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Scilab Textbook Companion for

Internal Combustion Engines


by R. K. Rajput1
Created by
Kvnkc Sharma
B tech
Mechanical Engineering
K L University
College Teacher
G L Narayana
Cross-Checked by
Chaitanya
May 23, 2016

1 Funded

by a grant from the National Mission on Education through ICT,


http://spoken-tutorial.org/NMEICT-Intro. This Textbook Companion and Scilab
codes written in it can be downloaded from the Textbook Companion Project
section at the website http://scilab.in

Book Description
Title: Internal Combustion Engines
Author: R. K. Rajput
Publisher: Laxmi Publications, New Delhi
Edition: 2
Year: 2007
ISBN: 81-318-0066-0

Scilab numbering policy used in this document and the relation to the
above book.
Exa Example (Solved example)
Eqn Equation (Particular equation of the above book)
AP Appendix to Example(Scilab Code that is an Appednix to a particular
Example of the above book)
For example, Exa 3.51 means solved example 3.51 of this book. Sec 2.3 means
a scilab code whose theory is explained in Section 2.3 of the book.

Contents
List of Scilab Codes

3 Air Standard cycles

4 Fuel Air and Actual Cycles

63

5 Combustion in SI engines

78

7 Air Capacity of Four Stroke Engines

81

11 Carburation and carburettors

100

12 Fuel Injection Systems for CI Engines

119

15 Engine Cooling

133

16 Supercharging of IC Engines

137

17 Testing and Performance of IC Engines

148

20 Air Compressors

228

21 Gas Turbines and Jet Propulsion

301

List of Scilab Codes


Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa

3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12
3.13
3.14
3.15
3.17
3.18
3.19
3.20
3.21
3.22
3.23
3.24
3.25
3.26
3.27
3.28
3.29
3.31

Carnot engine . . . . . . . . .
Carnot power cycle . . . . . . .
Efficiencies of carnot cycle . . .
Carnot Engine . . . . . . . . .
Carnot Engine . . . . . . . . .
Otto cycle . . . . . . . . . . . .
Otto cycle . . . . . . . . . . . .
Otto Cycle . . . . . . . . . . .
Otto cycle and Atkinson cycle .
Otto cycle . . . . . . . . . . . .
Otto cycle . . . . . . . . . . . .
Otto cycle . . . . . . . . . . . .
Otto cycle . . . . . . . . . . . .
Otto cycle . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diesel Cycle . . . . . . . . . .
Diesel Cycle . . . . . . . . . .
Diesel Cycle . . . . . . . . . .
Diesel Cycle . . . . . . . . . .
Diesel cycle . . . . . . . . . . .
Diesel Cycle . . . . . . . . . .
Dual Combustion Cycle . . . .
Dual Combustion Cycle . . . .
Dual Combustion Cycle . . . .
Dual Combustion Cycle . . . .
Dual Combustion Cycle . . . .
Dual Combustion Cycle . . . .
Dual Combustion Cycle . . . .
Atkinson Cycle . . . . . . . . .
4

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6
6
9
11
12
13
14
15
17
18
20
21
24
25
26
27
28
29
31
33
35
37
38
40
42
43
45
48

Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa

3.32
3.33
3.34
3.35
3.36
3.37
3.38
3.39
3.40
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7

Exa 4.8
Exa 4.9
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa

4.10
5.1
5.2
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8

Exa 7.9
Exa 7.10
Exa 7.12
Exa 11.1

Brayton Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Brayton Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Brayton Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Brayton Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Brayton Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Brayton Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Brayton Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Brayton Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stirling Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Percentage change in otto cycle efficiency . . . . . . .
Percentage change in otto cycle efficiency . . . . . . .
Change in air standard efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maximum pressure in cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maximum pressure in cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Percentage of the stroke when the combustion is completed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Percentage of the stroke when the combustion is completed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maximum pressure and temperature ignoring and considering fuel expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Otto cycle work done and efficiency . . . . . . . . . .
Time for combustion process and total crank rotation
Time of spark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Volume of Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Volumetric Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Volumetric Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Volumetric Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Brake Torque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Percentage change in output . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Percentage change in output . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Percentage change in Volumetric efficiency and Brake
Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Volumetric Efficiency and Indicated Power for Supercharged Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Volumetric Efficiency and Heating Value . . . . . . . .
Nominal Diameter of Inlet Valve and Volumetric Efficiency vs Mach Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Suction at throat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5

50
50
52
53
54
56
57
59
60
63
64
65
66
68
69
71
72
75
78
79
81
82
83
86
87
88
90
91
93
95
96
100

Exa 11.2
Exa 11.3
Exa 11.4

Depression in Venturi throat and throat area . . . . .


Diameter of the fuel jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Venturi depression and diameter and velocity of air across
venturi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exa 11.5 Throat pressure with respct to air cleaner . . . . . . .
Exa 11.6 Throat diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exa 11.7 Throat diameter and orifice diameter . . . . . . . . . .
Exa 11.8 Choke diameter and fuel jet diameter . . . . . . . . .
Exa 11.9 Air fuel ratio with respect to nozzle lip . . . . . . . . .
Exa 11.10 Fuel consumption and air velocity through tube . . . .
Exa 11.11 Air fuel ratio at a given altitude . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exa 12.1 Quantity of fuel injected per cycle . . . . . . . . . . .
Exa 12.2 Diameter of injector nozzle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exa 12.3 Volume of fuel injected and diameter of Injector . . . .
Exa 12.4 Diameter of injector nozzle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exa 12.5 Fuel consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exa 12.6 Injector orifice area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exa 12.7 Amount of fuel injected and injector diameter . . . . .
Exa 12.8 Plunger displacement and effective stroke . . . . . . .
Exa 12.9 Calculation of fuel spray time . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exa 15.1 Coolant required for petrol and diesel engine . . . . .
Exa 17.28 Indicated mean effective pressure and brake mean effective pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exa 16.1 Power supplied to supercharger . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exa 16.2 Engine Capacity and Brake Mean effective Pressure .
Exa 16.3 Increase in Brake Power due to supercharger . . . . .
Exa 16.4 Engine Capacity and Brake Mean effective Pressure .
Exa 16.5 Compressor run by supercharged Engine . . . . . . . .
Exa 17.1 Indicated power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exa 17.2 Bore and Stroke of engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exa 17.3 Brake power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exa 17.4 Engine displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exa 17.5 Bore and stroke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exa 17.6 Ratio of power output when using different fuels . . .
Exa 17.7 Brake power and brake thermal efficiency . . . . . . .
Exa 17.8 Brake power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exa 17.9 Indicated power and brake power and mechanical efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6

101
103
104
106
108
110
111
113
115
117
119
120
122
124
125
126
128
129
131
133
134
137
139
141
143
145
148
149
150
151
152
154
155
157
157

Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa

17.10
17.11
17.12
17.13
17.14
17.15

Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa

17.16
17.17
17.18
17.19

Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa

17.20
17.21
17.22
17.23
17.24
17.25
17.26

Exa 17.27
Exa 17.28
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa

17.29
17.30
17.31
17.32
17.33
17.34

Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa

17.35
17.36
17.37
17.38
17.39
17.40
17.41
17.42

BSFC and brake thermal efficiency . . . . . . . . . . .


Indicated thermal efficiency and brake power . . . . .
Volumetric efficiency and BSFC . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mechanical efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine bore and stroke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Indicated thermal efficiency and brake thermal efficiency
and mechanical efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BSFC and brake thermal efficiency . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuel consumption and calorific value of fuel . . . . . .
Engine bore and stroke and Fuel consumption . . . . .
Volumetric efficiency and brake thermal efficiency and
brake torque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Average no of misfires per min . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Indicated power and indicated thermal efficiency . . .
Finding all engine parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Brake mean effective pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Volumetric efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
finding all parameters of engine . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Compression ratio and thermal efficiency and gas consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mean effective pressure developed . . . . . . . . . . .
Indicated mean effective pressure and brake mean effective pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Finding all parameters of engine . . . . . . . . . . . .
Full load brake power and mechanical efficiency . . . .
Mechanical efficiency and brake thermal efficiency . .
Finding all parameters of the engine . . . . . . . . . .
Finding all parameters of the engine . . . . . . . . . .
Indicated thermal efficiency and brake mean effective
pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Finding all parameters of IC engine . . . . . . . . . .
Finding all parameters of IC engine . . . . . . . . . .
Heat balance sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Heat balance sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
heat balance sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Finding the parameters for IC engine . . . . . . . . . .
Heat balance sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Heat balance sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7

159
160
161
163
165
166
168
169
170
172
174
175
177
178
179
181
183
185
186
187
189
190
193
194
196
198
200
202
204
207
210
212
215

Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa

17.43
17.44
17.45
17.46
20.1
20.2
20.3
20.4
20.5
20.6
20.7
20.8
20.9
20.10
20.11
20.12
20.13
20.14
20.15
20.16
20.17
20.18
20.19
20.20
20.21
20.22
20.23
20.24
20.25
20.26
20.27
20.28
20.29
20.30
20.31
20.32
20.34

Heat balance sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Heat balance sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Morse test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Morse test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Single stage reciprocating compressor . . . . . . . . .
Motor power and bore of single stage compressor . . .
Work done and heat transferred during single stage compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Single stage compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Low pressure water jacketed rotary compressor . . . .
Single stage double acting compressor . . . . . . . . .
Single stage double acting compressor . . . . . . . . .
Single stage double acting compressor . . . . . . . . .
Single stage single acting compressor . . . . . . . . . .
Percentage change in volume and power . . . . . . . .
Single stage double acting compressor . . . . . . . . .
Two cylinder single acting compressor . . . . . . . . .
Single stage double acting compressor . . . . . . . . .
Single stage single acting compressor . . . . . . . . . .
Double acting compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Two stage compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Two stage compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Two stage compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Two stage compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Two stage compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Single acting two stage compressor . . . . . . . . . . .
Single acting two stage compressor . . . . . . . . . . .
Two stage compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Two stage double acting compressor . . . . . . . . . .
Two stage single acting compressor . . . . . . . . . . .
Two stage single acting compressor . . . . . . . . . . .
Three stage compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Three stage compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Three stage compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multi stage compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multi stage compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Three stage compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Indicated power and air supplied per minute . . . . . .
8

218
220
224
225
228
229
231
232
233
235
236
237
239
241
241
243
244
246
247
249
250
252
253
254
256
258
259
260
262
265
266
268
269
272
273
274
276

Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa

20.35
20.36
20.37
20.38
20.39
20.40
20.41
20.42
20.43
20.44
20.45
20.46
20.47
20.48
20.49
21.1
21.2
21.3
21.4
21.5
21.6
21.7
21.8
21.9
21.10
21.11
21.13
21.14
21.15

Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa

21.16
21.17
21.18
21.19
21.20
21.21
21.22
21.23

Comparison of roots blower and vane type compressor


Roots blower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Centrifugal compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Single inlet type centrifugal compressor . . . . . . . .
Centrifugal compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Centrifugal compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Centrifugal compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Centrifugal compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Centrifugal compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Axial flow compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Axial flow compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Axial flow compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Eight stage axial flow compressor . . . . . . . . . . . .
Axial flow compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multi stage axial flow compressor . . . . . . . . . . . .
Open cycle gas turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Open cycle gas turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thermal efficiency of Gas turbine . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air fuel ratio for gas turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thermal efficiency of gas turbine . . . . . . . . . . . .
Open cycle gas turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pressure ratio and temperature of the exhaust . . . . .
Efficiency of open cycle gas turbine . . . . . . . . . . .
Multi stage gas turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multi stage gas turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power developed and efficiency of power plant . . . . .
Efficiency of gas turbine cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Heat exchanger in gas turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multi stage gas turbine with intercooler and heat exchanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multi stage gas turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
gas turbine power plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multi stage gas turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Turbo jet engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Turbo jet engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Jet propulsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Turbo jet with diffuser and nozzle . . . . . . . . . . .
Jet engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9

278
279
280
282
283
285
287
288
291
291
292
294
295
296
298
301
303
304
306
308
309
311
313
315
316
318
320
321
323
325
327
330
331
334
335
336
338

List of Figures
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12
3.13
3.14
3.15
3.16
3.17
3.18
3.19
3.20
3.21
3.22
3.23
3.24
3.25
3.26
3.27
3.28

Carnot engine . . . . . . . . .
Carnot power cycle . . . . . .
Efficiencies of carnot cycle . .
Carnot Engine . . . . . . . . .
Carnot Engine . . . . . . . . .
Otto cycle . . . . . . . . . . .
Otto cycle . . . . . . . . . . .
Otto Cycle . . . . . . . . . . .
Otto cycle and Atkinson cycle
Otto cycle . . . . . . . . . . .
Otto cycle . . . . . . . . . . .
Otto cycle . . . . . . . . . . .
Otto cycle . . . . . . . . . . .
Otto cycle . . . . . . . . . . .
Diesel Cycle . . . . . . . . . .
Diesel Cycle . . . . . . . . . .
Diesel Cycle . . . . . . . . . .
Diesel Cycle . . . . . . . . . .
Diesel cycle . . . . . . . . . .
Diesel Cycle . . . . . . . . . .
Dual Combustion Cycle . . .
Dual Combustion Cycle . . .
Dual Combustion Cycle . . .
Dual Combustion Cycle . . .
Dual Combustion Cycle . . .
Dual Combustion Cycle . . .
Dual Combustion Cycle . . .
Atkinson Cycle . . . . . . . .
10

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7
7
9
11
12
13
14
15
17
19
20
22
24
25
26
27
29
30
31
34
36
37
38
40
42
43
45
48

3.29
3.30
3.31
3.32
3.33
3.34
3.35
3.36
3.37

Brayton Cycle
Brayton Cycle
Brayton Cycle
Brayton Cycle
Brayton Cycle
Brayton Cycle
Brayton Cycle
Brayton Cycle
Stirling Cycle

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49
51
52
53
55
56
57
59
60

4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8

64
65
66
67
68
70
71

4.9

Percentage change in otto cycle efficiency . . . . . . . . . . .


Percentage change in otto cycle efficiency . . . . . . . . . . .
Change in air standard efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maximum pressure in cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maximum pressure in cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Percentage of the stroke when the combustion is completed .
Percentage of the stroke when the combustion is completed .
Maximum pressure and temperature ignoring and considering
fuel expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Otto cycle work done and efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.1
5.2

Time for combustion process and total crank rotation . . . .


Time of spark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

79
80

Volume of Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Volumetric Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Volumetric Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Volumetric Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Brake Torque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Percentage change in output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Percentage change in output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Percentage change in Volumetric efficiency and Brake Power
Volumetric Efficiency and Indicated Power for Supercharged
Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.10 Volumetric Efficiency and Heating Value . . . . . . . . . . .
7.11 Nominal Diameter of Inlet Valve and Volumetric Efficiency vs
Mach Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82
83
84
85
88
89
90
92

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9

11

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73
76

94
96
97

7.12 Nominal Diameter of Inlet Valve and Volumetric Efficiency vs


Mach Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4

99

Suction at throat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Depression in Venturi throat and throat area . . . . . . . . .
Diameter of the fuel jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Venturi depression and diameter and velocity of air across venturi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.5 Throat pressure with respct to air cleaner . . . . . . . . . .
11.6 Throat diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.7 Throat diameter and orifice diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.8 Choke diameter and fuel jet diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.9 Air fuel ratio with respect to nozzle lip . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.10Fuel consumption and air velocity through tube . . . . . . .
11.11Air fuel ratio at a given altitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

105
107
108
109
111
114
115
118

12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
12.7
12.8
12.9

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120
121
122
123
125
126
128
130
131

15.1 Coolant required for petrol and diesel engine . . . . . . . . .


15.2 Indicated mean effective pressure and brake mean effective
pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

134
135

16.1
16.2
16.3
16.4
16.5

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138
139
141
143
145

17.1 Indicated power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


17.2 Bore and Stroke of engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.3 Brake power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

149
150
151

Quantity of fuel injected per cycle . . . . . . . .


Diameter of injector nozzle . . . . . . . . . . . .
Volume of fuel injected and diameter of Injector
Diameter of injector nozzle . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuel consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Injector orifice area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Amount of fuel injected and injector diameter .
Plunger displacement and effective stroke . . . .
Calculation of fuel spray time . . . . . . . . . .

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Power supplied to supercharger . . . . . . . . . . .


Engine Capacity and Brake Mean effective Pressure
Increase in Brake Power due to supercharger . . . .
Engine Capacity and Brake Mean effective Pressure
Compressor run by supercharged Engine . . . . . .

12

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101
102
103

17.4 Engine displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


17.5 Bore and stroke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.6 Ratio of power output when using different fuels . . . . . . .
17.7 Brake power and brake thermal efficiency . . . . . . . . . . .
17.8 Brake power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.9 Indicated power and brake power and mechanical efficiency .
17.10BSFC and brake thermal efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.11Indicated thermal efficiency and brake power . . . . . . . . .
17.12Volumetric efficiency and BSFC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.13Mechanical efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.14Engine bore and stroke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.15Indicated thermal efficiency and brake thermal efficiency and
mechanical efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.16BSFC and brake thermal efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.17Fuel consumption and calorific value of fuel . . . . . . . . . .
17.18Engine bore and stroke and Fuel consumption . . . . . . . .
17.19Volumetric efficiency and brake thermal efficiency and brake
torque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.20Average no of misfires per min . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.21Indicated power and indicated thermal efficiency . . . . . . .
17.22Finding all engine parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.23Brake mean effective pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.24Volumetric efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.25finding all parameters of engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.26Compression ratio and thermal efficiency and gas consumption
17.27Mean effective pressure developed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.28Indicated mean effective pressure and brake mean effective
pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.29Finding all parameters of engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.30Full load brake power and mechanical efficiency . . . . . . .
17.31Mechanical efficiency and brake thermal efficiency . . . . . .
17.32Finding all parameters of the engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.33Finding all parameters of the engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.34Indicated thermal efficiency and brake mean effective pressure
17.35Finding all parameters of IC engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.36Finding all parameters of IC engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.37Heat balance sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.38Heat balance sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13

152
153
154
155
156
157
159
160
162
163
165
167
168
169
171
172
174
175
177
179
180
181
183
184
186
187
189
191
192
195
196
198
200
202
205

17.39heat balance sheet . .


17.40Finding the parameters
17.41Heat balance sheet . .
17.42Heat balance sheet . .
17.43Heat balance sheet . .
17.44Heat balance sheet . .
17.45Morse test . . . . . . .
17.46Morse test . . . . . . .

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IC engine
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20.1 Single stage reciprocating compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . .


20.2 Motor power and bore of single stage compressor . . . . . .
20.3 Work done and heat transferred during single stage compression
20.4 Single stage compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.5 Low pressure water jacketed rotary compressor . . . . . . . .
20.6 Single stage double acting compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.7 Single stage double acting compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.8 Single stage double acting compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.9 Single stage single acting compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.10Percentage change in volume and power . . . . . . . . . . .
20.11Single stage double acting compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.12Two cylinder single acting compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.13Single stage double acting compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.14Single stage single acting compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.15Double acting compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.16Two stage compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.17Two stage compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.18Two stage compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.19Two stage compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.20Two stage compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.21Single acting two stage compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.22Single acting two stage compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.23Two stage compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.24Two stage double acting compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.25Two stage single acting compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.26Two stage single acting compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.27Three stage compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.28Three stage compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.29Three stage compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14

207
210
212
215
218
220
224
226
229
230
231
232
234
235
236
238
239
240
242
243
245
246
248
249
251
252
254
255
256
257
259
261
263
264
267
268
269

20.30Multi stage compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


20.31Multi stage compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.32Three stage compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.33Indicated power and air supplied per minute . . . . . .
20.34Comparison of roots blower and vane type compressor .
20.35Roots blower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.36Centrifugal compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.37Single inlet type centrifugal compressor . . . . . . . . .
20.38Centrifugal compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.39Centrifugal compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.40Centrifugal compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.41Centrifugal compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.42Centrifugal compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.43Axial flow compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.44Axial flow compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.45Axial flow compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.46Eight stage axial flow compressor . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.47Axial flow compressor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20.48Multi stage axial flow compressor . . . . . . . . . . . .

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272
273
275
277
278
279
280
282
284
286
287
289
290
292
293
294
295
297
299

21.1 Open cycle gas turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


21.2 Open cycle gas turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.3 Thermal efficiency of Gas turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.4 Air fuel ratio for gas turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.5 Thermal efficiency of gas turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.6 Open cycle gas turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.7 Pressure ratio and temperature of the exhaust . . . . . . . .
21.8 Efficiency of open cycle gas turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.9 Multi stage gas turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.10Multi stage gas turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.11Power developed and efficiency of power plant . . . . . . . .
21.12Efficiency of gas turbine cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.13Heat exchanger in gas turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.14Multi stage gas turbine with intercooler and heat exchanger
21.15Multi stage gas turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.16gas turbine power plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.17Multi stage gas turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21.18Turbo jet engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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21.19Turbo jet engine . . . . .


21.20Jet propulsion . . . . . . .
21.21Turbo jet with diffuser and
21.22Jet engine . . . . . . . . .

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nozzle
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Chapter 3
Air Standard cycles

Scilab code Exa 3.1 Carnot engine


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 3 . 1


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
t1 =673;..................... //Max temp i n K e l v i n
t3 =313;;................... // Min temp i n K e l v i n
W =130;................. // Work p r o d u c e d i n kJ
// c a l c u l a t i o n s
etath =( t1 - t3 ) / t1 ;................ // E n g i n e t h e r m a l
efficiency
disp ( etath *100 , E n g i n e t h e r m a l e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )
ha = W / etath ;................. // Heat added i n kJ
disp ( ha , Head added i n kJ : )
dels =( ha - W ) / t3 ;........... // Change i n e n t r o p y
disp ( dels , Change i n e n t r o p y i n kJ /K )

Scilab code Exa 3.2 Carnot power cycle


17

Figure 3.1: Carnot engine

Figure 3.2: Carnot power cycle

18

1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 3 . 2


2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 m =0.5;..................... // Mass o f a i r i n kg
4 etath =0.5;................. // Thermal e f f i c i e n c y
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

17
18
19
20

of
engine
hie =40;................... // Heat t r a n s f e r r e d d u r i n g
i s o t h e r m a l e x p a n s i o n i n kJ
p1 =7;.................... // P r e s s u r e i n b a r a t t h e
beginning of expansion
v1 =0.12;.................. // Volume i n m3 a t t h e
beginning of expansion
cv =0.721;................... // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t
c o n s t a n t volume i n kJ /kgK
cp =1.008;.................. // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t
c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK
R =287;...................... // Gas c o n s t a n t i n J /kgK
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
t1 =( p1 *10^5* v1 ) /( R * m ) ;.................... //Max temp
in K
t2 = t1 *(1 - etath ) ;....................... // Min temp i n
K
disp ( t1 , The maximum t e m p e r a t u r e i n K e l v i n : )
disp ( t2 , The minimum t e m p e r a t u r e i n K e l v i n : )
v2 =( %e ^(( hie *1000) /( m * R * t1 ) ) ) * v1 ;..................
// Volume a t t h e end o f i s o t h e r m a l e x p a n s i o n i n m
3
disp ( v2 , Volume a t t h e end o f i s o t h e r m a l e x p a n s i o n
i n m3 )
printf ( \n\n )
printf ( P r o c e s s
Heat
t r a n s f e r \n )
printf (

\n )
21 printf ( I s o t h e r m a l e x p a n s i o n
%d kJ \n , hie )
22 printf ( A d i a b a t i c r e v e r s i b l e e x p a n s i o n
%d kJ \n ,0)
19

Figure 3.3: Efficiencies of carnot cycle


printf ( I s o t h e r m a l c o m p r e s s i o n
%d kJ \n ,- hie )
24 printf ( A d i a b a t i c r e v e r s i b l e c o m p r e s s i o n s
%d kJ ,0)

23

Scilab code Exa 3.3 Efficiencies of carnot cycle


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 3 . 3
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 p1 =18;.................. //Maximum p r e s s u r e i n b a r
4 t1 =410+273;............. //Maximum t e m p e r a t u r e i n

Kelvin
5 ric =6;..................... // R a t i o o f

isentropic

compression
6 rie =1.5;................. // R a t i o o f

expansion
20

isothermal

7 v1 =0.18;.................. // Volume o f
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

a i r at the

beginning of expansion
ga =1.4;................... // D e g r e e o f f r e e d o m o f g a s
R =287;..................... // Gas c o n s t a n t i n J /kgK
nc =210;.................. // no o f w o r k i n g c y c l e s
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
t4 = t1 /( ric ^( ga -1) ) ;............. // Min temp i n K
t3 = t4 ;
p4 = p1 /( ric ^ ga ) ;.................. // Min p r e s s u r e i n
bar
p2 = p1 / rie ;....................... // p r e s s u r e o f g a s
b e f o r e i s e n t r o p i c expansion in bar
p3 = p2 *((1/6) ^ ga ) ;................. // P r e s s u r e o f g a s
a f t e r i s e n t r o p i c expansion in bar
printf ( p1=%f b a r \ np2=%f b a r \ np3=%f b a r \ np4=%f
b a r \ n t 1=t 2=%f K e l v i n \ n t 3=t 4=%f K e l v i n \n ,p1 , p2
, p3 , p4 , t1 , t3 )
dels =( p1 *10^5* v1 * log ( rie ) ) /(1000* t1 )
;.................... // Change i n e n t r o p y
disp ( dels , Change i n e n t r o p y i n kJ /K : )
qs = t1 * dels ;....................... // Heat s u p p l i e d i n
kJ
Qr = t4 * dels ;....................... // Heat r e j e c t e d i n
kJ
eta =( qs - Qr ) / qs ;............ // E f f i c i e n c y o f t h e c y c l e
v3byv1 = ric * rie ; Vs =( v3byv1 -1) * v1 ;................. //
S t r o k e volume
pm =(( qs - Qr ) *10^3) /( Vs *10^5) ;........ // Mean e f f e c t i v e
p r e s s u r e o f the c y c l e in bar
disp ( pm , Mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e o f t h e c y c l e i n b a r
: )
P =( qs - Qr ) *( nc /60) ;......................... // Power
of engine
disp (P , Mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e o f t h e c y c l e i n b a r :
)

21

Figure 3.4: Carnot Engine

Scilab code Exa 3.4 Carnot Engine


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 3 . 4
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 eta =1/6;................... // E f f i c i e n c y
4
5
6
7
8
9

of the
engine
rts =70;................. // The amount o f temp which
i s reduced in the sink in C
// C a l c u l a t i o n
t1byt2 =1/(1 - eta ) ;
t2 =( rts +273) /((2* eta * t1byt2 ) - t1byt2 +1) ;............
// T e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e s i n k i n K
disp ( t2 -273 , T e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e s i n k i n C e l s i u s : )
t1 = t1byt2 * t2 ;............... // T e m p e r a t u r e o f s o u r c e
in K
22

Figure 3.5: Carnot Engine


10

disp ( t1 -273 , t e m p e r a t u r e o f s o u r c e i n C e l s i u s : )

Scilab code Exa 3.5 Carnot Engine


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 3 . 5
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 t1 =1990;.................... // T e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e
4
5
6
7
8

heat source in K
t2 =850;.................. // T e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e s i n k
in K
Q =32.5;................... // Heat s u p p l i e d i n kJ / min
P =0.4;.................... // Power d e v e l o p e d by t h e
e n g i n e i n kW
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
eta =1 -( t2 / t1 ) ;.......... // E f f i c i e n c y o f c a r n o t
engine
23

Figure 3.6: Otto cycle


etath = P /( Q /60) ;.................. // E f f i c i e n c y o f t h e
given engine
10 if ( etath > eta ) then printf ( S i n c e t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f
t h e g i v e n e n g i n e i s more t h a n e f f i c i e n c y o f
carnot engine , the claim i s not t r u e . )
11 end
9

Scilab code Exa 3.7 Otto cycle


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 3 . 7
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 etaotto =0.6;............ // E f f i c i e n c y o f o t t o e n g i n e
4 ga =1.5;................. // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
5 // C a l c u l a t i o n s
6 r =(1/(1 - etaotto ) ) ^(1/( ga -1) ) ;................ //

Compression r a t i o
24

Figure 3.7: Otto cycle


7

disp (r , The c o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o o f t h e e n g i n e i s : )

Scilab code Exa 3.8 Otto cycle


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 3 . 8


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
D =0.25;...................... // E n g i n e b o r e i n m
L =0.375;................... // E n g i n e s t r o k e i n m
Vc =0.00263;................ // C l e a r e n c e volume i n m3
p1 =1;.................. // I n i t i a l p r e s s u r e i n b a r
t1 =323;................... // I n i t i a l t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
p3 =25;.................... //Max p r e s s u r e i n b a r
ga =1.4;.................... // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
Vs =( %pi /4) * D * D * L ;................ // Swept volume i n m
3
25

Figure 3.8: Otto Cycle


12 r = round (( Vs + Vc ) / Vc ) ;.......................... //
13
14
15
16
17
18

Compression r a t i o
etaotto =1 -(1/( r ^( ga -1) ) ) ;.................. // A i r
standard e f f i c i e n c y of otto cycle
disp ( etaotto *100 , The a i r s t a n d a r d e f f i c i e n c y o f
o t t o c y c l e i n %: )
p2 = p1 *(( r ) ^ ga ) ;
rp = p3 / p2 ;.......................... // P r e s s u r e r a t i o
pm =( p1 * r *(( r ^( ga -1) ) -1) *( rp -1) ) /(( ga -1) *( r -1) )
;................ // Mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e i n b a r
disp ( pm , Mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e i n b a r : )

Scilab code Exa 3.9 Otto Cycle


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 3 . 9
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s

26

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

p1 =1;..................... // P r e s s u r e i n b a r
t1 =300;...................... // T e m p e r a t u r e i n K
Q =1500;..................... // Heat added i n kJ / kg
r =8;....................... // C o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o
Cv =0.72;.................... // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t
c o n s t a n t volume
ga =1.4;...................... // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c
heats
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
t2 = t1 *( r ) ^( ga -1) ;.......... // T e m p e r a t u r e a f t e r
adiabatic compression in K
p2 = p1 *( r ^ ga ) ;.............. // P r e s s u r e a f t e r
a d i a b a t i c compression in bar
t3 =( Q / Cv ) + t2 ;................. // T e m p e r a t u r e a f t e r
i s o c h o r i c compression in K
p3 =( p2 * t3 ) / t2 ;................ // P r e s s u r e a f t e r
i s o c h o r i c compression in bar
t4 = t3 /( r ^( ga -1) ) ;....................... //
Temperature a f t e r a d i a b a t i c ex p an s io n i n K
p4 = p3 *(1/( r ^( ga ) ) ) ;................ // P r e s s u r e a f t e r
a d i a b a t i c expansion in bar
Ws = Cv *( t3 - t2 - t4 + t1 ) ;......... // S p e c i f i c work i n kJ /
kg
etath =1 -(1/( r ^( ga -1) ) ) ;............ // Thermal
efficiency
disp ( t2 , T e m p e r a t u r e a f t e r a d i a b a t i c c o m p r e s s i o n i n
K: )
disp ( p2 , P r e s s u r e a f t e r a d i a b a t i c c o m p r e s s i o n i n b a r
: )
disp ( t3 , T e m p e r a t u r e a f t e r i s o c h o r i c c o m p r e s s i o n i n
K: )
disp ( p3 , P r e s s u r e a f t e r i s o c h o r i c c o m p r e s s i o n i n b a r
: )
disp ( t4 , T e m p e r a t u r e a f t e r a d i a b a t i c e x p a n s i o n i n K :
)
disp ( p4 , P r e s s u r e a f t e r a d i a b a t i c e x p a n s i o n i n b a r :
)
disp ( Ws , S p e c i f i c work i n kJ / kg : )
27

Figure 3.9: Otto cycle and Atkinson cycle


25

disp ( etath *100 , Thermal e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )

Scilab code Exa 3.10 Otto cycle and Atkinson cycle


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 3 . 1 0
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 r =6;.............. // C o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o
4 p1 =1;................ // P r e s s u r e a f t e r

isochoric

expansion in bar
5 t1 =300;................ // T e m p e r a t u r e a f t e r

isochoric

expansion in K
6 t3 =1842;............... // T e m p e r a t u r e a f t e r i s o c h o r i c
compression in K
7 ga =1.4;............... // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
8 // C a l c u l a t i o n s

28

9 p2 = p1 *( r ^ ga ) ;............... // P r e s s u r e

after

a d i a b a t i c compression in bar
10 t2 = t1 *( r ^( ga -1) ) ;............. // T e m p e r a t u r e a f t e r

adiabatic compression in K
11 p3 = p2 *( t3 / t2 ) ;.................. // p r e s s u r e
12
13
14
15
16

17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

after

i s o c h o r i c compression in bar
t4 = t3 /( r ^( ga -1) ) ;.............. // T e m p e r a t u r e a f t e r
adiabatic expansion in K
p4 = p3 *(1/( r ^( ga ) ) ) ;........... // P r e s s u r e a f t e r
a d i a b a t i c expansion in bar
etaotto =1 -(1/( r ^( ga -1) ) ) ;............ // E f f i c i e n c y o f
otto cycle
p5 = p1 ;
t5 =(( p5 / p3 ) ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) * t3 ;................ //
A t k i n s o n c y c l e temp a f t e r f u r t h e r a d i a b a t i c
expansion in K
etatk =1 -(( ga *( t5 - t1 ) ) /( t3 - t2 ) ) ;........... //
Efficiency of atkinson cycle
disp ( t2 , T e m p e r a t u r e a f t e r a d i a b a t i c c o m p r e s s i o n i n
K: )
disp ( p2 , P r e s s u r e a f t e r a d i a b a t i c c o m p r e s s i o n i n b a r
: )
disp ( t3 , T e m p e r a t u r e a f t e r i s o c h o r i c c o m p r e s s i o n i n
K: )
disp ( p3 , P r e s s u r e a f t e r i s o c h o r i c c o m p r e s s i o n i n b a r
: )
disp ( t4 , T e m p e r a t u r e a f t e r a d i a b a t i c e x p a n s i o n i n K :
)
disp ( p4 , P r e s s u r e a f t e r a d i a b a t i c e x p a n s i o n i n b a r :
)
disp (( etatk - etaotto ) *100 , Improvement i n e f f i c i e n c y
i n %: )

