deep Foundations

Page 33

Jetting
(a)

Jetting shall be carried out only when the Contractor's detailed proposals have been
approved.

Risen Piles

Piles shall be driven in an approved sequence to minimise any detrimental effects of heave
and lateral displacement of the ground.

When required by the Engineer, levels and measurements shall be taken to determine the
movement of the ground or any pile resulting from the driving of adjacent piles.

When a pile has risen as a result of adjacent piles being driven, the Engineer may call for
redriving or other testing to demonstrate that the performance of the pile under load is
unimpaired. If required, the Contractor shall make proposals for correcting detrimentally
affected piles and for avoidance or control of heave in subsequent work.

4.6.11

Preparation of pile heads

If a steel superstructure is to be welded to piles, the pile cut-off shall be square and to within
5 mm of the elevations shown on the Drawings. If pile heads are to be encased in concrete
they shall be cut to that same tolerance and protective coatings shall be removed from the
surfaces of the pile heads down to a level 100 mm above the soffit of the concrete.

4.7

MICROPILES (TO BE ADDED LATER)

4.8

REDUCTION OF FRICTION ON PILES

4.8.1

Scope

This Part includes preapplied bituminous or other proprietary friction-reducing coating, preapplied low-friction sleeving, formed-in-place low-friction surround, and preinstalled lowfriction sleeving.

Related Parts are as follows:

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4.6.10

This Section
Part 1, .............. General Requirements for Piling Works
Part 2, .............. Concrete Works for Piling
Section 3, Ground Investigation.
4.8.2

Submittals

Where the particular method of reducing friction is not specified, the Contractor shall submit
full details of the method which he proposes.

4.8.3

Friction Reducing Methods

General
(a)

Where a means of reducing friction on any specified length of pile is required by the
Contract, the Contractor shall provide a suitable interface between pile and soil by one
of the following, or other approved, methods

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Page 34

(i)

Preapplied bituminous or other proprietary friction-reducing coating.

(ii)

Preapplied low-friction sleeving.

(iii)

Formed-in-place low-friction surrounds.

(iv)

Preinstalled low-friction sleeving.

Preapplied Bituminous or other Friction-Reducing Coating Materials


(a)

Where a proprietary product is specified, the process of cleaning pile surfaces, and the
conditions and methods of application shall conform to the manufacturer's current
instructions. All materials shall conform to the manufacturer's specification, which
shall be given to the Engineer before any coating is applied.

(b)

Where a friction-reducing material has been applied to a preformed pile prior to


installation, it shall be protected from damage during handling and transportation. In
the event of inadvertent damage to the coating, it shall be repaired on site, prior to the
pile being driven, to the same specification as the original coating. Where bituminous
materials are involved, precautions shall be taken as necessary in hot weather to
prevent excessive flow or displacement of the coating. The coated piles shall be
adequately protected against direct sunlight and, if stacked, they shall be separated to
prevent their coatings sticking together.

(c)

In the case of applied coatings, the piles shall not be driven when the air temperature
is such that the coating will crack, flake or otherwise be damaged prior to entry into the
ground. Where bituminous materials are involved, driving shall be carried out while
the temperature is at or above 5 C unless otherwise approved or called for in the
manufacturer's instructions.

Formed-In-Place Low-Friction Surround


Where a hole is bored in the ground and filled with low-friction material through which a
pile is subsequently driven or placed, the method and the properties of the low-friction
material both above and below standing groundwater level, together with the
dimensions of the prebored hole in relation to the pile, shall be approved by the
Engineer.

(a)

Piles may be driven with a preapplied low-friction sleeving subject to the approval of
the detailed design and method by the Engineer.

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Preapplied Low-Friction Sleeving

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
04: Deep Foundations

Preinstalled Low-Friction Sleeving


(a)

Where a system is employed involving placing a low-friction sleeve in the ground prior
to pile installation, the detailed materials and method of installation of the sleeving shall
be approved by the Engineer.

4.8.4

Inspection

The Engineer may call for piles to be partially exposed or extracted at the commencement of
a contract in order to demonstrate that the method of installation does not impair the
effectiveness of the system in the circumstances of use on the particular site. Where damage
is found to have occurred, or is likely to occur in the opinion of the Engineer, additional
measures or variation of the method may be called for. At the discretion of the Engineer,
further inspections shall be carried out to ascertain the effectiveness of the additional
measures.

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
04: Deep Foundations

Page 35

4.8.5

Driving resistance

Allowance shall be made in driving piles to a required resistance or set for any differences
between the short-term driving resistance and the long-term static resistance of the coating
or surrounding low-friction material which is in use.

4.9

PILE LOAD TESTING

4.9.1

Static Load Testing of Piles

Scope
This Part deals with the testing of a pile by the controlled application of an axial load. It
covers vertical and raking piles tested in compression (i.e. subjected to loads or forces
in a direction such as would cause the piles to penetrate further into the ground) and
vertical or raking piles tested in tension (i.e., subjected to forces in a direction such as
would cause the piles to be extracted from the ground).

References
The following standard is referred to in this Part:

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(a)

Allowable pile capacity: a load which is not less than the specified working load and
which takes into account the pile's ultimate bearing capacity, the materials from which
the pile is made, the required factor of safety, settlement, pile spacing, downdrag, the
overall bearing capacity of the ground beneath the piles and any other relevant factors.
The allowable pile capacity indicates the ability of a pile to meet the specified loading
requirements.

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Definitions

When required, the design and full details of the proposed load application system
shall be submitted to the Engineer prior to the commencement of testing. The load
application system shall be satisfactory for the required test.

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Submittals

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BS 1881, ....................Methods of testing concrete.

(b)

Compression pile: a pile which is designed to resist compressive (downward) axial


load.

(c)

Constant rate of penetration (CRP) test: a test in which the pile is made to penetrate
the soil at a constant controlled speed, while the loads applied at the top of the pile in
order to maintain the constant rate of penetration are continuously measured. The
purpose of the test is to derive the ultimate bearing capacity of a pile and not its load
settlement characteristics.

(d)

Constant rate of uplift (CRU) test: the same in principle as the CRP test, but the pile is
subject to tension rather than compression. The purpose of the test is to determine
the 'pull-out' capacity of a pile.

(e)

Design verification load (DVL): a test load, in lieu of a specified working load, applied
to a single pile at the time of testing to determine that site conditions conform to design
assumptions. This load will be peculiar to each preliminary (test) pile and should equal
the maximum specified working load for a pile of the same dimensions and material,
plus allowances for soil-induced forces and any other particular conditions of the test.

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Page 36

Kentledge: ballast used in a loading test.

(g)

Maintained load test: a loading test in which each increment of load is held constant
either for a defined period of time or until the rate of settlement falls to a specified
value.

(h)

Preliminary pile: a test pile installed before the commencement of the main piling
works or a specific part of the Works for the purpose of establishing the suitability of
the chosen type of pile and for confirming its design, dimensions and bearing capacity.

(i)

Proof load: a load applied to a selected working pile to confirm that it is suitable for the
load at the settlement specified. A proof load should not normally exceed the design
verification load plus 50 % of the specified working load.

(j)

Raking pile: a batter pile, installed at an inclination to the vertical.

(k)

Reaction system: the arrangement of kentledge, piles, anchors or rafts that provides a
resistance against which the pile is tested.

(l)

Specified working load (SWL): the designated load on the head of a pile.

(m)

Tension pile: a pile which is designed to resist a tensile (upward) axial force.

(n)

Test pile: any pile, preliminary or part of the works, to which a test is applied.

(o)

Ultimate bearing capacity: the load at which the resistance of the soil becomes fully
mobilised through friction, end bearing or a combination thereof.

(p)

Working pile: one of the piles forming the foundation of a structure.

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(f)

Notice of Construction

(b)

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The Contractor shall give the Engineer at least 48 hours' notice of the
commencement of construction of any preliminary pile which is to be testloaded.

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(i)

Method of Construction
Each preliminary test pile shall be constructed in a manner similar to that to be
used for the construction of the working piles, and by the use of similar
equipment and materials. Any variation will be permitted only with prior approval.

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(i)

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Construction of a preliminary pile to be tested

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
04: Deep Foundations

(c)

Boring or Driving Record


(i)

(d)

For each preliminary pile to be tested, a detailed record of the conditions


experienced during boring and of the progress during driving, shall be made and
submitted to the Engineer daily, not later than noon on the next working day.
Where the Engineer requires soil samples to be taken or in-situ tests to be
made, the Contractor shall include that in the daily report, as well as the test
results.

Concrete Test Cubes


(i)

In the case of concrete piles, four test cubes shall be made from the concrete
3
used in the manufacturer of each preliminary test pile and from each 50 m of
the concrete used in the manufacture of working piles. If a concrete pile is
extended or capped for the purpose of testing, an additional four cubes shall be
made from the corresponding batch of concrete. The cubes shall be made and
tested in accordance with BS 1881.

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
04: Deep Foundations
(ii)

(e)

If a test is required on a working pile the Contractor shall cut off or otherwise
prepare the pile for testing as required by the Engineer.

Cut-off Level
(i)

The cut-off level for a preliminary test pile shall be approved by the Engineer.

Supervision
The setting-up of pile testing equipment shall be carried out under competent
supervision and the equipment shall be checked to ensure that the set-up is
satisfactory before the commencement of load application.

(b)

All tests shall be carried out only under the direction of an experienced and competent
supervisor experienced with the test equipment and test procedure. All personnel
operating the test equipment shall have been trained in its use.

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(a)

Safety precautions
General

Design, erection and dismantling of the pile test reaction system and the
application of load shall be carried out according to the requirements of the
various applicable statutory regulations concerned with lifting and handling
heavy equipment and shall safeguard operators and others who may from time
to time be in the vicinity of a test from all avoidable hazards.

Kentledge

Where kentledge is used, the Contractor shall construct the foundations for the
kentledge and any cribwork, beams or other supporting structure in such a
manner that there will not be differential settlement, bending or deflexion of an
amount that constitutes a hazard to safety or impairs the efficiency of the
operation. The kentledge shall be adequately bonded, tied or otherwise held
together to prevent it becoming unstable because of deflexion of the supports or
for any other reason.

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(i)

(b)

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The pile test shall not be started until the strength of the cubes taken from the
pile exceeds twice the average direct stress in any pile section under the
maximum required test load, and the strength of the cubes taken from the cap
exceeds twice the average stress at any point in the cap under the same load.
Variation of procedure will be permitted only if approved by the Engineer.

Preparation of a Working Pile to be Tested


(i)

(f)

Page 37

(ii)

When kentledge constitutes the principal component of a reaction system, its


weight for each test shall be at least 25% greater than the maximum test load
for that test. The weight may be determined by scale or the density and volume
of the constituent materials. In adding kentledge, care shall be taken to properly
position the centre of gravity of the stack.

QCS 2014

(c)

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
04: Deep Foundations
Tension Piles, Reaction Piles and Ground Anchorages
(i)

Where tension piles, reaction piles or ground anchorages constitute the principal
components of a reaction system, they shall be so designed that they will resist
the forces applied to them safely and without excessive deformation which could
cause a safety hazard during the work. Such piles (which, unless approved, will
not be working piles) or anchorages shall be driven in the specified locations,
and all bars, tendons or links shall be aligned to provide a stable reaction in the
direction required. Any welding employed to extend or to fix anchorages to a
reaction frame shall be carried out so that the full strength of the system is
adequate and unimpaired.

Testing Equipment
(i)

In all cases the Contractor shall ensure that when the hydraulic jack and loadmeasuring device are mounted on the pile head the whole system will be stable
up to the maximum load to be applied.

(ii)

If in the course of carrying out a test any unforeseen occurrence should take
place, further loading shall not be applied until a proper engineering assessment
of the condition has been made and steps have been taken to rectify any fault.
Reading of gauges should, however, be continued where possible and if it is
safe to do so.

(iii)

Where an inadequacy in any part of the system might constitute a hazard,


means shall be provided to enable the test to he controlled from a position
remote from of the kentledge stack or test frame.

(iv)

The hydraulic jack, pump, hoses, pipes, couplings and other apparatus to be
operated under hydraulic pressure shall be capable of withstanding a pressure
of 1.5 times the maximum pressure used in the test without leaking. The
maximum test load expressed as a reading on the gauge in use shall be
displayed and all operators shall be made aware of this limit.

Pile Head for Compression Test


For a pile that is tested in compression, the pile head or cap shall be formed to
give a plane surface which is normal to the axis of the pile, sufficiently large to
accommodate the loading and settlement measuring equipment and adequately
reinforced or protected to prevent damage from the concentrated load applied
by the loading equipment.

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(i)

(e)

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(d)

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(f)

(ii)

Any test pile cap shall be concentric with the test pile; the joint between the cap
and the pile shall have a strength equivalent to that of the pile.

(iii)

Sufficient clear space shall be made under any part of the cap projecting beyond
the section of the pile so that, at the maximum expected settlement, load is not
transmitted to the ground by the cap.

Pile Connection for Tension Test


(i)

For a pile that is tested in tension, means shall be provided for transmitting the
test load axially without inducing moment in the pile. The connection between
the pile and the loading equipment shall be constructed in such a manner as to
provide strength equal to 1.5 times the maximum load which is to be applied to
the pile during the test.

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Page 39

Reaction systems

(i)

The reaction for compression tests shall be provided by kentledge, tension piles
or specially constructed anchorages. Kentledge shall not be used for tests on
raking piles except where the test set-up has been specifically designed to
conform to Item 7(g). and has been approved by the Engineer.

(ii)

Where kentledge is to be used, it shall be supported on cribwork and positioned


so that the centre of gravity of the load is as close as possible to the axis of the
pile. The bearing pressure under supporting cribs shall be such as to ensure
stability of the kentledge stack.

Tension Tests
(i)

The reaction for tension tests shall be provided by compression piles, rafts or
grillages constructed on the ground. In all cases the resultant force of the
reaction system shall be coaxial with the test pile.

(ii)

Where inclined piles or reactions are proposed, full details shall be submitted for
approval prior to the commencement of testing.

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Working piles shall not be used as reaction piles without approval from the
Engineer.