29

Figure 3.10: Otto cycle


Scilab code Exa 3.11 Otto cycle
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 3 . 1 1


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
p1 =1;................... // I n i t i a l p r e s s u r e i n b a r
t1 =343;.................. // I n i t i a l t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
p2 =7;.................... // P r e s s u r e a f t e r a d i a b a t i c
compression
Qs =465;............... // Heat a d d i t i o n a t c o n s t a n t
volume i n kJ / kg
cp =1;..................... // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t
c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e i n kJ / kg
cv =0.706;.................. // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t
c o n s t a n t volume i n kJ / kg
ga = cp / cv ;................. // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
r =( p2 / p1 ) ^(1/ ga ) ;............... // C o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o
t2 = t1 *( r ^( ga -1) ) ;..................... // T e m p e r a t u r e
a t t h e end o f c o m p r e s s i o n i n K
t3 = t2 +( Qs / cv ) ;............. // T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e end

30

Figure 3.11: Otto cycle


of heat addition in K
14 disp (r , C o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o : )
15 disp ( t2 , T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e end o f c o m p r e s s i o n i n K
)
16 disp ( t3 , T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e end o f h e a t a d d i t i o n i n
K )

Scilab code Exa 3.12 Otto cycle


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 3 . 1 2
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 ga =1.4;.............. // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
4 p2byp1 =15;............... // R a t i o p r e s s u r e a t t h e end

of compression to that of p r e s s u r e at the s t a r t


5 t1 =311;................ // I n i t i a l t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
6 t3 =2223;............... //Maximum t e m p e r a t u r e i n K

31

7 R =0.287;............... // Gas c o n s t a n t i n kJ / kg K
8 // C a l c u l a t i o n s
9 r = p2byp1 ^(1/ ga ) ;............... // C o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o
10 etath =1 -(1/( r ^( ga -1) ) ) ;............. // Thermal
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

efficiency
t2 = t1 *( r ^( ga -1) ) ;............ // T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e
end o f c o m p r e s s i o n i n K
t4 = t3 /( r ^( ga -1) ) ;........... // T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e end
of isothermal expansion in K
cv = R /( ga -1) ;................ // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t
c o n s t a n t volume i n kJ / kg
Q = cv *( t3 - t2 ) ;.............. // Heat s u p p l i e d i n kJ / kg
of air
Qr = cv *( t4 - t1 ) ;................. // Heat r e j e c t e d i n kJ
/ kg o f a i r
W =Q - Qr ;................. // Work done
disp (r , C o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o : )
disp ( etath *100 , Thermal e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )
disp (W , Work done i n kJ : )

Scilab code Exa 3.13 Otto cycle


clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 3 . 1 3
// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
v1 =0.45;............. // I n i t i a l volume i n m3
p1 =1;............... // I n i t i a l p r e s s u r e i n b a r
t1 =303;............. // I n i t i a l t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
p2 =11;................... // P r e s s u r e a t t h e end o f
compression s t r o k e in bar
7 Q =210;................... // h e a t added a t c o n s t a n t
volume i n kJ
8 N =210;................. //No o f w o r k i n g c y c l e s p e r
min

1
2
3
4
5
6

32

Figure 3.12: Otto cycle


9 ga =1.4;............. // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
10 R =287;................. // Gas c o n s t a n t i n kJ /kgK
11 cv =0.71;................. // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

volume i n kJ / kg
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
r =( p2 / p1 ) ^(1/ ga ) ;................... // C o m p r e s s i o n
ratio
t2 = t1 *( r ^( ga -1) ) ;................... // T e m p e r a t u r e a t
t h e end o f a d i a b a t i c c o m p r e s s i o n
v2 =( t2 * p1 * v1 ) /( t1 * p2 ) ;................. // Volume a t
t h e end o f a d i a b a t i c c o m p r e s s i o n i n m3
m =( p1 * v1 *10^5) /( R * t1 ) ;................ // Mass o f
e n g i n e f l u i d i n kg
t3 =( Q /( m * cv ) ) + t2 ;................... // T e m p e r a t u r e a t
t h e end o f i s o c h o r i c c o m p r e s s i o n i n K
p3 =( t3 / t2 ) * p2 ;................ // P r e s s u r e a t t h e end
o f i s o c h o r i c compression in bar
v3 = v2 ;
t4 = t3 *(1/ r ) ^( ga -1) ;................... // T e m p e r a t u r e
a t t h e end o f a d i a b a t i c e x p a n s i o n i n K

33

21 p4 = p3 *(1/ r ) ^ ga ;...................... // P r e s s u r e a t

t h e end o f a d i a b a t i c e x p a n s i o n i n b a r
22 v4 = v1 ;
23 pc =( v2 *100) /( v1 - v2 ) ;.................. // P e r c e n t a g e
24
25
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28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

clearence
etaotto =1 -(1/( r ^( ga -1) ) ) ;........................ //
Efficiency of otto cycle
Qr = m * cv *( t4 - t1 ) ;............................... //
Heat r e j e c t e d i n kJ / kg
pm =(( Q - Qr ) *1000) /(( v1 - v2 ) *100000) ;...... // Mean
e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e in bar
P =( Q - Qr ) *( N /60) ;........................ // Power
d e v e l o p e d i n kW
printf ( T e m p e r a t u r e a f t e r a d i a b a t i c c o m p r e s s i o n : %f
K\n\n , t2 )
printf ( P r e s s u r e a f t e r a d i a b a t i c c o m p r e s s i o n : %f b a r
\n\n , p2 )
printf ( Volume a f t e r a d i a b a t i c c o m p r e s s i o n : %f m3\ n
\n , v2 )
printf ( T e m p e r a t u r e a f t e r i s o c h o r i c c o m p r e s s i o n : %f
K\n\n , t3 )
printf ( P r e s s u r e a f t e r i s o c h o r i c c o m p r e s s i o n : %f b a r
\n\n , p3 )
printf ( Volume a f t e r i s o c h o r i c c o m p r e s s i o n : %f m3\ n
\n , v3 )
printf ( T e m p e r a t u r e a f t e r a d i a b a t i c e x p a n s i o n : %f K\
n\n , t4 )
printf ( P r e s s u r e a f t e r a d i a b a t i c e x p a n s i o n : %f b a r \n
\n , p4 )
printf ( Volume a f t e r a d i a b a t i c e x p a n s i o n : %f m3\ n\n
, v4 )
printf ( P e r c e n t a g e c l e a r a n c e : %f\n\n , pc )
printf ( E f f i c i e n c y o f o t t o c y c l e : %f\n\n , etaotto
*100)
printf ( Mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e : %f b a r : \ n\n , pm )
printf ( Power d e v e l o p e d : %f kW\n\n ,P )

34

Figure 3.13: Otto cycle

Scilab code Exa 3.14 Otto cycle


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 3 . 1 4


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
t1 =310;................ // Min t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
t3 =1220;................ //Max t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
ga =1.4;................ // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s f o r
air
cph =5.22;............ // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
volume f o r h e l i u m i n kJ / kg
cvh =3.13;............... // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
p r e s s u r e f o r h e l i u m i n kJ / kg
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
r =( t3 / t1 ) ^(1/(( ga -1) *2) ) ;.............. // C o m p r e s s i o n
ratio
35

Figure 3.14: Otto cycle


10
11
12
13
14
15

16

etaotto =1 -(1/( r ^( ga -1) ) ) ;................ // A i r


standard e f f i c i e n c y
gah = cph / cvh ;................ // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c
h e a t s f o r Helium
rh =( t3 / t1 ) ^(1/(( gah -1) *2) ) ;.............. //
C o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o when Helium i s u s e d
etaottoh =1 -(1/( rh ^( gah -1) ) ) ;................ // A i r
s t a n d a r d e f f i c i e n c y when Helium i s u s e d
disp ( etaotto *100 , A i r s t a n d a r d e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e
e n g i n e i n %: )
if (( round ( etaotto ) - round ( etaottoh ) ) == 0) then
disp ( There i s no c h a n g e i n e f f i c i e n c y when
Helium i s u s e d a s w o r k i n g f l u i d i n s t e a d o f a i r )
end

Scilab code Exa 3.15 Otto cycle


36

Figure 3.15: Diesel Cycle


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 3 . 1 5


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
t1 =310;......... // Minimum t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
t3 =1450;............ //maximum t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
m =0.38;........... // Mass o f w o r k i n g f l u i d i n kg
cv =0.71;........... // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
volume i n kJ / kg
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
t4 = sqrt ( t1 * t3 ) ;............ // T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e end
of adiabatic expansion in K
t2 = t4 ;
W = cv *( t3 - t2 - t4 + t1 ) ;.................. // Work done i n
kJ / kg
P = W *( m /60) ;................. // Power d e v e l o p e d i n kW
disp (P , Power d e v e l o p e d i n kW: )

37

Figure 3.16: Diesel Cycle


Scilab code Exa 3.17 Diesel Cycle
1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 3 . 1 7
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 r =15;................... // C o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o
4 ga =1.4;.............. // R a t i o o s f p e c i f i c h e a t s
5
6
7
8
9

for
air
perQ =6;................ // Heat a d d i t i o n a t c o n s t a n t
p r e s s u r e t a k e s p l a c e a t 6% o f s t r o k e
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
rho =1+(( perQ /100) *( r -1) ) ;............. // Cut o f f
ratio
etad =1 -(((( rho ^ ga ) -1) /( rho -1) ) *(1/( ga *( r ^( ga -1) ) ) ) )
;.................. // E f f i c i e n c y o f d i e s e l e n g i n e
disp ( etad *100 , E f f i c i e n c y o f d i e s e l e n g i n e i n %: )

38

Scilab code Exa 3.18 Diesel Cycle


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 3 . 1 8


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
L =0.25;............... // E n g i n e s t r o k e i n m
D =0.15;.................. // E n g i n e b o r e i n m
v2 =0.0004;............... // C l e a r a n c e volume i n m3
pers =5;............... // P e r c e n t a g e o f s t r o k e when
fuel injection occurs
ga =1.4;.............. // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
Vs =( %pi /4) * D * D * L ;.............. // Swept volume i n m3
Vt = Vs + v2 ;.................... // T o t a l c y l i n d e r volume
i n m3
v3 = v2 +(( pers /100) * Vs ) ;.............. // Volume a t
point of cut o f f
rho = v3 / v2 ;............ // Cut o f f r a t i o
r =1+( Vs / v2 ) ;............. // C o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o
etad =1 -(((( rho ^ ga ) -1) /( rho -1) ) *(1/( ga *( r ^( ga -1) ) ) ) )
;.................. // E f f i c i e n c y o f d i e s e l e n g i n e
disp ( etad *100 , E f f i c i e n c y o f d i e s e l e n g i n e i n %: )

Scilab code Exa 3.19 Diesel Cycle


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 3 . 1 9
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 r =14;.................... // C o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o
4 pers1 =5;............... // P e r c e n t a g e o f s t r o k e when

f u e l cut o f f occurs
pers2 =8;............... // P e r c e n t a g e o f s t r o k e when
delayed f u e l cut o f f occurs
6 v2 =1;..................... // C l e a r a n c e volume i n m3
7 ga =1.4;.................. // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
5

39

Figure 3.17: Diesel Cycle


8
9
10
11

12
13
14

15

// C a l c u l a t i o n s
//When t h e f u e l i s c u t o f f a t 5 %
rho1 =(( pers1 /100) *( r -1) ) +1;............. // Cut o f f
ratio
etad1 =1 -(((( rho1 ^ ga ) -1) /( rho1 -1) ) *(1/( ga *( r ^( ga -1) ) )
) ) ;.................. // E f f i c i e n c y o f d i e s e l
engine
//When t h e f u e l i s c u t o f f a t 8 %
rho2 =(( pers2 /100) *( r -1) ) +1;............. // D e l a y e d
Cut o f f r a t i o
etad2 =1 -(((( rho2 ^ ga ) -1) /( rho2 -1) ) *(1/( ga *( r ^( ga -1) ) )
) ) ;.................. // E f f i c i e n c y o f d i e s e l
e n g i n e when c u t o f f r a t i o i s d e y a l e d
disp (( etad1 - etad2 ) *100 , P e r c e n t a g e l o s s i n
e f f i c i e n c y due t o d e l a y i n c u t o f f : )

40

Figure 3.18: Diesel Cycle


Scilab code Exa 3.20 Diesel Cycle
1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 3 . 2 0
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 pm =7.5;................. // Mean e f f e c t i v e
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

pressure in
bar
r =12.5;.................. // C o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o
p1 =1;.................... // I n i t i a l p r e s s u r e i n b a r
ga =1.4;................. // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
k =( pm *( ga -1) *( r -1) ) /( p1 *( r ^ ga ) ) ;
c1 =( r ^(1 - ga ) ) / k ; c2 =( - ga ) / k ; c =1+( ga / k ) -(( r ^(1 - ga ) ) / k )
;
function [ f ]= F ( rho )
f = c1 *( rho ^ ga ) + c2 * rho + c ;
endfunction
// I n i t i a l g u e s s
rho =2;
// D e r i v a t i v e
function [ z ]= D ( rho )

41

Figure 3.19: Diesel cycle


17
z = c1 * ga *( rho ^( ga -1) ) + c2 ;
18 endfunction
19 y = fsolve ( rho ,F , D )
20 perc =(( y -1) /( r -1) ) *100;.................. //
21

Percentage of c u t o f f
disp ( perc , Cut o f f P e r c e n t a g e : )

Scilab code Exa 3.21 Diesel cycle


1
2
3
4
5
6

clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 3 . 2 1


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
D =0.2;................. // E n g i n e b o r e i n m
L =0.3;............. // E n g i n e s t r o k e i n m
p1 =1;................ // I n i t i a l p r e s s u r e i n b a r
N =380;................. //No o f w o r k i n g c y c l e s p e r
min
42

7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

t1 =300;.............. // I n i t i a l t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
co =8;................ // Cut o f f p e r c e n t a g e
r =15;.................. // C o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o
R =287;................. // g a s c o n s t a n t i n J / kg
ga =1.4;................ // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
Vs =( %pi /4) * D * D * L ;............. // S t r o k e volume i n m
v1 =( r /( r -1) ) * Vs ;................ // Volume a t t h e end
o f i s o c h o r i c c o m p r e s s i o n i n m3
m =( p1 * v1 *10^5) /( R * t1 ) ;................ // Mass o f a i r
i n c y l i n d e r i n kg / c y c l e
p2 = p1 *( r ^ ga ) ;....................... // P r e s s u r e a t
t h e end o f i s e n t r o p i c c o m p r e s s i o n i n b a r
t2 = t1 *( r ^( ga -1) ) ;.................... // T e m p e r a t u r e
a t t h e end o f i s e n t r o p i c c o m p r e s s i o n i n K
v2 = Vs /( r -1) ;.................. // Volume a t t h e end o f
i s e n t r o p i c c o m p r e s s i o n i n m3
p3 = p2 ;
rho =(( r -1) *( co /100) ) +1;................ // Cut o f f
ratio
v3 = rho * v2 ;....................... // Volume a t t h e end
o f i s o b a r i c e x p a n s i o n i n m3
t3 = t2 *( v3 / v2 ) ;.................. // T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e
end o f i s o b a r i c e x p a n s i o n i n K
p4 =(( rho / r ) ^ ga ) * p3 ;.............. // P r e s s u r e a t t h e
end o f a d i a b a t i c e x p a n s i o n i n b a r
t4 =(( rho / r ) ^( ga -1) ) * t3 ;.............. // T e m p e r a t u r e
a t t h e end o f a d i a b a t i c e x p a n s i o n i n K
v4 = v1 ;
printf ( T e m p e r a t u r e a f t e r a d i a b a t i c c o m p r e s s i o n : %f
K\n\n , t2 )
printf ( P r e s s u r e a f t e r a d i a b a t i c c o m p r e s s i o n : %f b a r
\n\n , p2 )
printf ( Volume a f t e r a d i a b a t i c c o m p r e s s i o n : %f m3\ n
\n , v2 )
printf ( T e m p e r a t u r e a f t e r i s o b a r i c c o m p r e s s i o n : %f K
\n\n , t3 )
printf ( P r e s s u r e a f t e r i s o b a r i c c o m p r e s s i o n : %f b a r \
43

31
32
33
34
35
36
37

38
39
40
41

n\n , p3 )
printf ( Volume a f t e r i s o b a r i c c o m p r e s s i o n : %f m3\ n\
n , v3 )
printf ( T e m p e r a t u r e a f t e r a d i a b a t i c e x p a n s i o n : %f K\
n\n , t4 )
printf ( P r e s s u r e a f t e r a d i a b a t i c e x p a n s i o n : %f b a r \n
\n , p4 )
printf ( Volume a f t e r a d i a b a t i c e x p a n s i o n : %f m3\ n\n
, v4 )
etad =1 -(((( rho ^ ga ) -1) /( rho -1) ) *(1/( ga *( r ^( ga -1) ) ) ) )
;.................. // E f f i c i e n c y o f d i e s e l e n g i n e
disp ( etad *100 , E f f i c i e n c y o f d i e s e l e n g i n e i n %: )
pm = p1 *( r ^ ga ) *[ ga *( rho -1) -(( r ^(1 - ga ) ) *(( rho ^ ga ) -1) )
]*(1/( ga -1) ) *1/( r -1) ;....... // Mean e f f e c t i v e
pressure
disp ( pm , Mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e : )
Wdc =( pm * Vs *10^5) /1000;.................. // Work done
p e r c y c l e i n kJ / c y c l e
P =( Wdc * N ) /60;........................... // Power
d e v e l o p e d i n kW
disp (P , Power d e v e l o p e d i n kW: )

Scilab code Exa 3.22 Diesel Cycle


clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 3 . 2 2
// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
rc =15.3;.................... // C o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o
re =7.5;................... // E x p a n s i o n r a t i o
cp =1.005;................. // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t
c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e i n kJ / kg K
6 cv =0.718;.................. // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t
c o n s t a n t volume i n kJ /kgK
7 ga =1.4;.................... // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
1
2
3
4
5

44

Figure 3.20: Diesel Cycle


8 p1 =1;.................... // I n i t i a l p r e s s u r e i n b a r
9 t1 =300;.................. // I n i t i a l t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
10 etamech =0.8;.................. // M e c h a n i c a l
11
12

13
14
15
16
17
18

efficiency
C = 42000;........................... // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e
o f f u e l i n kJ / kg
rita =0.5;......................... // R a t i o o f
i n d i c a t e d thermal e f f i c i e n c y to a i r standard
efficiency
R = 287;.......................... // Gas c o n s t a n t i n kJ
/kgK
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
t2 = t1 *( rc ^( ga -1) ) ;................. // T e m p e r a t u r e a t
t h e end o f a d i a b a t i c c o m p r e s s i o n i n K
p2 = p1 *( rc ^ ga ) ;................... // P r e s s u r e a t t h e
end o f a d i a b a t i c c o m p r e s s i o n i n b a r
t3 =( rc * t2 ) / re ;.................... // T e m p e r a t u r e a t
t h e end o f c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e p r o c e s s i n K
v2 =1;.................. // Volume a t t h e end o f
a d i a b a t i c p r o c e s s i n m3

45

19 m =( p2 * v2 *10^5) /( R * t2 ) ;.................. // Mass o f

w o r k i n g f l u i d i n kg
20 t4 = t3 *((1/ re ) ^( ga -1) ) ;................... //

21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e end o f a d i a b a t i c e x p a n s i o n i n
K
W =[ m *( cp *( t3 - t2 ) ) ] -[ m *( cv *( t4 - t1 ) ) ];........ // Work
done i n kJ
pm = W /( rc -1) ;.............................. // Mean
e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e i n kN/m2
disp ( pm /100 , Mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e i n b a r : )
disp (( p2 *100) /( pm ) , R a t i o o f maximum p r e s s u r e t o
mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e )
etacy = W /( m * cp *( t3 - t2 ) ) ;............... // C y c l e
efficiency
disp ( etacy *100 , C y c l e e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )
etaith = rita * etacy ;.................. // I n d i c a t e d
thermal e f f i c i e n c y
etabth = etaith * etamech ;............... // Brake t h e r m a l
efficiency
mf =3600/( etabth * C ) ;................ // F u e l
c o n s u m p t i o n p e r kWh
disp ( mf , F u e l c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg /kWh : )

Scilab code Exa 3.23 Dual Combustion Cycle


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 3 . 2 3


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
Vs =0.0053;................ // Swept volume i n m3
Vc =0.00035;............... // C l e a r a n c e volume i n m3
v3 = Vc ;
v2 = Vc ;
p3 =65;.................. //Max p r e s s u r e i n b a r
co =5;................... // Cut o f f p e r c e n t a g e
46

Figure 3.21: Dual Combustion Cycle


9 p4 = p3 ; ga =1.4;............... // R a t i o o f

specific

heats
10 t1 =353;.................... // T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

18

s t a r t of compression in K
p1 =0.9;................... // P r e s s u r e a t t h e s t a r t o f
compression in bar
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
r =1+( Vs / Vc ) ;................... // C o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o
rho =((( co /100) * Vs ) / Vc ) +1;................... // Cut
off ratio
p2 = p1 *( r ^ ga ) ;
Beta = p3 / p2 ;............................. // E x p l o s i o n
ratio
etadual =1 -[(1/( r ^( ga -1) ) ) *(( Beta *( rho ^ ga ) ) -1) *(1/((
Beta -1) +( Beta * ga *( rho -1) ) ) ) ];............ //
E f f i c i e n c y of dual c y c l e
disp ( etadual *100 , E f f i c i e n c y o f d u a l c y c l e : )

47

Figure 3.22: Dual Combustion Cycle

Scilab code Exa 3.24 Dual Combustion Cycle


clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 3 . 2 4
// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
r =14;...................... // C o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o
Beta =1.4;................ // E x p l o s i o n r a t i o
co =6;.................. // Cut o f f p e r c e n t a g e
ga =1.4;................. // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
// C a l c u l a t i o n
rho =(( co /100) *( r -1) ) +1;............... // Cut o f f
ratio
9 etadual =1 -[(1/( r ^( ga -1) ) ) *(( Beta *( rho ^ ga ) ) -1) *(1/((
Beta -1) +( Beta * ga *( rho -1) ) ) ) ];............ //
E f f i c i e n c y of dual c y c l e
10 disp ( etadual *100 , E f f i c i e n c y o f d u a l c y c l e : )
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

48

Figure 3.23: Dual Combustion Cycle

Scilab code Exa 3.25 Dual Combustion Cycle


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12

clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 3 . 2 5


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
D =0.25;................. // E n g i n e b o r e i n m
L =0.3;............. // E n g i n e s t r o k e i n m
p1 =1;................ // I n i t i a l p r e s s u r e i n b a r
N =3;............... //No o f c y c l e s p e r s e c o n d
p3 =60;................ //Maximum p r e s s u r e i n b a r
t1 =303;.............. // I n i t i a l t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
co =4;................ // Cut o f f p e r c e n t a g e
r =9;.................. // C o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o
R =287;................. // g a s c o n s t a n t i n J / kg
cv =0.71;............... // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
volume i n kJ /kgK
49

13 cp =1.0;................. // S p e c i f i c
14
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34

heat at constant

p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK
ga =1.4;............... // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
p4 = p3 ;
Vs =( %pi /4) * D * D * L ;............. // S t r o k e volume i n m3
Vc = Vs /( r -1) ;.................. // C l e a r a n c e volume i n
m3
rho =(( r -1) *( co /100) ) +1;................ // Cut o f f
ratio
v1 = Vc + Vs ;................. // Volume a f t e r i s o c h o r i c
c o m p r e s s i o n i n m3
p2 = p1 *( r ^ ga ) ;................ // P r e s s u r e a f t e r
a d i a b a t i c compression in bar
t2 = t1 *( r ^( ga -1) ) ;.............. // T e m p e r a t u r e a f t e r
adiabatic expansion in K
t3 =( p3 * t2 ) / p2 ;.............. // T e m p e r a t u r e a f t e r
i s o c h o r i c compression in K
t4 = t3 * rho ;..................... // T e m p e r a t u r e a f t e r
i s o b a r i c expansion in K
t5 = t4 *(( rho / r ) ^( ga -1) ) ;......... // T e m p e r a t u r e a f t e r
adiabatic expansion in K
p5 = p4 *( rho / r ) ^ ga ;............... // P r e s s u r e a f t e r
a d i a b a t i c expansion in bar
Qs =( cv *( t3 - t2 ) + cp *( t4 - t3 ) ) ;..... // Heat s u p p l i e d i n
kJ / kg
Qr = cv *( t5 - t1 ) ;................... // Heat r e j e c t e d i n
kJ / kg
etast =1 -( Qr / Qs ) ;................. // A i r s t a n d a r d
efficiency
disp ( etast *100 , A i r s t a n d a r d e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )
m =( p1 * v1 *10^5) /( R * t1 ) ;............... // Mass o f a i r
in cycle
W = m *( Qs - Qr ) ;.................... // Work done p e r
c y c l e i n kJ
P = W * N ;............................ // Power d e v e l o p e d
i n kW
disp (P , Power d e v e l o p e d i n kW )
50

Figure 3.24: Dual Combustion Cycle

Scilab code Exa 3.26 Dual Combustion Cycle


1
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8
9
10
11

clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 3 . 2 6


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
p1 =1;................ // I n i t i a l p r e s s u r e i n b a r
t1 =363;............. // I n i t i a l t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
r =9;................. // C o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o
p3 =68;............... //Max p r e s s u r e
p4 = p3 ;
Qs =1750;.............. // T o t a l h e a t s u p p l i e d
ga =1.4;............... // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
R =287;................ // Gas c o n s t a n t i n kJ /kgK
cv =0.71;.............. // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
volume i n kJ /kgK

51

12 cp =1;................ // S p e c i f i c

heat at constant

p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK
13 // C a l c u l a t i o n s
14 p2 = p1 *(( r ) ^ ga ) ;............ // P r e s s u r e a t t h e end o f
15
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a d i a b a t i c compression in bar
t2 = t1 *(( r ) ^( ga -1) ) ;.......... // T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e
end o f a d i a b a t i c c o m p r e s s i o n i n K
t3 = t2 *( p3 / p2 ) ;............ // T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e end
of i s o c h o r i c compression in K
Qv = cv *( t3 - t2 ) ;............. // Heat added a t c o n s t a n t
volume i n kJ / kg
Qp = Qs - Qv ;..................... // Heat added a t
c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e i n kJ / kg
t4 =( Qp / cp ) + t3 ;................ // T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e
end o f i s o b a r i c e x p a n s i o n i n kJ / kg
rho = t4 / t3 ;..................... // Cut o f f r a t i o
p5 = p4 *(( rho / r ) ^ ga ) ;................ // P r e s s u r e a t t h e
end o f a d i a b a t i c e x p a n s i o n i n kJ / kg
t5 = t4 *(( rho / r ) ^( ga -1) ) ;........... // T e m p e r a t u r e a t
t h e end o f a d i a b a t i c e x p a n s i o n i n kJ / kg
printf ( T e m p e r a t u r e a f t e r a d i a b a t i c c o m p r e s s i o n : %f
K\n\n , t2 )
printf ( P r e s s u r e a f t e r a d i a b a t i c c o m p r e s s i o n : %f b a r
\n\n , p2 )
printf ( T e m p e r a t u r e a f t e r i s o c h o r i c c o m p r e s s i o n : %f
K\n\n , t3 )
printf ( P r e s s u r e a f t e r i s o c h o r i c c o m p r e s s i o n : %f b a r
\n\n , p3 )
printf ( T e m p e r a t u r e a f t e r i s o b a r i c e x p a n s i o n : %f K\n
\n , t4 )
printf ( P r e s s u r e a f t e r i s o b a r i c e x p a n s i o n : %f b a r \n\
n , p4 )
printf ( T e m p e r a t u r e a f t e r a d i a b a t i c e x p a n s i o n : %f K\
n\n , t5 )
printf ( P r e s s u r e a f t e r a d i a b a t i c e x p a n s i o n : %f b a r \n
\n , p5 )
Qr = cv *( t5 - t1 ) ;.................... // Heat r e j e c t e d i n
kJ
52

Figure 3.25: Dual Combustion Cycle


etast =1 -( Qr / Qs ) ;................. // A i r s t a n d a r d
efficiency
33 disp ( etast *100 , A i r s t a n d a r d e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )
34 pm =(1/( r -1) ) *[(68*( rho -1) ) +((( p4 * rho ) -( p5 * r ) ) /( ga -1)
) -(( p2 - r ) /( ga -1) ) ];................ // Mean
e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e in bar
35 disp ( pm , Mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e i n b a r : )
32

Scilab code Exa 3.27 Dual Combustion Cycle


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 3 . 2 7
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 t1 =300;............... // I n i t i a l t e m p e r a t u r e
4 rmami =70;.................... // R a t i o o f max p r e s s u r e

and min p r e s s u r e
5 r =15;.................... // C o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o
53

Figure 3.26: Dual Combustion Cycle


6 ga =1.4;................. // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
7 R =287;.................... // Gas c o n s t a n t i n kJ /kgK
8 t2 = t1 *( r ^( ga -1) ) ;................. // T e m p e r a t u r e a t
9
10
11

12
13

t h e end o f a d i a b a t i c c o m p r e s s i o n i n K
t3 = t2 *( rmami /( r ^ ga ) ) ;............ // T e m p e r a t u r e a t
t h e end o f i s o c h o r i c c o m p r e s s i o n i n K
t4 = t3 +(( t3 - t2 ) / ga ) ;.............. // T e m p e r a t u r e a t
t h e end o f i s o b a r i c p r o c e s s i n K
t5 = t4 /((1/( t4 /( t3 * r ) ) ) ^( ga -1) ) ;.......... //
T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e end o f a d i a b a t i c e x p a n s i o n i n
K
etast =1 -[( t5 - t1 ) /(( t3 - t2 ) + ga *( t4 - t3 ) )
];.............. // A i r s t a n d a r d e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etast *100 , A i r s t a n d a r d e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )

Scilab code Exa 3.28 Dual Combustion Cycle


54

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27

clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 3 . 2 8


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
t1 =373;............. // I n i t i a l t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
p1 =1;............... // I n i t i a l p r e s s u r e i n b a r
p3 =65;.............. //Maximum p r e s s u r e i n b a r
R =287;................. // Gas c o n s t a n t i n kJ / kg
p4 = p3 ;
ga =1.41;................. // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
Vs =0.0085;............ // Swept volume i n m3
afr =21;............... // A i r f u e l r a t i o
r =15;................. // C o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o
C =43890;.............. // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f f u e l i n
kJ / kg
cp =1;................ // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK
cv =0.71;.............. // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
volume i n kJ /kgK
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
Vc = Vs /( r -1) ;............... // C l e a r a n c e volume i n m3
v2 = Vc ; v1 = Vs + v2 ;
v3 = Vc ; v5 = v1 ;
p2 = p1 *( r ^ ga ) ;..................... // P r e s s u r e a t t h e
end o f a d i a b a t i c c o m p r e s s i o n i n b a r
t2 = t1 *( r ^( ga -1) ) ;................ // T e m p e r a t u r e a t
t h e end o f a d i a b a t i c c o m p r e s s i o n i n K
t3 =( t2 * p3 ) / p2 ;................... // T e m p e r a t u r e a t
t h e end o f i s o c h o r i c c o m p r e s s i o n i n K
m =( p1 * v1 *10^5) /( R * t1 ) ;............ // Mass o f a i r i n
t h e c y c l e i n kg
Qv = m * cv *( t3 - t2 ) ;..................... // Heat added
d u r i n g c o n s t a n t volume p r o c e s s i n kJ
fv = Qv / C ;............................. // F u e l added
d u r i n g c o n s t a n t volume p r o c e s s i n kg
mf = m / afr ;.................. // T o t a l amount o f f u e l
added i n kg
mfib = mf - fv ;.................... // T o t a l amount o f
f u e l added i n i s o b a r i c p r o c e s s i n kg
Qib = mfib * C ;.................... // T o t a l amount o f
55

Figure 3.27: Dual Combustion Cycle

28
29
30
31
32
33
34

h e a t added i n i s o b a r i c p r o c e s s i n kJ
t4 =( Qib /(( m + mf ) * cp ) ) + t3 ;........ // T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e
end o f i s o b a r i c p r o c e s s i n K
v4 =( v3 * t4 ) / t3 ;.................. // Volume a t t h e end
o f i s o b a r i c p r o c e s s i n m3
t5 = t4 /(( v5 / v4 ) ^( ga -1) ) ;......... // T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e
end o f i s o c h o r i c e x p a n s i o n i n K
Qrv =( m + mf ) * cv *( t5 - t1 ) ;............... // Heat r e j e c t e d
d u r i n g c o n s t a n t volume p r o c e s s i n kJ
W =( Qib + Qv ) - Qrv ;................ // Work done i n kJ
etath = W /( Qib + Qv ) ;.................. // Thermal
efficiency
disp ( etath *100 , Thermal e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )

Scilab code Exa 3.29 Dual Combustion Cycle

56

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14

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clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 3 . 2 9


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
D =0.25;............. // E n g i n e b o r e i n m
L =0.4;.............. // E n g i n e s t r o k e i n m
t1 =303;............. // I n i t i a l t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
R =287;............... // Gas c o n s t a n t i n kJ /kgK
p1 =1;............... // I n i t i a l p r e s s u r e i n b a r
N =8;................ //No o f w o r k i n g c y c l e s p e r s e c
cv =0.71;............. // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
volume i n kJ /kgK
cp =1;................. // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK
n =1.25;............. // A d i a b a t i c i n d e x
rc =9;............... // C o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o
re =5;............... // E x p a n s i o n r a t i o
rqptqe =2;........... // R a t i o o f h e a t l i b e r a t e d a t
constant p r e s s u r e to heat l i b e r a t e d at constant
volume
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
p2 = p1 *( rc ^ n ) ;....................... // P r e s s u r e a t
t h e end o f a d i a b a t i c c o m p r e s s i o n i n b a r
t2 = t1 *( rc ^( n -1) ) ;................... // T e m p e r a t u r e a t
t h e end o f a d i a b a t i c c o m p r e s s i o n i n K
rho = rc / re ;.......................... // Cut o f f r a t i o
t3 =(2* cv * t2 ) /((2* cv ) -( cp *( rho -1) ) ) ;............... //
T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e end o f i s o c h o r i c c o m p r e s s i o n
in K
p3 = p2 *( t3 / t2 ) ; ..... ..... ..... ...... ..... ..... ..... //
P r e s s u r e a t t h e end o f i s o c h o r i c c o m p r e s s i o n i n
bar
p4 = p3 ; t4 = rho * t3 ;................................. //
T e m p e r a t u r e and p r e s s u r e a t t h e end o f i s o b a r i c
process
p5 = p4 *(1/( re ^ n ) ) ;................................. //
P r e s s u r e a t t h e end o f a d i a b a t i c e x p a n s i o n i n b a r
t5 = t4 *(1/( re ^( n -1) ) ) ;............................. //
T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e end o f a d i a b a t i c e x p a n s i o n i n
K
57

24 pm =(1/( rc -1) ) *[( p3 *( rho -1) ) +((( p4 * rho ) -( p5 * rc ) ) /( n

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33
34
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36

37
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-1) ) -(( p2 -( p1 * rc ) ) /( n -1) ) ];............... // Mean


effective pressure
printf ( T e m p e r a t u r e a f t e r a d i a b a t i c c o m p r e s s i o n : %f
K\n\n , t2 )
printf ( P r e s s u r e a f t e r a d i a b a t i c c o m p r e s s i o n : %f b a r
\n\n , p2 )
printf ( T e m p e r a t u r e a f t e r i s o c h o r i c c o m p r e s s i o n : %f
K\n\n , t3 )
printf ( P r e s s u r e a f t e r i s o c h o r i c c o m p r e s s i o n : %f b a r
\n\n , p3 )
printf ( T e m p e r a t u r e a f t e r i s o b a r i c e x p a n s i o n : %f K\n
\n , t4 )
printf ( P r e s s u r e a f t e r i s o b a r i c e x p a n s i o n : %f b a r \n\
n , p4 )
printf ( T e m p e r a t u r e a f t e r a d i a b a t i c e x p a n s i o n : %f K\
n\n , t5 )
printf ( P r e s s u r e a f t e r a d i a b a t i c e x p a n s i o n : %f b a r \n
\n , p5 )
disp ( pm , Mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e i n b a r : )
Vs =( %pi /4) * D * D * L ;.................... // Swept volume
i n m3
W =( pm *(10^5) * Vs ) /1000;................. // Work done
p e r c y c l e i n kJ
m =( p1 *(10^5) *( rc /( rc -1) ) * Vs ) /( R * t1 )
;..................... // Mass o f a i r p e r c y c l e i n
kg
Qs = m *[ cv *( t3 - t2 ) + cp *( t4 - t3 ) ];..................... //
Heat s u p p l i e d p e r c y c l e i n kJ
eta = W / Qs ;.................... // E n g i n e e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( eta *100 , E n g i n e e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )
P = W * N ;................. // Power o f t h e e n g i n e i n kW
disp (P , Power o f t h e e n g i n e i n kW: )

58

Figure 3.28: Atkinson Cycle


Scilab code Exa 3.31 Atkinson Cycle
1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 3 . 3 1
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 cp =0.92;.................. // S p e c i f i c
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

heat at
c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK
cv =0.75;.................. // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t
c o n s t a n t volume i n kJ /kgK
p1 =1;................... // P r e s s u r e a t t h e end o f
a d i a b a t i c expansion in bar
p2 = p1 ;................... // P r e s s u r e a t t h e end o f
i s o b a r i c compression in bar
p3 =4;.................... // P r e s s u r e a t t h e end o f
i s o b a r i c compression in bar
p4 =16;................... // F i n a l p r e s s u r e a f t e r h e a t
a d d i t i o n in bar
t2 =300;..................... // T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e end
of i s o b a r i c compression in K
ga =1.22;................ // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
// C a l c u l a t i o n s

59

Figure 3.29: Brayton Cycle


12 t3 = t2 *(( p3 / p2 ) ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;............ //

13
14

15
16
17
18
19
20

T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e end o f i s o b a r i c c o m p r e s s i o n i n
K
t4 =( p4 * t3 ) / p3 ;........................ // F i n a l
temperature a f t e r heat addition in K
t1 = t4 /(( p4 / p1 ) ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;................... //
T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e end o f a d i a b a t i c c o m p r e s s i o n
in K
Qs = cv *( t4 - t3 ) ;......................... // Heat
s u p p l i e d i n kJ / kg
Qr = cp *( t1 - t2 ) ;......................... // Heat
r e j e c t e d i n kJ / kg
W = Qs - Qr ;....................... // Work done p e r kg o f
g a s i n kJ
disp (W , Work done i n kJ / kg : )
eta = W / Qs ;...................... // E f f i c i e n c y o f c y c l e
disp ( eta *100 , E f f i c i e n c y o f c y c l e i n %: )

60

Scilab code Exa 3.32 Brayton Cycle


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 3 . 3 2
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 p1 =101.325;.................... // P r e s s u r e
4
5
6
7
8
9

10
11

12
13

of intake
a i r i n kPa
t1 =300;....................... // T e m p e r a t u r e o f
i n t a k e a i r i n kPa
rp =6;......................... // P r e s s u r e r a t i o i n
the c y c l e
ga =1.4;......................... // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c
heats
rtc =2.5;........................... // R a t i o o f
t u r b i n e work and c o m p r e s s o r work
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
t2 = t1 *( rp ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;.................. //
T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e end o f i s e n t r o p i c e x p a n s i o n i n
K
t3 =( rtc *( t2 - t1 ) ) /(1 -(1/( rp ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ) ) ;........ //
T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e end o f i s o b a r i c e x p a n s i o n i n K
t4 = t3 /( rp ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;....................... //
T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e end o f i s e n t r o p i c c o m p r e s s i o n
in K
eta =( t3 - t4 - t2 + t1 ) /( t3 - t2 ) ;................... // C y c l e
efficiency
disp ( eta *100 , C y c l e e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )

Scilab code Exa 3.33 Brayton Cycle


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 3 . 3 3

61

Figure 3.30: Brayton Cycle


2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 p1 =1;.................... // I n t a k e p r e s s u r e i n b a r
4 p2 =5;.................... // S u p p l y p r e s s u r e i n b a r
5 t3 =1000;.................. // S u p p l y t e m p e r a t u r e i n

Kelvin
6 cp =1.0425;................ // S p e c i f i c

heat at

c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK
7 cv =0.7662;................. // S p e c i f i c
8
9
10
11
12

heat at

c o n s t a n t volume i n kJ /kgK
ga = cp / cv ;.................. // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
t4 = t3 *(( p1 / p2 ) ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;
P = cp *( t3 - t4 ) ;..................... // Power d e v e l o p e d
p e r kg o f g a s p e r s e c o n d i n kW
disp (P , Power d e v e l o p e d p e r kg o f g a s p e r s e c o n d i n
kW: )

62

Figure 3.31: Brayton Cycle

Scilab code Exa 3.34 Brayton Cycle


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 3 . 3 4


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
ma =0.1;................... // A i r s u p p l i e d i n kg / s
p1 =1;..................... // S u p p l y p r e s s u r e i n b a r
t4 =285;................. // T e m p e r a t u r e o f a i r when
supplied to cabin in K
p2 =4;................... // P r e s s u r e a t i n l e t t o
t u r b i n e in bar
cp =1.0;.................. // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK
ga =1.4;.................. // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
t3 = t4 *(( p2 / p1 ) ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;................ //
Temperature at t u r b i n e i n l e t i n K
disp ( t3 , T e m p e r a t u r e a t t u r b i n e i n l e t i n K : )
63

Figure 3.32: Brayton Cycle


12 P = ma * cp *( t3 - t4 ) ;........................... // Power
13

d e v e l o p e d i n kW
disp (P , Power d e v e l o p e d i n kW: )

Scilab code Exa 3.35 Brayton Cycle


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 3 . 3 5
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 p1 =1;...................... // P r e s s u r e

of
e n t e r i n g the compressor in bar
4 p2 =3.5;................. // P r e s s u r e o f a i r
l e a v i n g the compressor in bar
5 t1 =293;.................. // T e m p e r a t u r e o f
o n l e t of the compressor in K
6 t3 =873;................. // T e m p e r a t u r e o f
turbine i n l e t in K
64

air
while
a i r at the
a i r at the

7 cp =1.005;............... // S p e c i f i c

heat at constant

p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK
8 ga =1.4;................... // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c
9 // C a l c u l a t i o n s
10 rp = p2 / p1 ;.................... // P r e s s u r e r a t i o
11
12
13

14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

heats
of the

cycle
eta =1 -(1/( rp ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ) ;.............. //
E f f i c i e n c y of the c y c l e
disp ( eta *100 , E f f i c i e n c y o f t h e c y c l e : )
t2 = t1 *(( rp ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ) ;................ //
Temperature o f a i r w h i l e l e a v i n g the compressor
in K
q1 = cp *( t3 - t2 ) ;................ // Heat s u p p l i e d t o t h e
a i r i n kJ / kg
disp ( q1 , Heat s u p p l i e d t o t h e a i r i n kJ / kg : )
W = eta * q1 ;........................ // Work a v a i l a b l e a t
t h e s h a f t i n kJ / kg
disp (W , Work a v a i l a b l e a t t h e s h a f t i n kJ / kg : )
q2 = q1 - W ;................ // Heat r e j e c t e d i n t h e
c o o l e r i n kJ / kg
disp ( q2 , Heat r e j e c t e d i n t h e c o o l e r i n kJ / kg : )
t4 = t3 /( rp ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;....................... //
Temperature o f a i r l e a v i n g the t u r b i n e i n K
disp ( t4 , T e m p e r a t u r e o f a i r l e a v i n g t h e t u r b i n e i n K
: )

Scilab code Exa 3.36 Brayton Cycle


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 3 . 3 6
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 p1 =1;................... // P r e s s u r e

of air entering

the compressor in bar


4 t1 =300;................. // T e m p e r a t u r e o f

65

air

Figure 3.33: Brayton Cycle

5
6
7
8
9

10
11

12
13
14

e n t e r i n g the compressor in bar


rp =6;................... // P r e s s u r e r a t i o
rtc =2.5;................. // R a t i o o f t u r b i n e work t o
c o m p r e s s o r work
ga =1.4;............ // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
// c a l c u l a t i o n s
t2 = t1 *( rp ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;.................. //
T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e end o f i s e n t r o p i c e x p a n s i o n i n
K
t3 =( rtc *( t2 - t1 ) ) /(1 -(1/( rp ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ) ) ;........ //
T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e end o f i s o b a r i c e x p a n s i o n i n K
t4 = t3 /( rp ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;....................... //
T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e end o f i s e n t r o p i c c o m p r e s s i o n
in K
eta =( t3 - t4 - t2 + t1 ) /( t3 - t2 ) ;................... // C y c l e
efficiency
disp ( t3 , Maximum t e m p e r a t u r e i n K : )
disp ( eta *100 , C y c l e e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )

66

Figure 3.34: Brayton Cycle

Scilab code Exa 3.37 Brayton Cycle


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 3 . 3 7
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 t1 =303;........................ // Min t e m p e r a t u r e i n
4
5
6
7
8

K
t3 =1073;........................ //Max t e m p e r a t u r e i n
K
C =45000;..................... // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f
f u e l i n kJ / kg
cp =1;.................... // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK
ga =1.4;........................ // R a t i o o s s p e c i f i c
heats
diftc =100;.................. // D i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n
67

Figure 3.35: Brayton Cycle

9
10
11
12
13
14

work done by t u r b i n e and c o m p r e s s o r i n kW


// C a l c u l a t i o n s
t2 = sqrt ( t1 * t3 ) ; t4 = t2 ;..... // Assumed
mf = diftc /[ C *(1 -(( t4 - t1 ) /( t3 - t2 ) ) ) ];................
// F u e l u s e d i n kg p e r s e c o n d
disp ( mf , Rate o f f u e l c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg / s : )
ma =[ diftc -[ mf *( t3 - t4 ) ]]/[( t3 - t4 - cp *( t2 - t1 ) )
];............ // Rate o f a i r c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg / s
disp ( ma , Mass f l o w r a t e o f a i r
i n kg / s : )

Scilab code Exa 3.38 Brayton Cycle


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 3 . 3 8
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 t1 =300;................. // I n l e t t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
4 p1 =1;.................... // I n l e t p r e s s u r e i n b a r

68

5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

14

15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

ma =1;.................... // Mass o f a i r i n kg
rp =6.25;............. // P r e s s u r e r a t i o
t3 =1073;........... //Maximum t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
etac =0.8;............ // E f f i c i e n c y o f c o m p r e s s o r
etat =0.8;............. // E f f i c i e n c y o f t u r b i n e
ga =1.4;................. // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
cp =1.005;............. // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
t2 = t1 *( rp ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;........... // I d e a l
Temperature o f a i r w h i l e l e a v i i n g the compressor
in K
t21 =(( t2 - t1 ) / etac ) + t1 ;............ // A c t u a l
Temperature o f a i r w h i l e l e a v i i n g the compressor
in K
Wcomp = ma * cp *( t21 - t1 ) ;............. // C o m p r e s s o r work
i n kJ / kg
t4 = t3 /( rp ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;........ // I d e a l t e m p e r a t u r e
of a i r while l e a v i n g the turbine in K
t41 = t3 -( etat *( t3 - t4 ) ) ;.......... // A c t u a l t e m p e r a t u r e
of a i r while l e a v i n g the turbine in K
Wtur = ma * cp *( t3 - t41 ) ;.............. // T u r b i n e work i n
kJ / kg
Wnet = Wtur - Wcomp ;................. // Net work p r o d u c e d
i n kJ / kg
Qs = ma * cp *( t3 - t21 ) ;................. // Heat s u p p l i e d
i n kJ / kg
disp ( Wcomp , C o m p r e s s o r work i n kJ / kg : )
disp ( Wtur , T u r b i n e work i n kJ / kg : )
disp ( Qs , Heat s u p p l i e d i n kJ / kg : )
disp (( Wnet / Qs ) *100 , C y c l e e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )
disp ( t41 , A c t u a l e x h a u s t t e m p e r a t u r e o f t u r b i n e i n K
)

69

Figure 3.36: Brayton Cycle


Scilab code Exa 3.39 Brayton Cycle
1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 3 . 3 9
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 etat =0.85;.............. // T u r b i n e e f f i c i e n c y
4 etac =0.8;............... // C o m p r e s s o r e f f i c i e n c y
5 t3 =1148;................ //Max t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
6 t1 =300;................ // T e m p e r a t u r e o f w o r k i n g
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

f l u i d when e n t e r i n g t h e c o m p r e s s o r i n K e l v i n
cp =1;................... // s p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK
ga =1.4;................ // r a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
p1 =1;................... // P r e s s u r e o f w o r k i n g f l u i d
w h i l e e n t e r i n g the compressor in bar
rp =4;................... // P r e s s u r e r a t i o
C =42000;............... // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f f u e l
u s e d i n kJ /kgK
perlcc =10;............. // P e r c e n t a g e l o s s o f
c a l o r i f i c v a l u e i n c o m b u s t i o n chamber
// c a l c u l a t i o n s

70

Figure 3.37: Stirling Cycle


14 p2 = p1 * rp ;................. // p r e s s u r e
15
16

17

18
19

of air while

l e a v i n g the compressor in bar


etacc =1 -( perlcc /100) ;............ // e f f i c i e n c y o f
c o m b u s t i o n chamber
t2 = t1 *( rp ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;........... // I d e a l
Temperature o f a i r w h i l e l e a v i i n g the compressor
in K
t21 =(( t2 - t1 ) / etac ) + t1 ;............ // A c t u a l
Temperature o f a i r w h i l e l e a v i i n g the compressor
in K
afr =(( C * etacc ) /( cp *( t3 - t21 ) ) ) -1;........... // A i r
fuel ratio
printf ( A i r f u e l r a t i o i s %d : 1 , round ( afr ) )

Scilab code Exa 3.40 Stirling Cycle

71

1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 3 . 4 0


2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 p1 =1;........... // p r e s s u r e b e f o r e

isothermal

compression in bar
4 t1 =310;......... // t e m p e r a t u r e b e f o r e
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

isothermal

compression in K
p3 =16;......... // p r e s s u r e b e f o r e i s o t h e r m a l
expansion in bar
t3 =930;......... // t e m p e r a t u r e b e f o r e i s o t h e r m a l
expansion in K
R =287;............. // Gas c o n s t a n t i n kJ /kgK
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
v1 =( R * t1 ) /( p1 *10^5) ;............... // Volume b e f o r e
i s o t h e r m a l c o m p r e s s i o n i n m3
v3 =( R * t3 ) /( p3 *10^5) ;............... // Volume b e f o r e
i s o t h e r m a l e x p a n s i o n i n m3
v2 = v3 ; v4 = v1 ;................. // 23 and 14 a r e
isochoric processes
r = v1 / v2 ;................... // C o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o
q12 = R * t1 * log ( r ) ;............... // Work done and h e a t
r e j e c t e d i n p r o c e s s 12
w12 = q12 ;
disp ( q12 /1000 , Work done i n p r o c e s s 12 i n kJ / kg : )
disp ( w12 /1000 , Heat r e j e c t e d i n p r o c e s s 12 i n kJ / kg
: )
q23 =0; w23 = q23 ;.................. // COnstant volume
p r o c e s s and h e n c e work done i s z e r o
disp ( q23 /1000 , Work done i n p r o c e s s 23 i n kJ / kg : )
disp ( q23 /1000 , Heat r e j e c t e d i n p r o c e s s 23 i n kJ / kg
: )
q34 = R * t3 * log ( r ) ;............... // Work done and h e a t
r e j e c t e d i n p r o c e s s 12
w34 = q34 ;
disp ( q34 /1000 , Work done i n p r o c e s s 34 i n kJ / kg : )
disp ( w34 /1000 , Heat r e j e c t e d i n p r o c e s s 34 i n kJ / kg
: )
q41 = q34 - q12 ; w41 = q41 ;
disp ( q41 /1000 , Work done i n p r o c e s s 41 i n kJ / kg : )
72

disp ( w41 /1000 , Heat r e j e c t e d i n p r o c e s s 41 i n kJ / kg


: )
27 etath = w41 / q34 ;..................... // Thermal
efficiency
28 disp ( etath *100 , Thermal e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e c y c l e i n %
: )
26

73

Chapter 4
Fuel Air and Actual Cycles

Scilab code Exa 4.2 Percentage change in otto cycle efficiency


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 4 . 2
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 r =8;.......................... // C o m p r e s s i o n R a t i o
4 ga =1.4;....................... // D e g r e e o f f r e e d o m
5
6
7
8
9

10

f o r the gas
Cvinc =1.1;.................... // I n c r e a s e o f s p e c i f i c
h e a t a t c o n s t a n t volume i n p e r c e n t a g e
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
eta =1 -1/( r ^( ga -1) ) ;........... // e f f i c i e n c y o f o t t o
cycle
deta =(1 - eta ) *( ga -1) * log ( r ) *( Cvinc /100) ;............
// Change i n e f f i c i e n c y
etach = - deta / eta ;............................ //
Percentage change in e f f i c i e n c y o f change in
efficiency
disp ( etach *100 , The p e r c e n t a g e c h a n g e i n t h e
e f f i c i e n c y o f o t t o c y c l e ( i n %) : )

74

Figure 4.1: Percentage change in otto cycle efficiency

Scilab code Exa 4.3 Percentage change in otto cycle efficiency


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 4 . 3
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 r =7;.......................... // C o m p r e s s i o n R a t i o
4 ga =1.4;....................... // D e g r e e o f f r e e d o m
5
6
7
8
9

f o r the gas
Cvinc =3;.................... // I n c r e a s e o f s p e c i f i c
h e a t a t c o n s t a n t volume i n p e r c e n t a g e
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
eta =1 -1/( r ^( ga -1) ) ;........... // e f f i c i e n c y o f o t t o
cycle
deta =(1 - eta ) *( ga -1) * log ( r ) *( Cvinc /100) ;............
// Change i n e f f i c i e n c y
etach = - deta / eta ;............................ //
75

Figure 4.2: Percentage change in otto cycle efficiency


Percentage change in e f f i c i e n c y o f change in
efficiency
10 disp ( etach *100 , The p e r c e n t a g e c h a n g e i n t h e
e f f i c i e n c y o f o t t o c y c l e ( i n %) : )

Scilab code Exa 4.4 Change in air standard efficiency


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 4 . 4
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 r = 18;.......................... // C o m p r e s s i o n R a t i o
4 co =5;.......................... // Cut o f f p e r c e n t o f

stroke
5 cv =0.71;....................... // Mean s p e c i f i c

heat

f o r c y c l e i n kJ / kg K
6 R = 0.285;....................... // C h a r e c t e r i s t i c

c o n s t a n t i n kJ / kh K
76

gas

Figure 4.3: Change in air standard efficiency


7
8
9
10
11

12

13

cvinc =2;....................... // P e r c e n t a g e i n c r e a s e
i n mean s p e c i f i c h e a t o f t h e c y c l e
// C a l c u l a t i o n
rho =( co /100) *( r -1) +1;
ga =1+( R / cv ) ;
eta =1 -(1/( ga *( r ^( ga -1) ) ) ) *(( rho ^ ga ) -1) /( rho -1)
;..................... // E f f i c i e n c y o f d i e s e l
cycle
etach = -((1 - eta ) / eta ) *( ga -1) *( log ( r ) -((( rho ^ ga ) * log (
rho ) ) /(( rho ^ ga ) -1) ) +(1/ ga ) ) *( cvinc /100) ;... //
Variation in the a i r standard e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etach *100 , P e r c e n t a g e c h a n g e i n e f f i c i e n c y )

Scilab code Exa 4.5 Maximum pressure in cylinder


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 4 . 5

77

Figure 4.4: Maximum pressure in cylinder


2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 r =7;...................... // C o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o
4 C =44000;.................. // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

fuel

u s e d i n kJ / kg
afr =15;................... // A i r f u e l r a t i o
t1 =338;.................... // T e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e
c h a r g e a t t h e end o f t h e s t r o k e i n K e l v i n
p1 =1;...................... // P r e s s u r e o f t h e c h a r g e
a t t h e end o f t h e s t r o k e i n b a r
n =1.33;.................... // I n d e x o f c o m p r e s s i o n
cv =0.71;...... // S p e c i f i c h e a t c o n s t a n t a t c o n s t a n t
volume i n kJ /kgK
k =20*10^( -5) ;
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
p2 = p1 *( r ) ^ n ;
t2 =( t1 * p2 ) /( p1 * r ) ;
ha = C /( afr +1) ;...................... // Heat added p e r
kg o f c h a r g e i n kJ
t3 =(( -2* cv ) + sqrt ((4* cv * cv ) +(4* k *((2* cv * t2 ) +( k * t2 * t2 )
+(2* ha ) ) ) ) ) /(2* k ) ;

78

Figure 4.5: Maximum pressure in cylinder


16 p3 =( p2 * t3 ) / t2 ;............................. //Max

p r e s s u r e f o r c o n s t a n t volume p r o c e s s i n b a r
17 P3 = p2 *(( ha / cv ) + t2 ) / t2 ;..................... //Max

p r e s s u r e f o r c o n s t a n t s p e c i f i c heat in bar
18 disp ( p3 , Max p r e s s u r e i n t h e c y l i n d e r ( i n b a r ) : )
19 disp ( P3 , Max p r e s s u r e f o r c o n s t a n t s p e c i f i c h e a t ( i n
bar ) : )

Scilab code Exa 4.6 Maximum pressure in cylinder


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 4 . 6
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 r =10;...................... // C o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o
4 C =48000;.................. // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f

u s e d i n kJ / kg
5 afr =15;................... // A i r f u e l r a t i o
79

fuel

6 t1 =330;.................... // T e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e

c h a r g e a t t h e end o f t h e s t r o k e i n K e l v i n
of the charge
a t t h e end o f t h e s t r o k e i n b a r
n =1.36;.................... // I n d e x o f c o m p r e s s i o n
cv =0.7117;...... // S p e c i f i c h e a t c o n s t a n t a t c o n s t a n t
volume i n kJ /kgK
k =2.1*10^( -4) ;
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
p2 = p1 *( r ) ^ n ;
t2 = t1 *(( p2 / p1 ) ^(( n -1) / n ) ) ;
ha = C /( afr +1) ;...................... // Heat added p e r
kg o f c h a r g e i n kJ
t3 =(( -2* cv ) + sqrt ((4* cv * cv ) +(4* k *((2* cv * t2 ) +( k * t2 * t2 )
+(2* ha ) ) ) ) ) /(2* k ) ;
p3 =( p2 * t3 ) / t2 ;............................. //Max
p r e s s u r e f o r c o n s t a n t volume p r o c e s s i n b a r
P3 = p2 *(( ha / cv ) + t2 ) / t2 ;..................... //Max
p r e s s u r e f o r c o n s t a n t s p e c i f i c heat in bar
disp ( p3 , Max p r e s s u r e i n t h e c y l i n d e r ( i n b a r ) : )
disp ( P3 , Max p r e s s u r e f o r c o n s t a n t s p e c i f i c h e a t ( i n
bar ) : )

7 p1 =1;...................... // P r e s s u r e
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

Scilab code Exa 4.7 Percentage of the stroke when the combustion is completed
1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 4 . 7
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 r =15;...................... // C o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o
4 C =43000;.................. // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f

u s e d i n kJ / kg
5 afr =27;................... // A i r f u e l r a t i o
6 t2 =870;.................... // T e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e
80

fuel

Figure 4.6: Percentage of the stroke when the combustion is completed

7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

c h a r g e a t t h e end o f t h e s t r o k e i n K e l v i n
cv =0.71;...... // S p e c i f i c h e a t c o n s t a n t a t c o n s t a n t
volume i n kJ /kgK
R = 0.287;......................... // Gas c o n s t a n t i n
kJ /kgK
k =20*10^( -5) ;
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
cp = cv + R ;............................ // S p e c i f i c h e a t
at constant p r e s s u r e
ha = C /( afr +1) ;...................... // Heat added p e r
kg o f c h a r g e i n kJ
t3 =(( -2* cp ) + sqrt ((4* cp * cp ) +(4* k *((2* cp * t2 ) +( k * t2 * t2 )
+(2* ha ) ) ) ) ) /(2* k ) ;
co =(( t3 / t2 ) -1) /( r -1) ;............. // c o m b u s t i o n
o c c u p i e s t h i s amt o f s t r o k e
disp ( co *100 , P e r c e n t a g e o f t h e s t r o k e when t h e
combustion i s completed i s : )

81

Figure 4.7: Percentage of the stroke when the combustion is completed

Scilab code Exa 4.8 Percentage of the stroke when the combustion is completed
1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 4 . 8
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 r =14;...................... // C o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o
4 t1 =87+273;.................... // T e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e

c h a r g e a t t h e end o f t h e s t r o k e i n K e l v i n
of the charge
a t t h e end o f t h e s t r o k e i n b a r
hsupa =1700;............................ // h e a t
s u p p l i e d p e r kg o f a i r i n kJ
cv =0.71;...... // S p e c i f i c h e a t c o n s t a n t a t c o n s t a n t
volume i n kJ /kgK
k =20*10^( -5) ;
ga =1.4;..................... // D e g r e e o f f r e e d o m
R =0.287;...................... // Gas c o n s t a n t i n kJ /

5 p1 =1;...................... // P r e s s u r e
6
7
8
9
10

82

11
12
13
14
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18
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20
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22

kgK
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
p2 = p1 *( r ) ^ ga ;
t2 = t1 *( r ^( ga -1) ) ;
ha = hsupa /2;...................... // Heat added p e r kg
o f c h a r g e i n kJ
t3 =(( -2* cv ) + sqrt ((4* cv * cv ) +(4* k *((2* cv * t2 ) +( k * t2 * t2 )
+(2* ha ) ) ) ) ) /(2* k ) ;
p3 =( p2 * t3 ) / t2 ;............................. //Max
p r e s s u r e f o r c o n s t a n t volume p r o c e s s i n b a r
P3 = p2 *(( ha / cv ) + t2 ) / t2 ;..................... //Max
p r e s s u r e f o r c o n s t a n t s p e c i f i c heat in bar
disp ( p3 , Max p r e s s u r e i n t h e c y l i n d e r ( i n b a r ) : )
cp = cv + R ;................................. // Heat
c a p a c i t y a t c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK
t4 =(( -2* cp ) + sqrt ((4* cp * cp ) +(4* k *((2* cp * t3 ) +( k * t3 * t3 )
+(2* ha ) ) ) ) ) /(2* k ) ;
co =(( t4 / t3 ) -1) /( r -1) ;............. // c o m b u s t i o n
o c c u p i e s t h i s amt o f s t r o k e
disp ( co *100 , P e r c e n t a g e o f t h e s t r o k e when t h e
combustion i s completed i s : )

Scilab code Exa 4.9 Maximum pressure and temperature ignoring and considering fuel expansion
1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 4 . 9
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 r = 8;........................... // C o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o
4 C =44000;............ // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f f u e l i n kJ /

kg
5 afr =13.8;..................... // A i r f u e l r a t i o
6 t1 =343;............................. // T e m p e r a t u r e o f
the mixture at the beginning of the compression
83

Figure 4.8: Maximum pressure and temperature ignoring and considering


fuel expansion
in Kelvin
7 p1 =1;........................ // P r e s s u r e

8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

of the
mixture at the beginning of the compression in
bar
cv =0.716;..................... // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t
c o n s t a n t volume i n kJ /kgK
in =1.35;....................... // I n d e x o f
compression
nc =6;.......................... //No o f c a r b o n
elements in the given f u e l
nh =14;......................... //No o f h y d r o g e n
elements in the given f u e l
mc =12;........................... // Atomic mass o f
c a r b o n i n amu
mh =2;............................. // a t o m i c mass o f
h y d r o g e n m o l e c u l e i n amu
mo =32;........................... // Atomic mass o f
o x y g e n m o l e c u l e i n amu
// C a l c u l a t i o n s

84

16
17
18
19
20
21

22

23
24
25
26
27
28
29

30

31
32
33

// The c h e m i c a l e q u a t i o n i s C6H14 + xO2 ==> yCO2 +


zH2O
// x i s t h e no o f o x y g e n m o l e c u l e s r e q u i r e d f o r
complete combustion
// y i s t h e no o f c a r b o n d i o x i d e m o l e c u l e s p r o d u c e d
in complete combustion
// z i s t h e no o f Water m o l e c u l e s p r o d u c e d i n
complete combustion
y = nc ;............................ // As no o f CO2
m o l e c u l e s i s e q u a l t o no o f C atoms i n t h e f u e l
z = nh /2;.......................... //No o f H2O
m o l e c u l e s i s e q u a l t o h a l f t h e no o f H atoms i n
the f u e l
x =( z /2) + y ;........................... //No o f o x y g e n
m o l e c u l e s r e q u i r e d f o r c o m b u s t i o n i s h a l f t h e no
o f w a t e r m o l e c u l e s p l u s t h e no o f o x y g e n
molecules
gafr =(( x *32) *(100/23) ) /(( mc * y ) +( mh * z ) )
;................. // G r a v i m e t r i c a i r f u e l r a t i o
ms =( gafr / afr ) *100;...................... // A c t u a l
mixture strength
// S i n c e t h e m i x t u r e s t r e n g t h i s g r e a t e r t h a n 100 %
// The m i x t u r e i s r i c h i n f u e l . The c o m b u s t i o n i s
t h e r e f o r e i n c o m p p l e t e and h e n c e CO w i l l be f o r m e d
d = ms /100;...................... //No o f f u e l
molecules r e q u i r e d f o r combustion
// The c h e m i c a l e q u a t i o n i s d ( C6H14 ) + 9 . 5 ( O2 ) ==> a (
CO2) + b (CO) + c (H2O)
c =( d * nh ) /2;............................... //No o f
H2O m o l e c u l e s i s e q u a l t o h a l f t h e no o f H atoms
in the f u e l
a =( x *2) -( d * nc ) -c ;........................ // E q u a t i n g
atoms o f t h e same e l e m e n t on b o t h s i d e s o f
equation
b =( d * nc ) -a ;
//By a d d i n g n i t r o g e n on b o t h s i d e s , we a r e a d d i n g
t h e same m o l e c u l a r w e i g h t on b o t h s i d e s .
// A i r i s 79 % n i t r o g e n and 21 % o x y g e n
85

34 // Both N2 and O2 a r e d i a t o m i c m o l e c u l e s
35 n = x *(79/21) ;............................. //No o f
36
37
38
39
40

41
42

43
44
45
46
47

nitrogen molecules
mbc = d + x + n ;............................. // M o l e s
b e f o r e combustion
mac = a + b + c + n ;............................. // M o l e s
a f t e r expansion
me =( mac - mbc ) / mbc ;........................ // M o l e c u l a r
expansion
t2 =( t1 *( r ^( in -1) ) ) ;
t3 =( t2 +( C /(( afr +1) * cv ) ) ) ;.................. //Maximum
temperature ignoring molecular expansion in
Kelvin
p3 = p1 * r *( t3 / t1 ) ;........................... //Maximum
p r e s s u r e i g n o r i n g m o l e c u l a r expansion in bar
t3me = t3 ;............................... //Maximum
temperature considering molecular expansion in
Kelvin
p3me = p3 *( mac / mbc ) ;.................... //Maximum
p r e s s u r e c o n s i d e r i n g m o l e c u l a r expansion in bar
disp ( t3 , Maximum t e m p e r a t u r e i g n o r i n g m o l e c u l a r
expansion ( in Kelvin ) : )
disp ( p3 , Maximum p r e s s u r e i g n o r i n g m o l e c u l a r
expansion ( in bar ) : )
disp ( t3me , Maximum t e m p e r a t u r e c o n s i d e r i n g m o l e c u l a r
expansion ( in Kelvin ) : )
disp ( p3me , Maximum p r e s s u r e c o n s i d e r i n g m o l e c u l a r
expansion ( in bar ) : )

Scilab code Exa 4.10 Otto cycle work done and efficiency
1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 4 . 1 0
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s