(ii)

Where working piles are used as reaction piles their movement shall be
measured and recorded to with an accuracy of 0.5 mm, and recorded.

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(i)

Spacing

Where kentledge is used for loading vertical piles in compression, the distance
from the edge of the test pile to the nearest part of the crib supporting the
kentledge stack in contact with the ground shall be not less than 1.3 m.

(ii)

The centre-to-centre spacing of vertical reaction piles from a test pile shall
conform to Paragraph 1 above, but shall be not less than three times the
diameter of the test pile or the reaction piles or 2 m, whichever is the greatest,
except in the case of piles of 300 mm diameter (or equivalent) or less, where the
distance may be reduced to 1.5 m. Where a pile to be tested has an enlarged
pile cap, the same criterion shall apply with regard to the pile shaft, with the
additional requirement that no surface of a reaction pile shall be closer to the
pile cap of the test pile than one half of the pile cap plan dimension.

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(d)

Working Piles

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(c)

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(b)

Compression Tests

(a)

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
04: Deep Foundations

(iii)

(e)

Where ground anchorages are used to provide a test reaction for loading in
compression, no section of fixed anchor length transferring load to the ground
shall be closer to the test pile than three times the diameter of the test pile.
Where the pile to be tested has an enlarged pile cap, the same criterion shall
apply with regard to the pile shaft, with the additional requirement that no section
of the fixed anchor transferring load to the ground shall be closer to the pile cap
than a distance equal to one half the pile cap plan dimension.

Adequate Reaction
(i)

The reaction frame support system shall be adequate to transmit the maximum
test load in a safe manner without excessive movement or influence on the test
pile. Calculations shall be provided to the Engineer when required to justify the
design of the reaction system.

QCS 2014

(f)

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
04: Deep Foundations
Care of Piles
(i)

Page 40

The method employed in the installation of the reaction system shall be such as
to prevent damage to any test pile or working pile.

Equipment for applying load


The equipment used for applying load shall consist of a hydraulic ram or jack. The
jack shall be arranged in conjunction with the reaction system to deliver an axial load
to the test pile. Proposals to use more than one ram or jack will be subject to approval
by the Engineer of the detailed arrangement. The complete system shall be capable of
safely transferring the maximum load required for the test. The length of stroke of a
ram shall be sufficient to account for deflexion of the reaction system under load plus a
deflection of the pile head by up to 15 % of the pile shaft diameter unless otherwise
specified or agreed prior to commencement of test loading.

Measurement of load

A load measuring device shall be used and in addition a calibrated pressure gauge
included in the hydraulic system. Readings of both the load measuring device and the
pressure gauge shall be recorded. In interpreting the test data the values given by the
load measuring device shall normally be used; the pressure gauge readings are
required as a check for gross error.

(b)

The load measuring device may consist of a load measuring column, pressure cell or
other appropriate system. A spherical seating of appropriate size shall he used to
avoid eccentric loading. Care shall be taken to avoid any risk of buckling of the load
application and measuring system. Load measuring and application devices shall be
short in axial length in order to secure stability. The Contractor shall ensure that axial
loading is maintained.

(c)

The load measuring device shall be calibrated before and after each series of tests,
whenever adjustments are made to the device or at intervals appropriate to the type of
equipment. The pressure gauge and hydraulic jack shall be calibrated together.
Certificates of calibration shall be supplied to the Engineer.

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(a)

Control of loading

The loading equipment shall enable the load to be increased or decreased smoothly or
to be held constant at any required value.

(a)

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11

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(a)

12

Measuring pile head movement


(a)

Maintained Load Test


(i)

(b)

In a maintained load test, movement of the pile head shall he measured by one
of the methods in Items 11 (d), (e), (f), (g) in the case of vertical piles, or by one
of the methods in 11 (d), (f), (g) in the case of the raking piles, as required.

CRP and CRU Tests


(i)

In a CRP or a CRU test, the method in Item 11 (d) shall be used. Checklevelling of the reference frame or the pile head shall not be required. The dial
gauge shall be graduated in divisions of 0.02 mm or less.

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
04: Deep Foundations

(c)

Page 41

Reference Beams and Dial Gauges


(i)

An independent reference beam or beams shall be set up to enable


measurement of the movement of the pile to be made to the required accuracy.
The supports for a beam shall be founded in such a manner and at such a
distance from the test pile and reaction system that movements of the ground
do not cause movement of the reference beam or beams which will affect the
accuracy of the test. The supports of the beam or beams shall be at least three
test pile diameters or 2 m from the centre of the test pile, whichever distance is
the greater.

(ii)

Check observations of any movements of the reference beam or beams shall be


made and a check shall be made of the movement of the pile head relative to a
remote reference datum at suitable intervals during the progress of the test.

(iii)

The measurement of pile movement shall be made by four dial gauges rigidly
mounted on the reference beam or beams, bearing on prepared flat surfaces
fixed to the pile cap or head and normal to the pile axis. Alternatively, the
gauges may be fixed to the pile and bear on prepared surfaces on the reference
beam or beams. The dial gauges shall be placed equidistant from the pile axis
and from each other. The dial gauges shall enable readings to be made to an
accuracy of at least 0.1 mm and have a stem travel of at least 25 mm.
Machined spacer blocks may be used to extend the range of reading. Equivalent
electrical displacement-measuring devices may be substituted.

Optical Levelling Method

An optical levelling method by reference to a remote datum may be used.

(ii)

Where a level and staff are used, the level and scale of the staff shall be chosen
to enable readings to be made to within an accuracy of 0.5 mm. A scale
attached to the pile or pile cap may be used instead of a levelling staff. At least
two reliable independent datum points shall be established. Each datum point
shall be so situated as to permit a single setting-up position of the level for all
readings.

(iii)

No datum point shall be located where it can be affected by the test loading or
other operations on the Site.

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(i)

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Reference Wires and Scales

(e)

(f)

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(d)

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QCS 2014

(i)

Two parallel reference wires, one on either side of the pile, shall be held under
constant tension at right angles to the test pile axis between supports formed as
in the method in Item 11 (d). The wires shall be positioned against scales fixed
to the test pile head in an axial direction and the movements of the scales
relative to the wires shall be determined.

(ii)

Check observations of any movements of the supports of the wires shall be


made and a check shall be made on the movement of the pile head at approved
time intervals. Readings shall be taken to within an accuracy of 0.5 mm.

Other Methods
(i)

The Contractor may submit for approval any other method of measuring the
movement of the test pile head.

QCS 2014

Protection of testing equipment


(a)

Protection from Weather


(i)

(b)

Throughout the test period all equipment for measuring load and
shall be protected from exposure to adverse effect of weather.

movement

Prevention of Disturbance
(i)

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Page 42

Construction activity and persons who are not involved in the testing process
shall be kept at a sufficient distance from the test to avoid disturbance to the
measuring apparatus. Full records shall be kept of any intermittent unavoidable
activity that might affect the test set-up.

Notice of test
The Contractor shall give the Engineer at least 24 hours' notice of the
commencement of the test. No load shall be applied to the test pile before the
commencement of the specified test procedure.

Test procedure

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Proof Load Test Procedure (working compression piles)

The maximum load which shall be applied in a proof test shall normally be the
sum of the design verification load (DVL) plus 50 % of the specified working load
(SWL). The loading and unloading shall be carried out in stages as shown in
Table 4.7. Any particular requirements given in the particular contract
documentation shall be complied with.

(ii)

Following each application of an increment of load, the load shall be maintained


at the specified value for not less than the period shown in Table 4.7 and until
the rate of settlement is less than 0.25 mm/h and decreasing. The rate of
settlement shall be calculated from the slope of the line obtained by plotting
values of settlement versus time and drawing a smooth curve through the
points.

(iii)

Each decrement of unloading shall proceed after the expiry of the period shown
in Table 4.7.

(iv)

For any period when the load is constant, time and settlement shall be recorded
immediately on reaching the load, at not more than 5 min intervals up to 15 min;
at approximately 15 min intervals up to 1 h; at 30 min intervals between 1 h and
4 h; and 1 h intervals between 4 h and 12 h after the application of the increment
of load.

qa

(i)

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(a)

15

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(i)

13

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


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04: Deep Foundations

(v)

Where the methods of measuring pile head movement given in Item 11 is used,
the periods of time for which loads must be held constant to achieve the
specified rates of settlement shall be extended as necessary to take into
account the lower levels of accuracy available from these methods and to allow
correct assessment of the settlement rate.

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Page 43

Table 4.7
Minimum time of holding load

25% DVL
50% DVL
75% DVL
100% DVL
75% DVL
50% DVL
25% DVL
0
100% DVL
100% DVL + 25% SWL
100% DVL + 50% SWL
100% DVL + 25% SWL
100% DVL
75% DVL
50% DVL
25% DVL
0
100% DVL
100% DVL + 50% SWL
100% DVL + 75% SWL
100% DVL + 100% SWL
100% DVL + 75% SWL
100% DVL + 50% SW
100% DVL + 25% SW
100% DVL
75% DVL
50% DVL
25% DVL
0

1h
1h
1h
1h
10 min
10 min
10 min
1h
6h
1h
6h
10 min
10 min
10 min
10 min
10 min
1h
6h
6h
1h
6h
10 min
10 min
10 min
10 min
10 min
10 min
10 min
1h

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Load *

(b)

SWL denotes specified working load; DVL denotes design verification load.
Test Procedure for Preliminary Compression Piles

et
it

Applicable
to tests on
Preliminary
Pile only

(i)

The procedure to be adopted for carrying out load tests on preliminary


compression piles shall be either the extended proof load test procedure or the
constant rate of penetration testing procedure given below. A normal proof load
test will constitute the first stage of such a test unless otherwise specified.

(ii)

Extended proof load test procedure. Where test pile is to be loaded up to the
sum of design verification load (DVL) plus 100 % of the specified working load,
the loading procedure may be carried out as a continuation of the proof load
testing procedure given in Item 14 (a).

(iii)

Following the completion of the proof load test, the load shall be restored in two
stages (DVL, DVL +50 % SWL), and shall subsequently be increased by stages
of 25 % of the specified working load. Following each application of an
increment of load, the load shall be maintained at the specified value for the
period shown in Table 4.7 and until the rate of settlement is decreasing and is
less than 0.25 mm/h.

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


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(iv)

Where verification of required minimum factor of safety is called for or the pile is
to be tested to failure, the loading procedure shall be continued after reaching
DVL +100 % SWL stage by increasing the load in increments of 25 % of the
specified working load or other specified amount until the maximum specified
load of the test is reached. Following each application of increment of load, the
load shall be maintained at the specified value for not less than 1 h and until the
rate of settlement is decreasing and is less than 0.25 mm/h, or other approved
rate appropriate to the stage of loading and its proximity to a failure condition.
Permissible settlement at the load corresponding to the required minimum factor
of safety called for in the design will not normally be specified.

(v)

The rate of settlement shall be calculated from the slope of the line obtained by
plotting values of settlement versus time and drawing a smooth curve through
the points. Reduction of load at the end of the test shall be gradual as required
by Item 14 (a).and the final rebound of the pile head shall be recorded.

(vi)

Constant rate of penetration (CRP) testing procedure. Where it is required to


determine the ultimate load of a preliminary compression pile, and particularly
where piles are largely embedded in and bearing on clay soils, the CRP testing
procedure will normally be specified.

(vii)

The rate of movement of the pile head shall be maintained constant in so far as
is practicable and shall be approximately 0.01 mm/s.

(viii)

Readings of loads, penetration and time shall be made simultaneously at regular


intervals; the interval chosen shall be such that a curve of load versus
penetration can be plotted without ambiguity.

(ix)

Loading shall be continued until one of the following results is obtained

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QCS 2014

The maximum required test load.

2.

A constant or reducing load has been recorded for an interval of


penetration of 10 mm.

ov

A total movement of the pile base equal to 10 % of the base diameter, or


any other greater value of movement specified, has been reached.

et
it

3.

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1.

(x)

(c)

16

The load shall then be reduced in five approximately equal stages to zero load,
penetration and load being recorded at each stage.

Testing of Piles Designed to Carry Load in Tension


(i)

The testing of piles designed to carry load in tension shall follow the same
procedure as specified in 4.9.1

(ii)

In testing by the constant rate of uplift method, overall movements of the pile
head will normally be less than those expected in a constant rate of penetration
test. The rate of movement of the pile head shall be maintained at approximately
0.005 mm/s in so far as is practicable.

Completion of a test
(a)

Removal of Test Equipment

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(b)

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(i)

On completion of a test and subject to the approval of the Engineer, all


measuring equipment and load application devices shall be dismantled and
checked. All other test equipment, including kentledge, beams and supporting
structures shall be removed from the test pile location. Measuring and other
demountable equipment shall be stored in a safe manner so that it is available
for further tests, or removed from the Site as approved by the Engineer.

(ii)

Temporary tension piles and ground anchorages shall be cut off below ground
level, and off-cut materials removed from the Site. The ground shall be restored
to the original contours.

Preliminary Test Pile Cap


Unless otherwise specified, the head of each preliminary test pile shall be cut off
below ground level, off-cut material shall be removed from the Site and the
ground restored to the original contours.

Proof Test Pile Cap

rw

On completion of a test on a proof pile, the test pile cap shall be prepared as
specified and left in a state ready for incorporation into the Permanent Works.
Any resulting off-cut materials shall be removed from the Site.

Presentation of results

Results to be submitted

as

4.9.2

ta

(i)

qa

(c)

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(i)

During the progress of a test, all records taken shall be available for inspection by the
Engineer.

(b)

Results shall be submitted as

Preliminary report of the test results to the Engineer, unless otherwise directed,
within 24 hours of the completion of the test, which shall show.
For a test by maintained load: for each stage of loading, the period for
which the load was held, the load and the maximum pile movement at the
end of the stage.

et
it

1.

ov

(i)

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(a)

2.

(ii)

For a CRP or CRU test: the maximum load reached and a graph of load
against penetration or load against uplift.

The final report of recorded data as prescribed in Item 15 (b).within ten days of
the completion of the test.