86

Figure 4.9: Otto cycle work done and efficiency


3 r =7;.................... // C o m p r e s s i o n R a t i o
4 t2 =715;................. // T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e end o f
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

i s e n t r o p i c compression in Kelvin
t4 =1610;................ // T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e end o f
expansion in Kelvin
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
vr2 =65.8;.................. // From steam t a b l e
u2 =524.2;.................. // From steam t a b l e
vr4 =5.69;.................. // From steam t a b l e
u4 =1307.63;.................. // From steam t a b l e
vr1 = r * vr2 ;
t1 =338;.................. // From steam t a b l e
u1 =241.38;.................. // From steam t a b l e
vr3 = vr4 / r ;
t3 =2800;.................. // From steam t a b l e
u3 =2462.5;.................. // From steam t a b l e
W =( u3 - u2 ) -( u4 - u1 ) ;.................. // Work done
Qa =( u3 - u2 ) ;.......................... // Heat added
eta = W / Qa ;........................... // C y c l e
efficiency

87

20
21

disp (W , The c y c l e work ( i n kJ / kg ) : )


disp ( eta *100 , The c y c l e e f f i c i e n c y ( i n %) : )

88

Chapter 5
Combustion in SI engines

Scilab code Exa 5.1 Time for combustion process and total crank rotation
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 5 . 1


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
d =10.2;............ // E n g i n e b o r e i n cm
spo =0.6;............ // S p a r k p l u g o f f s e t i n cm
vf =15.8;............ // A v e r a g e f l a m e s p e e d i n m/ s
thetas =20;............. // The a n g l e o f t h e c r a n k when
spark plug i s f i r e d
theta =6.5;.......... // A n g l e by which t h e E n g i n e
r o t a t e s f o r combustion to develop ( degree )
N =1200;................ // E n g i n e rpm
// c a l c u l a t i o n s
dmax =(0.5* d ) + spo ;......... //Max d i s t a n c e o f f l a m e
t r a v e l i n cm
tf =( dmax ) /( vf *100) ;................ // Time o f f l a m e
travel in seconds
degs =( N /60) *360;................... // C o n v e r s i o n o f
e n g i n e rpm i n t o d e g r e e / s e c o n d
ctheta = tf * degs ;............... // Crank a n g l e f o r
flame t r a v e l in degree
89

Figure 5.1: Time for combustion process and total crank rotation
14 tc = theta / degs ;.................. // t i m e f o r

combustion to develop in seconds


15 top = tf + tc ;...................... // Time f o r one
16
17
18
19

combustion p r o c e s s in seconds
thetatot = theta + ctheta ;................ // T o t a l c r a n k
rotation in degree
thetacp = thetatot - thetas ;.......... // Crank p o s i t i o n
disp ( top , Time f o r one c o m b u s t i o n p r o c e s s i n s e c o n d s
: )
disp ( thetacp , The c r a n k p o s i t i o n i s ( i n d e g r e e ) : )

Scilab code Exa 5.2 Time of spark


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 5 . 2
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 dp =22;............ // D e l a y p e r i o d i n d e g r e e

90

Figure 5.2: Time of spark


4 cp =17;............... // Combustion p e r i o d i n d e g r e e
5 dper =14;............... // D e l a y P e r c e n t a g e
6 // C a l c u l a t i o n s
7 thetad = dp /2;......... // F u l l t h r o t t l e h a l f s p e e d w i l l

8
9
10
11

12
13
14
15
16

r e s u l t i n d e l a y a n g l e b e i n g r e d u c e d f o r t h e same
time
// Thus i g n i t i o n t i m i n g s h o u l d be a r r a n g e d s o t h a t
t h e t o t a l o f t h e t a d+cp e n d s 13 d e g r e e a f t e r TDC
tsp =( thetad + cp ) -13;............ // Time o f s p a r k i n
degree
disp ( tsp , The t i m e o f s p a r k ( i n D e g r e e s b e f o r e TDC)
)
// H a l f t h r o t t l e h a l f s p e e d w i l l r e s u l t i n an
i n c r e a s e o f 14% i n d e l a y t i m e o v e r t h a t a t f u l l
t h r o t t l e h a l f speed
theta =( dper * thetad ) /100;
dtheta = thetad + theta ;............ // D e l a y a n g l e
tp = dtheta + cp ;................ // T o t a l p e r i o d
tsp = tp -13;.............. //
disp ( tsp , Time o f s p a r k ( i n d e g r e e s b e f o r e TDC) )

91

Chapter 7
Air Capacity of Four Stroke
Engines

Scilab code Exa 7.1 Volume of Gas


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 7 . 1


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
D =20.3;................ // D i a m e t e r i n cm
L =30.5;................. // Length i n cm
N =300;................ // E n g i n e rpm
eta =78;................. // E f f i c i e n c y i n p e r c e n t a g e
afr =4/1;................. // A i r F u e l R a t i o
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
StV = (( %pi ) /4) *(( D /100) ^2) *( L /100) ;....... //
C a l c u l a t i n g t h e s t r o k e volume
Vinh = ( eta /100) * StV ;................... // Volume
Inhaled
Gainh = ( Vinh /(4+1) ) ;.............. // Gas I n h a l e d
Gainhpm = Gainh *( N /2) ;
disp ( Gainhpm , Gas I n h a l e d p e r m i n u t e : (m3/ min ) )

92

Figure 7.1: Volume of Gas

Scilab code Exa 7.2 Volumetric Efficiency


1 clc ; funcprot (0) //EXAMPLE 7 . 2
2 // I n i t i a l i z i n g t h e v a r i a b l e s
3
4 N =3600;................ // e n g i n e rpm
5 T =15;................ // I n l e t t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e

Celsius
6 Tk = T +273;.............. // I n l e t

temperature in

Kelvin
7 p =760;................ // I n l e t p r e s s u r e i n mm o f Hg i
. e . 1 . 0 1 3 x 1 0 5 Pa
8 ppa =1.013*(10^5) ;......... // I n l e t p r e s s u r e i n
Pascals
9 pdv =4066;.............. // T o t a l p i s t o n d i s p l a c e m e n t
93

Figure 7.2: Volumetric Efficiency

10
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15
16
17
18
19
20

volume i n cm3
pdvsi = pdv *(10^( -6) ) ;............. // T o t a l p i s t o n
d i s p l a c e m e n t volume i n m3
afr =14/1;................... // A i r f u e l r a t i o i s 1 4 : 1
bsfc =0.38;.................. // b . s . f . c i n kg /kWh
BP =86;............. // power o u t p u t i n kW
R =287;................ // Gas c o n s t a n t f o r a i r i n J / kg
.K
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
m = ( BP * bsfc * afr ) /60;............... // A i r
consumption
V = ( m * R * Tk ) / ppa ;
DV = pdvsi *( N /2) ;......... // D i s p l a c e m e n t Volume
VE = V / DV ;............... // V o l u m e t r i c E f f i c i e n c y
disp ( VE , V o l u m e t r i c e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e e n g i n e i s : )

94

Figure 7.3: Volumetric Efficiency


Scilab code Exa 7.3 Volumetric Efficiency
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

clc ; funcprot (0) //EXAMPLE 7 . 3

// I n i t i a l i z i n g t h e v a r i a b l e s
n =4;.............. //No o f c y l i n d e r s
d =5;............. // d i a m e t e r o f o r i f i c e i n cm
dsi = d /100;.......... // d i a m e t e r i n m
Cd =0.6;............. //Co e f f i c i e n t o f d i s c h a r g e
D =10;.............. // E n g i n e b o r e i n cm
Dsi = d /100;............ // E n g i n e b o r e i n m
L =12;................ // E n g i n e s t r o k e i n cm
Lsi = L /100;............ // E n g i n e s t r o k e i n m
N =1200;............... // E n g i n e rpm
hw =0.046;............ // P r e s s u r e d r o p a c r o s s o r i f i c e
in m of water
14 T = 17;.......... // Ambient Temparature i n D e g r e e
Celsius
15 Tk = T +273;.......... // Ambient T e m p e r a t u r e i n
Kelvin

95

Figure 7.4: Volumetric Efficiency


16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29

Pbar = 1;............. // Ambient p r e s s u r e i n b a r


Ppa = 1 * (10^5) ;....... // Ambient p r e s s u r e i n P a s c a l
R = 287;............. // Gas c o n s t a n t i n J / kg .K
rhow = 1000;............ // D e n s i t y o f w a t e r i n kg /m3
g =9.81;............... // A c c e l e r a t i o n due t o g r a v i t y
// C a l c u l a t i o n s

rhoa = Ppa /( R * Tk ) ;......... // D e n s i t y o f a i r


ha = ( hw * rhow ) / rhoa ;
av = sqrt (2* g * ha ) ;............. // A i r v e l o c i t y
area = ( %pi /4) *( dsi ^2) ;
Vact = Cd * area * av ;............. // V a c t u a l
Vswt = n *( %pi /4) *( Dsi ^2) * Lsi *( N /60*2) ;
eff = Vact / Vswt ;............... // V o l u m e t r i c
efficiency
30 disp ( eff , The v o l u m e t r i c e f f i c i e n c y b a s e d on t h e
f r e e a i r c o n d i t i o n : )

96

Scilab code Exa 7.4 Volumetric Efficiency


1
2
3
4
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clc ; funcprot (0) //EXAMPLE 7 . 4


// I n i t i a l i z i n g t h e v a r i a b l e s
n =1;................... //No o f c y l i n d e r s
k =0.5;
Vs =7000;............ // d i s p l a c e m e n t volume i n cm3
Vssi = Vs *(10^( -6) ) ;........ // d i s p l a c e m e n t volume i n
m3
OP =14.7;................... // Power d e v e l o p e d i n kW
N =450;.................. // E n g i n e rpm
sfc =0.272;................ // S p e c i f i c f u e l
c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg /kWh
// F u e l u s e d i s C7H16
mC =12;............. // mass o f c a r b o n i n amu
mH =1;................. // mass o f h y d r o g e n i n amu
mO =16;................. // mass o f o x y g e n i n amu
pi =1.013 * (10^5) ;................ // i n i t i a l p r e s s u r e
in pascal
T =30;................... // i n i t i a l t e m p e r a t u r e i n
degree c e l s i u s
Tk =30+273;................ // i n i t i a l t e m p e r a t u r e i n
degree kelvin
R =287;.................. // Gas c o n s t a n t f o r a i r i n J /
kg . K
// c a l c u l a t i o n s
disp ( The g i v e n f u e l C7H16 r e q u i r e s 1 1 ( O2 ) f o r
complete combustion )
mf =(7* mC ) +(16* mH ) ;
disp ( mf , Hence , Mass o f f u e l i s : )
MO =11* 2 * mO ;
disp ( MO , Mass o f Oxygen r e q u i r e d i s : )
ma = MO /0.23;....... // mass o f a i r
97

26 // A i r c o n t a i n s 23% o f o x y g e n by w e i g h t
27 afr = ma / mf ;............... // a i r f u e l r a t i o
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36

i s the
r a t i o o f mass o f a i r t o mass o f f u e l
disp ( afr , The a i r f u e l r a t i o i s : )
MF = sfc * OP ;........... // a c t u a l f u e l consumed i n
kg / h
MA = afr * MF ;
AAS = MA * (1+0.3) ;.................... // a c t u a l a i r
s u p p l i e d i n kg /h
M = AAS + MF ;................ // mass o f c h a r g e i n kg /
h
VCS = (( M /60) * R * Tk ) / pi ;............. // Volume o f
c h a r g e s u c k e d i n m3/ min
DVM = Vssi * ( N /2) ;.............. // D i s p l a c e m e n t
volume / min
eta = VCS / DVM ;
disp ( eta *100 , The v o l u m e t r i c e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e
e n g i n e i s (%) : )

Scilab code Exa 7.5 Brake Torque


1 clc ; funcprot (0) //EXAMPLE 7 . 5
2
3 // I n i t i a l i z i n g t h e v a r i a b l e s
4 n =6;................ //No o f c y l i n d e r s
5 vsi =730*(10^( -6) ) ;.......... // P i s t o n d i s p l a c e m e n t

p e r c y l i n d e r i n m3
6 BP =80;............. // Power p r o d u c e d p e r c y l i n d e r

in

kW
7 N =3100;........... // E n g i n e rpm
8 C =44*(10^6) ;........... // C a l o r i f i c

value of petrol

i n J / kg
9 Pc =28;........ // P e t r o l consumed p e r h o u r i n kg

98

Figure 7.5: Brake Torque


afr = 13/1;....... // a i r f u e l r a t i o
pi =0.88*(10^5) ;.............. // I n t a k e p r e s s u r e i n pa
T =300;............ // I n t a k e t e m p e r a t u r e i n K e l v i n
R = 287;......... // g a s c o n s t a n t i n J / kg . K
// c a l c u l a t i o n s
ma = ( Pc * afr ) /60;........... // a i r comsumed
rhoa = pi /( R * T ) ;....... // D e n s i t y o f a i r
etaV = ma /( rhoa * vsi * n *( N /2) ) ;
disp ( etaV *100 , The v o l u m e t r i c e f f i c i e n c y i s (%) : )
mf = Pc /3600;............... // F u e l consumed p e r s e c
etaBT = ( BP *1000) /( mf * C ) ;
disp ( etaBT *100 , The b r a k e t h e r m a l e f f i c i e n c y i s (%)
: )
22 T =( BP *60*1000) /(2*( %pi ) * N ) ;
23 disp (T , The b r a k e t o r q u e (Nm) : )

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99

Figure 7.6: Percentage change in output


Scilab code Exa 7.6 Percentage change in output
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clc ; funcprot (0) //EXAMPLE 7 . 6


// I n i t i a l i z i n g t h e v a r i a b l e s
etaV1 = 0.8;......... // V o l u m e t r i c e f f i c i e n c y
pi1 = 1.013;....... // I n l e t p r e s s u r e
pe1 = 1.013; pi2 = 1.013;
pe2 = 1.15;......... // Exhaust p r e s s u r e
Tk1 = 298;........... // T e m p e r a t u r e i n K e l v i n
Tk2 = 318;........... // T e m p e r a t u r e i n K e l v i n
r = 7.5;........ // c o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o
ga =1.4;.......... // d e g r e e o f f r e e d o m f o r g a s
// c a l c u l a t i o n s
// For p r e s s u r e c h a n g e
eta_V2 = r - ( pe2 / pi2 ) ^(1/ ga ) ;
eta_V1 = r - ( pe1 / pi1 ) ^(1/ ga ) ;
x = eta_V2 / eta_V1 ;
// For i n l e t t e m p e r a t u r e c h a n g e
y = sqrt ( Tk2 / Tk1 ) ;

100

Figure 7.7: Percentage change in output


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23

// For v o l u m e t r i c e f f i c i e n c y , c o n s i d e r i n g b o t h
p r e s s u r e and t e m p e r a t u r e
etaV2 = etaV1 * x * y ;
disp ( etaV2 *100 , The v o l u m e t r i c e f f i c i e n c y i s (%) : )
PO =(( etaV1 / Tk1 ) -( etaV2 / Tk2 ) ) /( etaV1 / Tk1 ) ;
disp ( PO *100 , P e r c e n t a g e R e d u c t i o n i n Output (%) : )

Scilab code Exa 7.7 Percentage change in output


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7

clc ; funcprot (0) //EXAMPLE 7 . 7


// I n i t i a l i z i n g t h e v a r i a b l e s
pi1 = 1.013;....... // I n l e t p r e s s u r e
pe1 = 1.013; pi2 = 1.3;
pe2 = 1.013;......... // Exhaust p r e s s u r e
Tk1 = 300;........... // T e m p e r a t u r e i n K e l v i n
101

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Tk2 = 333;........... // T e m p e r a t u r e i n K e l v i n
r = 14;........ // c o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o
ga =1.4;.......... // d e g r e e o f f r e e d o m f o r g a s
R =287;........... // g a s c o n s t a n t i n J / kg . K
// c a l c u l a t i o n s
// For p r e s s u r e c h a n g e
eta_V2 = r - ( pe2 / pi2 ) ^(1/ ga ) ;
eta_V1 = r - ( pe1 / pi1 ) ^(1/ ga ) ;
x = eta_V2 / eta_V1 ;
// For i n l e t t e m p e r a t u r e c h a n g e
y = sqrt ( Tk2 / Tk1 ) ;
// For v o l u m e t r i c e f f i c i e n c y , c o n s i d e r i n g b o t h
p r e s s u r e and t e m p e r a t u r e
pive = (( x * y ) -1) ;......... // p e r c e n t a g e i n c r e a s e i n
volumetric e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( pive *100 , The p e r c e n t a g e i n c r e a s e i n v o l u m e t r i c
e f f i c i e n c y i s (%) : )
rho1 = ( pi1 *10^5) /( R * Tk1 ) ;
rho2 = ( pi2 *10^5) /( R * Tk2 ) ;
z = ( rho2 / rho1 ) * x * y ;
pip = (z -1) ;
disp ( pip *100 , The p e r c e n t a g e i n c r e a s e i n power (%) :
)

Scilab code Exa 7.8 Percentage change in Volumetric efficiency and Brake
Power
1 clc ; funcprot (0) //EXAMPLE 7 . 8
2
3 // I n i t i a l i z i n g t h e v a r i a b l e s
4 IP1 = 32;............... // I n d i c a t e d power o u t p u t i n
5

kW
etamech =80;............ // M e c h a n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y a t
102

Figure 7.8: Percentage change in Volumetric efficiency and Brake Power

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sea l e v e l
p1 =1.013;............. // i n i t i a l p r e s s u r e a t s e a
l e v e l in bar
tk1 = 308;............... // I n i t i a l t e m p e r a t u r e a t
sea l e v e l in Kelvin
tk2 = 278;.................. // t e m p e r a t u r e a t o p t h e
h i l l in Kelvin
rhoHg =13600;.............. // D e n s i t y o f m e r c u r y i n kg
/m3
h =2000;..................... // H i l l a l t i t u d e
g = 9.81;................ // A c c e l e r a t i o n due t o
gravity
delp = 10;.............. // d r o p o f m e r c u r y i n mm Hg
p e r e v e r y 100 m c l i m b
// c a l c u l a t i o n s

disp ( There i s no c h a n g e i n v o l u m e t r i c e f f i c i e n c y
due t o i n l e t and e x h a u s t p r e s s u r e c h a n g e )
16 disp ( For i n l e t t e m p e r a t u r e c h a n g e )
17 x = sqrt ( tk2 / tk1 ) ;................ // f o r i n l e t

103

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temperature change
// x i s t h e r a t i o o f t h e e f f i c i e n c i e s a t t h e
b e g i n n i n g and on h i l l t o p
disp ((1 - x ) *100 , P e r c e n t a g e d e c r e a s e i n %: )
dp = rhoHg * g *(( delp /1000) *( h /100) ) *(10^( -5) )
;........ // Drop i n p r e s s u r e a t h i l l s t a t i o n
p2 = p1 - dp ;
IP_1 = p1 / tk1 ;
IP_2 = ( x * p2 ) / tk2 ;
k = IP_2 / IP_1 ;.............. // R a t i o o f i n d i c a t i v e
power o u t p u t d u r i n g i n i t i a l and f i n a l c o n d i t i o n s
IP2 = ( IP1 * k ) /( etamech /100) ;
// S i n c e t h e e n g i n e s p e e d i s t h e same a t two p l a c e s ,
t h e f r i c t i o n and h e n c e m e c h a n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y
r e m a i n s unchanged
BP2 = IP2 *( etamech /100) ;
disp ( BP2 , Brake power o f t h e e n g i n e on t h e h i l l
s t a t i o n i n kW : )

Scilab code Exa 7.9 Volumetric Efficiency and Indicated Power for Supercharged Engine
1 clc ; funcprot (0) //EXAMPLE 7 . 9
2
3 // I n i t i a l i z i n g t h e v a r i a b l e s
4 etaV1 = 0.81;......... // V o l u m e t r i c e f f i c i e n c y
5 pi1 = 1.01;....... // I n l e t p r e s s u r e b e f o r e

supercharger
6 pe1 = 1.01;........... // Exhaust p r e s s u r e b e f o r e
supercharger
7 pi2 = 1.38;............ // I n l e t p r e s s u r e a f t e r
supercharger
8 pe2 = 1.01;......... // Exhaust p r e s s u r e i n b a r a f t e r
104

Figure 7.9: Volumetric Efficiency and Indicated Power for Supercharged Engine

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addition of super charger


Tk1 = 300;........... // T e m p e r a t u r e i n K e l v i n
Tk2 = 321;........... // T e m p e r a t u r e i n K e l v i n
r = 7.5;........ // c o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o
ga =1.4;.......... // d e g r e e o f f r e e d o m f o r g a s
R =287;............. // Gas c o n s t a n t f o r a i r i n J /kgK
IP1 =75;............... // I n d i c a t e d power o u t p u t
before addition of supercharger
// c a l c u l a t i o n s
// For p r e s s u r e c h a n g e
eta_V2 = r - ( pe2 / pi2 ) ^(1/ ga ) ;
eta_V1 = r - ( pe1 / pi1 ) ^(1/ ga ) ;
x = eta_V2 / eta_V1 ;
// For i n l e t t e m p e r a t u r e c h a n g e
y = sqrt ( Tk2 / Tk1 ) ;
// For v o l u m e t r i c e f f i c i e n c y , c o n s i d e r i n g b o t h
p r e s s u r e and t e m p e r a t u r e
etaV2 = etaV1 * x * y ;
disp ( etaV2 *100 , The v o l u m e t r i c e f f i c i e n c y o f

105

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s u p e r c h a r g e d e n g i n e i s (%) : )
rho1 = ( pi1 *10^5) /( R * Tk1 ) ;.... // d e n s i t y o f a i r
before addition of supercharger
rho2 = ( pi2 *10^5) /( R * Tk2 ) ;.. // d e n s i t y o f a i r a f t e r
addition of supercharger
IP2 = IP1 * ( etaV2 * rho2 ) /( etaV1 * rho1 ) ;
disp ( IP2 , I n d i c a t e d power o f s u p e r c h a r g e d e n g i n e i s
(kW) : )

Scilab code Exa 7.10 Volumetric Efficiency and Heating Value


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clc ; funcprot (0) //EXAMPLE 7 . 1 0


// I n i t i a l i z i n g t h e v a r i a b l e s
n =1;..... //No o f c y l i n d e r s
D =0.32;..... // Bore o f t h e c y l i n d e r i n m
L =0.38;...... // S t r o k e o f t h e c y l i n d e r i n m
N = 280;.... // E n g i n e rpm
CV = 18600;.... // c a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f f u e s i n kJ /m3
Tk1 = 300;.... // I n i t i a l t e m p e r a t u r e i n K e l v i n
p1 = 1.013;..... // I n i t i a l p r e s s u r e i n b a r
ma = 3.36;....... // mass o f a i r consumed p e r min
tgc = 0.25;...... // t e s t g a s c o n s u m p t i o n i n m3/ min
pw = 120;......... // p r e s s u r e o f w a t e r i n mm d u r i n g
the t e s t gas consumption
tgct = 300;....... // T e m p e r a t u r e i n K e l v i n d u r i n g
t e s t gas consumption
rhow = 1000;..... // d e n s i t y o f w a t e r i n kg /m3
R =287;........... // Gas c o n s t a n t i n J / kg . K
// c a l c u l a t i o n s
V = ( ma * R * Tk1 ) /( p1 *(10^5) ) ;... // Volume o f a i r
consumed a t i n l e t c o n d i t i o n

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20 gsp = p1 +( pw / rhow ) /10.2;................... // Gas

supply pressure
106

Figure 7.10: Volumetric Efficiency and Heating Value


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// 1 b a r = 1 0 . 2 m
gcic = tgc *( gsp / p1 ) ;.......... // Gas c o n s u m p t i o n a t
inlet condition
Vi = gcic + V ;..... // Volume o f m i x t u r e a t i n l e t
condition
Vswt = ( %pi /4) *( D ^2) * L *( N /2) ;...... // Swept volume
etaV = Vi / Vswt ;..... // V o l u m e t r i c e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etaV *100 , The v o l u m e t r i c e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e
e n g i n e i s (%) : )
hv = ( gcic / Vi ) * CV ;...... // H e a t i n g v a l u e
disp ( hv , The h e a t i n g v a l u e o f 1 m3 o f c h a r g e a t 25
d e g r e e C e l s i u s i n kJ .m3 )

107

Figure 7.11: Nominal Diameter of Inlet Valve and Volumetric Efficiency vs


Mach Index
Scilab code Exa 7.12 Nominal Diameter of Inlet Valve and Volumetric
Efficiency vs Mach Index
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clc ; funcprot (0) //EXAMPLE 7 . 1 2


// I n i t i a l i z i n g t h e v a r i a b l e s
Z =0.55;............. // Mach I n d e x
Dcy =0.11;............ // E n g i n e Bore i n m
L = 0.14;............ // s t r o k e l e n g t h i n m
N = 2400;............. // E n g i n e rpm
N1 = 2800;............ // E n g i n e rpm a f t e r
modification
N2 =4800;............. //Max rpm f o r u n m o d i f i e d e n g i n e
p = 0.88;......... // p r e s s u r e a t i n t a k e v a l v e i n b a r
t =340;............... // t e m p e r a t u r e a t i n t a k e v a l v e
in Kelvin
ki = 0.33;........... // I n l e t f l o w co e f f i c i e n t
ga = 1.4;............... // d e g r e e o f f r e e d o m o f t h e
gas

108

14 R = 287;................. // Gas c o n s t a n t

for air in J

/ kg . K
15 // c a l c u l a t i o n s
16
17 Us = sqrt ( ga * R * t ) ;...... // s o n i c
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v e l o c i t y o f a i r f u e l

mixture at the i n l e t valve


Up = (2* L * N ) /60;........... // p i s t o n s p e e d
Div = sqrt ((( Dcy ^2) * Up ) /( Z * ki * Us ) ) ;............... //
Nominal d i a m e t e r o f t h e i n l e t v a l v e i n m
disp ( Div , ( i ) Nominal d i a m e t e r o f t h e i n l e t v a l v e i s
(m) : )
disp ( Div *1000 , (mm)= )
Div1 = sqrt ((( Dcy ^2) *2* L * N1 ) /( Z * ki * Us *60) ) ;....... //
Nominal d i a m e t e r o f i n l e t v a l v e f o r t h e m o d i f i e d
engine in m
disp ( Div1 , ( i i ) When t h e e n g i n e i s m o d i f i e d t o
d e v e l o p max i n d i c a t i v e power a t 2 8 0 0 rpm , n o m i n a l
d i a m e t e r o f t h e i n l e t v a l v e i s (m) : )
disp ( Div1 *1000 , (mm)= )
Up1 =(2* L * N1 ) /60;............ //New p i s t o n s p e e d f o r
modified engine
Z1 = (( Dcy / Div ) ^2) *( Up1 /( ki * Us ) ) ;
disp ( Z1 , ( i i i ) The new mach i n d e x v a l u e i s : )
disp ( Hence t h e v o l u m e t r i c e f f i c i e n c y d r o p s ( There
i s a steady decrease in volumetric e f f i c i e n c y of
an e n g i n e i f t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s e i n t h e mach
i n d e x beyond 0 . 5 5 , R e f e r t h e FIG 7 1 2 ) )
Up2 = (2* L * N2 ) /60;.............. // P i s t o n s p e e d a t
max rpm f o r u n m o d i f i e d e n g i n e
Z2 = (( Dcy / Div ) ^2) *( Up2 /( ki * Us ) ) ;
disp ( Z2 , ( i v ) The mach i n d e x f o r t h e u n m o d i f i e d
engine i s : )
disp ( The v o l u m e t r i c e f f i c i e n c y i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 56%
( from t h e FIG 7 1 2 ) )

109

Figure 7.12: Nominal Diameter of Inlet Valve and Volumetric Efficiency vs


Mach Index

110

Chapter 11
Carburation and carburettors

Scilab code Exa 11.1 Suction at throat


clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 1 . 1
// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
d =0.1;.................. // C y l i n d e r b o r e i n m
l =0.12;................ // C y l i n d e r s t r o k e i n m
N =1800;.................. // E n g i n e rpm
d2 =0.028;................ // T h r o a t d i a m e t e r i n m
Cda =0.8;................ //Co e f f i c i e n t o f a i r f l o w
etaV =0.75;.................. // V o l u m e t r i c e f f i c i e n c y
rhoa =1.2;................ // D e n s i t y o f a i r i n kg /m3
n =4;....................... //No o f c y l i n d e r s
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
Vs =( %pi /4) * d * d * l * n ;................. // S t r o k e Volume
i n m3
13 Va = etaV * Vs ;....................... // A c t u a l volume
p e r s t r o k e i n m3
14 Vas = Va *( N /2) *(1/60) ;............. // A c t u a l volume
sucked per second
15 ma = Vas * rhoa ;......................... // A i r consumed
i n kg / s e c
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Figure 11.1: Suction at throat


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delp =(( ma /( Cda *( %pi /4) * d2 * d2 ) ) ^2) /(2* rhoa )


;............. // S u c t i o n a t t h r o a t i n N/m2
17 disp ( delp , S u c t i o n a t t h r o a t ( i n N/m 2 ) : )

Scilab code Exa 11.2 Depression in Venturi throat and throat area
1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 1 . 2
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 cp =5;................. // Consumption o f

p e t r o l i n kg /
h
4 afr = 16;............... // A i r f u e l r a t i o
5 Af =2*10^( -6) ;.............. // F u e l o r i f i c e a r e a i n m
2
6 z =0.005;................ // D i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t i p o f
j e t and l e v e l o f p e t r o l i n f l o a t chamber i n m

112

Figure 11.2: Depression in Venturi throat and throat area


7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

spgrp =0.75;.............. // S p e c i f i c g r a v i t y o f
petrol
rhow =1000;................. // D e n s i t y o f w a t e r i n kg /
m3
rhoa =1.2;.................... // D e n s i t y o f a i r i n kg /
m3
Cda =0.8;............... // C o e f f i c i e n t o f d i s c h a r g e
for venturi throat
g =9.81;............... // A c c e l e r a t i o n due t o g r a v i t y
i n m/ s e c 2
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
mf = cp /3600;................. // F u e l consumed i n kg /
sec
delp =((( mf /( Af * Cda ) ) ^2) *(1/(2* spgrp * rhow ) ) ) +( g * z *
spgrp * rhow ) ;
disp ( delp , S u c t i o n a t t h e t h r o a t i n (N/m 2 ) )
ma = mf * afr ;................ // A i r f l o w r a t e
Atsqr =(( ma / Cda ) ^2) *(1/(2* rhoa * delp ) )
;.................... // T h r o a t a r e a i n m2
disp ( sqrt ( Atsqr ) *10^4 , T h r o a t a r e a ( i n cm 2 ) )

113

Figure 11.3: Diameter of the fuel jet

Scilab code Exa 11.3 Diameter of the fuel jet


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 1 . 3
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 pc =7.2;................. // P e t r o l consumed i n kg / h
4 spgrp =0.75;................ // S p e c i f i c g r a v i t y o f
5
6
7
8
9

fuel
rhow =1000;................. // D e n s i t y o f w a t e r i n kg /
m3
t1 =300;................... // T e m p e r a t u r e o f a i r i n
Kelvin
afr =15;.................... // A i r f u e l r a t i o
d2 =0.024;.................... // D i a m e t e r o f c h o k e
tube in m
z =0.0042;................... // The h e i g h t o f t h e j e t
114

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

22

a b o v e p e t r o l l e v e l i n f l o a t chamber i n m
Cda =0.8;.................... // C o e f f i c i e n t o f
discharge for air
Cdf =0.7;..................... // C o e f f i c i e n t o f
discharge for fuel
p1 =1.013;..................... // A t m o s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e
in bar
g =9.81;....................... // A c c e l e r a t i o n due t o
g r a v i t y i n m/ s 2
R =287;........................ // Gas c o n s t a n t i n J / kg
.K
// c a l c u l a t i o n s
mf = pc /3600;.................... // Rate o f f u e l
c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg / s e c
rhof = spgrp * rhow ;............... // D e n s i t y o f f u e l i n
kg /m3
rhoa =( p1 *10^5) /( R * t1 ) ;............ // D e n s i t y o f a i r
i n kg /m3
ma = mf * afr ;....................... // A i r f l o w r a t e
delpa =(( ma /( Cda *( %pi /4) * d2 ^2) ) ^2) *(1/(2* rhoa ) )
;.................... // S u c t i o n i n N/m2
df = sqrt (( mf / sqrt (2* rhof *( delpa -( g * z * rhof ) ) ) ) *(1/( Cdf
*( %pi /4) ) ) ) ;................. // D i a m e t e r o f f u e l
j e t in m
disp ( df *1000 , D i a m e t e r o f t h e f u e l j e t ( i n mm) : )

Scilab code Exa 11.4 Venturi depression and diameter and velocity of air
across venturi
1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 1 . 4
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 pc =5.45;...................... // P e t r o l c o n s u m p t i o n

i n kg / h
115

Figure 11.4: Venturi depression and diameter and velocity of air across venturi
4 afr =15;...................... // A i r f u e l
5 af =2*10^( -6) ;................ // F u e l j e t
6

7
8
9
10
11
12
13

ratio
o r i f i c e area

i n m2
z =0.00635;................... // D i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t i p
o f f u e l j e t and l e v e l o f p e t r o l i n t h e f l o a t
chamber i n m
Cda =0.8;............................ // C o e f f i c i e n t o f
discharge of venturi throat
rhoa =1.29;........................ // D e n s i t y o f a i r
i n kg /m3
spgrp =0.72;........................ // S p e c i f i c
gravity of fuel
rhow =1000;......................... // D e n s i t y o f
w a t e r i n kg /m3
g = 9.81;.. ........ ........ ......... ... // A c c e l e r a t i o n
due t o g r a v i t y i n m/ s 2
Cdf =0.75;........................ // C o e f f i c i e n t o f
discharge of the f u e l
// c a l c u l a t i o n s

116

14 mf = pc /3600;.................... // F u e l consumed i n kg
15
16

17

18
19
20
21

22
23

24

/ sec
rhof = spgrp * rhow ;............... // D e n s i t y o f f u e l i n
kg /m3
delp =((( mf /( af * Cdf ) ) ^2) *(1/(2* rhof ) ) ) +( g * z * rhof )
;...................... // D e p r e s s i o n i n v e n t u r i
t h r o a t i n N/m2
h2odep = delp /( g *1000)
;................................ // D e p r e s s i o n i n
v e n t u r i t h r o a t i n cm o f Water
disp ( h2odep *100 , S u c t i o n a t t h e t h r o a t ( i n cm o f
Water ) : )
ma = mf * afr ;................ // A i r f l o w r a t e
At = sqrt ((( ma / Cda ) ^2) *(1/(2* rhoa * delp ) ) )
;.................... // T h r o a t a r e a i n m2
dt = sqrt ( At /( %pi /4) )
;. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. // T h r o a t
diameter in m
disp ( dt *100 , T h r o a t a r e a ( i n cm ) : )
Ct = sqrt ((2* g * z * rhof ) / rhoa )
;.......................... // V e l o c i t y o f a i r
a c r o s s t h e v e n t u r i t h r o a t i n m/ s e c
disp ( Ct , V e l o c i t y o f a i r a c r o s s t h e v e n t u r i t h r o a t (
i n m/ s ) : )

Scilab code Exa 11.5 Throat pressure with respct to air cleaner
1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 1 . 5
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 afr =15;..................... // A i r f u e l r a t i o
4 p1 =1;......................... // A t m o s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e

in bar
5 p2 =0.8;....................... // P r e s s u r e a t v e n t u r i

117

Figure 11.5: Throat pressure with respct to air cleaner

6
7
8
9
10
11
12

13
14

15

t h r o a t in bar
pd =30;.................... // P r e s s u r e d r o p t o a i r
c l e a n e r i n mm o f Hg
rhohg =13600;.................... // D e n s i t y o f Hg i n
kg /m3
af =240;........................ // A i r f l o w a t s e a
l e v e l i n kg / h
g =9.81;..................... // A c c e l e r a t i o n due t o
g r a v i t y i n m/ s 2
// c a l c u l a t i o n s
delpa = p1 - p2 ;........................ //When t h e r e i s
no a i r c l e a n e r
pt =1 -( rhohg * g *( pd /1000) *10^( -5) ) - delpa
;.......................... // T h r o a t p r e s s u r e i n
bar
disp ( pt , T h r o a t p r e s s u r e ( i n b a r ) : )
afrn = afr * sqrt ( delpa /( p1 - pt ) )
;............................... // A i r f u e l r a t i o
when t h e a i r c l e a n e r i s f i t t e d
disp ( afrn , A i r f u e l r a t i o when t h e a i r c l e a n e r i s

118

Figure 11.6: Throat diameter


f i t t e d : )

Scilab code Exa 11.6 Throat diameter


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 1 . 6
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 as =4.6;........................ // A i r s u p p l y i n kg /
4
5
6
7

min
p1 =1.013;....................... // A t m o s p h e r i c
p r e s s u r e in bar
t1 =298;...................... // A t m o s p h e r i c
temperature in Kelvin
C2 =80;........................ // A i r f l o w v e l o c i t y i n
m/ s
Cv =0.8;.................... // V e l o c i t y c o e f f i c i e n t

119

Figure 11.7: Throat diameter and orifice diameter


8 ga =1.4;........................ // D e g r e e o f f r e e d o m

of gas
9 R = 0.287;........................ // Gas c o n s t a n t i n kJ
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

/kgK
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
cp = R *( ga /( ga -1) ) ;....................... // S p e c i f i c
h e a t c a p a c i t y o f a i r i n kJ /kgK
p2 =((1 -((( C2 / Cv ) ^2) *(1/(2* cp *1000* t1 ) ) ) ) ^( ga /( ga -1) )
) * p1 ;................... // T h r o a t p r e s s u r e i n b a r
rho1 =( p1 *10^5) /( R *1000* t1 ) ;
rho2 = rho1 *( p2 / p1 ) ^(1/ ga ) ;
ma = as /60;................... // A i r f l o w i n kg / s
A2 = ma /( rho2 * C2 ) ;................. // T h r o a t a r e a i n m
2
d2 = sqrt ((4* A2 ) / %pi ) ;................ // T h r o a t
diameter in m
disp ( d2 , T h r o a t d i a m e t e r i n m )

120

Scilab code Exa 11.7 Throat diameter and orifice diameter


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 1 . 7
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 as =6;........................ // A i r s u p p l y i n kg / min
4 fs =0.45;.......................... // F u e l s u p p l y i n

kg / min
5 p1 =1.013;....................... // A t m o s p h e r i c
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

p r e s s u r e in bar
t1 =300;...................... // A t m o s p h e r i c
temperature in Kelvin
rhof =740;...................... // D e n s i t y o f f u e l i n
kg /m3
C2 =92;........................ // A i r f l o w v e l o c i t y i n
m/ s
Cda =0.8;.................... // V e l o c i t y c o e f f i c i e n t
Cdf =0.6;......................... // C o e f f i c i e n t o f
discharge for fuel
ga =1.4;........................ // D e g r e e o f f r e e d o m
of gas
r =0.75;...................... // r a t i o o f p r e s s u r e
d r o p a c r o s s v e n t u r i and o f t h a t o f c h o k e
R = 0.287;........................ // Gas c o n s t a n t i n kJ
/kgK
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
ma = as /60 ;.... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... .... // A i r f l o w
i n kg / s
mf = fs /60 ;.... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... .... // F u e l
f l o w i n kg / s
cp = R *( ga /( ga -1) ) ;....................... // S p e c i f i c
h e a t c a p a c i t y o f a i r i n kJ /kgK
p2 =((1 -((( C2 / Cda ) ^2) *(1/(2* cp *1000* t1 ) ) ) ) ^( ga /( ga -1)
) ) * p1 ;................... // T h r o a t p r e s s u r e i n b a r
v1 =( R * t1 *1000) /( p1 *10^5) ;
121

Figure 11.8: Choke diameter and fuel jet diameter


20 v2 = v1 *( p1 / p2 ) ^(1/ ga ) ;................ // s p e c i f i c
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

volume i n m3/ kg
A2 =( ma * v2 ) /( C2 ) ;................. // T h r o a t a r e a i n m
2
d2 = sqrt ((4* A2 ) / %pi ) ;................ // T h r o a t
diameter in m
disp ( d2 *100 , T h r o a t d i a m e t e r ( i n cm ) : )
pdv = p1 - p2 ;.......... // P r e s s u r e d r o p a t v e n t u r i i n
bar
pdj = r * pdv ;............. // P r e s s u r e d r o p a t j e t i n b a r
Af =(( mf / Cdf ) *(1/ sqrt (2* rhof * pdj *10^5) ) )
;............. // Area o f o r i f i c e i n m2
df = sqrt ((4* Af ) / %pi ) ;................ // O r i f i c e
diameter in m
disp ( df , O r i f i c e d i a m e t e r ( i n cm ) : )

122

Scilab code Exa 11.8 Choke diameter and fuel jet diameter
1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 1 . 8
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 Vs =1489*10^( -6) ;....................... // C a p a c i t y o f
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

e n g i n e i n m3
N =4200;............... // E n g i n e rpm a t which max
speed i s developed
etaV =0.75;..................... // V o l u m e t r i c
efficiency
afr =13;........................ // a i r f u e l r a t i o
Ct =85;.......................... // T h e o r e t i c a l a i r
s p e e d a t peak power i n m/ s
C2 = Ct ;
Cda =0.82;.................... // C o e f f i c i e n t o f
discharge f o r the venturi
Cdf =0.65;.................... // C o e f f i c i e n t o f
d i s c h a r g e o f main p e t r o l j e t
spgr =0.74;.................. // S p e c i f i c g r a v i t y o f
petrol
z = 0 .00 6; ... .. ... .. ... .. ... ... .. ... .. ... .. // L e v e l o f
p e t r o l s u r f a c e below choke
p1 =1.013;...................... // A t m o s p h e r i c
p r e s s u r e in bar
t1 =293;......................... // A t m o s p h e r i c
temperature in Kelvin
r = 0.4;............................. // R a t i o o f
diameter o f emulsion tube to choke diameter
R = 0.287;. ........ ........ ......... ... // Gas c o n s t a n t
i n kJ /kgK
ga =1.4;. ...................... ....... // D e g r e e o f
freedom f o r a i r
g = 9.81;.. ........ ........ ........ .... // A c c e l e r a t i o n
due t o g r a v i t y i n m/ s 2
rhow =1000;........................... // D e n s i t y o f
w a t e r i n kg /m3
// c a l c u l a t i o n s
rhof = rhow * spgr ;............................ // D e n s i t y
123

22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33

34

o f f u e l i n kg /m3
Va =( etaV * Vs * N ) /(60*2) ;..................... // Volume
o f a i r i n d u c e d i n m3/ s
ma =( p1 *10^5* Va ) /( R * t1 *1000) ;............... // mass
f l o w o f a i r i n kg / s
cp = R *( ga /( ga -1) ) ;....................... // S p e c i f i c
h e a t c a p a c i t y o f a i r i n kJ /kgK
p2 =((1 -((( C2 ) ^2) *(1/(2* cp *1000* t1 ) ) ) ) ^( ga /( ga -1) ) ) *
p1 ;................... // T h r o a t p r e s s u r e i n b a r
pt = p2 ;
vt = Va *( p1 / p2 ) ^(1/ ga ) ;..................... // Volume
f l o w o f a i r a t c h o k e i n m3/ s
At = vt /( Ct * Cda ) ;................... // Area o f e m u l s i o n
tube in m
D = sqrt ((4* At *10^6) /( %pi *(1 - r ^2) ) )
;................... // D i a m e t e r o f c h o k e i n mm
disp (D , D i a m e t e r o f c h o k e ( i n mm) : )
mf = ma / afr ;.................. // Mass f l o w o f f u e l i n
kg / s
delpa =( p1 - p2 ) *10^5;
df = sqrt (( mf / sqrt (2* rhof *( delpa -( g * z * rhof ) ) ) ) *(1/( Cdf
*( %pi /4) ) ) ) ;................. // D i a m e t e r o f f u e l
j e t in m
disp ( df *1000 , D i a m e t e r o f t h e f u e l j e t ( i n mm) : )

Scilab code Exa 11.9 Air fuel ratio with respect to nozzle lip
1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 1 . 9
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 da =0.018;.......................... // T h r o a t D i a m e t e r

in m
4 df =0.0012;...................... // D i a m e t e r o f f u e l
o r i f i c e in m
124

Figure 11.9: Air fuel ratio with respect to nozzle lip


5 Cda =0.82;................. // C o e f f i c i e n t o f a i r f l o w
6 Cdf =0.65;...................... // C o e f f i c i e n t o f f u e l
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

14
15

flow
z = 0.006;........................ // L e v e l o f p e t r o l
s u r f a c e below the t h r o a t
rhoa =1.2;....................... // d e n s i t y o f a i r i n
kg /m3
rhof =750;......................... // d e n s i t y o f f u e l
i n kg /m3
g = 9.81;........................ // A c c e l e r a t i o n due t o
g r a v i t y i n m/ s 2
delp =0.065*10^5;................... // P r e s s u r e d r o p
i n N/m2
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
afr1 =( Cda / Cdf ) *(( da / df ) ^2) * sqrt ( rhoa / rhof )
;.................. // A i r f u e l r a t i o when t h e
nozzle lip is neglected
disp ( afr1 , A i r f u e l r a t i o when t h e n o z z l e l i p i s
n e g l e c t e d : )
afr2 = afr1 * sqrt ( delp /( delp -( g * z * rhof ) ) )

125

Figure 11.10: Fuel consumption and air velocity through tube


;..................... // A i r f u e l r a t i o when
n o z z l e l i p i s taken i n t o account
16 disp ( afr2 , A i r f u e l r a t i o when n o z z l e l i p i s t a k e n
i n t o account : )
17 C2 = sqrt ((2* g * z * rhof ) / rhoa ) ;.........................
// Minimum v e l o c i t y o f a i r i n m/ s
18 disp ( C2 , Minimum v e l o c i t y o f a i r ( i n m/ s ) : )

Scilab code Exa 11.10 Fuel consumption and air velocity through tube
1
2
3
4
5

clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 1 . 1 0


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
d =0.11;.................. // E n g i n e b o r e i n m
l =0.11;.................. // E n g i n e l e n g t h i n m
da =0.042;................ // T h r o a t d i a m e t e r o f t h e
choke tube in m
126

6 N =3000;.................. // E n g i n e rpm
7 etaV =0.75;............... // V o l u m e t r i c e f f i c i e n c y
8 Ra =287;.................. // Gas c o n s t a n t f o r a i r i n J

/kgK
9 Rv =97;................... // Gas c o n s t a n t
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

for fuel

v a p o u r i n J /kgK
t =273;.................... // T e m p e r a t u r e i n K e l v i n
p =1.013;................... // P r e s s u r e i n b a r
delpa =0.12;................. // P r e s s u r e d e p r e s s i o n i n
bar
t2 =273+15;................... // T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h r o a t
n =8;........................ //No o f c y l i n d e r s
mO =32;....................... // Mass o f Oxygen
m o l e c u l e i n amu
mC =12;........................ // Mass o f Carbon
m o l e c u l e i n amu
mH =1;....................... // Mass o f Hydrogen
m o l e c u l e i n amu
cC =84;...................... // C o m p o s i t i o n o f c a r b o n
in %
cH2 =16;..................... // C o m p o s i t i o n o f
Hydrogen i n %
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
Vfm =( %pi /4) * d * d * l * n *( N /2) * etaV ;.....................
// Volume o f f u e l m i x t u r e s u p p l i e d i n m3/ min
afr =(( cC *( mO / mC ) ) +( cH2 *( mO /(4* mH ) ) ) )
/23;.................. // A i r f u e l r a t i o
va =( Ra * t ) /( p *10^5) ;..................... // Volume o f
1 kg o f a i r i n m3/ kg
vf =( Rv * t ) /( p *10^5) ;...................... // Volume o f
1 kg o f f u e l v a p o u r i n m3/ kg
fc =( Vfm /(( afr * va ) + vf ) ) *60;............... // F u e l
c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg / h
disp ( fc , F u e l c o n s u m p t i o n ( i n kg /h ) : )
rhoa =(( p - delpa ) *10^5) /( Ra * t2 ) ;............... //
D e n s i t y o f a i r a t t h e t h r o a t i n kg /m3
Ca =( afr *( fc /3600) ) /(( %pi /4) * da * da * rhoa )
;................ // V e l o c i t y o f a i r a t t h e t h r o a t
127

i n m/ s
29 disp ( Ca , V e l o c i t y o f a i r a t t h e t h r o a t ( i n m/ s ) : )

Scilab code Exa 11.11 Air fuel ratio at a given altitude


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

10

11

clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 1 . 1 1


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
a =4500;................. // A l t i t u d e
afr =14;............... // A i r f u e l r a t i o a t s e a l e v e l
t1 =25;........... // T e m p e r a t u r e a t s e a l e v e l i n
Celsius
p1 =1.013;........... // P r e s s u r e a t s e a l e v e l i n b a r
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
t2 = t1 -(0.0064* a ) ;......................... //
Temperature at the g i v e n a l t i t u d e u s i n g the g i v e n
formula in Celsius
p2 = p1 /(10^( a /19300) ) ;.................... // P r e s s u r e
at the given a l t i t u d e using the given formula in
bar
afr2 = afr * sqrt (( p2 *( t1 +273) ) /( p1 *( t2 +273) ) )
;................... // A i r f u e l r a t i o a t t h e
altitude
disp ( afr2 , A i r f u e l r a t i o a t t h e a l t i t u d e : )

128

Figure 11.11: Air fuel ratio at a given altitude

129

Chapter 12
Fuel Injection Systems for CI
Engines

Scilab code Exa 12.1 Quantity of fuel injected per cycle


1
2
3
4
5
6
7

clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 2 . 1


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s

n =6;............... //No o f c y l i n d e r s
BP =125;............... // Brake Power i n kW
N =3000;.............. // E n g i n e rpm
bsfc =200;............ // Brake S p e c i f i c F u e l
Consumption g /kWh
8 spgr =0.85;............. // S p e c i f i c G r a v i t y

9
10 // C a l c u l a t i o n s
11
12 fc =( bsfc /1000) * BP ;......... // F u e l c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg /

h
fcpc = fc / n ;.................. // F u e l c o n s u m p t i o n p e r
cylinder
14 FCPC =( fcpc /60) /( N /2) ;................ // F u e l
13

130

Figure 12.1: Quantity of fuel injected per cycle


Consumption p e r c y c l e i n kg
15 VFIC = ( FCPC *1000) / spgr ;................... // Volume
of f u e l i n j e c t e d per c y c l e in cc
16 disp ( VFIC , Volume o f F u e l I n j e c t e d p e r C y c l e ( c c ) : )

Scilab code Exa 12.2 Diameter of injector nozzle


clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 2 . 2
// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
n =6;............... //No o f c y l i n d e r s
N =1500;............ // E n g i n e rpm
BP =220;............. // Brake Power i n kW
bsfc =0.273;.......... // Brake S p e c i f i c F u e l
Consumption i n kg /kWh
7 theta =30;............. // The P e r i o d o f I n j e c t i o n i n
degrees of crank angle
1
2
3
4
5
6

131

Figure 12.2: Diameter of injector nozzle


8 spgr =0.85;............ // S p e c i f i c
9 Cf =0.9;................ // O r i f i c e
10
11
12
13
14

15
16
17

Gravity of f u e l
d i s c h a r g e co

efficient
ip =160;............... // I n j e c t i o n p r e s s u r e i n b a r
cp =40;................. // P r e s s u r e i n c o m b u s t i o n
chamber i n b a r
rhow =1000;................ // D e n s i t y o f w a t e r i n kg /m
3
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
vf = Cf * sqrt ((2*( ip - cp ) *10^5) /( spgr * rhow ) )
;............. // A c t u a l f u e l v e l o c i t y o f i n j e c t i o n
i n m/ s e c
qf =( bsfc * BP ) /( spgr * rhow *3600) ;.................. //
Volume o f f u e l i n j e c t e d p e r s e c i n m3
d = sqrt ( qf /(( %pi /4) * n * vf *( theta /360) *(60/ N ) *( N /120) )
) ;........... // D i a m e t e r o f n o z z l e o r i f i c e
disp (d , D i a m e t e r o f N o z z l e O r i f i c e i s (m) : )

132

Figure 12.3: Volume of fuel injected and diameter of Injector

Scilab code Exa 12.3 Volume of fuel injected and diameter of Injector
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 2 . 3


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
n =1;............ //No o f c y l i n d e r s
N =650;............ // E n g i n e rpm
theta =28;........... // Crank T r a v e l i n d e g r e e
fc =2.2;........... // F u e l c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg /h
spgr =0.875;............ // S p e c i f i c G r a v i t y
ip =150;................ // I n j e c t i o n P r e s s u r e i n b a r
cp =32;................. // Combustion chamber P r e s s u r e
in bar
Cd =0.88;............... // co e f f i c i e n t o f d i s c h a r g e
of o r i f i c e
rhow =1000;........... // D e n s i t y o f w a t e r i n kg /m3
// C a l c u l a t i o n
fcpc = fc /60;.............. // F u e l c o n s u m p t i o n p e r
133

Figure 12.4: Diameter of injector nozzle

14
15
16
17
18
19

20
21

cylinder
fipc = fcpc /( N /2) ;......... // F u e l I n j e c t e d p e r c y c l e
i n kg
vfpc = fipc /( spgr * rhow ) ;.... // volume o f f u e l
i n j e c t e d per c y c l e
disp ( vfpc *10^6 , Volume o f F u e l I n j e c t e d p e r C y c l e (
cm 3 ) : )
tfic =( theta /360) *(60/ N ) ;.... // Time f o r F u e l
I n j e c t i o n per Cycle in sec
mf = fipc / tfic ;............... // Mass o f f u e l
i n j e c t e d p e r c y c l e i n kg / s
vf = Cd * sqrt ((2*( ip - cp ) *10^5) /( spgr * rhow ) )
;............. // A c t u a l f u e l v e l o c i t y o f i n j e c t i o n
i n m/ s e c
d = sqrt (( mf *4) /( %pi * vf * spgr * rhow ) )
disp ( d *1000 , D i a m e t e r o f o r i f i c e (mm) : )

134

Scilab code Exa 12.4 Diameter of injector nozzle


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

18
19

clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 2 . 4


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
N =2000;............ // E n g i n e rpm
theta =30;........... // Crank T r a v e l i n d e g r e e
sfc =0.272;........... // F u e l c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg /kWh
ip =120;................ // I n j e c t i o n P r e s s u r e i n b a r
cp =30;................. // Combustion chamber P r e s s u r e
in bar
Cd =0.9;............... // co e f f i c i e n t o f d i s c h a r g e o f
orifice
rhow =1000;........... // D e n s i t y o f w a t e r i n kg /m3
api = 32;.............. // API i n d e g r e e
pw =15;.................. // Power Output i n kW
// C a l c u l a t i o n
spgr = 141.5/(131.5+ api ) ;............ // S p e c i f i c
Gravity
fcpc = ( sfc * pw ) /(( N /2) *60) ;.............. // F u e l
c o n s u m p t i o n p e r c y c l e i n kg
tfic =( theta /360) *(60/ N ) ;.... // Time f o r F u e l
I n j e c t i o n per Cycle in sec
mf = fcpc / tfic ;............... // Mass o f f u e l
i n j e c t e d p e r c y c l e i n kg / s
vf = Cd * sqrt ((2*( ip - cp ) *10^5) /( spgr * rhow ) )
;............. // A c t u a l f u e l v e l o c i t y o f i n j e c t i o n
i n m/ s e c
d = sqrt (( mf *4) /( %pi * vf * spgr * rhow ) )
disp ( d *1000 , D i a m e t e r o f o r i f i c e (mm) : )

135

Figure 12.5: Fuel consumption


Scilab code Exa 12.5 Fuel consumption
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 2 . 5


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
N =1800;............ // E n g i n e rpm
theta =32;........... // Crank T r a v e l i n d e g r e e
ip =118.2;................ // I n j e c t i o n P r e s s u r e i n b a r
cp =31.38;................. // Combustion chamber
P r e s s u r e in bar
Cd =0.9;............... // co e f f i c i e n t o f d i s c h a r g e o f
orifice
rhow =1000;........... // D e n s i t y o f w a t e r i n kg /m3
api = 32;.............. // API i n d e g r e e
pw =11;.................. // Power Output i n kW
d =0.47;................... // F u e l I n j e c t i o n o r i f i c e
d i a m e t e r i n mm
// C a l c u l a t i o n
spgr = 141.5/(131.5+ api ) ;............ // S p e c i f i c
Gravity
tfic =( theta /360) *(60/ N ) ;.... // Time f o r F u e l

136

Figure 12.6: Injector orifice area

15

16
17
18
19
20

I n j e c t i o n per Cycle in sec


vf = Cd * sqrt ((2*( ip - cp ) *10^5) /( spgr * rhow ) )
;............. // A c t u a l f u e l v e l o c i t y o f i n j e c t i o n
i n m/ s e c
mf = vf * spgr * rhow *( %pi /4) *( d /1000) ^2;
tncp =( N /2) *60;............... // T o t a l no o f c y c l e s
per hour
FIPC = mf * tfic ;................. // Mass o f f u e l
i n j e c t e d p e r c y c l e i n kg / c y c l e
fc = FIPC * tncp *(1/ pw ) ;................... // F u e l
c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg /kWh
disp ( fc , F u e l c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg /kWh : )

Scilab code Exa 12.6 Injector orifice area


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 2 . 6

137

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
n =8;...... //No o f c y l i n d e r s
pw =386.4;........... // Power o u t p u t i n kW
N =800;............. // E n g i n e rpm
fc =0.25;............. // F u e l Consumption i n kg /kWh
theta =12;.............. // Crank T r a v e l i n d e g r e e ( f o r
injection )
spgr =0.85;........... // S p e c i f i c G r a v i t y
patm =1.013;............ // A t m o s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e
cf =0.6;................ //Co e f f i c i e n t o f d i s c h a r g e
for injector
pcB =32;................ // P r e s s u r e i n c y l i n d e r i n
b e g i n n i n g in bar
piB =207;............... // P r e s s u r e i n i n j e c t o r i n
b e g i n n i n g in bar
pcE =55;............... // P r e s s u r e i n c y l i n d e r a t t h e
end i n b a r
piE =595;................ // P r e s s u r e i n i n j e c t o r a t
t h e end i n b a r
rhow =1000;.............. // d e n s i t y o f w a t e r i n kg /m3
// c a l c u l a t i o n s
pwpc = pw / n ;...................... // Output p e r
cylinder
fcpc = ( pwpc * fc ) /60;............. // F u e l c o n s u m p t i o n
p e r c y l i n d e r i n kg / min
fipc = fcpc /( N /2) ;................ // F u e l i n j e c t e d
p e r c y c l e i n kg
tfic = ( theta *60) /(360* N ) ;........... // Time f o r f u e l
I n j e c t i o n per c y c l e
mf = fipc / tfic ;...................... // Mass o f f u e l
i n j e c t e d per second
pdb = piB - pcB ;.................... // P r e s s u r e
d i f f e r e n c e at beginning
pde = piE - pcE ;................... // P r e s s u r e
d i f f e r e n c e a t end
apd = ( pdb + pde ) /2;
Ao = mf /( cf * sqrt (2* apd *10^5* spgr * rhow ) ) ;
disp ( Ao *10000 , O r i f i c e Area R e q u i r e d p e r i n j e c t o r (
138

Figure 12.7: Amount of fuel injected and injector diameter


cm 2 ) : )

Scilab code Exa 12.7 Amount of fuel injected and injector diameter
clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 2 . 7
// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
n =6;............... //No o f c y l i n d e r s
afr =20;........... // A i r f u e l r a t i o
d = 0.1;............... // c y l i n d e r b o r e i n mm
l =0.14;.............. // C y l i n d e r l e n g t h i n mm
etav =0.8;............ // V o l u m e t r i c E f f i c i e n c y
pa =1;................. // P r e s s u r e a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f
the compression in bar
9 ta = 300;............. // T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e b e g i n n i n g
of the compression in Kelvin
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

139

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

theta = 20;............... // Crank t r a v e l i n d e g r e e


for injection
N = 1500;................... // e n g i n e rpm
rhof =960;................. // F u e l d e n s i t y i n kg /m3
cf =0.67;................ //Co e f f i c i e n t o f d i s c h a r g e
for injector
pi =150;.................... // i n j e c t i o n p r e s s u r e i n
bar
pc =40;.................... // c o m b u s t i o n p r e s s u r e i n
bar
R =287;........................ // g a s c o n s t a n t f o r a i r
i n kJ / kg . K
// c a l c u l a t i o n s
V =( %pi /4) * d ^2* l * etav ;...................... // Volume
o f a i r s u p p l i e d p e r c y l i n d e r p e r c y c l e i n m3
ma =( pa *10^5* V ) /( R * ta ) ;..................... // Mass o f
t h i s a i r a t s u c t i o n c o n d i t i o n s i n kg / c y c l e
mf = ma / afr ;............................ // Mass o f f u e l
i n kg / c y c l e
fipc = ( theta *60) /(360* N ) ;........... // Time t a k e n
f o r f u e l i n j e c t i o n per c y c l e in seconds
MF = mf / fipc ;........................ // Mass o f f u e l
i n j e c t e d i n t o each c y l i n d e r per second
disp ( MF , The mass o f f u e l i n j e c t e d i n t o e a c h
c y l i n d e r p e r s e c o n d i n kg / s : )
vf = cf * sqrt ((2*( pi - pc ) *10^5) / rhof ) ;............. //
f u e l v e l o c i t y i n j e c t i o n i n m/ s
d0 = sqrt (( MF *4) /( %pi * vf * rhof ) ) ;.................. //
diameter of f u e l o r i f i c e in m
disp ( d0 *1000 , D i a m e t e r o f t h e f u e l o r i f i c e i n mm : )

Scilab code Exa 12.8 Plunger displacement and effective stroke

140

Figure 12.8: Plunger displacement and effective stroke


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 2 . 8
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 Vpbes =7;................. // Volume o f

4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

f u e l in the
pump b a r r e l b e f o r e commencement o f e f f e c t i v e
s t r o k e in cc
df =3;................. // D i a m e t e r o f f u e l l i n e from
pump t o i n j e c t o r i n mm
lf =700;................. // Length o f f u e l l i n e from
pump t o i n j e c t o r i n mm
Vfiv =2;................ // Volume o f f u e l i n t h e
i n j e c t i o n valve in cc
Vfd =0.1;................. // Volume o f f u e l t o be
d e l i v e r e d in cc
p1 =150;.............. // P r e s s u r e a t which f u e l i s
d e l i v e r e d in bar
p2 =1;................. // a t m o s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e i n b a r
cc =78.8*10^( -6) ;.......... //Co e f f i c i e n t o f
c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y per bar
dp =7;.............. // D i a m e t e r o f p l u n g e r i n mm
// c a l c u l a t i o n s

141

Figure 12.9: Calculation of fuel spray time


13 V1 = Vpbes +( %pi /4) *(( df /10) ^2) *( lf /10) + Vfiv
14
15
16
17
18

;................... // T o t a l i n i t i a l f u e l volume
delV = cc *( p1 - p2 ) * V1 ;................ // Change i n
volume due t o c o m p r e s s i o n
displu = delV + Vfd ;..................... // T o t a l
displacement of plunger
disp ( displu , T o t a l d i s p l a c e m e n t o f p l u n g e r i n c c : )
lp =( displu *4) /( %pi *( dp /10) ^2) ;............. //
E f f e c t i v e stroke of plunger
disp ( lp , E f f e c t i v e s t r o k e o f p l u n g e r i n mm: )

Scilab code Exa 12.9 Calculation of fuel spray time


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 2 . 9
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 p1 =145;........... // i n j e c t i o n p r e s s u r e

142

in bar

4 p2 =235;......... // I n j e c t i o n

p r e s s u r e i n b a r ( 2 nd

case )
5 t1 =16;............. // s p r a y p e n e t r a t i o n t i m e i n

milliseconds
6 s1 =22;................ // s p r a y p e n e t r a t i o n
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

length in

cm
s2 =22;................. // s p r a y p e n e t r a t i o n l e n g t h i n
cm ( 2 nd c a s e )
pc =30;................. // c o m b u s t i o n chamber p r e s s u r e
in bar
// c a l c u l a t i o n s
delp1 = p1 - pc ;
delp2 = p2 - pc ;
t2 =( s2 / s1 ) * t1 * sqrt ( delp1 / delp2 ) ;.......... // S p r a y
t i m e i n s e c o n d s f o r 2 nd c a s e
// Given t h a t s=t s q r t ( d e l p )
disp ( t2 , The t i m e r e q u i r e d f o r s p r a y p e n e t r a t i o n a t
an i n j e c t i o n p r e s s u r e o f 235 b a r i n m i l l i s e c o n d s :
)

143

Chapter 15
Engine Cooling

Scilab code Exa 15.1 Coolant required for petrol and diesel engine
1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 5 . 1
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 BP =90;................. // Brake Power i n kW
4 deltw =27;................. // R a i s e i n t e m p e r a t u r e o f
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

water
etaP =0.25;................... // E f f i c i e n c y o f p e t r o l
engine
etaD =0.3;.................... // E f f i c i e n c y od d i e s e l
engine
Pec =32;...................... // P e r c e n t a g e o f e n e r g y
going to coolant in p e t r o l engine
Dec =28;...................... // P e r c e n t a g e o f e n e r g y
going to coolant in d i e s e l engine
cp =4.187;.......... // s p e c i f i c h e a t o f w a t e r a t
constant pressure
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
hsP = BP / etaP ;............ // Heat s u p p l i e d i n kW o r
kJ / s
ecP = hsP *( Pec /100) ;............. // Energy g o i n g t o
144

Figure 15.1: Coolant required for petrol and diesel engine

13
14
15
16
17
18

c o o l i n g w a t e r i n kg / s
mwP = ecP /( cp * deltw ) ;............. // Mass o f c o o l i n g
water r e q u i r e d
hsD = BP / etaD ;............ // Heat s u p p l i e d i n kW o r
kJ / s
ecD = hsD *( Dec /100) ;............. // Energy g o i n g t o
c o o l i n g w a t e r i n kg / s
mwD = ecD /( cp * deltw ) ;............. // Mass o f c o o l i n g
water r e q u i r e d
disp ( mwP *3600 , The mass o f c o o l i n g w a t e r r e q u i r e d (
kg / h ) f o r p e t r o l e n g i n e : )
disp ( mwD *3600 , The mass o f c o o l i n g w a t e r r e q u i r e d (
kg / h ) f o r d i e s e l e n g i n e : )

Scilab code Exa 17.28 Indicated mean effective pressure and brake mean
effective pressure
145

Figure 15.2: Indicated mean effective pressure and brake mean effective pressure
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 2 8


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
D =0.2;................. // E n g i n e b o r e i n m
L =0.25;............... // E n g i n e s t r o k e i n m
n =2;...................... //No o f c y l i n d e r s
r =13;...................... // C o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o
fc =14;.................. // F u e l c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg /h
N =300;.................... // E n g i n e rpm
etarel =0.65;.............. // R e l a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y
etamech =0.76;............. // M e c h a n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y
co =0.05;..................... // Cut o f f o f t h e s t r o k e
C =41800;..................... // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f
f u e l i n kJ / kg
k =1;........................ //Two s t r o k e e n g i n e
ga =1.4;....................... // D e g r e e o f f r e e d o m
// c a l c u l a t i o n s
rho =1+( co *( r -1) ) ;
etast =1 -((1/( r ^( ga -1) ) ) *(1/ ga ) *(( rho ^ ga ) -1) *(1/( rho
-1) ) ) ;............ // A i r s t a n d a r d e f f i c i e n c y

146

18
19
20
21
22
23
24

etath = etarel * etast ;........................ // Thermal


efficiency
IP = etath *( fc /3600) * C ;........................ //
I n d i c a t e d power i n kW
BP = etamech * IP ;................................ //
Brake power i n kW
pmi =(6* IP ) /( n * N * L *( %pi /4) * D * D * k *10) ;............ //
mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e i n b a r
disp ( pmi , Mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e ( i n b a r ) : )
pmb = pmi * etamech ;........................... // Brake
mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e i n b a r
disp ( pmb , Brake mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e ( i n b a r ) : )