Schedule of Recorded Data


(a)

The Contractor shall provide information about the test pile in accordance with the
following schedule where applicable.
(i)

General.
1.

site location contract identification

2.

proposed structure

3.

main contractor

4.

piling contractor

5.

engineer client/employer

6.

date and time of test

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


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Pile details.
1.

all types of pile

2.

identification (number and location)

3.

specified working load (SWL)

4.

design verification load (DVL)

5.

original ground level at pile location

6.

head level at which test load was applied

7.

type of pile

8.

vertical or raking, compression or tension

9.

shape and size of cross-section of pile, and position of any change in


cross-section

10.

shoe or base details

11.

head details

12.

length in ground

13.

tip Elevation

14.

dimensions of any permanent casing

15.

concrete piles

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(ii)

Page 46

concrete mix/grade

aggregate type and source

cement type and cement replacement and type where used

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admixtures

et
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(iii)

16.

slump

cube test results for pile and cap

date of casting of precast pile

reinforcement

steel piles

steel quality

coating

filling or core materials type and quality, if applicable

Installation details.
1.

2.

all piles

dates and times of boring, driving and concreting of test pile

difficulties and delays encountered

date and time of casting concrete pile cap

bored piles

type of equipment used and method of boring

temporary casing - diameter, type and length

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


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Page 47

full log of pile borehole

method of placing concrete

Volume of concrete placed

driven preformed and driven cast-in-place piles

Method of support of hammer and pile driven length of pile or


temporary casing at final set

Hammer type, and size or weight

Dolly and packing, type and condition

Driving log (depth, hammer drop, blows per 250 mm,


interruptions or breaks in driving)

Final set in number of blows to produce penetration of 25 mm

Redrive check, time interval and set in number of blows to


produce penetration of 25 mm or other agreed amount at final
set and at redrive set, for a drop hammer or for a single acting
hammer the length of the drop or stroke, for a diesel hammer
the length of the stroke and the blows per minute, for a double
acting hammer the operating pressure and the number of blows
per minute

condition of pile head or temporary casing after driving

use of a follower

use of preboring

use of jetting

lengthening

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(iv)

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method of placing concrete

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QCS 2014

Test procedure.

mass of kentledge

1.

tension pile, ground anchorage or compression pile details

3.

plan of test arrangement showing position and distances of kentledge


supports, rafts, tension or compression piles or ground anchorages, and
supports to pile movement reference system

4.

jack capacity

5.

method of load measurement

6.

method(s) of penetration or uplift measurement

et
it

2.

(v)

Test results.
1.

in tabular form

2.

in graphical form: load plotted against pile head movement

3.

ambient temperature records during test.

4.9.3

Low strain Integrity test

This test shall be carried out in accordance with ASTM D5882 in a frequency as mentioned in
Section 2

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Grosshole Sonic Logging Test

This test shall be carried out in accordance with ASTM D4428, D6760 in a frequency as
mentioned in Section 2

4.9.5

Calliper Logging Test

This test shall be carried out in accordance with ASTM D6167 in a frequency as mentioned in
Section 2

4.9.6

Axial Tensile Load Test

This test shall be carried out in accordance with ASTM D3689 in a frequency as mentioned in
Section 2

4.9.7

Lateral Load Test

This test shall be carried out in accordance with ASTM D3966 in a frequency as mentioned in
Section 2

4.9.8

Alternative Methods for Testing Piles

Scope

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4.9.4

This Part outlines the alternative methods for testing piles. A significant advance in
identifying the existence of defects in construction of piles has been the development
and adoption of modern integrity testing systems which may be employed to check the
quality of construction when required by the Engineer.

(b)

Dynamic pile-testing is normally used to evaluate the pile capacity, soil resistance
distribution, and immediate settlement characteristics, hammer transfer energy
(efficiency), and pile stresses during driving. The results obtained relate directly to
dynamic loading conditions.

(c)

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:

et
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as

(a)

This Section
Section 2

Quality Assurance
(a)

The testing shall be carried out by an approved firm.

(b)

The interpretation of tests shall be carried out by persons competent in the test
procedure, and the full test results and findings shall normally be given to the Engineer
within 10 d of the completion of each phase of testing. Full details of the ground
conditions, pile dimensions and construction method shall be made available to the
specialist firm when required in order to facilitate interpretation of the tests.

Integrity-testing of piles
(a)

General

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


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Page 49

(i)

Integrity-testing of piles is designed to give information about the physical


dimensions, continuity and consistency of materials used in piles, and not to
give direct information about the performance of piles under the conditions of
loading. The methods available are normally applied to preformed concrete piles
made in a single length, to steel piles and to cast-in-place concrete piles.

(ii)

This type of testing will not be regarded as a replacement for static load testing,
but as a source of supplementary information.

(iii)

There is normally a limit to the length: diameter ratio of pile which can be
successfully and fully investigated in this way, depending on the ground
conditions.

(iv)

In the event that any anomaly is found in the results of such testing, the
Engineer may call for further testing to be carried out in order to investigate the
cause, nature and extent of the anomaly and whether the pile is satisfactory for
its intended use.

Method of Testing

Where integrity-testing is called for but the method is not specified, the method
to be adopted shall be approved by the Engineer and shall be one of the
following

3.

The sonic logging method.

as

The vibration method.

se

Other methods may be adopted subject to the approval of the Engineer and
subject to satisfactory evidence of performance.

In the case of cast-in-place concrete piles, integrity tests shall not be carried out
until 7 d or more have elapsed after pile-casting, unless otherwise approved by
the Engineer.

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Preparation of Pile Heads

(i)

2.

Age of Piles at Time of Testing


(i)

(d)

The sonic method.

ov

(c)

1.

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(ii)

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(i)

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(b)

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QCS 2014

Where the method of testing requires the positioning of sensing equipment on


the pile head, the head shall be clean, free from water, laitance and loose
concrete and readily accessible for the purpose of testing.

Dynamic pile-testing
(a)

General
(i)

Dynamic pile-testing involves monitoring the response of a pile to a heavy


impact applied at the pile head. The impact is often provided by the pile-driving
hammer and response is normally measured in terms of force and acceleration
or displacement close to the pile head.

(ii)

The results directly obtained refer to dynamic loading conditions. Interpretation


in terms of static loading requires soil- and pile-dependent adjustments, and
corroboration from experience may be required to correlate dynamic testing with
normal static load tests as specified in clause 4.9.1 of this Section.

(iii)

Details of the equipment to be used and of the method of analysis of test results
shall be provided to the Engineer before the commencement of testing.

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(b)

Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
04: Deep Foundations
Measuring Instruments
(i)

(c)

All instruments affixed to the pile for the purpose of measuring stress and
movement, and all equipment for receiving and processing data shall be suitable
for the purpose. The equipment required to be attached to the pile shall be
appropriately positioned and fixed to the approval of the Engineer.

Hammer
(i)

(d)

Page 50

The hammer and all other equipment used shall be capable of delivering an
impact force sufficient to mobilise the equivalent specified test load without
damaging the pile.

Preparation of the Pile Head


The preparation of the pile head for the application of the dynamic test load shall
involve, where appropriate, trimming the head, cleaning and building up the pile
using materials which will at the time of testing safely withstand the impact
stresses. The impact surface shall be flat and normal to the axis of the pile.

(e)

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(i)

Time of Testing

Dynamic load tests shall be carried out at appropriate and approved times after
pile installation. The time between the completion of installation and testing for
a preformed pile shall normally be more than 12 h, and in the case of a cast-inplace concrete piles shall be after the concrete has reached 75 % of its specified
28 day strength so that the pile is not damaged under the impact stresses.

Set Measurements

(g)

se

Where required and appropriate, the permanent penetration per blow and
temporary compression of the pile and soil system shall be measured
independently of the instruments being used to record the dynamic test data.

er

(i)

Results

Initial the results shall be provided to the Engineer within 24 hours of the
completion of a test. These shall include

(i)

ov

(f)

as

qa

ta

(i)

The maximum force applied to the pile head.

2.

The maximum pile head velocity.

3.

The maximum energy imparted to the pile.

et
it

1.

(ii)

Normally within 10 d of the completion of testing final report shall be given to the
Engineer which includes:
1.

Date of pile installation.

2.

Date of test.

3.

Pile identification number and location.

4.

Length of pile below ground surface.

5.

Total pile length, including projection above commencing surface at time


of test.

6.

Length of pile from instrumentation position to tip.

7.

Hammer type, drop and other relevant details.

8.

Blow selected for analysis.

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9.

Test load achieved (i.e. total mobilised deduced static load).

10.

Pile head movement at equivalent design verification load.

11.

Pile head movement at equivalent design verification load plus 50 % of


specified working load.

12.

Pile head movement at maximum applied test load.

13.

Permanent residual movement of pile head after each blow.

14.

Temporary compression.

DESIGN METHODS AND DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

4.10.1

Design method

The design shall be based on one of the following approaches:

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4.10

The results of static load tests, which have been demonstrated, by means of
calculations or otherwise, to be consistent with other relevant experience;

(b)

Empirical or analytical calculation methods whose validity has been demonstrated by


static load tests in comparable situations;

(c)

The results of dynamic load tests whose validity has been demonstrated by static load
tests in comparable situations;

(d)

The observed performance of a comparable piles foundation, provided that this


approach is supported by the results of site investigation and ground testing.

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(a)

Design values for parameters used in the calculations should be in general accordance with
design parameters from geotechnical investigations report, but the results of load tests may
also be taken into account in selecting parameter values.

Static load tests may be carried out on trial piles, installed for test purposes only, before the
design is finalized, or on working piles, which form part of the foundation.

4.10.2

Verification of Resistance for Structural and Ground Limit States in Persistent and
Transient Situations

When considering a limit state of rupture or excessive deformation of a structural element or


section of the ground (Structural and Geotechnical), it shall be verified in accordance with
(Eurocode1997-1) or equivalent.

4.10.3

Design Considerations

The behavior of individual piles and pile groups and the stiffness and strength of the structure
connecting the piles shall be considered.

In selecting calculation methods and parameter values and in using load test results, the
duration and variation in time of the loading shall be considered.

Planned future placement or removal of overburden or potential changes in the ground-water


regime shall be considered, both in calculations and in the interpretation of load test results.

The choice of type of pile, including the quality of the pile material and the method of
installation, shall take into account:

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QCS 2014

Page 52

the ground and ground-water conditions on the site, including the presence or
possibility of obstructions in the ground;

(b)

the stresses generated in the pile during installation;

(c)

the possibility of preserving and checking the integrity of the pile being installed;

(d)

the effect of the method and sequence of pile installation on piles, which have already
been installed and on adjacent structures or services;

(e)

the tolerances within, which the pile can be installed reliably;

(f)

the deleterious effects of chemicals in the ground;

(g)

the possibility of connecting different ground-water regimes;

(h)

the handling and transportation of piles;

(i)

the effects of pile construction on neighboring buildings.

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(a)

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In considering the aspects listed above, the following items should receive attention:
the spacing of the piles in pile groups;

(b)

displacement or vibration of adjacent structures due to pile installation;

(c)

the type of hammer or vibrator used;

(d)

the dynamic stresses in the pile during driving;

(e)

for those types of bored pile where a fluid is used inside the borehole, the need to
keep the pressure of the fluid at a level to ensure that the borehole will not collapse
and that hydraulic failure of the base will not occur;

(f)

cleaning of the base and sometimes the shaft of the borehole, especially under
bentonite, to remove remolded materials;

(g)

local instability of a shaft during concreting, which may cause a soil inclusion within
the pile;

(h)

ingress of soil or water into the section of a cast-in-situ pile and possible disturbance
of wet concrete by the flow of water through it;

qa

as

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ov

the effect of unsaturated sand layers around a pile extracting water from the
concrete;

(i)

ta

(a)

et
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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


Part
04: Deep Foundations

(j)

the retarding influence of chemicals in the soil;

(k)

soil compaction due to the driving of displacement piles;

(l)

soil disturbance due to the boring of a pile shaft.

4.11

AXIALLY LOADED PILES

4.11.1

Limit state design

The design shall demonstrate that exceeding the following limit states is sufficiently
improbable:
(a)

ultimate limit states of compressive or tensile resistance failure of a single pile;

(b)

ultimate limit states of compressive or tensile resistance failure of the pile foundation
as a whole;

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Page 53

(c)

ultimate limit states of collapse or severe damage to a supported structure caused by


excessive displacement or differential displacements of the pile foundation;

(d)

serviceability limit states in the supported structure caused by displacement of the piles.

Normally the design should consider the margin of safety with respect to compressive or
tensile resistance failure, which is the state in which the pile foundation displaces significantly
downwards or upwards with negligible increase or decrease of resistance.

For piles in compression it is often difficult to define an ultimate limit state from a load
settlement plot showing a continuous curvature. In these cases, settlement of the pile top
equal to 10% of the pile base diameter should be adopted as the "failure" criterion.

For piles that undergo significant settlements, ultimate limit states may occur in supported
structures before the resistance of the piles is fully mobilized. In these cases a cautious
estimate of the possible range of the settlements shall be adopted in design.

4.11.2

Compressive Ground Resistance

To demonstrate that the pile foundation will support the design load with adequate safety
against compressive failure, the following inequality shall be satisfied for all ultimate limit
state load cases and load combinations:

qa

ta

rw

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as

Fc Rc

se

Where

er

Fc: design axial compression load on a pile or a group of piles

In principle Fc should include the weight of the pile itself and Rc should include the
overburden pressure of the soil at the foundation base. However these two items may be
disregarded if they cancel approximately. They need not cancel if:
(a)

downdrag is significant;
the soil is very light,

(b)

et
it

ov

Rc: design value

(c)
3

the pile extends above the surface of the ground.

For piles in groups, two failure mechanisms shall be taken into account:
(a)

compressive resistance failure of the piles individually;

(b)

compressive resistance failure of the piles and the soil contained between them acting
as a block.

NOTE: The design resistance shall be taken as the lower value caused by these two

mechanisms.
4

The compressive resistance of the pile group acting as a block may be calculated by
treating the block as a single pile of large diameter.