147

Chapter 16
Supercharging of IC Engines

Scilab code Exa 16.1 Power supplied to supercharger


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 6 . 1
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 pwu =735;............ // Power d e v e l o p e d by n a t u r a l l y
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

a s p i r a t e d e n g i n e i n kW
afru =12.8;............. // A i r f u e l r a t i o f o r
naturally aspirated engine
bsfc =0.350;...... // Brake s p e c i f i c f u e l c o n s u m p t i o n
i n kg /kWh
metau =0.86;........... // M e c h a n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y o f
naturally aspirated engine
pi =730;........... // I n l e t p r e s s u r e i n mm o f Hg
absolute
tm =325;........... // M i x t u r e t e m p e r a t u r e i n K e l v i n
pr =1.6;............. // P r e s s u r e r a t i o o f s u p e r c h a r g e d
engine
etaa =0.7;............. // A d i a b a t i c e f f i c i e n c y o f
supercharged engine
metas =0.9;.............. // M e c h a n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y o f
supercharged engine
148

Figure 16.1: Power supplied to supercharger


12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23

afrs =12.8;............. // A i r f u e l r a t i o f o r
supercharged engine
rhohg =13600;............. // D e n s i t y o f m e r c u r y i n kg /
m3
R =0.287;................... // Gas c o n s t a n t i n kJ /kgK
ga =1.4;................ // D e g r e e o f f r e e d o m f o r g a s
cp =1.005;.................. // S p e c i f i c h e a t o f t h e
fuel
g =9.81;................ // A c c e l e r a t i o n due t o g r a v i t y
i n m/ s 2
// c a l c u l a t i o n s
t2 = tm *( pr ) ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ;.............. // I d e a l
temperature f o r the supercharged engine
t2a = tm +( t2 - tm ) / etaa ;................ // A c t u a l
temperature f o r the supercharged engine
wa = cp *( t2a - tm ) ;..................... // Work o f t h e
supercharger
wsup = cp *( t2a - tm ) / metas ;.............. // Work r e q u i r e d
t o d r i v e t h e s u p e r c h a r g e r i n kJ / kg o f a i r
//When u n s u p e r c h a r g e d

149

Figure 16.2: Engine Capacity and Brake Mean effective Pressure


24 p1 =( pi /1000) *(( g * rhohg ) /1000) ;.............. // I n l e t
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

p r e s s u r e i n kN/m2
rhounsup = p1 /( R * tm ) ;
maunsup =( bsfc * pwu * afrs ) /3600;................... //
A i r c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg / s f o r u n s u p e r c h a r g e d e n g i n e
//When s u p e r c h a r g e d
rhosup =( pr * p1 ) /( R * t2a ) ;
masup = maunsup *( rhosup / rhounsup ) ;.................. //
A i r c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg / s
Psup = masup * wsup ;............... // Power r e q u i r e d t o
run t h e s u p e r c h a r g e r i n kW
disp ( Psup , The Power r e q u i r e d t o run t h e
s u p e r c h a r g e r (kW) : )

Scilab code Exa 16.2 Engine Capacity and Brake Mean effective Pressure

150

1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 6 . 2


2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 p1 =1.0132;.............. // Mean p r e s s u r e a t s e a

level

in bar
4 t1 =283;................ // Mean t e m p e r a t u r e a t s e a
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23

l e v e l in Kelvin
BP =260;.................... // Brake Power o u t p u t i n
kW
etaV =0.78;.................. // V o l u m e t r i c e f f i c i e n c y
at sea l e v e l f r e e a i r co n di t io n
sfc =0.247;............ // S p e c i f i c F u e l c o n s u m p t i o n i n
kg /kW. h
afr =17;................... // A i r f u e l r a t i o
N =1500;................... // E n g i n e rpm
at =2700;................. // A l t i t u d e i n mts
p2 =0.72;................ // P r e s s u r e i n b a r a t t h e
given a l t i t u d e
Psup =0.08;................. // 8% power o f e n g i n e i s
t a k e n by t h e s u p e r c h a r g e r
R =287;................... // Gas c o n s t a n t i n J /kgK
t2 =32+273;.............. // T e m p e r a t u r e i n K e l v i n a t
the given a l t i t u d e
// c a l c u l a t i o n s
mf =( sfc * BP ) /60;............. // F u e l c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg
/ min
ma = mf * afr ;.................. // A i r c o n s u m p t i o n i n
i g / min
acps = ma /( N /2) ;............ // A i r c o n s u m p t i o n p e r
s t r o k e i n kg
Vs =( acps * R * t1 ) /( etaV * p1 *10^5) ;................ //
E n g i n e c a p a c i t y i n m3
disp ( Vs , The Engin C a p a c i t y i n m 3 : )
pmb =( BP *6) /( Vs *10*( N /2) ) ;........ // Brake Mean
E f f e c t i v e P r e s s u r e in bar
disp ( pmb , The Brake mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e i s ( b a r )
: )
gp = BP /(1 - Psup ) ;................. // G r o s s power
p r o d u c e d by s u p e r c h a r g e d e n g i n e i n kW
151

Figure 16.3: Increase in Brake Power due to supercharger


masup = ma * gp / BP ;...................... // Mass o f a i r
r e q u i r e d f o r s u p e r c h a r g e d e n g i n e i n kg
25 matc = masup /( N /2) ;.............. // Mass o f a i r t a k e n
per c y c l e
26 pressure =( matc * R * t2 ) /( etaV *10^5* Vs ) ;
27 disp ( pressure - p2 , The I n c r e a s e o f p r e s s u r e r e q u i r e d
( in bar ) : )

24

Scilab code Exa 16.3 Increase in Brake Power due to supercharger


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 6 . 3
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 ec =3600*10^( -6) ;............. // E n g i n e c a p a c i t y i n m

3
4 pw =13;............... // Power d e v e l o p e d i n kW p e r m3

o f f r e e a i r induced per minute


152

5 etaV =0.82;............ // V o l u m e t r i c E f f i c i e n c y
6 N =3000;................ // E n g i n e rpm
7 p1 =1.0132 ;.................... ....... // I n i t i a l

Air

p r e s s u r e in bar
8 t1 =298;........................ // I n i t i a l
9
10
11
12
13

14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

Temperature

in Kelvin
pr =1.8;..................... // P r e s s u r e r a t i o i n
rotary compressor
etaC =0.75;................. // I s e n t r o p i c e f f i c i e n c y
of compressor
etaM =0.8;.................... // M e c h a n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y
ga =1.4;..................... // D e g r e e o f f r e e d o m f o r
the gas
td =4;....................... // The amount by which
the temperature i s k e s s than d e l i v e r y temperature
from c o m p r e s s o r
R =287;...................... // Gas c o n s t a n t i n J / kg . K
cp =1.005;..................... // S p e c i f i c h e a t
capacity
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
Vs =( ec * N ) /2;.................... // Swept volume i n m
3/ min
Vu = Vs * etaV ;.................... // U n s u p e r c h a r g e d
volume i n d u c e d p e r min
rcdp = pr * p1 ;........ // R o t a r y c o m p r e s s o r d e l i v e r y
pressure
t2 = t1 *( pr ) ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ;.............. // I d e a l
temperature f o r the supercharged engine
t2a = t1 +( t2 - t1 ) / etaC ;................ // A c t u a l
temperature f o r the supercharged engine
ta = t2a - td ;............................ // T e m p e r a t u r e
of a i r at intake to the engine c y l i n d e r
V1 =( rcdp * Vs * t1 ) /( p1 * ta ) ;................. //
E q u i v a l e n t volume a t 1 . 0 1 3 2 b a r and 298 K
Vinc = V1 - Vs ;........................... // I n c r e a s e i n
i n d u c e d Volume o f a i r i n m3/ min
ipincai = pw * Vinc ;....................... // I n c r e a s e i n
IP from a i r i n d u c e d i n kW
153

Figure 16.4: Engine Capacity and Brake Mean effective Pressure


26

27
28
29
30
31
32

ipinciip =(( rcdp - p1 ) *10^5* Vs ) /(60*1000) ;........... //


I n c r e a s e i n IP due t o i n c r e a s e d i n d u c t i o n
p r e s s u r e kW
ipinctot = ipincai + ipinciip ;............... // T o t a l
i n c r e a s e i n I n p u t Power i n kW
bpinc = ipinctot * etaM ;.................... // I n c r e a s e
i n Brake Power o f t h e e n g i n e i n kW
ma =( rcdp *10^5* Vs ) /(60* R * ta ) ;................... //
Mass o f a i r d e l i v e r e d by t h e c o m p r e s s o r kg / s
pc =( ma * cp *( t2a - t1 ) ) / etaM ;.................... // Power
r e q u i r e d by t h e c o m p r e s s o r
bpincnet = bpinc - pc ;.......................... // Net
I n c r e a s e i n BP
disp ( bpincnet , The Net i n c r e a s e i n Brake Power i n kW
: )

154

Scilab code Exa 16.4 Engine Capacity and Brake Mean effective Pressure
1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 6 . 4
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 p1 =1.0132;.............. // Mean p r e s s u r e a t s e a
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

level

in bar
t1 =283;................ // Mean t e m p e r a t u r e a t s e a
l e v e l in Kelvin
BP =250;.................... // Brake Power o u t p u t i n
kW
etaV =0.78;.................. // V o l u m e t r i c e f f i c i e n c y
at sea l e v e l f r e e a i r co n di t io n
sfc =0.245;............ // S p e c i f i c F u e l c o n s u m p t i o n i n
kg /kW. h
afr =17;................... // A i r f u e l r a t i o
N =1500;................... // E n g i n e rpm
at =2700;................. // A l t i t u d e i n mts
p2 =0.72;................ // P r e s s u r e i n b a r a t t h e
given a l t i t u d e
Psup =0.08;................. // 8% power o f e n g i n e i s
t a k e n by t h e s u p e r c h a r g e r
R =287;................... // Gas c o n s t a n t i n J /kgK
t2 =32+273;.............. // T e m p e r a t u r e i n K e l v i n a t
the given a l t i t u d e
// c a l c u l a t i o n s
mf =( sfc * BP ) /60;............. // F u e l c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg
/ min
ma = mf * afr ;.................. // A i r c o n s u m p t i o n i n
i g / min
acps = ma /( N /2) ;............ // A i r c o n s u m p t i o n p e r
s t r o k e i n kg
Vs =( acps * R * t1 ) /( etaV * p1 *10^5) ;................ //
E n g i n e c a p a c i t y i n m3
disp ( Vs , The Engin C a p a c i t y i n m 3 : )
pmb =( BP *6) /( Vs *10*( N /2) ) ;........ // Brake Mean
E f f e c t i v e P r e s s u r e in bar
disp ( pmb , The Brake mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e i s ( b a r )
: )
155

Figure 16.5: Compressor run by supercharged Engine


23 gp = BP /(1 - Psup ) ;................. // G r o s s power

p r o d u c e d by s u p e r c h a r g e d e n g i n e i n kW
masup = ma * gp / BP ;...................... // Mass o f a i r
r e q u i r e d f o r s u p e r c h a r g e d e n g i n e i n kg
25 matc = masup /( N /2) ;.............. // Mass o f a i r t a k e n
per c y c l e
26 pressure =( matc * R * t2 ) /( etaV *10^5* Vs ) ;
27 disp ( pressure - p2 , The I n c r e a s e o f p r e s s u r e r e q u i r e d
( in bar ) : )

24

Scilab code Exa 16.5 Compressor run by supercharged Engine


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 6 . 5
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 t1 =298;................. // T e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e

while e n t e r i n g the compressor in Kelvin


156

air

4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

qrej =1210;.............. // Amount o f h e a t r e j e c t e d i n


c o o l e r i n kJ / min
t2 =273+65;............... // T e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e a i r
l e a v i n g the c o o l e r in Kelvin
p2 =1.75;................. // P r e s s u r e o f t h e a i r
l e a v i n g the c o o l e r in bar
n =6;..................... //No o f c y l i n d e r s
d =0.1;................... // Bore o f t h e c y l i n d e r i n m
l =0.11;................... // S t r o k e o f t h e c y l i n d e r
in m
etaV =0.72;................ // v o l u m e t r i c e f f i c i e n c y
N =2000;............... // E n g i n e rpm
Tout =150;.................. // Torque Output i n Nm
etaM =0.8;.................. // M e c h a n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y
R =287;....................... // Gas c o n s t a n t f o r a i r
i n J /kgK
cp =1.005;................... // S p e c i f i c c a p a c i t y o f
air
// c a l c u l a t i o n s
BP =(2* %pi * N * Tout ) /(60*1000) ;........... // Brake power
i n kW
IP = BP / etaM ;.......... // I n p u t Power i n kW
Vc =( %pi /4) * d * d * l ;................... // C y l i n d e r
Volume i n m3
pmi =(6* IP ) /( n * Vc *( N /2) *10) ;................ //
I n d i c a t e d mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e
disp ( pmi , The i n d i c a t e d mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e ( i n
bar ) : )
Vs = Vc *6*( N /2) ;......................... // E n g i n e
Swept Volume i n m3/ min
Vaa = Vs * etaV ;.......................... // A s p i r a t e d
volume o f a i r i n t o e n g i n e i n m3/ min
maa =( p2 *10^5* Vaa ) /( R * t2 ) ;.............. // A s p i r a t e d
a i r mass f l o w i n t o t h e e n g i n e i n kg / min
disp ( maa , The t o t a l a s p i r a t e d a i r mass f l o w i n t o t h e
e n g i n e ( i n kg / min ) : )
t2a =(((( BP / cp ) /( qrej /(60* cp ) ) ) * t2 ) - t1 ) /((( BP / cp ) /(
qrej /(60* cp ) ) ) -1) ;
157

27 mc =(( BP / cp ) /( t2a - t1 ) ) *60;........................ //


28

A i r f l o w i n t o t h e c o m p r e s s o r i n kg / min
disp ( mc , A i r f l o w i n t o t h e c o m p r e s s o r i n kg / min : )

158

Chapter 17
Testing and Performance of IC
Engines

Scilab code Exa 17.1 Indicated power


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 1
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 Pmi =6;..................... // Mean e f f e c t i v e

pressure

in bar
4 N =1000;.................... // E n g i n e rpm
5 d =0.11;..................... // D i a m e t e r o f
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

piston in
m
l =0.14;..................... // S t r o k e l e n g t h i n m
n =1;........................ //No o f c y l i n d e r s
k =1;........................ // k=1 f o r two s t r o k e
engine
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
V = l *( %pi /4) * d * d ;............. // Volume o f t h e
c y l i n d e r i n m3
IP =( n * Pmi * V * k *10* N ) /6;......... // I n d i c a t e d Power
d e v e l o p e d i n kW
disp ( IP , I n d i c a t e d power d e v e l o p e d ( i n kW) : )
159

Figure 17.1: Indicated power

Scilab code Exa 17.2 Bore and Stroke of engine


clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 2
// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
n =4;........................ //No o f c y l i n d e r s
P =14.7;.................... // Power d e v e l o p e d i n kW
N =1000;.................... // E n g i n e s p e e d i n rpm
Pmi =5.5;.................... // Mean e f f e c t i v e
p r e s s u r e in bar
7 lbyd =1.5;................... // R a t i o o f s t r o k e t o
bore
8 k =0.5;....................... // For f o u r s t r o k e
engine
9 // C a l c u l a t i o n s
1
2
3
4
5
6

160

Figure 17.2: Bore and Stroke of engine


10 d =(( P *6) /( n * Pmi * N * k *10*( %pi /4) * lbyd ) ) ^(1/3)

;...................... // C a l c u l a t i o n o f b o r e i n m
11 l = lbyd * d ;................................ //

Calculation of stroke in m
12 disp ( d *1000 , The b o r e o f t h e e n g i n e ( i n mm) : )
13 disp ( l *1000 , The s t r o k e o f t h e e n g i n e ( i n mm) : )

Scilab code Exa 17.3 Brake power


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 3
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 Db =0.6;..................... // D i a m e t e r o f t h e b r a k e

wheel in m
4 d =0.026;...................... // D i a m e t e r o f t h e r o p e
in m

161

Figure 17.3: Brake power


5 W =200;....................... // Dead l o a d on t h e

brake in N
6 S =30;...................... // S p r i n g b a l a n c e r e a d i n g
7
8
9
10

in N
N =450;...................... // E n g i n e s p e e d i n rpm
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
BP =(( W - S ) * %pi *( Db + d ) * N ) /(60*1000) ;............... //
Brake Power i n KW
disp ( BP , Brake Power ( i n KW) : )

Scilab code Exa 17.4 Engine displacement


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 4
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 n =4;........................ //No o f c y l i n d e r s
4 k =0.5;...................... // For f o u r s t r o k e

162

engine

Figure 17.4: Engine displacement


5 Tb =160;..................... //Max b r a k e t o r q u e i n Nm
6 N =3000;...................... // E n g i n e rpm
7 Pm =9.6;.................... // Brake mean e f f e c t i v e

p r e s s u r e in bar
8 // C a l c u l a t i o n s
9 D =((2* %pi * N * Tb *6) /(60*1000* Pm *( %pi /4) * N * k *10) ) ^(1/3)
10
11

12
13

;..................... // Bore o f e n g i n e i n m
L = D ;................... // Given t h a t t h e s t r o k e i s
equal to bore
Disp =( %pi /4) * D * D * L
;.. ..... ..... .... . ...... ..... ..... ... //
D i s p l a c e m e n t i n m3
disp ( D *1000 , S i n c e i t i s g i v e n t h a t t h e s t r o k e i s
e q u a l t o b o r e , t h e i r v a l u e i s ( i n mm) :
)
disp ( Disp , The e n g i n e d i s p l a c e m e n t ( i n m 3 ) : )

163

Figure 17.5: Bore and stroke


Scilab code Exa 17.5 Bore and stroke
1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 5
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 n =6;..................... //No o f c y l i n d e r s
4 Pmb =6;.................... // Brake mean e f f e c t i v e

p r e s s u r e in bar
5 N =1000;.................. // E n g i n e rpm
6 k =0.5;....................... // For f o u r

stroke

engine
7 Wce =820;................. // Work d u r i n g c o m p r e s s i o n
8
9
10
11
12

and e x p a n s i o n i n kW
Wie =50;................... // Work d u r i n g i n t a k e and
e x h a u s t i n kW
f =150;...................... // Rubbing f r i c t i o n i n
e n g i i n e i n kW
WnetT =40;................... // Net work done by
t u r b i n e i n kW
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
BP = Wce -( Wie + f + WnetT ) ;..................... // Net work

164

Figure 17.6: Ratio of power output when using different fuels


a v a i l a b l e o r b r a k e power i n kW
13 D =(( BP *6) /( n * Pmb *( %pi /4) * N * k *10) ) ^(1/3)
;...................... // Bore o f e n g i n e i n m
14 L = D ;. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . // Given
that bore i s equal to s t r o k e
15 disp ( D *1000 , S i n c e t h e s t r o k e and b o r e a r e e q u a l ,
t h e i r v a l u e i s ( i n mm) : )

Scilab code Exa 17.6 Ratio of power output when using different fuels
1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 6
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 Cm =50150; ..................... ....... // H e a t i n g v a l u e

o f methane i n kJ / kg
4 Co =44880; ..................... ....... // H e a t i n g v a l u e

o f o c t a n e i n kJ / kg
165

Figure 17.7: Brake power and brake thermal efficiency


// C a l c u l a t i o n s
// S i n c e Energy s u p p l i e d i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o mass o f
f u e l s u p p l i e d time c a l o r i f i c value o f the f u e l
supplied
7 ratioP = Cm / Co ;......................... // R a t i o o f t h e
power i n p u t o f t h e e n g i n e w i t h methane f u e l t o
that with octane
8 disp ( ratioP , R a t i o o f t h e power i n p u t o f t h e e n g i n e
w i t h methane f u e l t o t h a t w i t h o c t a n e : )
5
6

Scilab code Exa 17.7 Brake power and brake thermal efficiency
1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 7
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 N = 2000;........................... // E n g i n e rpm

166

Figure 17.8: Brake power


4 k = 0.5;.................. ............ // Four s t r o k e
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

engine
Disp =0.025;........................ // E n g i n e
d i s p l a c e m e n t i n m3
Pmb =6;.............................. // Brake mean
e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e in bar
mf =0.018; ..................... ....... // F u e l
c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg / s
Cf =42000; ..................... ....... // C a l o r i f i c
v a l u e o f f u e l i n kJ / kg
// C a l c u a t i o n s
BP =( Pmb * Disp * N * k *10) /(6) ;................ // Brake
power i n kW
etaBT = BP /( mf * Cf ) ;................. // Brake t h e r m a l
efficiency
disp ( BP , The Brake power ( i n kW) : )
disp ( etaBT *100 , Brake t h e r m a l e f f i c i e n c y ( i n %) : )

167

Figure 17.9: Indicated power and brake power and mechanical efficiency

Scilab code Exa 17.8 Brake power


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 8
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 T =175;....................... // Torque due t o b r a k e
4
5
6
7

l o a d i n Nm
N = 500;......................... // E n g i n e s p e e d i n rpm
// c a l c u a t i o n s
BP =(2* %pi * N * T ) /(60*1000) ;....................... //
Brake power d e v e l o p e d by e n g i n e i n kW
disp ( BP , Brake power d e v e l o p e d by e n g i n e ( i n kW) : )

168

Scilab code Exa 17.9 Indicated power and brake power and mechanical
efficiency
1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 9
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 D = 0.3;............................. // Bore o f e n g i n e

cylinder in m
4 L = 0.45;............................ // S t r o k e o f

engine cylinder in m
5 N = 300;............................. // E n g i n e rpm
6 Pmi =6;............................. // I n d i c a t e d mean

e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e in bar
7 Nbl =1.5;........................... // Net b r a k e l o a d

i n kN
8 Db =1.8;............................ // D i a m e t e r o f
9
10
11
12
13
14

15

16
17
18

b r a k e drum i n m
d = 0.02;............................ // Brake r o p e
diameter
k = 0.5;............................. // Four s t r o k e
engine
n = 1;............................... //No o f c y l i n d e r s
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
IP =( n * Pmi * L *( %pi /4) * D * D * N * k *10)
/6;...................... // I n d i c a t e d power i n kW
BP =( Nbl * %pi *( Db + d ) * N )
/60;........ ...................... . // Brake power
i n kW
etam = BP / IP
; .. . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . //
Mechanical e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( IP , I n d i c a t e d power ( i n kW) : )
disp ( BP , Brake power ( i n kW) : )
disp ( etam *100 , M e c h a n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y (%) : )

169

Figure 17.10: BSFC and brake thermal efficiency


Scilab code Exa 17.10 BSFC and brake thermal efficiency
1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 1 0
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 Db =0.7;............................. // D i a m e t e r o f
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

brake p u l l e y in m
d = 0.025;................ ............ // D i a m e t e r o f
the rope in m
W = 50;................... ............ // Load on t h e
t i g h t s i d e o f t h e r o p e i n kg
S = 50;................... ............ // S p r i n g b a l a n c e
reading in N
N = 900;.................. ............ // E n g i n e rpm
mf =4;............................... // Rate o f f u e l
c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg / h
C = 44000;................ ............ // C a l o r i f i c
v a l u e o f f u e l i n kJ / kg
g = 9.81;................. ............ // A c c e l e r a t i o n
due t o g r a v i t y i n m/ s 2
// C a l c u l a t i o n s

170

Figure 17.11: Indicated thermal efficiency and brake power


12 BP =((( W * g ) -S ) * %pi *( Db + d ) * N ) /(60*1000)

;........................ // Brake power i n kW


bsfc = mf / BP
; . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .
// Brake s p e c i f i c f u e l c o n s u m p t i o n i n kJ /hWh
14 disp ( bsfc , Brake s p e c i f i c f u e l c o n s u m p t i o n ( i n kJ /hW
h ) )
15 etathB =( BP *3600) /( mf * C )
; .. . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . //
Brake t h e r m a l e f f i c i e n c y
16 disp ( etathB *100 , Brake t h e r m a l e f f i c i e n c y : )
13

Scilab code Exa 17.11 Indicated thermal efficiency and brake power
1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 1 1
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s

171

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

21
22
23

n =4;....................... //No o f c y l i n d e r s
k =0.5;..................... // Four s t r o k e e n g i n e
r =8;....................... // C o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o
d =0.1;..................... // E n g i n e b o r e i n m
l =0.1;..................... // E n g i n e s t r o k e i n m
etaV =0.75;................. // V o l u m e t r i c e f f i c i e n c y
N =4800;.................... // E n g i n e rpm
afr =15;.................... // A i r f u e l r a t i o
C =42000000;................ // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f f u e l
rhoa =1.12;................. // A t m o s p h e r i c d e n s i t y i n
kg /m3
Pmi =10;.................... // Mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e
in bar
etamech =0.8;............... // M e c h a n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
IP =( n * Pmi * l *( %pi /4) * d * d * N * k *10) /6;.................
// I n d i c a t e d power i n kW
Ac = n *( %pi /4) * d * d * l *( N /2) *( etaV /60)
;..................... // A i r c o n s u m p t i o n i n m3/ s
ma = Ac * rhoa ;. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. ..
// Mass f l o w o f a i r i n kg / s
mf = ma / afr ; .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . ..
// Mass f l o w o f f u e l i n kg / s
etath =( IP *1000) /( mf * C )
;.... ........ .... .... ........ ....... // I n d i c a t e d
thermal e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etath *100 , I n d i c a t e d t h e r m a l e f f i c i e n c y (%) : )
BP = IP * etamech ; .... ... .... .... .... ... .... .... .... ...
// Brake Power i n kW
disp ( BP , Brake power ( i n kW) : )

Scilab code Exa 17.12 Volumetric efficiency and BSFC

172

Figure 17.12: Volumetric efficiency and BSFC


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 7 . 1 2


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
N =1800;................... // E n g i n e rpm
l =0.11;................... // E n g i n e s t r o k e i n m
d =0.085;.................. // E n g i n e b o r e i n m
ma =0.56;.................. // A i r f l o w r a t e i n kg / min
BP =6;..................... // Brake power d e v e l o p e d i n
kW
afr =20;................... // A i r f u e l r a t i o
C =42550;.................. // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f f u e l
i n kJ / kg
rhof =1.18;................ // D e n s i t y o f f u e l i n kg /m
3
// c a l c u l a t i o n s
V =( %pi /4) * d * d * l *( N /2) ;..................... // Volume
d i s p l a c e m t i n m3/ min
Ma = V * rhof ;................................. // Mass o f
a i r i n kg / min
etaV = ma / Ma ;................................ //
Volumetric e f f i c i e n c y

173

Figure 17.13: Mechanical efficiency


15 fc = ma / afr ;................................. // F u e l

concumption
bsfc =( fc *60) / BP ;........................... // Brake
s p e c i f i c f u e l c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg /kWh
17 disp ( etaV *100 , The v o l u m e t r i c e f f i c i e n c y ( i n %) : )
18 disp ( bsfc , Brake s p e c i f i c f u e l c o n s u m p t i o n ( i n kg /
kWh) : )
16

Scilab code Exa 17.13 Mechanical efficiency


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 1 3
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 pmicover =6.5;.................... // Mean e f f e c t i v e
4

p r e s s u r e on c o v e r s i d e i n b a r
pmicrank =7;...................... // Mean e f f e c t i v e
p r e s s u r e on c r a n k s i d e i n b a r
174

5 D = 0.2;........................... // E n g i n e b o r e i n m
6 l = 0.35;.......................... // E n g i n e s t r o k e i n
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

17

18

19
20
21

22

m
drod =0.02;......................... // D i a m e t e r o f
p i s t o n rod in m
W = 1370;............................ // Dead l o a d on
the brake in N
S = 145;............................. // S p r i n g b a l a n c e
reading in N
Db =1.2;............................ // Brake w h e e l
diameter in m
d = 0.02;............................ // Brake r o p e
diameter in m
k = 0.5;............................. // Four s t r o k e
engine
N =420;....................... // E n g i n e rpm
// c a l c u l a t i o n s
Acover =( %pi /4) * D * D ;....................... // Area o f
c y l i n d e r on t h e c o v e r s i d e i n m2
Acrank =( %pi /4) *(( D ^2) -( drod ^2) ) ;.......... //
E f f e c t i v e a r e a o f c y l i n d e r on t h e c r a n k end s i d e
i n m2
IPcover =( pmicover * l * Acover * N * k *10)
/6;................ // I n d i c a t e d power on t h e c o v e r
end s i d e i n kW
IPcrank =( pmicrank * l * Acrank * N * k *10)
/6;................ // I n d i c a t e d power on t h e c r a n k
end s i d e i n kW
IPtotal = IPcover + IPcrank ;.................... // TOtal
BP =(( W - S ) * %pi *( Db + d ) * N ) /(60*1000)
;................... // Brake power i n kW
etamech = BP / IPtotal
;........... ..... ................ .. // M e c h a n i c a l
efficiency
disp ( etamech *100 , The m e c h a n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y i s (%) :
)

175

Figure 17.14: Engine bore and stroke

Scilab code Exa 17.14 Engine bore and stroke


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 1 4
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 BP =14.7;........................ // Brake power i n kW
4 p1 =0.9;......................... // S u c t i o n p r e s s u r e
5
6
7
8
9

in bar
etamech =0.8;.................... // M e c h a n i c a l
efficiency
r = 5;............................ // C o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o
p3 =24;.......................... //maximum e x p l o s i o n
p r e s s u r e in bar
N = 1000;......................... // E n g i n e rpm
rld =1.5;........................ // R a t i o o f l e n g t h
and s t r o k e
176

10 ic =1.35;........................ // I n d e x o f

compression curve
11 ie =1.3;......................... // I n d e x o f e x p a n s i o n

curve
12 k = 0.5;.......................... // Four s t r o k e e n g i n e
13 // c a l c u l a t i o n s
14 p2 =( r ^ ic ) * p1 ;...................... // i n t e r m e d i a t e
15
16

17

18

19
20

21
22

p r e s s u r e ( in bar ) during compression


p4 = p3 /( r ^ ie ) ;...................... // I n t e r m e d i a t e
p r e s s u r e ( in bar ) during expansion
pm =(((( p3 - r * p4 ) /( ie -1) ) -(( p2 - p1 * r ) /( ic -1) ) ) *(10^5) )
/( r -1) ;........... // Mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e i n N/
m2
pmb = pm
/ 1 00 0 0 0 ;. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . .
// Mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e i n b a r
IP = BP / etamech
;. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. //
I n d i c a t e d power i n kW
D =(( IP *6*4) /( pmb * rld *( %pi ) * N * k *10) ) ^(1/3)
;............ // E n g i n e b o r e i n m
L = rld * D
; .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . //
Engine s t r o k e in m
disp ( D *1000 , E n g i n e b o r e ( i n mm) : )
disp ( L *1000 , E n g i n e s t r o k e ( i n mm) : )

Scilab code Exa 17.15 Indicated thermal efficiency and brake thermal efficiency and mechanical efficiency
1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 1 5
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 IP =30;........................ // I n d i c a t e d power i n

177

Figure 17.15: Indicated thermal efficiency and brake thermal efficiency and
mechanical efficiency
kW
4 BP =26;........................ // Brake power i n kW
5 N =1000;....................... // E n g i n e rpm
6 fpbph =0.35;................... // F u e l p e r b r a k e power
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

h o u r i n kg /B . P . h
C =43900;...................... // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f
f u e l u s e d i n kJ / kg
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
mf = BP * fpbph ;............. // F u e l c o n s u m p t i o n p e r h o u r
i n kg / h
etaIth = IP /(( mf /3600) * C ) ;................. // I n d i c a t e d
thermal e f f i c i e n c y
etaBth = BP /(( mf /3600) * C ) ;................. // I n d i c a t e d
brake e f f i c i e n c y
etamech = BP / IP ;........................... //
Mechanical e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etaIth *100 , I n d i c a t e d t h e r m a l e f f i c i e n c y ( i n %)
: )
disp ( etaBth *100 , I n d i c a t e d b r a k e e f f i c i e n c y ( i n %) :

178

Figure 17.16: BSFC and brake thermal efficiency


)
15 disp ( etamech *100 , M e c h a n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y ( i n %) : )

Scilab code Exa 17.16 BSFC and brake thermal efficiency


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 1 6
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 Db =0.75;..................... // D i a m e t e r o f b r a k e

pulley in m
4 d =0.05;...................... // Rope d i a m e t e r i n m
5 W =400;....................... // Dead l o a d i n N
6 S =50;........................ // S p r i n g b a l a n c e

reading in N
7 cf =4.2;...................... // Consumption o f f u e l
i n kg / h
8 N =1000;...................... // E n g i n e rpm
179

Figure 17.17: Fuel consumption and calorific value of fuel


9 C =43900;..................... // C a l o r i f i c

value of

f u e l i n kJ / kg
10 // C a l c u l a t i o n s
11 BP =(( W - S ) * %pi *( Db + d ) * N ) /(60*1000) ;............... //

Brake power i n kW
bsfc = cf / BP ;. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . //
Brake s p e c i f i c f u e l c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg /kWh
13 etabth = BP /(( cf /3600) * C ) ;......................... //
Brake t h e r m a l e f f i c i e n c y
14 disp ( bsfc , Brake s p e c i f i c f u e l c o n s u m p t i o n
( i n kg /
kWh) : )
15 disp ( etabth *100 , Brake t h e r m a l e f f i c i e n c y ( i n %) : )
12

Scilab code Exa 17.17 Fuel consumption and calorific value of fuel
1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 1 7

180

2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 n = 6;............................. //No o f c y l i n d e r s
4 D = 0.09;.......................... // Bore o f c y l i n d e r

in m
5 L = 0.1;........................... // S t r o k e l e n g t h i n
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

m
r = 7;............................. // C o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o
etarel =0.55;..................... // R e l a t i v e
efficiency
isfc =0.3;........................ // I n d i c a t e d
s p e c i f i c f u e l c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg /kWh
imep =8.6;........................ // I n d i c a t e d mean
e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e in bar
N = 2500;.......................... // E n g i n e s p e e d
ga =1.4;.......................... // D e g r e e o f f r e e d o m
for air
k = 0.5;........................... // Four s t r o k e
engine
// c a l c u l a t i o n s
etastan =1 -1/( r ^( ga -1) ) ;................... // A i r
standard e f f i c i e n c y
etath = etarel * etastan ;..................... //
Indicated thermal e f f i c i e n c y
C =3600/( etath * isfc ) ;....................... //
C a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f f u e l i n kJ / kg
IP =( n * imep * L * D * D *( %pi /4) * N * k *10) /6;................
// I n d i c a t e d power i n kW
fc = IP * isfc ;............................. // F u e l
c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg / h
disp (C , The c a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f t h e f u e l u s e d ( i n kJ
/ kg ) : )
disp ( fc , F u e l c o n s u m p t i o n ( kg / h ) : )