The stiffness and strength of the structure connecting the piles in the group shall be
considered when deriving the design resistance of the foundation.

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Section 04: Foundations and Retaining Structures


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Page 54

If the piles support a stiff structure, advantage may be taken of the ability of the structure
to redistribute load between the piles. A limit state will occur only if a significant numbe r of
piles fail together; therefore a failure mode involving only one pile need not be considered.

If the piles support a flexible structure, it should be assumed that the compressive
resistance of the weakest pile governs the occurrence of a limit state.

Special attention should be given to possible failure of edge piles caused by inclined or
eccentric loads from the supported structure.

If the layer in which the piles bear overlies a layer of weak soil, the effect of the weak layer
on the compressive resistance of the foundation shall be considered.

10

The strength of a zone of ground above and below the pile base shall be taken into
account when calculating the pile base resistance.

rw

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NOTE: This zone may extend several diameters above and below the pile base. Any weak
ground in this zone has a relatively large influence on the base resistance.

Punching failure should be considered if weak ground is present at a depth of less than 4
times the base diameter below the base of the pile.

12

Where the pile base diameter exceeds the shaft diameter, the possible adverse effect
shall be considered.

13

For open-ended driven tube or box-section piles with openings of more than 500 mm in
any direction, and without special devices inside the pile to induce plugging, the base
resistance should be limited to the smaller of:

ov

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as

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11

the shearing resistance between the soil plug and the inside face of the pile;

(b)

the base resistance derived using the cross-sectional area of the base.

et
it

(a)

Ultimate compressive resistance from static load tests

The manner in which load tests are carried out shall be in accordance with 4.11.2 and shall be
specified in the Geotechnical Design Report.

Trial piles to be tested in advance shall be installed in the same manner as the piles that will
form the foundation and shall be founded in the same stratum.

If the diameter of the trial pile differs from that of the working piles, the possible difference in
performance of piles of different diameters should be considered in assessing the
compressive resistance to be adopted.

In the case of a very large diameter pile, it is often impractical to carry out a load test on a full
size trial pile. Load tests on smaller diameter trial piles may be considered provided that:

4.11.3

(a)

the ratio of the trial pile diameter/working pile diameter is not less than 0,5;

(b)

the smaller diameter trial pile is fabricated and installed in the same way as the piles
used for the foundation;

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(c)

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Page 55

the trial pile is instrumented in such a manner that the base and shaft resistance can be
derived separately from the measurements.

NOTE: This approach should be used with caution for open-ended driven piles because of
the influence of the diameter on the mobilisation of the compressive resistance of a soil plug
in the pile.
In the case of a pile foundation subjected to downdrag, the pile resistance at failure, or at a
displacement that equals the criterion for the verification of the ultimate limit state determined
from the load test results, shall be corrected. The correction shall be achieved by subtracting
the measured, or the most unfavorable, positive shaft resistance in the compressible stratum
and in the strata above, where negative skin friction develops, from the loads measured at
the pile head.

During the load test of a pile subject to downdrag, positive shaft friction will develop along the
total length of the pile. The maximum test load applied to the working pile should be in excess
of the sum of the design external load plus twice the downdrag force.

When deriving the ultimate characteristic compressive resistance from values measured in
one or several pile load tests, an allowance shall be made for the variability of the ground and
the variability of the effect of pile installation.

The systematic and random components of the variations in the ground shall be recognized
in the interpretation of pile load tests.

The records of the installation of the test pile(s) shall be checked and any deviation from the
normal execution conditions shall be accounted for.

10

The characteristic compressive resistance of the ground may be derived from the
characteristic values of the base resistance and of the shaft resistance in accordance with
Eurocode1997-1.

4.11.4

Ultimate compressive resistance from ground test results

Methods for assessing the compressive resistance of a pile foundation from ground test
results shall have been established from pile load tests and from comparable experience.

A model factor may be introduced as described as following to ensure that the predicted
compressive resistance is sufficiently safe :

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(a)

the range of uncertainty in the results of the method of analysis;

(b)

any systematic errors known to be associated with the method of analysis

In assessing the validity of a model based on ground test results, the following items should
be considered:
(a)

soil type, including grading, mineralogy, angularity, density, pre-consolidation,


compressibility and permeability;

(b)

method of installation of the pile, including method of boring or driving;

(c)

length, diameter, material and shape of the shaft and of the base of the pile (e.g.
enlarged base);

(d)

method of ground testing.

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4.11.5

Ultimate compressive resistance from dynamic impact tests

Where a dynamic impact (hammer blow) pile test [measurement of strain and acceleration
versus time during the impact event is used to assess the resistance of individual
compression piles, the validity of the result shall have been demonstrated by previous
evidence of acceptable performance in static load tests on the same pile type of similar
length and cross-section and in similar ground conditions.

When using a dynamic impact load test, the driving resistance of the pile should be
measured directly on the site in question.

NOTE
A load test of this type can also include a process of signal matching to
measured stress wave figures. Signal matching enables an approximate evaluation of shaft
and base resistance of the pile as well as a simulation of its load-settlement behaviour.
The impact energy shall be high enough to allow for an appropriate interpretation of
the pile capacity at a correspondingly high enough strain level.

The design value of the compressive resistance of the pile could be calculated and
verified according to Eurocode1997-1.

4.11.6

Ultimate compressive resistance by applying pile driving formulae

Pile driving formulae shall only be used if the stratification of the ground has been
determined.

If pile driving formulae are used to assess the ultimate compressive resistance of individual
piles in a foundation, the validity of the formulae shall have been demonstrated by previous
experimental evidence of acceptable performance in static load tests on the same type of
pile, of similar length and cross-section, and in similar ground conditions.

For end-bearing piles driven into non-cohesive soil, the design value of the compressive
resistance shall be assessed by the same procedure as in 4.11.5.

When a pile driving formula is applied to verify the compression resistance of a pile, the pile
driving test should have been carried out on at least 5 piles distributed at sufficient spacing in
the piling area in order to check a suitable blow count for the final series of blows.

The penetration of the pile point for the final series of blows should be recorded for each pile.

4.11.7

Ultimate compressive resistance from wave equation analysis

Wave equation analysis shall only be used where stratification of the ground has been determined
by borings and field tests.

Where wave equation analysis is used to assess the resistance of individual compression piles,
the validity of the analysis shall have been demonstrated by previous evidence of acceptable
performance in static load tests on the same pile type, of similar length and cross- section, and in
similar ground conditions.

The design value of the compressive resistance derived from the results of wave equation analysis
of a number of representative piles, shall be assessed by the same procedure as in 4.11.3.

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NOTE Wave equation analysis is based on a mathematical model of soil, pile and driving
equipment without stress wave measurements on site. The method is usually applied to
study hammer performance, dynamic soil parameters and stresses in the pile during driving.
It is also, on the basis of the models, possible to determine the required driving resistance
(blow count) that is usually related to the expected compressive resistance of the pile.
Ground tensile resistance

The design of piles in tension shall be consistent with the design rules given in 4.11.2, where
applicable. Design rules that are specific for foundations involving piles in tension are presented
below.

To verify that the foundation will support the design load with adequate safety against a failure in
tension, the following inequality shall be satisfied for all ultimate limit state load cases and load
combinations in accordance with Eurocode1997-1.

For isolated tensile piles or a group of tensile piles, the failure mechanism may be governed by the
pull-out resistance of a cone of ground, especially for piles with an enlarged base or rock socket.

When considering the uplift of the block of ground containing the piles the shear resistance along
the sides of the block may be added to the resisting forces.

Normally the block effect will govern the design tensile resistance if the distance between the piles
is equal to or less than the square root of the product of the pile diameter and the pile penetration
into the main resisting stratum.

The group effect, which may reduce the effective vertical stresses in the soil and hence the shaft
resistances of individual piles in the group, shall be considered when assessing the tensile
resistance of a group of piles.

The severe adverse effect of cyclic loading and reversals of load on the tensile resistance shall be
considered.

Comparable experience based on pile load tests should be applied to appraise this effect.

4.11.9

Ultimate tensile resistance from pile load tests

Pile load tests to determine the ultimate tensile resistance of an isolated pile shall be carried out in
accordance with 4.9.1 and with regard to 4.11.3.

The design tensile resistance could be calculated and verified according to Eurocode1997-1.

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4.11.8

4.11.10 Ultimate tensile resistance from ground test results


1

Methods for assessing the tensile resistance of a pile foundation from ground test results shall
have been established from pile load tests and from comparable experience.

A model factor may be introduced as following to ensure that the predicted tensile resistance is
sufficiently safe.
(a)

the range of uncertainty in the results of the method of analysis;

(b)

any systematic errors known to be associated with the method of analys is

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The design value of tensile resistance of a pile could be calculated and verified according to
Eurocode1997-1.

4.11.11 Vertical displacements of pile foundations


1

Vertical displacements under serviceability limit state conditions shall be assessed and checked.

When calculating the vertical displacements of a pile foundation, the uncertainties involved in the
calculation model and in determining the relevant ground properties should be taken into account.
Hence it should not be overlooked that in most cases calculations will provide only an approximate
estimate of the displacements of the pile foundation.

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NOTE For piles bearing in medium-to-dense soils and for tension piles, the safety
requirements for the ultimate limit state design are normally sufficient to prevent a
serviceability limit state in the supported structure.

The occurrence of a serviceability limit state in the supported structure due to pile settlements shall
be checked, taking into account downdrag, where probable.

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4.11.12 Pile foundations in compression

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NOTE When the pile toe is placed in a medium-dense or firm layer overlying rock or very
hard soil, the partial safety factors for ultimate limit state conditions are normally sufficient to
satisfy serviceability limit state conditions.
Assessment of settlements shall include both the settlement of individual piles and the settlement
due to group action.

The settlement analysis should include an estimate of the differential settlements that may occur.

When no load test results are available for an analysis of the interaction of the piled foundation with
the superstructure, the load-settlement performance of individual piles should be assessed on
empirically established safe assumptions.

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4.11.13 Pile foundations in tension


The assessment of upward displacements shall be done and Particular attention should be paid to
the elongation of the pile material.

When very severe criteria are set for the serviceability limit state, a separate check of the upward
displacements shall be carried out.

4.12

TRANSVERSELY LOADED PILES

4.12.1

Design method

The design of piles subjected to transverse loading shall be consistent with the design rules given
in 4.10, where applicable. Design rules specifically for foundations involving piles subjected to
transverse loading are presented below.

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To demonstrate that a pile will support the design transverse load with adequate safety against
failure, the following inequality shall be satisfied for all ultimate limit state load cases and load
combinations:
Ftr Rtr
Where;
Ftr: design value of the transverse load on a pile or a pile foundation
Rtr : design resistance of transversally loaded pile
One of the following failure mechanisms should be considered:
for short piles, rotation or translation as a rigid body;

(b)

for long slender piles, bending failure of the pile, accompanied by local yielding and
displacement of the soil near the top of the pile.

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The group effect shall be considered when assessing the resistance of transversely loaded piles.

It should be considered that a transverse load applied to a group of piles may result in a
combination of compression, tension and transverse forces in the individual piles.

4.12.2

Transverse load resistance from pile load tests

Transverse pile load tests shall be carried out in accordance with 4.9.6.

Contrary to the load test procedure described in 4.9 tests on transversely loaded piles need not
normally be continued to a state of failure. The magnitude and line of action of the test load should
simulate the design loading of the pile.

An allowance shall be made for the variability of the ground, particularly over the top few meters of
the pile, when choosing the number of piles for testing and when deriving the design transverse
resistance from load test results.

Records of the installation of the test pile(s) should be checked, and any deviation from the normal
construction conditions should be accounted for in the interpretation of the pile load test results.
For pile groups, the effects of interaction and head fixity should be accounted for when deriving the
transverse resistance from the results of load tests on individual test piles.

4.12.3

Transverse load resistance from ground test results and pile strength parameters

The transverse resistance of a pile or pile group shall be calculated using a compatible set of
structural effects of actions, ground reactions and displacements.

The analysis of a transversely loaded pile shall include the possibility of structural failure of the pile
in the ground.

The calculation of the transverse resistance of a long slender pile may be carried out using the
theory of a beam loaded at the top and supported by a deformable medium characterized by a
horizontal modulus of subgrade reaction.

The degree of freedom of rotation of the piles at the connection with the structure shall be taken
into account when assessing the foundations transverse resistance.

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4.12.4

Transverse displacement

The assessment of the transverse displacement of a pile foundation shall take into account:
the stiffness of the ground and its variation with strain level;

(b)

the flexural stiffness of the individual piles;

(c)

the moment fixity of the piles at the connection with the structure;

(d)

the group effect;

(e)

the effect of load reversals or of cyclic loading

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A general analysis of the displacement of a pile foundation should be based on expected degrees
of kinematic freedom of movement.

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END OF PART

(a)

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RETAINING STRUCTURES ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2

5.1

GENERAL---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2

5.2

LIMIT STATES ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2

5.2.2
5.2.3

Ultimate Limit State ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2


Serviceability Limit State ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3

5.3

ACTIONS AND GEOMETRICAL DATA -------------------------------------------------------------------- 3

5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3

Actions -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3
Geometrical data ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4
Design Situations ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4

5.4

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION CONSIDERATIONS ------------------------------------------------- 5

5.5

DETERMINATION OF EARTH PRESSURES ------------------------------------------------------------ 6

5.5.1
5.5.2
5.5.3
5.5.4
5.5.5

General ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6
At rest values of earth pressure------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7
Limiting values of earth pressure ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7
Intermediate values of earth pressure ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 7
Compaction effects ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7

5.6

WATER PRESSURES ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 8

5.7

ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE DESIGN -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8

5.7.1
5.7.2
5.7.3
5.7.4
5.7.5
5.7.6
5.7.7

General ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8
Overall stability ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8
Foundation failure of gravity walls ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8
Rotational failure of embedded walls ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 8
Vertical failure of embedded walls --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9
Structural design of retaining structures -------------------------------------------------------------------- 9
Failure by pull-out of anchorages ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9

5.8

SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE DESIGN ----------------------------------------------------------------- 9

5.8.1
5.8.2

General ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9
Displacements ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9

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RETAINING STRUCTURES

5.1

GENERAL

The provisions of this Part 5 apply to retaining structures in general. These are structures
used to retain ground comprising soil, rock or backfill and water and this at an angle steeper
than the angle they would normally adopt without the presence of those structures. Common
retaining structures used within the state of Qatar taking into account the prevailing geologic
conditions are:
Sheet Piles

(b)

Bored and Cast in Place Concrete Piles

Secant Piles

(c)

Diaphragm Walls

(d)

Composite Shoring Systems

(e)

Concrete Retaining Walls

(ii)

Counter Fort Retaining Wall

(iii)

Gravity Retaining Wall

(iv)

Buttressed Retaining Wall

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Cantilever Retaining Wall

Reinforced Soil Retaining Structures


Geogrid and Geotextile Reinforced Earth Systems

(ii)

Galvanized Strips Reinforced Earth System

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Soil and Rock Nailing Systems

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Contiguous Piles

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(a)

This revision of Section 4 Part 5 is considered preliminary and shall be reviewed and
amended as needed in the next revision to elaborate on various subjects not covered herein.

This revision of Section 4 Part 5 is based generally on EN1997-1:2004+A1:2013


Eurocode 7.

Section 4 Part 5 will cover at this stage the general design aspects knowing that the
construction procedures shall be added in future revisions of this Section. Hence, at this
stage, the construction related subjects of the retaining structures will follow relevant Parts of
the QCS.

5.2

LIMIT STATES

During the design of retaining structures the following typical limit states should be
considered:

5.2.2

Ultimate Limit State

Loss of overall stability: it should be demonstrated that an overall stability failure is unlikely.

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Foundation failure of retaining structures with footings: it should be demonstrated that the
foundation pressures (lateral and vertical) do not exceed neither the ground allowable
bearing capacity nor the sliding resistance. Uplift pressures under the foundation due to
water seepage should also be included in the analysis.

Foundation failure of gravity walls, which is the loss of equilibrium of the wall considered as a
rigid body.

Failure of embedded walls by rotation or horizontal translation or by lack of vertical


equilibrium.

Failure of a structural element such as a wall, anchorage, wale or strut, including failure of
the connection between those elements.

Failure of a retaining structure by hydraulic heave, internal erosion or piping, unacceptable


leakage of water, or transport of soil particles through or under the wall caused by excessive
hydraulic gradients.

5.2.3

Serviceability Limit State

Unacceptable movement of the retaining structure, which may affect the appearance or
functionality of the structure itself, or other neighbouring structures or utilities influenced by
the movement.

Unacceptable change in the groundwater regime.

5.3

ACTIONS AND GEOMETRICAL DATA

5.3.1

Actions

Generally, the forces exerted on retaining structure with values assumed known at the
beginning of the calculation are considered as 'actions', while forces with initially unknown
values, to be determined by the interaction of the retaining structure with support elements
(ground springs, anchorages, struts, etc.), are considered as 'reactions'. The following
actions are to be taken into account:
Weight of backfill material

(a)

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(b)

Surcharges

(c)

Weight of water

(d)

Wave forces for marine projects

(e)

Seepage forces

(f)

Collision forces

(g)

Temperature effects

(h)

Forces from propping elements (i.e. post-tensioned anchors)

(i)

Siesmic related effects

The above actions should result in the determination of various earth pressures acting on the
retaining structure.

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5.3.2

Geometrical data

This paragraph covers the uncertainties in the geometrical data namely excavation and water
levels. In general, small variations in geometrical data are considered to be covered by the
safety factors included in the calculations. However, since the design of retaining structures
is sensitive to ground and water levels, special requirements are included in this paragraph,
mainly for unforeseen over-dig in front of the wall and groundwater levels change on both
sides of the wall.

Unforeseen over-dig in front of the wall

Equal to 10% of the wall height above excavation level (up to a maximum of 0.5 m), for
cantilever walls;

(b)

Equal to 10% of the distance between the lowest support and the excavation level (up
to a maximum of 0.5 m), for supported walls.

Groundwater levels in front of and behind the wall

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In Ultimate Limit State design calculations, where the wall stability depends on the earth
resistance in front of the wall, the level of the resisting soil should be lowered below the
nominally expected level by an amount which depends on the degree of control on the
excavation level. With a normal degree of control the expected difference in resisting soil
level should be:

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The selection of the levels of the phreatic surfaces in front of and behind the wall must
consider long-term variations of the groundwater regime and/or the ground permeability, the
presence of perched or artesian aquifers and the possibility that drainage behind the wall
may cease to function with time.
Design Situations

The following conditions shall be considered during the design of retaining structures:
Anticipated variations in soil properties

(b)

Variations in actions and the ways they are combined

(c)

Excavation, scour or erosion in front of the retaining structure


The effect of compaction of the backfill behind the retaining structure

(d)

(a)

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5.3.3

(e)

The effect of anticipated future structures and surcharge loads/unloads

(f)

Anticipated ground movements

(g)

Inclination of the wall to the vertical

(h)

Variations in groundwater table and the seepage forces in the ground

(i)

Horizontal as well as vertical equilibrium for the entire retaining structure

(j)

The shear strength and weight density of the ground

(k)

The rigidity of the wall and the supporting system

(l)

The wall roughness

(m)

Seismic effect on the various forces

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5.4

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION CONSIDERATIONS

The design of retaining structures requires consideration of all relevant Ultimate Service
States and Service Limit States.

For retaining structures without strict serviceability requirements, the geometry is usually
determined by Ultimate Limit State design calculations and checked by Service Limit State
calculations (if relevant). For the retaining structures with strict serviceability requirements,
the Service Limit State requirements often govern the design.

The design and construction considerations should cover the following:


Demonstrate that vertical equilibrium can be achieved for the assumed pressure
distributions and actions on the wall.

(b)

Verification of vertical equilibrium may be achieved by reducing the wall friction


parameters.

(c)

Retaining walls should be designed in such a way that there are visible signs of the
approach of an ultimate limit state. The design should prevent brittle failure of the
structure, e.g. sudden collapse without conspicuous preliminary deformations.

(d)

A critical limit state should be considered to occur if the wall has displaced enough to
cause damage to nearby structures or services. Although collapse of the wall may not
be imminent, the degree of damage may considerably exceed a serviceability limit
state in the supported structure.

(e)

The design methods and partial factor values recommended by EN19971:2004+A1:2013 are usually sufficient to prevent the occurrence of ultimate limit
states in nearby structures, provided that the soils involved are of at least medium
density or firm consistency and adequate construction methods and sequences are
adopted. Special care should be taken, however, with some highly over-consolidated
clay deposits in which large at rest horizontal stresses may induce substantial
movements in a wide area around excavations.

(f)

The complexity of the interaction between the ground and the retaining structure
sometimes makes it difficult to design a retaining structure in detail before the actual
execution starts. In this case, use of the observational method for the design should be
considered. The observational method consists of setting criteria enabling monitoring
during construction, allowing necessary corrective actions to be taken to rectify the
design. Hence, the following requirements shall be set before construction:

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(a)

(g)

(i)

Acceptable limits of behaviour

(ii)

The range of potential behaviour shall be analysed showing acceptable


probability that the actual behaviour will be within the acceptable limits

(iii)

A plan of monitoring shall be established (including necessary instruments and


procedures) enabling the comparison of the actual behaviour to the acceptable
limits. The monitoring shall allow early detection of nonconformities, allowing
enough time for corrective actions to be taken successfully.

(iv)

A list of contingency actions shall be established which could be used if the


actual observed behaviour is outside of the acceptable limits.

The effects of constructing the wall, including:


(i)

The provision of temporary support to the sides of excavations;

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(ii)

The changes of in situ stresses and resulting ground movements caused both
by the wall excavation and its construction;

(iii)

Disturbance of the ground due to driving or boring operations;

(iv)

Provision of access for construction;

The required degree of water tightness of the finished wall;

(i)

The practicability of constructing the wall to reach a stratum of low permeability, so


forming a water cut-off. The resulting equilibrium ground-water flow problem shall be
assessed;

(j)

The practicability of forming ground anchorages in adjacent ground;

(k)

The practicability of excavating between any propping of retaining walls;

(l)

The ability of the wall to carry vertical load;

(m)

The ductility of structural components;

(n)

Access for maintenance of the wall and any associated drainage measures;

(o)

The appearance and durability of the wall and any anchorages;

(p)

For sheet piling, the need for a section stiff enough to be driven to the design
penetration without loss of interlock;

(q)

The stability of borings or slurry trench panels while they are open;

(r)

For fill, the nature of materials available and the means used to compact them
adjacent to the wall.

(s)

Drainage systems

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If the safety and serviceability of the designed structure depend on the successful
performance of a drainage system, the consequences of its failure shall be
considered, taking into account both safety and cost of repair. One of the following
conditions (or a combination of them) shall apply:
A maintenance program for the drainage system shall be specified and the
design shall allow access for this purpose;

(ii)

It shall be demonstrated both by comparable experience and by assessment of


any water discharge that the drainage system will operate adequately without
maintenance.

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(i)

The quantities, pressures and eventual chemical content of any water discharge
should be taken into account.

5.5

DETERMINATION OF EARTH PRESSURES

5.5.1

General

The Determination of the earth pressures shall take into account the acceptable mode and
amount of any movement and strain, which may occur at the limit state under consideration.

In the following context the words "earth pressure" should also be used for the total earth
pressure from soft and weathered rocks and should include the pressure of ground-water.

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Calculations of the magnitudes of earth pressures and directions of forces resulting from
them shall take account of the issues highlighted under paragraph 5.3.3.

The amount of mobilized wall friction and adhesion should be considered as a function of:
The strength parameters of the ground

(b)

The friction properties of the wall-ground interface

(c)

The direction and amount of movement of the wall relative to the ground

(d)

The ability of the wall to support any vertical forces resulting from wall friction and
adhesion

A concrete wall or steel sheet pile wall supporting sand or gravel may be assumed to have a
design wall ground interface parameter d k. cv ;d . k should not exceed 2/3 for precast

(a)

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concrete or steel sheet piling. For concrete cast against soil, a value of k = 1.0 may be
assumed. For a steel sheet pile in clay under undrained conditions immediately after driving,
no adhesive or frictional resistance should be assumed. Increases in these values may take
place over a period of time.
In the case of structures retaining rock masses, calculations of the ground pressures shall
take into account the effects of discontinuities, with particular attention to their orientation,
spacing, aperture, roughness and the mechanical characteristics of any joint filling material.

Account shall be taken of any swelling potential of the ground when calculating the pressures
on the retaining structure.

5.5.2

At rest values of earth pressure

When no movement of the wall relative to the ground takes place, the earth pressure shall be
calculated from the at rest state of stress. The determination of the at-rest state shall take
into account the stress history of the ground.

5.5.3

Limiting values of earth pressure

Limiting values of earth pressures shall be determined taking into account the relative
movement of the soil and the wall at failure and the corresponding shape of the failure
surface.

5.5.4

Intermediate values of earth pressure

Intermediate values of earth pressure occur if the wall movements are insufficient to mobilize
the limiting values. The determination of the intermediate values of earth pressure shall take
into account the amount of wall movement and its direction relative to the ground.

The intermediate values of earth pressures may be calculated using, for example, various
empirical rules, spring constant methods or finite element methods.

5.5.5

Compaction effects

The determination of earth pressures acting behind the wall shall take into account the
additional pressures generated by any placing of backfill and the procedures adopted for its
compaction.

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WATER PRESSURES

Determination of characteristic and design water pressures shall take account of water levels
both above and in the ground.

When checking the ultimate and serviceability limit water pressures shall be accounted for in
the combinations of actions considering the possible risks of flooding or change in
groundwater levels from either sides of the retaining structure.

For structures retaining earth of medium or low permeability (silts and clays), water pressures
should normally be assumed to act behind the wall. Unless a reliable drainage system is
installed, or infiltration is prevented, the values of water pressures should normally
correspond to a water table at the surface of the retained material.

Where sudden changes in a free water level may occur, both the non-steady condition
occurring immediately after the change and the steady condition shall be examined.

Where no special drainage or flow prevention measures are taken, the possible effects of
water-filled tension or shrinkage cracks shall be considered.

5.7

ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE DESIGN

5.7.1

General

The design of retaining structures shall be checked at the ultimate limit state for the design
situations appropriate to that state, as specified in 5.3.3, using the design actions or action
effects and design resistances.

All relevant limit modes shall be considered. These will include, as a minimum, limit modes of
the types illustrated in Figures 5.1 to 5.6 for the most commonly used retaining structures.

Calculations for ultimate limit states shall establish that equilibrium can be achieved using the
design actions or effects of actions and the design strengths or resistances. Compatibility of
deformations shall be considered in assessing design strengths or resistances.

5.7.2

Overall stability

Principles and calculations should be used as appropriate to demonstrate that an overall


stability failure will not occur and that the corresponding deformations are sufficiently small
taking into account progressive failure and liquefaction into account as relevant.

5.7.3

Foundation failure of gravity walls

The principles of foundation design shall be used as appropriate to demonstrate that a


foundation failure is sufficiently remote and that deformations will be acceptable. Both
bearing resistance and sliding shall be considered. Failure modes shown in Figure 5.2 should
be verified as a minimum.

5.7.4

Rotational failure of embedded walls

It shall be demonstrated by equilibrium calculations that embedded walls have sufficient


penetration into the ground to prevent rotational failure. As a minimum, limit modes of the
types illustrated in Figure 5.3 should be considered.

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5.6

QCS 2014

Section 04: Foundations & Retaining Structures


Part
05: Retaining Structures

Page 9

The design magnitude and direction of shear stress between the soil and the wall shall be
consistent with the relative vertical displacement, which would occur in the design situation.

5.7.5

Vertical failure of embedded walls

It shall be demonstrated that vertical equilibrium can be achieved using the design soil
strengths or resistances and design vertical forces on the wall. As a minimum, the limit mode
of the type illustrated in Figure 5.4 should be considered.