181

Figure 17.18: Engine bore and stroke and Fuel consumption


Scilab code Exa 17.18 Engine bore and stroke and Fuel consumption
1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 1 8
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 BP =30;........................ // Brake power i n kW
4 pmi =8;......................... // Mean e f f e c t i v e
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

p r e s s u r e in bar
etamech =0.8;.................... // M e c h a n i c a l
efficiency
n = 4;............................ //No o f c y l i n d e r s
N = 2500;......................... // E n g i n e rpm
rld =1.5;........................ // R a t i o o f l e n g t h
and s t r o k e
etabth =0.28;...................... // Brake t h e r m a l
efficiency
k =1;.......................... //Two s t r o k e e n g i n e
C = 43900;......................... // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e
o f f u e l i n kJ / kg
// c a l c u l a t i o n s
IP = BP / etamech

182

Figure 17.19: Volumetric efficiency and brake thermal efficiency and brake
torque

14
15

16
17
18
19

;. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. //


I n d i c a t e d power i n kW
D =(( IP *6*4) /( pmi * n * rld *( %pi ) * N * k *10) ) ^(1/3)
;............ // E n g i n e b o r e i n m
L = rld * D
; . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. . //
Engine s t r o k e in m
disp ( D *1000 , E n g i n e b o r e ( i n mm) : )
disp ( L *1000 , E n g i n e s t r o k e ( i n mm) : )
mf = BP /( etabth * C ) ;.............................. //
F u e l c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg / s
disp ( mf *3600 , F u e l c o n s u m p t i o n i n ( kg /h ) : )

Scilab code Exa 17.19 Volumetric efficiency and brake thermal efficiency
and brake torque
183

1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 1 9


2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 n =6;...................... //No o f c y l i n d e r s
4 pdpc =700*10^( -6) ;................. // P i s t o n
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23

d i s p l a c e m e n t p e r c y l i n d e r i n m3
P = 78;............................ // Power d e v e l o p e d
i n kW
N = 3200;................. ............ // E n g i n e rpm
mf =27;............................. // F u e l
c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg / h
C = 44000;........................... // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e
o f f u e l i n kJ / kg
afr =12;.............................. // A i r f u e l
ratio
p1 =0.9;.......................... // I n t a k e a i r
pressure
pa = p1 ;
t1 =3 05;..... ........ ........ ........ .. // I n t a k e a i r
temperature
ta = t1 ;
R =0.287;..................... // Gas c o n s t a n t i n kJ /
kgK
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
ma = afr * mf ;............................ // maaa o f a i r
i n kg / h
Va =( ma * R * t1 ) /( p1 *100) ;............. // Volume o f a i r
i n t a k e i n m3/ h
Vs = pdpc * n *( N /2) *60;..................... // Swept
volume i n m3/ h
etaV = Va / Vs ;............................. // V o l u m e t r i c
efficiency
disp ( etaV *100 , The v o l u m e t r i c e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e
e n g i n e ( i n %) : )
etabt = P /( mf *( C /3600) ) ;................... // Brake
thermal e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etabt *100 , The b r a k e t h e r m a l e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e
e n g i n e ( i n %) : )
Tb =( P *60) /(2* %pi * N ) ;.......................... //
184

Figure 17.20: Average no of misfires per min


Brake t o r q u e i n kNm
24 disp ( Tb , Brake t o r q u e ( i n kNm) : )

Scilab code Exa 17.20 Average no of misfires per min


clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 2 0
// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
n =6;....................... //No o f c y l i n d e r s
Vs =1.75*10^( -3) ;.............. // S t r o k e volume i n m3
IP =26.3;..................... // I n d i c a t e d power i n kW
Ne =504;....................... // E x p e c t e d E n g i n e rpm
Pmi =6;........................ // Mean e f f e c t i v e
p r e s s u r e in bar
8 k = 0.5;......................... // Four s t r o k e e n g i n e
9 // C a l c u l a t i o n s
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

185

Figure 17.21: Indicated power and indicated thermal efficiency


10 Na = floor (( IP *6) /( n * Pmi * Vs * k *10) )

;....................... // A c t u a l E n g i n e rpm
11 af =( Na * n ) /2;....................... // A c t u a l no o f
12
13
14
15

f i r e s i n min
ef =( Ne * n ) /2;....................... // E x p e c t e d no o f
f i r e s i n min
Nm = ef - af ;........................ //No o f m i s f i r e s /
min
nm = Nm / n ;.................... // A v e r a g e no o f t i m e s
e a c h c y l i n d e r m i s f i r e s i n one min
disp ( nm , A v e r a g e no o f t i m e s e a c h c y l i n d e r m i s f i r e s
i n one min : )

Scilab code Exa 17.21 Indicated power and indicated thermal efficiency
1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 2 1

186

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23

// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
n =4;....................... //No o f c y l i n d e r s
D = 0.075;....................... // E n g i n e b o r e i n m
L = 0.09;........................ // E n g i n e l e n g t h i n m
err =39/8;....................... // E n g i n e t o r e a r
axle ratio
Dw =0.65;......................... // Wheel d i a m e t e r i n
m
pc =0.227;....................... // P e t r o l c o n s u m p t i o n
i n kg
pmi =5.625;......................... // Mean e f f e c t i v e
p r e s s u r e in bar
C = 4347 0;... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... .. // C a l o r i f i c
v a l u e o f p e t r o l i n kJ / kg
k = 0.5;............................. // Four s t r o k e
engine
sc =48;............................ // Speed o f t h e c a r
i n km/ h
d = 3.2;............................. // D i s t a n c e
c o v e r e d by c a r i n km
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
sc1 = sc *(1000/60) ;................... // Speed o f t h e
c a r i n m/ min
Nt = sc1 /( %pi * Dw ) ;...................... // R e v o l u t i o n s
made by t i r e p e r min
Ne = Nt * err ;............................ // Speed o f
engine shaft
IP =( n * pmi * L *( %pi /4) * D * D * Ne * k *10) /6;........ //
I n d i c a t e d power i n kW
disp ( IP , I n d i c a t e d power ( i n kW) : )
sc2 = sc /60;....................... // Speed o f t h e c a r
i n km/ min
t = d / sc2 ;.......................... // Time f o r
c o v e r i n g 3 . 2 km i n min
fc = pc /( t *60) ;..................... // F u e l consumed
p e r s e c o n d i n kg
etait = IP /( fc * C ) ;............... // I n d i c a t e d t h e r m a l
efficiency
187

Figure 17.22: Finding all engine parameters


24

disp ( etait *100 , I n d i c a t e d t h e r m a l e f f i c i e n c y (%) : )

Scilab code Exa 17.22 Finding all engine parameters


clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 2 2
// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
n =1;................. //No o f c y l i n d e r s
D =0.25;................ // E n g i n e b o r e i n m
L =0.4;................. // E n g i n e s t r o k e i n m
pmg =7;................. // G r o s s mean e f f e c t i v e
p r e s s u r e in bar
7 pmp =0.5;............... // Pumping mean e f f e c t i v e
p r e s s u r e in bar
8 N =250;.................. // E n g i n e rpm
9 Db =1.5;................ // E f f e c t i v e d i a m e t e r o f t h e
brake in m
1
2
3
4
5
6

188

10 Nl =1080;.............. // Net l o a d on t h e b r a k e i n N
11 fh =10;................. // F u e l u s e d p e r h o u r i n kg
12 C =44300;............... // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f f u e l i n

kJ / kg
13 k =0.5;................. // Four s t r o k e e n g i n e
14 // C a l c u l a t i o n s
15 mf = fh /3600;......................... // F u e l u s e d p e r
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

s e c o n d i n kg
pm = pmg - pmp ;....................... // Net p r e s s u r e
IP =( n * pm * L *( %pi /4) * D * D * N * k *10) /6;.......... // /
I n d i c a t e d power i n kW
disp ( IP , I n d i c a t e d power ( i n kW) : )
BP =(( Nl ) * %pi * Db * N ) /(60*1000) ;............... // Brake
power i n kW
disp ( BP , Brake power ( i n kW) : )
etamech = BP / IP ;........................... //
Mechanical e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etamech *100 , M e c h a n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y ( i n %) : )
etath = IP /( mf * C ) ;......................... // I n d i c a t e d
thermal e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etath *100 , I n d i c a t e d t h e r m a l e f f i c i e n c y ( i n %) :
)

Scilab code Exa 17.23 Brake mean effective pressure


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 2 3
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 etabth =0.3;.................... // Brake t h e r m a l

efficiency
afrw =20;........................ // A i r f u e l r a t i o by
weight
5 C = 41800;......................... // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e
o f f u e l u s e d i n kJ / kg
4

189

Figure 17.23: Brake mean effective pressure


6 R =287;........................ // Gas c o n s t a n t i n J / kg
7 // C a l c u l a t i o n s
8 Wp = etabth * C ;................... // Work p r o d u c e d p e r
9
10
11
12

kg o f f u e l i n kJ
p1 =1.0132; t =273+15;............ //STP c o n d i t i o n s i n
b a r and K e l v i n
V =( afrw * t * R ) /( p1 *10^5) ;....... // Volume o f a i r u s e d
i n m3
pmb =( Wp *1000) /( V *10^5) ;........ // Brake mean
e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e in bar
disp ( pmb , Brake mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e ( i n b a r ) : )

Scilab code Exa 17.24 Volumetric efficiency


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 2 4
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s

190

Figure 17.24: Volumetric efficiency


3 v1 =0.216;..................... // Gas c o n s u m p t i o n i n m

3/ min
4 pw =75;........................ // P r e s s u r e
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

of gas in

mm o f w a t e r
t1 =290;...................... // T e m p e r a t u r e o f g a s i n
K
ac =2.84;.................... // A i r c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg /
min
br =745;...................... // B a r o m e t e r r e a d i n g i n
m o f Hg
D =0.25;..................... // E n g i n e b o r e i n m
L =0.475;...................... // E n g i n e s t r o k e i n m
N =240;........................ // E n g i n e rpm
R =287;...................... // Gas c o n s t a n t f o r a i r
i n J /kgK
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
p1 = br +( pw /13.6) ;................... // P r e s s u r e o f g a s
i n mm o f m e r c u r y
p2 =760; t2 =273;..................... //NTP c o n d i t i o n s
i n mm o f Hg and K e l v i n

191

Figure 17.25: finding all parameters of engine


15 v2 =( p1 * v1 * t2 ) /( t1 * p2 ) ;............... // Volume o f g a s
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

u s e d a t NTP i n m3
gs = v2 /( N /2) ;......................... // Gas u s e d p e r
s t r o k e i n m3
v =( ac * R * t2 ) /(1.0132*10^5) ;........... // Volume
o c c u p i e d by a i r a t NTP i n m3/ min
aps = v /( N /2) ;........................... // A i r u s e d
per s tro ke
Va = gs + aps ;..................... // A c t u a l volume o f
m i x t u r e i n m3 drawn p e r s t r o k e a t NTP
Vs =( %pi /4) * D * D * L ;............... // Swept volume i n mm
3
etaV =( Va / Vs ) ;................... // V o l u m e t r i c
efficiency
disp ( etaV *100 , V o l u m e t r i c e f f i c i e n c y ( i n %) : )

192

Scilab code Exa 17.25 finding all parameters of engine


1
2
3
4
5
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14
15
16
17
18
19
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21
22
23
24
25
26
27

clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 2 5


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
t =1;................... // D u r a t i o n o f t r i a l i n h r s
Rev =14000;............. // R e v o l u t i o n s
nmc =500;............... // Number o f m i s s e d c y c l e s
bl =1470;................ // Net Brake l o a d i n N
mep =7.5;................ // Mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e i n
bar
gc =20000;............... // Gas c o n s u m p t i o n i n l i t r e s
lcv =21;................. //LCV o f g a s a t s u p p l y
c o n d i t i o n i n kJ / l i t r e
D =0.25;................. // E n g i n e b o r e i n m
L =0.4;................. // E n g i n e s t r o k e i n m
r =6.5;.................. // C o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o
n =1;...................... //No o f c y l i n d e r s
Cb =4;...................... // E f f e c t i v e b r a k e
Circumference
k =0.5;.................... // Four s t r o k e e n g i n e
ga =1.4;...................... // D e g r e e o f f r e e d o m
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
N = Rev /60;.............. // E n g i n e rpm
Vg = gc /3600;............. // F u e l c o n s u m p t i o n i n l i t r e s
/s
Na =(( Rev /2) - nmc ) /60;................ // Working c y c l e s
p e r min
IP =( n * mep * L *( %pi /4) * D * D * Na *10) /6;............ //
i n d i c a t e d power i n kW
disp ( IP , I n d i c a t e d power ( i n kW) : )
BP =(( bl ) * Cb * N ) /(60*1000) ;............... // Brake
power i n kW
disp ( BP , Brake power ( i n kW) : )
etamech = BP / IP ;........................... //
Mechanical e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etamech *100 , M e c h a n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y ( i n %) : )
etath = IP /( Vg * lcv ) ;......................... //
Indicated thermal e f f i c i e n c y
193

Figure 17.26: Compression ratio and thermal efficiency and gas consumption
disp ( etath *100 , I n d i c a t e d t h e r m a l e f f i c i e n c y ( i n %) :
)
29 etast =1 -(1/ r ^( ga -1) ) ;............ // A i r s t a n d a r d
efficiency
30 etarel = etath / etast ;............ // R e l a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y
31 disp ( etarel *100 , R e l a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y ( i n %) : )
28

Scilab code Exa 17.26 Compression ratio and thermal efficiency and gas
consumption
1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 2 6
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 n =1.3;................... // I n d e x o f c o m p r e s s i o n
4 pa =1.4; pb =3.6; posa =(1/4) ;.......... // P o i n t a t h e

p o s i t i o n 1/4 o f t h e s t r o k e

194

Figure 17.27: Mean effective pressure developed


5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

posb =(3/4) ;.......... // P o i n t b t h e p o s i t i o n 3/4 o f


the s tro ke
ga =1.4;............... // D e g r e e o f f r e e d o m f o r g a s
etarel =0.4;................... // R e l a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y
C =18800;.................... // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f
f u e l i n kJ /m3
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
r =1+(((( pb / pa ) ^(1/ n ) ) -1) /( posb -((( pb / pa ) ^(1/ n ) ) *(
posa ) ) ) ) ;......... // C o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o
disp (r , The c o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o : )
etast =1 -(1/ r ^( ga -1) ) ;............ // A i r s t a n d a r d
efficiency
etath = etarel * etast ;............ // Thermal e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etath *100 , Thermal e f f i c i e n c y ( i n %) : )
v =1/( etath * C ) ;............... // Gas c o n s u m p t i o n p e r
IP s e c
disp ( v *3600 , Gas c o n s u m p t i o n ( i n m3/ IP h o u r ) : )

195

Scilab code Exa 17.27 Mean effective pressure developed


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 2 7


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
n =6;..................... //No o f c y l i n d e r s
r =5;.................. // C o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o
Vc =0.000115;................ // C l e a r a n c e volume o f
e a c h c y l i n d e r i n m3
fc =10.5;..................... // F u e l consumed i n kg / h
C =41800;...................... // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f
f u e l i n kJ / kg
N =2500;....................... // E n g i n e s p e e d i n rpm
er =0.65;....................... // E f f i c i e n c y r a t i o
ga =1.4;........................ // D e g r e e o f f r e e d o m
// c a l c u l a t i o n s
etast =1 -(1/ r ^( ga -1) ) ;...............................
// A i r s t a n d a r d e f f i c i e n c y
etath = etast * er ;................................. //
Thermal e f f i c i e n c y
IP = etath *( fc /3600) * C ;.......................... //
I n d i c a t e d power i n kW
Wnet =( IP *(10^3) *60) /( n *( N /2) ) ;.............. // Net
work f r o o m one c y c l e p e r c y l i n d e r i n Nm
Vs =( r -1) * Vc ;...................... // Swept volume i n
m3
pm = Wnet /( Vs *10^5) ;................... // Mean
e f f e c t i v e pressure developed
disp ( pm , Mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e d e v e l o p e d ( i n b a r ) :
)

196

Figure 17.28: Indicated mean effective pressure and brake mean effective
pressure
Scilab code Exa 17.28 Indicated mean effective pressure and brake mean
effective pressure
clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 2 8
// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
D =0.2;................. // E n g i n e b o r e i n m
L =0.25;............... // E n g i n e s t r o k e i n m
n =2;...................... //No o f c y l i n d e r s
r =13;...................... // C o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o
fc =14;.................. // F u e l c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg /h
N =300;.................... // E n g i n e rpm
etarel =0.65;.............. // R e l a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y
etamech =0.76;............. // M e c h a n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y
co =0.05;..................... // Cut o f f o f t h e s t r o k e
C =41800;..................... // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f
f u e l i n kJ / kg
13 k =1;........................ //Two s t r o k e e n g i n e
14 ga =1.4;....................... // D e g r e e o f f r e e d o m
15 // c a l c u l a t i o n s
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

197

Figure 17.29: Finding all parameters of engine


16 rho =1+( co *( r -1) ) ;
17 etast =1 -((1/( r ^( ga -1) ) ) *(1/ ga ) *(( rho ^ ga ) -1) *(1/( rho
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

-1) ) ) ;............ // A i r s t a n d a r d e f f i c i e n c y
etath = etarel * etast ;........................ // Thermal
efficiency
IP = etath *( fc /3600) * C ;........................ //
I n d i c a t e d power i n kW
BP = etamech * IP ;................................ //
Brake power i n kW
pmi =(6* IP ) /( n * N * L *( %pi /4) * D * D * k *10) ;............ //
mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e i n b a r
disp ( pmi , Mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e ( i n b a r ) : )
pmb = pmi * etamech ;........................... // Brake
mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e i n b a r
disp ( pmb , Brake mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e ( i n b a r ) : )

198

Scilab code Exa 17.29 Finding all parameters of engine


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 2 9
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 n =4;................. //No o f c y l i n d e r s
4 C =45200;.................. // c a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
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21
22
23
24
25
26
27

fuel

i n kJ / kg
etamech =0.82;............... // M e c h a n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y
etarel =0.7;................. // R e l a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y
etast =0.52;............... // A i r s t a n d a r d e f f i c i e n c y
etav =0.78;............... // V o l u m e t r i c e f f i c i e n c y
sbr =1.25;................... // S t r o k e b o r e r a t i o
N =2400;................... // E n g i n e rpm
p =1;....................... // S u c t i o n p r e s s u r e i n b a r
t =298;.................... // S u c t i o n t e m p e r a t u r e i n
bar
BP =72;................... // Brake power i n kW
ga =1.4;...................... // D e g r e e o f f r e e d o m
afr =16;................. // A i r f u e l r a t i o
R =287;....................... // Gas c o n s t a n t i n J / kg
// c a l c u l a t i o n s
r =(1/(1 - etast ) ) ^(1/( ga -1) ) ;............ // C o m p r e s s i o n
ratio
disp (r , The c o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o : )
etath = etast * etarel ;..................... // I n d i c a t e d
thermal e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etath *100 , I n d i c a t e d t h e r m a l e f f i c i e n c y : )
IP = BP / etamech ;.................... // I n d i c a t e d power
i n kW
mf = IP /( etath * C ) ;...................... // F u e l
c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg / s
bsfc = mf / BP ;...................... // Brake s p e c i f i c
f u e l c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg /kWs
disp ( bsfc *3600 , Brake s p e c i f i c f u e l c o n s u m p t i o n ( i n
kg /kWs ) : )
mafm = afr +1;...................... // Mass o f a i r f u e l
m i x t u r e i n kg / kg o f f u e l
mafm1 = mafm * mf ;.................... // Mass o f a i r f u e l
199

Figure 17.30: Full load brake power and mechanical efficiency

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m i x t u r e when mf amount o f f u e l i s s u p p l i e d t o
engine per second
v =( mafm1 * R * t ) /( p *10^5) ;....................... // /
Volume o f a i r f u e l m i x t u r e s u p p l i e d t o t h e e n g i n e
i n m3
Vs = v / etav ;.............................. // Swept
volume i n m3
D =(( Vs ) /(( %pi /4) * sbr * n *( N /(2*60) ) ) ) ^(1/3)
;............ // E n g i n e b o r e i n m
disp ( D *1000 , E n g i n e b o r e ( i n mm) : )
disp ( D *1000* sbr , E n g i n e s t r o k e ( i n mm) : )

Scilab code Exa 17.30 Full load brake power and mechanical efficiency
1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 3 0
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s

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n =1;....................... //No o f c y l i n d e r s
D =0.18;................... // E n g i n e b o r e i n m
L =0.34;.................... // E n g i n e s t r o k e i n m
N =400;...................... // E n g i n e rpm
mepw =6.4;................. // Mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e
o f working loop in bar
mepp =0.36;.................. // Mean e f f e c t i v e
p r e s s u r e o f pumping l o o p i n b a r
mepd =0.64;................. // Mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e
( dead c y c l e ) i i n b a r
fs =46;................ // F i r i n g s t r o k e s p e r min
// c a l c u l a t i o n s
pminet = mepw - mepp ;.......... // Net i n d i c a t e d mean
e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e in bar
dc =( N /2) - fs ;............... // Dead c y c l e s p e r min
IPnet =( n * pminet *( %pi /4) * L * D * D * fs *4*10)
/6;............. // Net i n d i c a t e d power o u t p u t i n
kW
ppdc =( n * pminet * L *( %pi /4) * D * D *10* dc ) /6;.............
// Pumping power o f dead c y c l e s i n kW
FP = IPnet - ppdc ;........................... //
F r i c t i o n a l power i n kW
IP =( n * pminet * L *( %pi /4) * D * D *( N /2) *10)
/6;............... // I n d i c a t e d power i n kW
BP = IP - FP ;.................. // Brake power i n kW
disp ( BP , Brake power ( i n kW) : )
etamech = BP / IP ;................. // M e c h a n i c a l
efficiency
disp ( etamech *100 , M e c h a n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y ( i n %) : )

Scilab code Exa 17.31 Mechanical efficiency and brake thermal efficiency
1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 3 1

201

Figure 17.31: Mechanical efficiency and brake thermal efficiency


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// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
n =1;.............. //No o f c y l i n d e r s
B =0.32;............... // E n g i n e b o r e i n m
L =0.42;.............. // E n g i n e s t r o k e i n m
N =200;................ // E n g i n e rpm
Nk =90;.................. //No o f e x p l o s i o n s p e r min
v1 =11.68;............ // Gas u s e d i n m3/ h
pg =170;................ // P r e s s u r e o f g a s i n mm o f
water
br =755;................ // B a r o m e t e r r e a d i n g i n mm o f
Hg
pmi =6.2;................. // Mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e
in bar
C = 21600;....................... // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f
g a s i n kJ / kg
bl =2040;...................... // Net l o a d on b r a k e i n
N
Db =1.2;...................... // Brake drum d i a m e t e r
in m
t1 =298;..................... // Ambient t e m p e r a t u r e i n

202

Figure 17.32: Finding all parameters of the engine

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Kelvin
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
IP =( n * pmi * L *( %pi /4) * B * B * Nk *10)
/6;.......................... // I n d i c a t e d power i n
kW
BP =( bl * %pi * Db * N ) /(60*1000) ;.........................
// Brake power i n kW
etamech =( BP / IP ) ;................... // M e c h a n i c a l
efficiency
disp ( etamech *100 , M e c h a n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y ( i n %) : )
p1 = br +( pg /13.6) ;................. // I n mm o f Hg
p2 =760; t2 =273;................... //NTP c o n d i t i o n s i n
mm o f Hg and K e l v i n
v2 =( p1 * v1 * t2 ) /( p2 * t1 ) ;
etabth = BP /(( v2 /3600) * C ) ;.............. // Brake
thermal e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etabth *100 , Brake t h e r m a l e f f i c i e n c y ( i n %) : )

203

Scilab code Exa 17.32 Finding all parameters of the engine


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 3 2
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 n =1;................... //No o f c y l i n d e r s
4 d =0.032;................ // D i a m e t e r o f c i r c u l a r

o r i f i c e in m
5 Cd =0.62;............. //Co e f f i c i e n t o f d i s c h a r g e
6 hw =150;................. // P r e s s u r e a c r o s s o r f i c e

in

mm o f w a t e r
7 t =20+273;.............. // T e m p e r a t u r e o f
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a i r in the

room i n K e l v i n
p =1.0132;................. // Ambient p r e s s u r e i n b a r
pd =0.00178;............ // P i s t o n d i s p l a c e m e n t i n m3
R =287;.................... // Gas c o n s t a n t i n J / kg
r =6.5;.................. // C o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o
fc =0.135;................ // F u e l c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg /
min
C =43900;................. // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f f u e l
i n kJ / kg
BP =28;................ // Brake power i n kW
N =2500;................... // E n g i n e rpm
k =0.5;.................... // Four s t r o k e e n g i n e
g =9.81;....................... // A c c e l e r a t i o n due t o
g r a v i t y i n m/ s 2
rhow =1000;.................... // D e n s i t y o f w a t e r i n
kg /m3
ga =1.4;........................ // D e g r e e o f f r e e d o m
// c a l c u l a t i o n s
mbyv =( p *10^5) /( R * t ) ;
pw =( hw / rhow ) * rhow ;.................... // P r e s s u r e
a c r o s s o r i f i c e i n kg /m2
H = pw / mbyv ;........................ // Head o f a i r
column c a u s i n g t h e f l o w i n m
204

24 ma = Cd *( %pi /4) * d * d * sqrt (2* g * H ) ;................ // A i r


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f l o w t h r o u g h o r i f i c e i n m3/ s
maps =( ma *60) /( N /2) ;........................ // A i r
consumption per s t r o k e
etav = maps / pd ;................. // V o l u m e t r i c
efficiency
disp ( etav *100 , V o l u m e t r i c e f f i c i e n c y ( i n %) : )
ac = ma *60* mbyv ;............... // Mass o f a i r drawn
i n t o c y l i n d e r p e r min i n kg
afr = ac / fc ;................... // A i r f u e l r a t i o
disp ( afr , A i r f u e l r a t i o : )
pmb =(6* BP ) /( n * pd * N * k *10) ;................... // Mean
e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e in bar
disp ( pmb , Mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e ( i n b a r ) : )
etast =1 -(1/( r ^( ga -1) ) ) ;............... // A i r s t a n d a r d
efficiency
etabth = BP /(( fc /60) * C ) ;............... // Brake t h e r m a l
efficiency
etarel = etabth / etast ;................. // R e l a t i v e
efficiency
disp ( etarel *100 , R e l a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y ( i n %) : )

Scilab code Exa 17.33 Finding all parameters of the engine


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clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 3 3


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
N =400;................. // E n g i n e rpm
n =1;.................... // no o f c y l i n d e r s
W =370;................. // Load on t h e b r a k e i n N
S =50;.................. // S p r i n g b a l a n c e r e a d i n i n N
Db =1.2;................. // D i a m e t e r o f t h e b r a k e drum
mf =2.8;................. // F u e l c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg /h
C =41800;.................. // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f f u e l
205

Figure 17.33: Finding all parameters of the engine

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i n kJ / kg
D =0.16;................... // E n g i n e b o r e i n m
L =0.2;.................... // E n g i n e s t r o k e i n m
k =0.5;..................... // Four s t r o k e e n g i n e
Sc =1;.................... // S p r i n g c o n s t a n t i n b a r /mm
l =40;.................... // Length o f d i a g r a m i n mm
aic =300;................. // Area o f i n d i c a t o r c a r d i n
mm2
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
pmi = aic *( Sc / l ) ;.................. // Mean e f f e c t i v e
p r e s s u r e in bar
IP =( n * pmi * L *( %pi /4) * D * D * k * N *10) /6;.............. //
I n d i c a t e d power i n kW
disp ( pmi , I n d i c a t e d power ( i n kW) : )
BP =(( W - S ) * %pi * Db * N ) /(60*1000) ;............ // Brake
power i n kW
disp ( BP , Brake power ( i n kW) : )
pmb =( BP *6) /( n * L * D * D *( %pi /4) * k * N *10) ;........... //
Brake mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e i n b a r
disp ( pmb , Brake mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e ( i n b a r ) : )

206

Figure 17.34: Indicated thermal efficiency and brake mean effective pressure
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bsfc = mf / BP ;................. // Brake s p e c i f i c f u e l


c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg /BP h
disp ( bsfc , Brake s p e c i f i c f u e l c o n s u m p t i o n ( i n kg /BP
h ) )
etabth = BP /(( mf /3600) * C ) ;.................. // Brake
thermal e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etabth *100 , Brake t h e r m a l e f f i c i e n c y ( i n %) : )
etaith = IP /(( mf /3600) * C ) ;.................... //
Indicated thermal e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etaith *100 , I n d i c a t e d t h e r m a l e f f i c i e n c y ( i n %)
: )

Scilab code Exa 17.34 Indicated thermal efficiency and brake mean effective pressure
1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 3 4

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// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
R =287;................ // Gas c o n s t a n t i n J / kg K
n =4;................... //No o f c y l i n d e r s
D =0.0825;.............. // E n g i n e b o r e i n m
L =0.13;................ // E n g i n e s t r o k e i n m
BP =28;.................. // Brake power i n kW
N =1500;................. // E n g i n e rpm
afrth =14.8;............... // t h e o r e t i c a l a i r f u e l
ratio
C =45980;.................. // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f f u e l
i n kJ / kg
etamech =0.9;............. // M e c h a n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y
ap =70;.................. // P e r c e n t a g e o f Volume o f
a i r i n he c y l i n d e r
fr =20;.................. // P e r c e n t a g e r i c h n e s s o f t h e
fuel
p1 =1.0132;................. // Ambient p r e s s u r e i n b a r
pc =762;................... // P r e s s u r e i n t h e c y l i n d e r
i n mm o f Hg
tc =273+15.5;............... // T e m p e r a t u r e i n t h e
c y l i n d e r in Kelvin
k =0.5;.................. // Four s t r o k e e n g i n e
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
Vs =( %pi /4) * D * D * L ;....................... // Swept
volume i n m3
va =( ap /100) * Vs ;..................... // Volume o f a i r
drawn i n m3
p =( pc /760) * p1 ;
m =( p *(10^5) * va ) /( R * tc ) ;................... // Mass o f
a i r per s tr oke per c y l i n d e r
tmau = m *( N /2) * n ;................... // T h e o r e t i c a l mass
o f a i r u s e d p e r m i n u t e i n kg
tmfu = tmau / afrth ;.................. // T h e o r e t i c a l mass
o f f y e l u s e d p e r min i n kg
mf =( tmfu /60) *((100+ fr ) /100) ;............... // Mass o f
f u e l b u r n t p e r s e c o n d i n kg
IP = BP / etamech ;......................... // I n d i c a t e d
power i n kW
208

Figure 17.35: Finding all parameters of IC engine


etaith = IP /( mf * C ) ;..................... // I n d i c a t e d
thermal e f f i c i e n c y
28 disp ( etaith *100 , I n d i c a t e d t h e r m a l e f f i c i e n c y ( i n %)
: )
29 pmb =( BP *6) /( n * L * D * D *( %pi /4) * N *10* k ) ;...............
// Mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e i n b a r
30 disp ( pmb , Mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e ( i n b a r ) : )
27

Scilab code Exa 17.35 Finding all parameters of IC engine


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clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 3 5


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
n =1;.................. //No o f c y l i n d e r s
D =0.2;............ // E n g i n e b o r e i n m
L =0.4;.............. // E n g i n e s t r o k e i n m
Nt =9400;............... // T o t a l no o f r e v o l u t i o n s
209

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Ne =4200;............... // T o t a l no o f e x p l o s i o n s
t =40;................... // D u r a t i o n o f t e s t i n g i n min
Nk = Ne / t ;............... //No o f e x p l o s i o n s
bl =540;............... // Brake l o a d i n N
Db =1.6;................. // D i a m e t e r o f b r a k e w h e e l i n
m
d =0.02;................ // D i a m e t e r o f r o p e i n m
gu =8.5;.................. // Gas u s e d i n m3/ s e c
C =15900;............... // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f f u e l i n
kJ / kg
Vg =( gu /( t *60) ) ;................. // Volume o f g a s u s e d
i n m3/ s e c
aic =550;..................... // Area o f i n d i c a t o r
d i a g r a m mm2
l =72;....................... // Length o f i n d i c a t o r
d i a g r a m i n mm
s =0.8;..................... // S p r i n g number i n b a r /mm
// c a l c u l a t i o n s
pmi =( aic * s ) / l ;................ // Mean e f f e c t i v e
p r e s s u r e in bar
IP =( n * pmi * L * D * D *( %pi /4) * Nk *10) /6;............ //
I n d i c a t e d power i n kW
disp ( IP , I n d i c a t e d power ( i n kW) : )
BP =( bl * %pi *( Db + d ) *( Nt / t ) ) /(60*1000) ;...............
// Brake power i n kW
disp ( BP , Brake power ( i n kW) : )
etaith = IP /( Vg * C ) ;............... // I n d i c a t e d t h e r m a l
efficiency
disp ( etaith *100 , I n d i c a t e d t h e r m a l e f f i c i e n c y ( i n %)
: )
etabth = BP /( Vg * C ) ;............... // Brake t h e r m a l
efficiency
disp ( etabth *100 , Brake t h e r m a l e f f i c i e n c y ( i n %) : )

210

Figure 17.36: Finding all parameters of IC engine


Scilab code Exa 17.36 Finding all parameters of IC engine
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clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 3 6