Where downward movement of the wall is considered, upper design values shall be used in
the calculation of pre-stressing forces, such as those from ground anchorages, which have a
vertical downward component. The design magnitude and direction of shear stress between
the soil and the wall shall be consistent with the check for vertical and rotational equilibrium.
If the wall acts as the foundation for a structure, vertical equilibrium shall be checked using
the principles of Pile Foundations Design.

5.7.6

Structural design of retaining structures

Retaining structures, including their supporting structural elements such as anchorages and
props, shall be verified against structural failure in accordance with EN1997-1:2004+A1:2013
2.4 Geotechnical Design by Calculation and EN1992, EN1993, EN1995 and EN1996. As a
minimum, limit modes of the types illustrated in Figure 5.5 should be considered.

5.7.7

Failure by pull-out of anchorages

It shall be demonstrated that equilibrium can be achieved without pull-out failure of ground
anchorages. Anchors shall be designed in accordance with Anchorage Design procedures
with minimum the limit modes of the types illustrated in Figure 5.6 (a, b) should be
considered. For dead-man anchors, the failure mode illustrated in Figure 5.6 (c) should also
be considered.

5.8

SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE DESIGN

5.8.1

General

The design of retaining structures shall be checked at the serviceability limit state using the
appropriate design situations as specified in 5.3.3. The assessment of design values of earth
pressures should take account of the initial stress, stiffness and strength of the ground and
the stiffness of the structural elements.

The design values of earth pressures should be derived taking account of the allowable
deformation of the structure at its serviceability limit state. These pressures need not
necessarily be limiting values.

5.8.2

Displacements

Limiting values for the allowable displacements of walls and the ground adjacent to them
shall be established for a particular deformation is the value at which a serviceability limit
state, such as unacceptable cracking or displacement of adjacent structures or utilities, is
deemed to occur. This limiting value shall be agreed during the design, taking into account
the tolerance to displacements of supported structures and services.

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QCS 2014

Section 04: Foundations & Retaining Structures


Part
05: Retaining Structures

Page 10

If the initial cautious estimate of displacement exceeds the limiting values, the design shall be
justified by a more detailed investigation including displacement calculations.

It shall be considered to what extent variable actions, such as vibrations caused by traffic
loads behind the retaining wall, contribute to the wall displacement.

Displacement calculations should also be considered in the following cases:


(a)

where the wall retains more than 6m of cohesive soil of low plasticity,

(b)

where the wall retains more than 3m of soils of high plasticity;

(c)

where the wall is supported by soft clay within its height or beneath its base.

Displacement calculations shall take into account the stiffness of the ground and structural
elements and the sequence of construction.

The effect of vibrations on displacements shall be considered with regard to the following:

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Foundations for structures subjected to vibrations or to vibrating loads shall be


designed to ensure that vibrations will not cause excessive settlements.

(b)

Precautions should be taken to ensure that resonance will not occur between the
frequency of the dynamic load and a critical frequency in the foundation-ground
system, and to ensure that liquefaction will not occur in the ground.

(c)

Vibrations caused by earthquakes shall be considered using the guidelines of the


designated section of the QCS.

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(a)

Figure 5.1 Examples of Limit Modes for Overall Stability of Retaining Structures
(EN 1997-1:2004+A1:2013)

Section 04: Foundations & Retaining Structures


Part
05: Retaining Structures

Page 11

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Figure 5.2 Examples of Limit Modes for Foundation Failures of Gravity Walls
(EN 1997-1:2004+A1:2013)

Figure 5.3 Examples of Limit Modes for Rotational Failures of Embedded Walls
(EN 1997-1:2004+A1:2013)

Section 04: Foundations & Retaining Structures


Part
05: Retaining Structures

Page 12

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Figure 5.4 Example of a Limit Mode for Vertical Failure of Embedded Walls
(EN 1997-1:2004+A1:2013)

Figure 5.5 Examples of Limit Modes for Structural Failure of Retaining Structures
(EN 1997-1:2004+A1:2013)

Section 04: Foundations & Retaining Structures


Part
05: Retaining Structures

Page 13

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QCS 2014

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Figure 5.6 Examples of Limit Modes for Failure by Pull-out of Anchoes


(EN 1997-1:2004+A1:2013)

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END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
01: General

Page 1

GENERAL------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 2

1.1
1.1.1
1.1.2
1.1.3
1.1.4

INTRODUCTION --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2
Scope ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2
References----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2
Definitions ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 3
Approved Products ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 4

1.2
1.2.1
1.2.2
1.2.3
1.2.4

IMPLEMENTATION ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4
Approved Installers ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 4
Field Quality Control ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4
Rejected materials ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5
Records --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5

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QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
01: General

Page 2

GENERAL

1.1

INTRODUCTION

1.1.1

Scope

This Section includes the requirements for concrete work for pipelines, roadworks, runways,
structures, water retaining structures, foundations and bases for structures and equipment.

This Part includes relevant standards, definitions, abbreviations, and requirements for testing
facilities, rejected materials, and record keeping.

Related Sections are as follows:

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Aggregates
Cementitious Materials
Water
Admixtures
Property Requirements
Concrete Plants
Transportation and Placing of Concrete
Formwork
Curing
Reinforcement
Construction Joints
Inspection and Testing of Hardened Concrete
Protective Coatings to Concrete
Hot Weather Concrete
Miscellaneous
Precast Concrete
Prestressed Concrete
Water Retaining Structures

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This Section:
Part 2,
Part 3,
Part 4,
Part 5,
Part 6,
Part 7,
Part 8,
Part 9,
Part 10,
Part 11,
Part 12,
Part 13,
Part 14,
Part 15,
Part 16,
Part 17,
Part 18,
Part 19,

Section 1,
Section 2,
Section 4,
Section 6,
Section 8,
Section 9,

General
Quality Assurance and Quality Control
Foundations and Retaining Structures
Roadworks
Drainage Works
Mechanical and Electrical Equipment

1.1.2

References

The following standards are referred to in this Part:


ASTM C31 ..................Standard Practice for Making and Curing Concrete Test Specimens in
the Field
ASTM C39 ..................Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical
Concrete Specimens
ASTM C143 ................Standard Test Method for Slump of Hydraulic-Cement C Concrete
ASTM C1064 ..............Standard Test Method for Temperature of Freshly Mixed HydraulicCement Concrete

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
01: General

Page 3

BS 6100, ....................Glossary of Building and civil engineering terms


BS EN 932-1 ..............Tests for general properties of aggregates. Methods for sampling
BS EN 932-2 ..............Tests for general properties of aggregates. Methods for reducing
laboratory samples
BS EN 12350-1 ..........Method of sampling fresh concrete in site
BS EN 12350-2 ..........Testing fresh concrete. Slump-test
BS EN 12390-1 ..........Shape, dimensions and other requirements for specimens and moulds
BS EN 12390-2 .......... Making and curing specimens for strength tests
GSO ISO 1920-1 ........Testing of concrete Part 1: Sampling of fresh concrete
GSO ISO 1920-2 ........Testing of concrete Part 2: Properties of fresh concrete
GSO ISO 1920-3 ........Testing of concrete Part 3: Making and curing test specimens
Definitions

Definitions used in this Section.

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1.1.3

The following are terms and abbreviations used:

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degree Celsius
calorie
centimetre
day
Characteristic compressive strength of concrete determined by testing cylinders
Compressive strength of concrete determined by testing cylinders
Characteristic compressive strength of concrete determined by testing cubes
Compressive strength of concrete determined by testing cubes
Mean compressive strength of concrete
Mean compressive strength of concrete at the age of (j) days
ground granulated blast furnace slag
guaranteed ultimate tensile strength
hour
kilogram
kilojoule
kilonewton
litre
metre
square metre
cubic metre
milligram
minute
millimetre
square millimetre
months
mega Pascal
kilo Pascal
moderate sulphate resisting Portland cement
ordinary Portland cement
pulverised fuel ash
polyvinylchloride
second
silica fume
sulphate resisting Portland cement

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C
cal
cm
d
fck,cyl
fc,cyl
fck,cube
fc,cube
fcm
fcm,j
GGBS
GUTS
h
kg
kJ
kN
l
m
2
m
3
m
mg
min
mm
2
mm
months
MPa
kPa
MSRPC
OPC
PFA
PVC
s
SF
SRPC

QCS 2014

ton
ppm

1000 kg
part per million

micron

10

10 meter

Page 4

-6
-6

Reference to a technical society, institution, association or governmental authority is made in


accordance with the following abbreviations.

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American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials


American Concrete Institute
American Society for Testing and Materials
American Welding Society
British Standard
British Standard Code of Practice
British Standards Institution
Cement and Concrete Association
Construction Industry Research and Information Association
Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute
Concrete Society
Deutsches Institut fur Normung e.V.
Euro Norm
Federal Highway Authority
GCC Standardization Organization
Institution of Civil Engineers
International Organization for Standardization
Prestressed Concrete Institute
Qatar Construction Specifications
Qatar Standards
United Kingdom Department for Transport

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AASHTO
ACI
ASTM
AWS
BS
BSCP
BSI
C & CA
CIRIA
CRSI
CS
DIN
EN
FHWA
GSO
ICE
ISO
PCI
QCS
QS
UK DfT
Products

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Section 05: Concrete


Part
01: General

Approved Products

The contract specific documentation may identify approved products and approved or
prequalified manufacturers and suppliers of products used in concrete work.

1.2

IMPLEMENTATION

1.2.1

Approved Installers

The contract specific documentation may identify approved or prequalified providers of


concrete construction services.

1.2.2

Field Quality Control

The Contractor shall carry out the test procedures required by this Section and any other
tests and test procedures as directed by the Engineer from time to time. The test procedures
shall be carried out using the facilities of an approved independent testing laboratory.

Supply, storage, sampling and testing of all materials shall be the responsibility of the
Contractor, unless the Contract specifies otherwise.

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1.1.4

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
01: General

Page 5

The Engineer may also require the Contractor to take samples of materials and deliver them
to the Central Materials Laboratory for additional tests to be carried out by the Employer.
Sampling procedures shall be in accordance with BS EN 932 or relevant ASTM Standards,
and sample sizes shall conform to the requirements shown in Table 1.1.

The minimum equipment required for testing on Site is given in Table 1.2. This equipment
shall be maintained on Site at all times during concreting operations together with the
necessary scoops, buckets, sample containers, and other items required for sampling. The
cube curing tank shall be located in an air-conditioned area as stated in part 06.

1.2.3

Rejected materials

Any material rejected by the Engineer, in particular cement which has deteriorated or
aggregates which have segregated or become contaminated, shall be immediately removed
from the Site.

1.2.4

Records

The Contractor shall maintain on the Site full records of all work carried out accurately
related to the location of the work on site, which shall include:

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formwork props were fully removed


all cubes and other tests

(c)

daily maximum and minimum temperatures.

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One copy of all test results shall be sent to the Engineer immediately upon completion of the
tests

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Table 1.1
Sampling Procedure and
Minimum Sample Sizes for Central Materials Laboratory

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Cement

Material

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the time and date when all concrete was poured, formwork removed and when

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(a)

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Aggregate

Reinforcement
Water

Test

Min. Sample

Full range of tests

Composite sample of 7 kg
taken from at least 12 bags

Full range of tests

200 kg

Sieve analysis
Chemical analysis
Soundness test
Water absorption
Particle density
Flakiness index
Fines content
LA Abrasion value

50 kg

Tensile test

500 mm

Bend test

300 mm

Full range of tests

5 litres

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
01: General

Page 6

Table 1.2
Minimum Testing Equipment for Each Site*
Test

Equipment to be Provided

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ASTM C1064

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Cube curing
BS EN
12390-2
or
GSO ISO 1920-3
or ASTM C39

Hessian or sacking, impervious sheet


Maximum/minimum thermometer
Waterproof marking crayon/paint or
equivalent
Curing tank (in air conditioned room)
Supply of packing materials for sending
cubes to commercial laboratory
Concrete thermometer

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Cube making
BS EN 12390-1
and
BS EN 12350-1:2000
or
GSO ISO 1920-1
and
GSO ISO 1920-3
or ASTM C31 and C39

Slump cone with base plate


Compacting rod, circular cross-section
and round ends
Remixing container, 300 mm ruler,
moist cloth
Scoop and shovel
Timer
100 or 150 mm cubical or cylindrical
1
moulds
Compacting rod or bar Set of tools for
assembling and stripping moulds
Remixing container
Trowel, Scoop, Shovel and Mallet
Mould release agent in closed
container with brush

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12350-2
or
GSO ISO 1920-2
or
ASTM C143

Minimum Number
Required
1
1
1
1
1

6
1
1
1
lot
1
1
1
Lot
1

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1 - The use of 100 mm cube and cylinder moulds are permitted when the nominal maximum aggregate
size is not greater than 20mm

END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
10: Curing

Page 1

CURING .................................................................................................................. 2

10.1
10.1.1
10.1.2
10.1.3
10.1.4
10.1.5

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2
Scope
2
References
2
Submittals
2
Quality Assurance
2
Storage
2

10.2
10.2.1
10.2.2
10.2.3
10.2.4
10.2.5
10.2.6
10.2.7
10.2.8
10.2.9
10.2.10
10.2.11
10.2.12

CURING .................................................................................................................. 2
General
2
Water for Curing
3
General Requirements
3
Curing of Formed Surfaces
4
Curing of Unformed Surfaces
4
Moisture Curing
4
Moisture Retaining Cover Curing
4
Liquid Membrane Curing
5
Steam Curing
5
Pavements and other slab on ground
5
Buildings, bridges, and other structures
5
Mass concrete
6

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10

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
10: Curing

Page 2

10

CURING

10.1

GENERAL

10.1.1

Scope

This part covers the requirements for the curing of concrete.

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:

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References
AASHTO M 148.74, ...Liquid Membrane Curing

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ACI 308 ..................... Guide to Concrete Curing

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10.1.2

This Section
Part 1, ............ General
Part 4, ............ Water
Part 6, ............ Property Requirements
Part 15, ........... Hot Weather Concreting
Part 16, ........... Miscellaneous.

ASTM C 309, .............. Specification for Liquid Membrane-forming Compounds for Curing
Concrete

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BS 7542,..................... Method of test for curing compounds for concrete.


Quality management systems -- Requirements

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ISO 9001: 2008


Submittals

The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer the proposed method of curing for approval.

10.1.4

Quality Assurance

The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for approval the details of proposed curing
media, if any. Details shall include chemical tests for the product in accordance with
BS 7542 and details of quality assurance procedures, including ISO 9001 certificates if held.

10.1.5

Storage

Chemical curing compounds shall be stored in accordance with manufacturer's


recommendations.

10.2

CURING

10.2.1

General

The Contractor shall ensure that curing is provided for 24 hours per day including holidays
and that all related necessary plant and labour resources are also available.

Special attention shall be given to the curing of vertical and overhanging surfaces to ensure
satisfactory curing.

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10.1.3

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
10: Curing

Page 3

The Contractor shall adopt curing measures that preclude the possibility of thermal shock to
the concrete during curing. This may be achieved by ensuring that the temperature of the
water used for curing does not differ from that of the concrete by more than 15 C.

Curing shall continue for at least 7 days and until it attains an in-place compressive strength
of the concrete of at least 70% of the specified compressive or flexural strength, whichever
period is longer. Curing shall not stop unless otherwise approved by the Engineer.

When low W/cm is used, the concrete shall be preferably cured by water.

10.2.2

Water for Curing

Water used for any curing purposes shall conform to the requirements of Part 4 of this
Section.

10.2.3

General Requirements

Freshly placed concrete shall be protected from sun, wind, rain, exposure and excessive
drying out.

All concrete shall be cured for a period of time required to obtain the full specified strength,
but not less than seven consecutive days. The method of curing shall be by water for the first
seven days and by water or membrane until the concrete has reached the full specified
strength.

For mixtures with a low to zero bleeding rate, or in the case of aggressively evaporative
environments, or both, the curing shall start at early anytime between placement and final
finishing of the concrete. The curing shall be by reducing the moisture loss from surface
using fogging systems and the use of evaporation reducers such as monomolecular water
curing compound.

Exposed surfaces shall be protected from air blown contamination until 28 d after the
concrete is placed.

The method of curing shall ensure that sufficient moisture is present to complete the
hydration of the cement, and shall be to the approval of the Engineer. The method of curing
shall not:

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(a)

disfigure permanently exposed surfaces

(b)

affect bonding of subsequent coatings

(c)

increase the temperature of the concrete.

During the curing period, exposed concrete surface shall be protected from the direct rays of
the sun.

When liquid membrane is used to cure the concrete, it shall not be applied if bleeding water
is present on the surface of the concrete.

The applied film of the liquid membrane shall be continuous and protected from rain and any
damages for at least 14 days.

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
10: Curing

Page 4

Curing of Formed Surfaces

Formed surfaces, including the underside of beams, girders, supported slabs and the like, by
moist curing with the forms in place for the full curing period, or until the forms are removed.

When the forms are stripped, curing shall continue by any approved method.

When liquid membrane curing is used, it shall be applied immediately after de-shuttering. In
such cases the concrete surface shall be prepared prior to the application of the membrane
as recommended by the manufacturer.

Water curing is not required when liquid membrane is used.

10.2.5

Curing of Unformed Surfaces

Unformed surfaces shall be protected as soon as possible after the concrete has been
placed by polythene sheeting. When sufficiently hard, hessian or other absorbent material
shall be placed on the concrete surface and shall be kept wet for the required period. The
hessian shall be overlaid with a sheet of 1000 gauge polythene to assist in the retention of
water. Alternatively a curing method approved by the Engineer may be used.

Once the concrete is sufficiently hard, the top exposed surface of walls, columns and beams
shall be water cured and covered with wet hessian for the required curing period.

10.2.6

Moisture Curing

Moisture curing shall be performed by :

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10.2.4

covering the surface of the concrete with water and keeping it continuously wet

(b)

continuous use of fine fog water sprays

(c)

covering the surface with a saturated absorptive cover and keeping it continuously
wet.

(d)

Burlap, cotton mats, and other absorbent materials can be used to hold water on
horizontal or vertical surfaces.

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Wet straw or hay can be used for wet-curing small areas, but there is the danger that
wind might displace it unless it is held down with screen wire, burlap, or other means

(e)

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(a)

Where method (a) is employed, the bunds used shall not be made from fill from excavations
or any other areas where there is the possibility of chloride contamination.

10.2.7

Moisture Retaining Cover Curing

The concrete surface shall be covered with a suitable absorptive covering, such as wet
hessian.

The absorptive covering shall be overlaid with a 1000 gauge polythene sheet.

The cover shall be in the widest practical widths and shall have 100 mm side and end laps.

Any penetrations or tear in the covering shall be shall be repaired with the same material and
waterproof tape.

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
10: Curing

Page 5

Liquid Membrane Curing

Liquid membrane curing shall be in accordance with the requirements of BS 7542, ASTM
C 309 or C1315 when tested at the rate of coverage use on the job.

ASTM C 156 shall be used as a test method to evaluate water-retention capability of liquid
membrane forming compounds. ASTM C 1151 provides an alternative laboratory test for
determining the efficiency of liquid membrane-forming compounds.

Membrane forming curing compounds shall be applied in accordance with the manufacturer's
recommendations immediately after any water sheen which may develop after finishing has
disappeared from the surface and within 2 h of stripping formwork on formed surfaces.

Membrane forming curing compounds shall not be used on surfaces against which additional
concrete or other material is to be bonded unless:

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10.2.8

it is proven that the curing compound will not prevent bond, or

(b)

positive measures are taken to remove it completely from those areas which are to
receive bonded applications

(c)

on fair faced concrete surfaces.

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(a)

Steam Curing

An enclosure shall be formed around the concrete using tarpaulin or other suitable means.

Application of steam shall not be commenced until at least 2 h after final placement of
concrete.

Steam shall be applied at a temperature between 65 C and 80 C.

Excessive rates of heating and cooling shall be prevented during steam curing and
temperatures in the enclosure shall not be allowed to increase or decrease by more than
22 C per hour.

The maximum steam temperature shall be maintained in the enclosure until concrete has
reached its specified strength.

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10.2.9

10.2.10 Pavements and other slab on ground


1

Curing shall ensure that no plastic shrinkage crack will occur, this can be done by protective
measures such as sun shields, wind breaks, evaporation reducers, or fog spraying should be
initiated immediately to reduce evaporation.

Mats used for curing can either be left in place and kept saturated for completion of the
curing, or can be subsequently replaced by a liquid membrane-forming curing compound,
plastic sheeting, reinforced paper, straw, or water

10.2.11 Buildings, bridges, and other structures


1

Additional curing shall be provided after the removal of forms

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
10: Curing

Page 6

After the concrete has hardened and while the forms are still in place on vertical and other
formed surfaces, form ties may be loosened when damage to the concrete will not occur and
water applied to run down on the inside of the form to keep the concrete wet.

Care shall be taken to prevent thermal shock and cracks when using water that is
significantly cooler than the concrete surface. Curing water should not be more than about
o
11 C cooler than the concrete.

Immediately following form removal, the surfaces shall be kept continuously wet by a water
spray or water-saturated fabric or until the membrane-forming curing compound is applied.
Curing

10.2.12 Mass concrete


Mass concrete is often cured with water for the additional cooling benefit in warm weather;
however, this can be counterproductive when the temperature gradient between the warmer
interior and the cooler surface generates stress in the concrete.

Horizontal or sloping unformed surfaces of mass concrete can be maintained continuously


wet by water spraying, wet sand, or water saturated fabrics.

For vertical and other formed surfaces, after the concrete has hardened and the forms are
still in place, the form ties may be loosened and water supplied to run down the inside of the
form to keep the concrete wet

Care shall be taken to prevent thermal shock and cracks when using water that is
significantly cooler than the concrete surface. Curing water should not be more than about
o
11 C cooler than the concrete.

Curing shall start as soon as the concrete has hardened sufficiently to prevent surface
damage.

For unreinforced massive sections not containing ground granulated blast-furnace slag or
pozzolan, curing shall be continued for not less than 2 weeks. Where ground granulated
blast-furnace slag or pozzolan is included in the concrete, the minimum time for curing shall
be not less than 3 weeks.

For reinforced mass concrete, curing shall be continuous for a minimum of 7 days or until
70% of the specified compressive strength is obtained, if strength is the key concrete
performance criterion. For construction joints, curing shall be continued until resumption of
concrete placement or until the required curing period is completed.

Curing shall not stop until favourable differential temperature is attained and at the approval
of the Engineer.

For mass concrete, thermocouples shall be used to monitor the temperature differential of
the concrete.

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END OF PART

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
11: Reinforcement

Page 1

REINFORCEMENT ................................................................................................. 2

11.1
11.1.1
11.1.2
11.1.3
11.1.4
11.1.5

GENERAL ............................................................................................................... 2
Scope
2
References
2
Submittals
3
Quality Assurance
3
Delivery Storage and Handling
3

11.2
11.2.1
11.2.2
11.2.3

REINFORCING MATERIALS .................................................................................. 4


Reinforcing Bars
4
Welded Steel Wire Fabric
4
Tie Wire
5

11.3
11.3.2
11.3.3

INSPECTION, SAMPLING AND TESTING.............................................................. 5


Sampling
5
Testing
6

11.4

CUTTING AND BENDING OF REINFORCEMENT ................................................. 6

11.5
11.5.1
11.5.2
11.5.3
11.5.4
11.5.5
11.5.6
11.5.7
11.5.8
11.5.9
11.5.10
11.5.11

FIXING OF REINFORCEMENT ............................................................................... 6


General
6
Welding
7
Mechanical Splices
8
Bundling and Splicing of Bundled Bars
8
Examination
8
Electrolytic Action
8
Cover
8
Reinforcement
8
Forms and Linings
9
Tanking
9
Adjustment and Cleaning
9

11.6
11.6.2
11.6.3
11.6.4

PROTECTIVE COATINGS TO REINFORCEMENT ................................................ 9


Epoxy Coated Reinforcing Bars
9
Handling of Epoxy Coated Reinforcement
11
Testing of Epoxy Coated Reinforcement
11

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11

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
11: Reinforcement

Page 2

11

REINFORCEMENT

11.1

GENERAL

11.1.1

Scope

This Part includes tension, compression, and temperature reinforcing steel, including welded
wire fabric, and epoxy coated reinforcing. The work includes furnishing, fabrication, and
placement of reinforcement for cast-in-place concrete, including bars, welded wire fabric,
ties, and supports.

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:


This Section

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References

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ASTM A416/A416M....Standard Specification for Steel Strand, Uncoated Seven-Wire for


Prestressed Concrete

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ASTM 615/615M ........Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain Carbon-Steel Bars for
Concrete Reinforcement

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ASTM A706, ...............Specification for Low-allow Steel Deformed Bars for Concrete
Reinforcement

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ASTM A881/A881M ...Standard Specification for Steel Wire, Deformed, Stress-Relieved or


Low-Relaxation for Prestressed Concrete Railroad Ties
Filled

Epoxy-Coated

Seven-Wire

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ASTM A882/A882M- ..Standard Specification for


Prestressing Steel Strand

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ASTM A955/A955M-14 Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain Stainless-Steel Bars
for Concrete Reinforcement

ASTM A1022/A1022M-14a Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain Stainless Steel
Wire and Welded Wire for Concrete Reinforcement

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ASTM A1035/ A1035M Deformed and Plain, Low-carbon, -Chromium, -Steel Bars for
Concrete Reinforcement:

11.1.2

Part 16 ............. Miscellaneous


Part 17 ............. Structural Precast Concrete

BS 4449 : 2005...........Specification for Carbon steel bars for the reinforcement of concrete
BS 4482: 2005,...........Specification for Cold reduced steel wire for the reinforcement of
concrete
BS 4483: 2005............Steel fabric for the reinforcement of concrete
BS 5896,.....................Specification for high tensile steel wire and strand for the prestressing
of concrete.
BS 8666,.....................Specification for scheduling, dimensioning, bending and cutting of
steel reinforcement for concrete
EN 1011, ....................Welding. Recommendation for welding of metallic materials
EN 1992-1-1 Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures. General rules and rules for buildings
ISO 14654, .................Epoxy- coated steel for the reinforcement of concrete
ISO 14656, .................Epoxy powder and sealing material for the coating of steel for the
reinforcement of concrete

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
11: Reinforcement

Page 3

ISO 3766 ...................Construction drawings -- Simplified representation of concrete


reinforcement
ISO 9000, ..................Quality management systems. Fundamentals and vocabulary
QS ISO 6935-1:2007, .Steel for the reinforcement of concrete -Part 1: Plain bars
QS ISO 6935-2:2007 ..Steel for the reinforcement of concrete Part 2: Ribbed bars
QS ISO 6935-3:2007 ..Steel for the reinforcement of concrete Part 3: Welded fabric
Submittals

Product data including the manufacturers specification and installation instructions for
proprietary materials and reinforcement accessories shall be provided.

The Contractor shall submit the manufacturers records of chemical and physical properties
of each batch of billet steel bars and a certificate that the respective material furnished meets
the requirements for the steel reinforcement specified. The manufacturers records shall
include certificates of mill as well as analysis, tensile and bend tests of the reinforcement.

Three copies of the steel test report shall be furnished with each consignment of steel
reinforcement. The steel shall be tagged and cross-referenced with mill certificates.

11.1.4

Quality Assurance

The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for source approval details of the proposed
source of supply of the reinforcement. Details shall include chemical and physical tests for
the past six months production and any independent test results for this period. Details of
quality assurance procedures, including ISO 9000 certificate if held, shall also be given.

The Contractor shall furnish the Engineer with a certificate of compliance for each shipment
of epoxy coated bars. The certificate of compliance shall state that representative samples of
the epoxy coated bars have been tested and that the test results comply with the
requirements herein specified. Test results shall be retained by the Contractor for seven
years. A complete set of test results shall also be handed to the client at the completion of
reinforcement works, and shall be made available to the Engineer upon request.

11.1.5

Delivery Storage and Handling

On delivery, bars in each lot shall be legibly tagged by the manufacturer. The tag shall show
the manufacturers test number and lot number and other applicable data that will identify the
material with the certificate issued for that lot of steel. The fabricator shall furnish three
copies of a certification which shows the batch number or numbers from which each size of
bar in the shipment was fabricated.

Storage of reinforcement shall be on suitable structures a minimum of 450 mm above the


ground surface to prevent damage and accumulation of dirt, rust and other deleterious
matter. Storage facilities shall be such as to permit easy access for inspection and
identification. Reinforcement bundles shall be clearly tagged with bar schedule and bar mark
reference.

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11.1.3

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Section 05: Concrete


Part
11: Reinforcement

Page 4

The reinforcement shall not be roughly handled, dropped from a height, or subjected to shock
loading or mechanical damage. Steel reinforcing bars shall be kept clean and shall be free
from pitting, loose rust, mill scale, oil, grease, earth, paint, or any other material which may
impair the bond between the concrete and the reinforcement. The reinforcement shall be
covered to ensure protection from wind blown dust, condensation and other deleterious
materials.

11.2

REINFORCING MATERIALS

11.2.1

Reinforcing Bars

Reinforcement shall be from an acceptable source. All steel reinforcement bars shall comply
with the requirements of:
QS ISO 6935 with minimum grade of B500 MPa or

(ii)

BS 4449 with minimum grades of B500 MPa ; or..

(iii)

ASTM A615 / A615M with minimum grade of 75 [520MPa]; or

(iv)

Deformed and Plain, Low-carbon-Chromium-Steel


Reinforcement: ASTM A1035/ A1035M

(v)

ASTM A1022/A1022M-14a Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain


Stainless Steel Wire and Welded Wire for Concrete Reinforcement

(vi)

ASTM A955/A955M-14 Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain


Stainless-Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement

(vii)

Other types of reinforcement, as approved by Qatar Standards

Bars

for

Concrete

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(i)

As per project design, other steel grades of less than B500MPa may be used only for stirrups
and secondary reinforcement of diameter of 10mm or less.

If the steel has excessive surface rust, dust or other deleterious material then the steel shall
be sand blasted. Sand for blasting shall not contain materials deleterious to the durability of
the reinforcement or concrete. Dune sand shall not be used for the sandblasting of
reinforcement.

For extreme exposure class X5; protection measures such as epoxy coated bars; Lowcarbon-chromium-steel bars; or Stainless Steel may be considered.

11.2.2

Welded Steel Wire Fabric

Steel fabric reinforcement shall comply with the requirements of QS ISO 6935-3 or BS 4483
and shall be delivered to Site in flat mats.

Welded intersections shall not be spaced more than:

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(a)

300 mm for plain round bars

(b)

400 mm apart for deformed high yield bars in direction of calculated stress except
when used as stirrups.

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Section 05: Concrete


Part
11: Reinforcement

Page 5

Tie Wire

Tie wire shall conform to the requirements of BS 4482.

1.6 mm black annealed mild steel shall be used for tie wire.

No wires smaller than size D-4 shall be used.

11.3

INSPECTION, SAMPLING AND TESTING

Inspection of reinforcing steel and the installation thereof will be conducted by the Engineer.

The Contractor shall give 24 hour notice to the Engineer before closing forms or placing
concrete.

The Engineer may instruct the Contractor to break out and remove completely all sections of
the work already constructed under any of the following circumstances:

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11.2.3

reinforcing steel sample under test fails to meet the specification requirements at any
time

(b)

the Engineer considers that samples which were presented to him for test were not
truly representative

(c)

a previously rejected reinforcing steel has been used in the Works.

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(a)

Sampling

Representative samples of all reinforcing steel proposed for use in the Works must be
submitted by the Contractor, before work is commenced, to the Engineer for his written
approval.

Manufacturer's certificates stating clearly for each sample:


(a)

place of manufacture
expected date and size of deliveries to site

(b)

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11.3.2

(c)

all relevant details of composition, manufacture, strengths and other quality of the
steel.

The Engineer reserves the right to sample and inspect reinforcement steel upon its arrival at
the work site.

Frequency of sampling and the method of quality control shall be in accordance with steel
bars manufactured standard QS ISO 6935 or BS 4449 .

Where epoxy coated steel is used, a sample of the coating material shall be supplied with
each batch in an airtight container and identified by the batch number.

Allow 14 days for Engineers review of samples.

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Section 05: Concrete


Part
11: Reinforcement

Page 6

Testing

Tests shall be carried out when directed by the Engineer.

Tests shall be carried out in accordance with QS ISO 6935 or BS 4449.

The following information shall be provided with each delivery of reinforcement:


elastic limit

(b)

ultimate strength

(c)

stress/strain curve

(d)

cross-sectional area

(e)

deformation/bond characteristics of deformed bars.

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(a)

11.3.3

The Contractor shall allow for dimensions and weight measurements, tensile, bend and/ or
rebend tests at own cost, for each size of bar to be used in the concrete construction.

Test results for each bar size shall be submitted to the Engineer three weeks before concrete
work commences on Site.

Full testing shall be required if the source of supply of reinforcement changes, in which case
the cost of such extra testing will be borne by the Contractor.

When any test results do not conform to the relevant standard the reinforcement steel shall
be removed from the Site and all costs resulting therefrom shall be borne by the Contractor.

11.4

CUTTING AND BENDING OF REINFORCEMENT

Cutting and bending of reinforcement shall be in accordance with ISO 3766 or BS 8666 and
shall be done without the application of heat. Bends shall have a substantially constant
curvature. For epoxy coated steel the provisions of Clause 11.6.1 of this Part shall apply

Steel bars manufactured according to the approved ASTM standards shall be bent according
to the same standard.

Reinforcement shall not be straightened or rebent without the approval of the Engineer. If
permission is given to bend projecting reinforcement care shall be taken not to damage the
concrete and to ensure that the radius is not less than the minimum specified in ISO 3766 or
BS 8666.

11.5

FIXING OF REINFORCEMENT

11.5.1

General

All reinforcement shall be securely and accurately fixed in positions shown on the Drawings
to ensure that the reinforcement steel framework as a whole shall retain its shape. The
framework shall be supported to retain its correct position in the forms during the process of
placing and consolidating the concrete.

The ends of all tying wires shall be turned into the main body of the concrete and not allowed
to project towards the surface.

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Page 7

No part of the reinforcement shall be used to support access ways, working platform or for
the conducting of an electric current.

The Contractors specific attention is drawn to the following general requirements:


(a)

lapped joints shall be as indicated on the Drawings and/or in accordance with the
requirements of EN 1992-1-1 or BS 8666

(b)

hooks shall be semicircular with a straight length of at least:


(i)

four bar diameters for mild steel

(ii)

six bar diameters for high yield steel.

Welding

Welding shall not be used unless authorised by the Engineer and recommended by the
reinforcement manufacturer.

Where welding is approved it shall be executed under controlled conditions in a factory or


workshop.

Welding shall not take place on site without the approval of the Engineer and unless suitable
safeguards and techniques are employed and the types of steel employed have the required
welding properties.

Welding if approved, may be used for:

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11.5.2

fixing crossing or lapping reinforcement in position

(b)

fixing bars to other steel members

(c)

structural welds involving transfer of loads between reinforcement or between bars


and other steel members.

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(a)

The length of run deposited in a single pass shall not exceed five times the bar diameter. If a
longer welded length is required, the weld shall be divided into sections with the space
between runs made not less than five times the bar diameter.

Butt welds shall be formed by flash butt welding or metal-arc welding. Other methods may be
approved, subject to their satisfactory performance in trial joints.

Metal-arc welding or electrical resistance welding may be used for fixing suitable steels or for
lapped joints.

Flash butt welding shall be executed with the correct combination of flashing, heating,
upsetting and annealing, using only machines which automatically control this cycle of
operations.

Metal-arc welding shall comply with EN 1011 and the recommendations of the reinforcement
manufacturer.

10

Welded joints shall not be made at bends in the reinforcement. Joints in parallel bars of
principle reinforcement shall be staggered, unless otherwise approved. The distance
between staggered joints shall be not less than the end anchorage length joints.

11

Weldable reinforcement where shown on the Drawings shall conform to ASTM A706.

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Part
11: Reinforcement

Page 8

Mechanical Splices

Mechanical splices shall comply with EN 1992-1-1 or BS 8666, and shall be used as and
where indicated on the Drawings.

Details of mechanical splices shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval.

11.5.4

Bundling and Splicing of Bundled Bars

Bundling and splicing of bundled bars shall be in accordance with EN 1992-1-1 or BS 8666.

Splicing, except where indicated on the Drawings or approved shop drawings, will not be
permitted without the approval of the Engineer.

11.5.5

Examination

The Contractor shall notify the Engineer at least 24 hours before commencing the fixing of
reinforcement in order to facilitate the inspection of formwork.

The Contractor shall ensure that areas to receive reinforcement are cleaned before fixing.

11.5.6

Electrolytic Action

Reinforcement shall not be fixed or placed in contact with non-ferrous metals.

11.5.7

Cover

Correct concrete cover to reinforcement shall be maintained with the aid of approved spacer
pieces.

The cover shall not be less than given in Section 5 Part 6.

Spacers, chairs and other supports shall be provided as necessary to maintain the
reinforcement in its correct position.

In a member where the nominal cover is dimensioned to the links, spacers between the links
and formwork shall be the same dimension as the nominal cover.

Spacer bars shall be of the same diameter as longitudinal bars, but not less than 25 mm in
diameter, and shall be fixed between two layers at 1.5 m centres except where bundled bars
are detailed.

Spacers, chairs and other supports shall be made of concrete, plastic or other material to the
approval of the Engineer. Where supports are made of concrete they shall have at least the
same cube strength as the concrete in the host member.

11.5.8

Reinforcement

Placing of all reinforcement steel bars will be checked by the Engineer and in no case is
concrete to be placed around any reinforcement steel that has not been approved by the
Engineer. Insertion of bars into or the removal of bars from concrete already placed will not
be permitted.

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11.5.3

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Section 05: Concrete


Part
11: Reinforcement

Page 9

Reinforcement steel temporarily left projecting from the concrete at the joints shall not be
bent without the prior approval of the Engineer.

11.5.9

Forms and Linings

Damage to forms and linings shall be avoided.

11.5.10 Tanking
1

Reinforcement shall not be fixed until completion of placing tanking (membrane) protection.

11.5.11 Adjustment and Cleaning

Check position of reinforcement before and during placing concrete:


pay particular attention to the position of top reinforcement in cantilever sections

(b)

ensure that reinforcement is clean and free from corrosive pitting, loose rust, loose mill
scale, oil and other substances which may adversely affect reinforcement, concrete, or
the bond between the two.

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(a)

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Protect projecting reinforcement from the weather where rust staining of exposed concrete
surfaces may occur.

At the time of concreting, all reinforcement steel shall have been thoroughly cleaned and
freed from all mud, oil or any other coatings that might destroy or reduce the bond:

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clean all set or partially set concrete which may have been deposited thereon during
the placing of a previous lift of concrete

(b)

all uncoated rust bars shall be again sand blasted and pressure washed.

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(a)

Immediately before concrete placing the reinforcing steel shall be washed thoroughly with
high pressure potable water jets to remove any deposited salts.

11.6

PROTECTIVE COATINGS TO REINFORCEMENT

All the forgoing clauses of this part apply equally to epoxy coated reinforcing bars.

11.6.2

Epoxy Coated Reinforcing Bars

Reinforcing steel which are to be coated shall be free of slivers, scabs, excessive pitting,
rust, grease, oil and other surface defects detrimental to proper coating.

The surface shall be prepared in accordance with ISO 14654.

Coating shall be applied to the cleaned surface as soon as possible after cleaning and before
any visible oxidation to the surface occurs.

Reinforcing steel shall not have surface defects that would be detrimental to coating.

Coating material shall be epoxy resin powders as specified in ISO 14654 and ISO 14656 for
coating of reinforcing bars and as follows:

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(a)

epoxy resin powders which do not meet the above requirements must be tested by an
approved independent testing laboratory and accepted by the Engineer before use

QCS 2014

Section 05: Concrete


Part
11: Reinforcement

Page 10

(b)

only fusion bonded epoxy-coated reinforcing steel will be accepted

(c)

no other means of epoxy coating will be approved.

Patching material shall be:


(a)

furnished by the epoxy coating manufacturer

(b)

compatible with the coating

(c)

inert in concrete

(d)

suitable for repairs to the coated reinforcing bars to be made by the coating applicator
and the Contractor at the project site.

Fabrication shall be performed before coating except as hereinafter specified for bent bars
and straight bars less than 7.6 m long.

Bent reinforcing steel bars shall be coated after bending, unless the fabricator can show that
satisfactory results can be obtained by coating before bending.

Any visible cracks in the coating on the outside of the bend or damage to coating resulting in
debonding of the coating after bending shall be rejected.

10

Bars less than 7.6 m long may be sheared or sawn to length after coating, provided:

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end damage to coating does not extend more than 12 mm back

(b)

cut end is patched before any visible oxidation appears.

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(a)

Flame cutting will not be permitted.

12

Epoxy coating shall be checked visually after cure for continuity of coating and shall be free
from holes, contamination, cracks and damaged areas.

13

There shall not be more than two holidays (pinholes not visually discernible) in any 300 mm
of the epoxy coated bar.

14

A holiday detector shall be used in accordance with the manufacturer's instruction to check
the epoxy coating for holidays. A 67.5 V detector such as the Tinker and Rasor Model M-1 or
its approved equivalent shall be used.

15

Patching of holidays is not required if there are less than three holidays per 300 mm length.
Bars having three or more holidays per 300 mm shall be cleaned and recoated or replaced
as directed by the Engineer.

16

Epoxy coating film shall be cured and/or post cured to a fully cured condition. A
representative proportion of each production lot shall be checked by the epoxy coating
applicator, using the method most effective for measuring cure to ensure that the entire
production lot of epoxy coating is supplied in the fully cured condition.

17

Contractor shall repair all coating damaged by fixtures used to handle or support the bars in
the coating process as follows:

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(a)

patching shall be done as s