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
n =6;.................... //No o f c y l i n d e r s
D =0.125;................ // E n g i n e b o r e i n m
L =0.125;............... // E n g i n e s t r o k e i n m
N =2400;................. // E n g i n e rpm
W =490;............... // Load on t h e dynamometer i n N
CD =16100;............... // Dynamometer c o n s t a n t
d0 =0.055;................... // A i r o r i f i c e d i a m e t e r
in m
Cd =0.66;................... //Co e f f i c i e n t o f
discharge
hw =310;................. // Head c a u s i n g f l o w t h r o u g h
p r i f i c e i n mm o f w a t e r
br =760;................ // B a r o m e t e r r e a d i n g i n mm o f
Hg
t =298;.................. // Ambient t e m p e r a t u r e i n
Kelvin

211

14 fc =22.1;.................. // F u e l c o n s u m p t i o n p e r

h o u r i n kg
15 C =45100;.................. // C a l o r i f i c
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value of f u e l

u s e d i n kJ / kg
perc =85;................... // P e r c e n t a g e o f c a r b o n i n
the f u e l
perh =15;................... // P e r c e n t a g e o f h y d r o g e n
in the f u e l
p1 =1.013;.................... // P r e s s u r e o f a i r a t
t h e end o f s u c t i o n s t r o k e i n b a r
t1 =298;...................... // T e m p e r a t u r e o f a i r
t h e t h e end o f s u c t i o n s t r o k e i n K e l v i n
k =0.5;....................... // Four s t r o k e e n g i n e
R =287;....................... // Gas c o n s t a n t i n J /kgK
// c a l c u l a t i o n s
BP = W *( N / CD ) ;................ // Brake power i n kW
pmb =( BP *6) /( L * D * D * k *10* N * n *( %pi /4) ) ;................
// Brake mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e i n b a r
disp ( pmb , Brake mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e ( i n b a r ) : )
bsfc = fc / BP ;....................... // Brake s p e c i f i c
f u e l c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg /kWh
disp ( bsfc , Brake s p e c i f i c f u e l c o n s u m p t i o n ( i n kg /
kWh) : )
etathb = BP /(( fc /3600) * C ) ;...................... //
Brake t h e r m a l e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etathb *100 , Brake t h e r m a l e f f i c i e n c y ( i n %) : )
Vst =( %pi /4) * D * D * L ;.............. // S t r o k e volume i n m
3
Val =840*( %pi /4) * d0 * d0 * Cd * sqrt (( hw /10) /(( p1 *10^5) /( R *
t1 ) ) ) ;............ // Volume o f a i r p a s s i n g t h r o u g h
o r i f i c e o f a i r box p e r min
Vac = Val / n ;......................... // A c t u a l volume
o f a i r p e r c y l i n d e r i n m3/ min
asps = Vac /( N /2) ;....................... // A i r s u p p l i e d
p e r s t r o k e p e r c y l i n d e r i n m3
etav = asps / Vst ;.................... // V o l u m e t r i c
efficiency
disp ( etav *100 , V o l u m e t r i c e f f i c i e n c y ( i n %) )
212

Figure 17.37: Heat balance sheet


36 Qa =(100/23) *((( perc /100) *(8/3) ) +(( perh /100) *(8/1) ) )

;..................... // Q u a n t i t y o f a i r r e q u i r e d
p e r kg o f f u e l c o m b u s t i o n
37 aqas =( Val *(( p1 *10^5) /( R * t1 ) ) *60) / fc
;.................... // A c t u a l q u a n t i t y o f a i r
s u p p l i e d p e r kg o f f u e l
38 pe =( aqas - Qa ) / Qa ;.................... // F r a c t i o n o f
e xc es s a i r supplied to engine
39 disp ( pe *100 , P e r c e n t a g e o f e x c e s s a i r s u p p l i e d : )

Scilab code Exa 17.37 Heat balance sheet


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 3 7
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 n =1;...................... //No o f c y l i n d e r s
4 D =0.3;.................... // E n g i n e b o r e i n m

213

5 L =0.45;.................... // E n g i n e s t r o k e i n m
6 mf =8.8;................... // F u e l c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg /h
7 C =41800;................... // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f f u e l

i n kJ / kg
8 N =200;.................... // E n g i n e rpm
9 pmi =5.8;.................... // Mean e f f e c t i v e

p r e s s u r e in bar
10 bl =1860;.................... // Brake l o a d i n N
11 Db =1.22;................... // D i a m e t e r o f b r a k e drum
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

in m
k =0.5;........................ // f o u r s t r o k e e n g i n e
mw =650;...................... // Mass o f c o o l i n g w a t e r
i n kg
cpw =4.18;.................... // S p e c i f i c h e a t
c a p a c i t y of water
delt =22;...................... // T e m p e r a t u r e r i s e
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
IP =( n * L * D * D * k *10* pmi * N *( %pi /4) ) /6;............... //
I n d i c a t e d power i n kW
BP =( bl * %pi * Db * N ) /(60*1000) ;.................. // Brake
power i n kW
etamech = BP / IP ;............ // M e c h a n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etamech *100 , M e c h a n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y ( i n %) : )
etathb = BP /(( mf /3600) * C ) ;................... // Brake
thermal e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etathb *100 , Brake t h e r m a l e f f i c i e n c y ( i n %) : )
// Heat s u p p l i e d
hip = IP *3600;........... // Heat e q u i v a l e n t o f IP i n kJ
/h
hcw = mw * cpw * delt ;.......... // Heat c a r r i e d away by
c o o l i n g water
hf = mf * C ;................ // h e a t s u p p l i e d by f u e l
hex = hf - hip - hcw ;.......... // Heat c a r r i e d by e x h a u s t
gasses
pf =100; pip =( hip / hf ) *100; pcw =( hcw / hf ) *100; pex =( hex / hf
) *100
printf ( \n\n )
printf ( HEAT BALANCE TABLE\n )
214

31

printf (

\n )
32 printf ( Item

kJ
P e r c e n t \n )

33

printf (

\n )
34 printf ( Heat s u p p l i e d by f u e l
%f\n ,hf , pf )
35 printf ( Heat a b s o r b e d i n IP
%f\n ,hip , pip )
36 printf ( Heat t a k e n away by c o o l i n g w a t e r
%f\n ,hcw , pcw )
37 printf ( Heat c a r r i e d away by e x h a u s t g a s e s
%f\n ,hex , pex )
38 printf (

%d
%d
%d
%d

Scilab code Exa 17.38 Heat balance sheet


clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 3 8
// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
r =15;................ // C o m p r e s s i o n r a t i o
n =1;................... //No o f c y l i n d e r s
mf =10.2;.................. // F u e l c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg /h
C =43890;................. // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f f u e l
i n kJ / kg
7 ma =3.8;................. // Consumption o f a i r i n kg /
min
8 N =1900;................... // E n g i n e rpm
9 T =186;.................... // Torque on b r a k e drum i n
1
2
3
4
5
6

215

Figure 17.38: Heat balance sheet

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

Nm
mw =15.5;................. // Mass o f c o o l i n g w a t e r
u s e d i n kg / min
delt =36;.................. // t e m p e r a t u r e r i s e
tg =410;.................. // Exhaust g a s t e m p e r a t u r e
in Celsius
tr =20;................... //Room t e m p e r a t u r e i n
Celsius
cp =1.17;................. // S p e c i f i c h e a t c a p a c i t y
f o r e x h a u s t g a s e s kJ /kgK
cpw =4.18;.................. // S p e c i f i c h e a t c a p a c i t y
f o r w a t e r i n kJ /kgK
// c a l c u l a t i o n s
BP =(2* %pi * N * T ) /(60*1000) ;................ // Brake
power i n kW
disp ( BP , Brake power i n kW: )
bsfc = mf / BP ;............................. // Brake
s p e c i f i c f u e l c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg /kWh
disp ( bsfc , Brake s p e c i f i c f u e l c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg /kWh
: )

216

31
32
33

etabth = BP /(( mf /3600) * C ) ;.................... // Brake


thermal e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etabth *100 , Brake t h e r m a l e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )
// Heat s u p p l i e d
mg =( mf /60) + ma ;.................... // Mass o f e x h a u s t
g a s e s i n kg / min
hbp = BP *60;........... // Heat e q u i v a l e n t o f BP i n kJ /
min
hcw = mw * cpw * delt ;.......... // Heat c a r r i e d away by
c o o l i n g water
hf =( mf /60) * C ;................ // h e a t s u p p l i e d by f u e l
hex = mg * cp *( tg - tr ) ;.......... // Heat c a r r i e d by
exhaust gasses
ha = round ( hf ) - round ( hbp + hex + hcw ) ;............ //
Unaccounted heat
pf =100; pbp =( hbp / hf ) *100; pcw =( hcw / hf ) *100; pex =( hex / hf
) *100; pa =( ha / hf ) *100;
printf ( \n\n )
printf ( HEAT BALANCE TABLE\n )
printf (

34

\n )
printf ( Item

21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

kJ
P e r c e n t \n )

35

36
37
38
39
40
41

printf (
\n )
printf ( Heat s u p p l i e d by f u e l
%f\n ,hf , pf )
printf ( Heat a b s o r b e d i n BP
%f\n ,hbp , pbp )
printf ( Heat t a k e n away by c o o l i n g w a t e r
%f\n ,hcw , pcw )
printf ( Heat c a r r i e d away by e x h a u s t g a s e s
%f\n ,hex , pex )
printf ( U n a c c o u n t e d h e a t
%f\n ,ha , pa )
printf (
217

%d
%d
%d
%d
%d

Figure 17.39: heat balance sheet

Scilab code Exa 17.39 heat balance sheet


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 3 9
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 Cpw =4.18;.............. // S p e c i f i c
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

heat of water in

kJ /kgK
n =1;................ //No o f c y l i n d e r s
N =350;....... // E n g i n e rpm
pmi =3.1;.......... // Mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e i n b a r
bl =640;.......... // Brake l o a d i n N
mf =1.52;............ // F u e l c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg
mw =162;.............. // Mass o f c o o l i n g w a t e r
tw1 =30;............... // Water i n l e t t e m p e r a t u r e i n C
218

11 tw2 =55;................ // Water o u t l e t

temperature in

C
12 ma =32;.................. // Mass o f
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35

a i r u s e d p e r kg o f

f u e l i n kg
tr =25;................. //Room t e m p e r a t u r e i n C
tg =305;................. // Exhaust t e m p e r a t u r e i n C
D =0.2;................. // E n g i n e b o r e i n m
L =0.28;................. // E n g i n e s t r o k e i n m
Db =1;...................... // Brake drum d i a m e t e r i n
m
ms =1.4;...................... // Mass o f steam f o r m e d
p e r kg o f f u e l e x h a u s t i n kg
C =43900;................... // C a l o r i r f i c v a l u e o f
f u e l i n kJ / kg
Cps =2.09;.................. // S p e c i f i c h e a t o f steamm
i n e x h a u s t i n kJ /kgK
Cpg =1.0;................... // S p e c i f i c h e a t o f d r y
e x h a u s t g a s e s i n kJ /kgK
k =1;.................... //Two s t r o k e e n g i i n e
t =20;..................... // D u r a t i o n o f t e s t i n g i n
min
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
IP =( n * pmi * N * D * D * L * k *10*( %pi /4) )
/6;................... // I n d i c a t e d power i n kW
disp ( IP , I n d i c a t e d power i n kW: )
BP =( bl * %pi * Db * N ) /(60*1000) ;...................... //
Brake power i n kW
disp ( BP , Brake power i n kW: )
// Heat s u p p l i e d
hf = mf * C ;................ // h e a t s u p p l i e d by f u e l
hip = IP *60* t ;........... // Heat e q u i v a l e n t o f BP i n kJ
/ min
hcw = mw * Cpw *( tw2 - tw1 ) ;.......... // Heat c a r r i e d away
by c o o l i n g w a t e r
mg = mf +( ma * mf ) ;.................... // Mass o f e x h a u s t
g a s e s i n kg / min
mst = mf * ms ;.................. // Mass o f steam f o r m e d
hg =( mg - mst ) * Cpg *( tg - tr ) ;.......... // Heat c a r r i e d by
219

39
40
41

exhaust gasses
hst = mst *(417.5+2257.9+( Cps *(305 -99.6) ) )
;.................... // Heat c a r r i e d by e x h a u s t
steam , t h e o b t a i n e d v a l u e s a r e from steam t a b l e
and h e n c e a r e c o n s t a n t s a t NTP
ha = round ( hf ) - round ( hip + hg + hst + hcw ) ;............ //
Unaccounted heat
pf =100; pip =( hip / hf ) *100; pcw =( hcw / hf ) *100; pg =( hg / hf )
*100; pa =( ha / hf ) *100; pst =( hst / hf ) *100;
printf ( \n\n )
printf ( HEAT BALANCE TABLE\n )
printf (

42

\n )
printf ( Item

36

37
38

kJ
P e r c e n t \n )
43

44
45
46
47
48
49
50

printf (
\n )
printf ( Heat s u p p l i e d by f u e l
%d
%f\n ,hf , pf )
printf ( Heat a b s o r b e d i n IP
%d
%f\n ,hip , pip )
printf ( Heat t a k e n away by c o o l i n g w a t e r
%d
%f\n ,hcw , pcw )
printf ( Heat c a r r i e d away by d r y e x h a u s t g a s e s
%d
%f\n ,hg , pg )
printf ( Heat c a r r i e d away by steam i n e x h a u s t g a s e s
%d
%f\n ,hst , pst )
printf ( U n a c c o u n t e d h e a t
%d
%f\n ,ha , pa )
printf (
)

220

Figure 17.40: Finding the parameters for IC engine

Scilab code Exa 17.40 Finding the parameters for IC engine


clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 4 0
// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
n =6;................ //No o f c y l i n d e r s
D =0.1;............... // E n g i n e b o r e i n m
L =0.14;............... // E n g i n e s t r o k e i n m
N =2500;............... // E n g i n e rpm
k =0.5;.................. // Four s t r o k e
bl =480;................. // Brake l o a d i n N
br =76;.................. // B a r o m e t e r r e a d i n g i n cm o f
Hg
10 d0 =3.3/100;.............. // O r i f i c e d i a m e t e r i n m
11 Cd =0.62;................. //Co e f f i c i e n t o f d i s c h a r g e
of o r i f i c e
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

221

12 pd =14;................... // P r e s s u r e d r o p a c r o s s

o r i f i c e i n cm o f Hg
13 tr =25;............... //Room t e m p e r a t u r e i n C
14 mf =0.32;................ // F u e l c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg / min
15 rhohg =13600;................. // D e n s i t y o f Hg i n kg /m
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34

3
R =0.287;................... // g a s c o n s t a n t i n kJ /kgK
g =9.81;................. // A c c e l e r a t i o n due t o
g r a v i t y i n m/ s 2
CD =17000;.................... // dynamometer c o n s t a n t
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
Vs =( %pi /4) * D * D * L *( N /2) *( n /60) ;.............. // Swept
volume i n m3
br1 =( br /100) * rhohg * g *(10^ -3) ;............. //
B a r o m e t e r r e a d i n g i n t o kN/m2
rhoa = br1 /( R *( tr +273) ) ;............... // D e n s i t y o f
air
pd1 =( pd /100) * rhohg * g ;...................... //
C o n v e r s i o n o f pd i n t o N/m2
ha = pd1 /( rhoa * g ) ;....................... // Head o f a i r
causing flow in m
Va = Cd *( %pi /4) * d0 * d0 * sqrt (2* g * ha ) ;............ //
Volume o f a i r p a s s i n g t h r o u g h o r i f i c e o f a i r box
p e r min
etav = Va / Vs ;.................... // V o l u m e t r i c
efficiency
disp ( etav *100 , V o l u m e t r i c e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )
BP = bl *( N / CD ) ;................ // Brake power i n kW
pmb =( BP *6) /( L * D * D * k *10* N * n *( %pi /4) ) ;................
// Brake mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e i n b a r
disp ( pmb , Brake mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e ( i n b a r ) : )
T =( BP *60*1000) /(2* %pi * N ) ;.................... //
E n g i n e t o r q u e i n Nm
disp (T , E n g i n e t o r q u e i n Nm: )
bsfc =( mf *60) / BP ;....................... // Brake
s p e c i f i c f u e l c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg /kWh
disp ( bsfc , Brake s p e c i f i c f u e l c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg /kWh
: )
222

Figure 17.41: Heat balance sheet

Scilab code Exa 17.41 Heat balance sheet


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 4 1
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 Cpw =4.18;.............. // S p e c i f i c
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

heat of water in

kJ /kgK
n =1;................ //No o f c y l i n d e r s
N =350;....... // E n g i n e rpm
pmi =2.74;.......... // Mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e i n b a r
bl =600;.......... // Brake l o a d i n N
mf =4.22;............ // F u e l c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg
mw =495;.............. // Mass o f c o o l i n g w a t e r
tw1 =13;............... // Water i n l e t t e m p e r a t u r e i n C
tw2 =38;................ // Water o u t l e t t e m p e r a t u r e i n
C
223

12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35

ma =135;.................. // Mass o f a i r u s e d i n kg / h
tr =20;................. //Room t e m p e r a t u r e i n C
tg =370;................. // Exhaust t e m p e r a t u r e i n C
D =0.2;................. // E n g i n e b o r e i n m
L =0.28;................. // E n g i n e s t r o k e i n m
Db =1;...................... // Brake drum d i a m e t e r i n
m
C =44670;................... // C a l o r i r f i c v a l u e o f
f u e l i n kJ / kg
Cps =2.093;.................. // S p e c i f i c h e a t o f
steamm i n e x h a u s t i n kJ /kgK
Cpg =1.005;................... // S p e c i f i c h e a t o f d r y
e x h a u s t g a s e s i n kJ /kgK
k =1;.................... //Two s t r o k e e n g i i n e
t =60;..................... // D u r a t i o n o f t e s t i n g i n
min
perh =15;................. // P e r c e n t a g e o f H2 i n t h e
fuel
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
IP =( n * pmi * N * D * D * L * k *10*( %pi /4) )
/6;................... // I n d i c a t e d power i n kW
disp ( IP , I n d i c a t e d power i n kW: )
BP =( bl * %pi * Db * N ) /(60*1000) ;...................... //
Brake power i n kW
etaith =( IP ) /(( mf /3600) * C ) ;................. //
Indicated thermal e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etaith *100 , I n d i c a t e d t h e r m a l e f f i c i e n c y i n %:
)
// Heat s u p p l i e d
hf =( mf / t ) * C ;................ // h e a t s u p p l i e d by f u e l
hbp = BP * t ;........... // Heat e q u i v a l e n t o f BP i n kJ /
min
hcw =( mw /60) * Cpw *( tw2 - tw1 ) ;.......... // Heat c a r r i e d
away by c o o l i n g w a t e r
mg =( mf + ma ) / t ;.................... // Mass o f e x h a u s t
g a s e s i n kg / min
mst =9*( perh /100) *( mf /60) ;.................. // Mass o f
steam f o r m e d
224

36 mdg = mg - mst ;.............................. // Mass o f

d r y e x h a u s t g a s e s p e r min
37 hg =( mdg ) * Cpg *( tg - tr ) ;.......... // Heat c a r r i e d by

exhaust gasses
38 hst = mst *(417.5+2257.9+( Cps *(305 -99.6) ) )

41
42
43

;.................... // Heat c a r r i e d by e x h a u s t
steam , t h e o b t a i n e d v a l u e s a r e from steam t a b l e
and h e n c e a r e c o n s t a n t s a t NTP
ha = round ( hf ) - round ( hbp + hg + hst + hcw ) ;............ //
Unaccounted heat
pf =100; pbp =( hbp / hf ) *100; pcw =( hcw / hf ) *100; pg =( hg / hf )
*100; pa =( ha / hf ) *100; pst =( hst / hf ) *100;
printf ( \n\n )
printf ( HEAT BALANCE TABLE\n )
printf (

44

\n )
printf ( Item

39
40

kJ
P e r c e n t \n )
45

46
47
48
49
50
51
52

printf (
\n )
printf ( Heat s u p p l i e d by f u e l
%f
%f\n ,hf , pf )
printf ( Heat e q u i v a l e n t o f BP
%f
%f\n ,hbp , pbp )
printf ( Heat t a k e n away by c o o l i n g w a t e r
%f
%f\n ,hcw , pcw )
printf ( Heat c a r r i e d away by d r y e x h a u s t g a s e s
%f
%f\n ,hg , pg )
printf ( Heat c a r r i e d away by steam i n e x h a u s t g a s e s
%f
%f\n ,hst , pst )
printf ( U n a c c o u n t e d h e a t
%f
%f\n ,ha , pa )
printf (
)
225

Figure 17.42: Heat balance sheet

Scilab code Exa 17.42 Heat balance sheet


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 4 2
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 Cpw =4.18;.............. // S p e c i f i c
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

heat of water in

kJ /kgK
n =1;................ //No o f c y l i n d e r s
N =350;....... // E n g i n e rpm
pmi =2.8;.......... // Mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e i n b a r
bl =590;.......... // Brake l o a d i n N
mf =4.3;............ // F u e l c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg
mw =500;.............. // Mass o f c o o l i n g w a t e r
tw1 =25;............... // Water i n l e t t e m p e r a t u r e i n C
tw2 =50;................ // Water o u t l e t t e m p e r a t u r e i n
C
226

12 ma =33;.................. // Mass o f
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36

a i r u s e d p e r kg o f

f u e l i n kg
tr =25;................. //Room t e m p e r a t u r e i n C
tg =400;................. // Exhaust t e m p e r a t u r e i n C
D =0.22;................. // E n g i n e b o r e i n m
L =0.28;................. // E n g i n e s t r o k e i n m
Db =1;...................... // Brake drum d i a m e t e r i n
m
C =43900;................... // C a l o r i r f i c v a l u e o f
f u e l i n kJ / kg
Cps =2.09;.................. // S p e c i f i c h e a t o f steamm
i n e x h a u s t i n kJ /kgK
Cpg =1.0;................... // S p e c i f i c h e a t o f d r y
e x h a u s t g a s e s i n kJ /kgK
k =1;.................... //Two s t r o k e e n g i i n e
perh =15;................... // P e r c e n t a g e o f h y d r o g e n
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
IP =( n * pmi * N * D * D * L * k *10*( %pi /4) )
/6;................... // I n d i c a t e d power i n kW
disp ( IP , I n d i c a t e d power i n kW: )
BP =( bl * %pi * Db * N ) /(60*1000) ;...................... //
Brake power i n kW
disp ( BP , Brake power i n kW: )
// Heat s u p p l i e d
hf =( mf /60) * C ;................ // h e a t s u p p l i e d by f u e l
hip = IP *60;........... // Heat e q u i v a l e n t o f BP i n kJ /
min
hcw =( mw /60) * Cpw *( tw2 - tw1 ) ;.......... // Heat c a r r i e d
away by c o o l i n g w a t e r
mg =( mf +( mf * ma ) ) /60;.................... // Mass o f
e x h a u s t g a s e s i n kg / min
mst =9*( perh /100) *( mf /60) ;.................. // Mass o f
steam f o r m e d
mdg = mg - mst ;.............................. // Mass o f
d r y e x h a u s t g a s e s p e r min
hg =( mdg ) * Cpg *( tg - tr ) ;.......... // Heat c a r r i e d by
exhaust gasses
hst = mst *(417.5+2257.9+( Cps *(400 -99.6) ) )
227

40
41
42

;.................... // Heat c a r r i e d by e x h a u s t
steam , t h e o b t a i n e d v a l u e s a r e from steam t a b l e s
a t NTP
mg = mf +( ma * mf ) ;.................... // Mass o f e x h a u s t
g a s e s i n kg / min
ha = round ( hf ) - round ( hip + hg + hst + hcw ) ;............ //
Unaccounted heat
pf =100; pip =( hip / hf ) *100; pcw =( hcw / hf ) *100; pg =( hg / hf )
*100; pa =( ha / hf ) *100; pst =( hst / hf ) *100;
printf ( \n\n )
printf ( HEAT BALANCE TABLE\n )
printf (

43

\n )
printf ( Item

37
38
39

kJ
P e r c e n t \n )
44

45
46
47
48
49
50
51

printf (
\n )
printf ( Heat s u p p l i e d by f u e l
%d
%f\n ,hf , pf )
printf ( Heat a b s o r b e d i n IP
%d
%f\n ,hip , pip )
printf ( Heat t a k e n away by c o o l i n g w a t e r
%d
%f\n ,hcw , pcw )
printf ( Heat c a r r i e d away by d r y e x h a u s t g a s e s
%d
%f\n ,hg , pg )
printf ( Heat c a r r i e d away by steam i n e x h a u s t g a s e s
%d
%f\n ,hst , pst )
printf ( U n a c c o u n t e d h e a t
%d
%f\n ,ha , pa )
printf (
)

228

Figure 17.43: Heat balance sheet

Scilab code Exa 17.43 Heat balance sheet


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 4 3
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 I =210;..................... // Output o f
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

generator in
A
V =200;..................... // G e n e r a t o r v o l t a g e i n V
etag =0.82;................. // G e n e r a t o r e f f i c i e n c y
mf =11.2;.................... // F u e l u s e d i n kg / h
C = 42600;....................... // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f
f u e l i n kJ / kg
afr =18;.................... // A i r f u e l r a t i o
mc =580;..................... // Mass o f w a t e r t h r o u g h
c a l o r i m e t e r i n kg /h
delt =36;.................... // T e m p e r a t u r e r a i s e i n C
229

11 tg =98;........................ // T e m p e r a t u r e o f

exhaust in C
12 ta =20;....................... // Ambient t e m p e r a t u r e
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

in C
phcw =0.32;..................... // Heat l o s t t o
c o o l i n g j a c k e t i s 32% o f h e a t s u p p l i e d
cpe =1.05;................... // S p e c i f i c h e a t o f
e x h a u s e g a s e s i n kJ /kgK
cpw =4.18;................... // S p e c i f i c h e a t o f w a t e r
i n kJ /kgK
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
pow = V * I ;...................... // T o t a l power
generated in W
BP =( pow /1000) / etag ;.................. // Brake power
i n kW
hf =( mf /60) * C ;................... // Heat s u p p l i e d t o
the engine
hbp = BP *60;......................... // Heat e q u i v a l e n t
o f BP
mg =( mf /60) *( afr +1) ;............... // Mass o f e x h a u s t
g a s e s f o r m e d p e r min i n kg
hg =(( mc /60) * cpw *( delt ) ) +( mg * cpe *( tg - ta ) ) ;..........
// Heat c a r r i e d by e x h a u s t g a s e s p e r min
hcw = phcw * hf ;................... // Heat l o s t t o
cooling jacket
ha = hf -( hcw + hg + hbp ) ;................... // U n a c c o u n t e d
heat
pf =100; pbp =( hbp / hf ) *100; pcw =( hcw / hf ) *100; pg =( hg / hf )
*100; pa =( ha / hf ) *100
printf ( \n\n )
printf ( HEAT BALANCE TABLE\n )
printf (

\n )
29 printf ( Item

kJ
P e r c e n t \n )

30

printf (

230

Figure 17.44: Heat balance sheet


\n )
31 printf ( Heat s u p p l i e d by f u e l
%f\n ,hf , pf )
32 printf ( Heat a b s o r b e d i n BP
%f\n ,hbp , pbp )
33 printf ( Heat t a k e n away by c o o l i n g w a t e r
%f\n ,hcw , pcw )
34 printf ( Heat c a r r i e d away by e x h a u s t g a s e s
%f\n ,hg , pg )
35 printf ( U n a c c o u n t e d h e a t
%f\n ,ha , pa )
36 printf (
)

Scilab code Exa 17.44 Heat balance sheet


231

%d
%d
%d
%d
%d

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29

clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 4 4


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
D =0.34;.............. // E n g i n e b o r e i n m
k =0.5;............... // Four s t r o k e e n g i n e
n =1;.................. //No o f c y l i n d e r s
L =0.44;................ // E n g i n e s t r o k e i n m
Ne =400;................ // E n g i n e rpm
aic =465;.............. // Area o f i n d i c a t o r d i a g r a m i n
mm2
l =60;.................. // Length o f d i a g r a m i n mm
s =0.6;............... // S p r i n g c o n s t a n t i n b a r /mm
W =950;................. // Load o f dynamometer i n N
CD =7460;................ // Dynamometer c o n s t a n t
mf =10.6;................ // F u e l u s e d i n kg / h
Ca =49500;................. // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f f u e l
i n kJ / kg
mw =25;................... // C o o l i n g w a t e r c i r c u l a t e d
i n kg / min
cpw =4.18;.................. // S p e c i f i c h e a t c a p a c i t y
o f w a t e r i n kJ /kgC
delt =25;.................. // R i s e i n t e m p e r a t u r e o f
water
// Mass a n a l y s i s o f f u e l
C =84;.................. // P e r c e n t a g e o f c a r b o n
H =15;.................. // P e r c e n t a g e o f h y d r o g e n
In =1;.................. // P e r c e n t a g e o f i n c o m b u s t i b l e
// Volume a n a l y s i s o f e x h a u s t g a s e s
CO2 =9;.................. // P e r c e n t a g e o f c a r o n
dioxide
O =10;.................. // P e r c e n t a g e o f o x y g e n
N =81;.................. // P e r c e n t a g e o f n i t r o g e n
tg =400;................ // T e m p e r a t u r e o f e x h a u s t
gases in C
cpg =1.05;.............. // S p e c i f i c h e a t o f e x h a u s t
g a s e s i n kJ /kgC
tr =25;................. // T e m p e r a t u r e o f room i n C
ppst =0.03;.............. // P a r t i a l p r e s s u r e o f steam
in exhaust g a s e s in bar
232

30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47

cpst =2.1;................. // S p e c i f i c h e a t o f
s u p e r h e a t e d steam i n kJ /kgC
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
pmi =( aic * s ) / l ;................ // Mean e f f e c t i v e
p r e s s u r e in bar
IP =( n * pmi * L * D * D * k *10* Ne *( %pi /4) ) /6;............... //
I n d i c a t e d power i n kW
BP =( W * Ne ) / CD ;....................... // Brake power i n
kW
FP = IP - BP ;........................... // F r i c t i o n a l
power i n kW
hf =( mf /60) * Ca ;................... // Heat s u p p l i e d i n
kJ p e r min
hbp = BP *60;..................... // Heat e q u i v a l e n t o f
Brake power i n kW
hfp = FP *60;...................... // h e a t e q u i v a l e n t o f
f r i c t i o n a l power i n kW
hcw = mw * cpw * delt ;.................. // Heat c a r r i e d
away by c o o l i n g w a t e r
ma1 =( N * C ) /(33*( CO2 ) ) ;........... // Mass o f a i r
s u p p l i e d p e r kg o f f u e l
mg1 = ma1 +1;....................... // Mass o f e x h a u s t
g a s e s p e r kg o f f u e l
mg = mg1 *( mf /60) ;................. // Mass o f e x h a u s t
g a s f o r m e d p e r min
mst1 =9*( H /100) ;................. // Mass o f steam
f o r m e d p e r kg o f f u e l
mst = mst1 *( mf /60) ;.................. // Mass o f steam
f o r m e d p e r min
mdg = mg - mst ;....................... // Mass o f d r y
exhaust gas
hex = mdg * cpg *( tg - tr ) ;............... // Heat c a r r i e d by
exhaust gases
hst =(2545.5+( cpst *( tg -24.1) ) ) * mst ;................ //
Heat c a r r i e d by steam i n e x h a u s t g a s e s i n kJ / kg
. . . . . The v a l u e s a r e from steam t a b l e s
c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e p a r t i a l p r e s s u r e 0 . 0 3 and
t e m p e r a t u r e 400 C e l s i u s
233

48 ha = hf -( hbp + hfp + hcw + hex + hst ) ;..................... //

Unaccounted heat
49 pf =100; pbp =( hbp / hf ) *100; pfp =( hfp / hf ) *100; pcw =( hcw / hf

) *100; pex =( hex / hf ) *100; pa =( ha / hf ) *100; pst =( hst / hf


) *100;
50 printf ( \n\n )
51 printf ( HEAT BALANCE TABLE\n )
52 printf (
\n )
53 printf ( Item
kJ
P e r c e n t \n )
54

55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62

printf (
\n )
printf ( Heat s u p p l i e d by f u e l
%d
%f\n ,hf , pf )
printf ( Heat a b s o r b e d i n BP
%d
%f\n ,hbp , pbp )
printf ( Heat l o s t by FP
%d
%f\n ,hfp , pfp )
printf ( Heat t a k e n away by c o o l i n g w a t e r
%d
%f\n ,hcw , pcw )
printf ( Heat c a r r i e d away by d r y e x h a u s t g a s e s
%d
%f\n ,hex , pex )
printf ( Heat c a r r i e d away by steam i n e x h a u s t g a s e s
%d
%f\n ,hst , pst )
printf ( U n a c c o u n t e d h e a t
%d
%f\n ,ha , pa )
printf (
)

234

Figure 17.45: Morse test


Scilab code Exa 17.45 Morse test
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 4 5


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
n =4;........................ //No o f c y l i n d e r s
ga =1.4;................... // D e g r e e o f f r e e d o m
D =0.075;.................. // E n g i n e b o r e i n m
L =0.1;................... // E n g i n e s t r o k e i n m
mf =6;....................... // F u e l c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg
/h
C =83600;.................. // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f f u e l
used
Vc =0.0001;................. // C l e a r e n c e volume i n m3
BP =15.6;................. // Brake power w i l h a l l
c y l i n d e r w o r k i n g i n kW
BP1 =11.1;................... // Brake power w i l h
c y l i n d e r no 1 c u t o u t i n kW
BP2 =11.03;................... // Brake power w i l h
c y l i n d e r no 2 c u t o u t i n kW
BP3 =10.88;................... // Brake power w i l h

235

14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

c y l i n d e r no 3 c u t o u t i n kW
BP4 =10.66;................... // Brake power w i l h
c y l i n d e r no 4 c u t o u t i n kW
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
IP1 = BP - BP1 ;........................... // I n d i c a t e d
power p r o d u c e d i n c y l i n d e r 1 i n kW
IP2 = BP - BP2 ;........................... // I n d i c a t e d
power p r o d u c e d i n c y l i n d e r 2 i n kW
IP3 = BP - BP3 ;........................... // I n d i c a t e d
power p r o d u c e d i n c y l i n d e r 3 i n kW
IP4 = BP - BP4 ;........................... // I n d i c a t e d
power p r o d u c e d i n c y l i n d e r 4 i n kW
IP = IP1 + IP2 + IP3 + IP4 ;............................. //
T o t a l I n d i c a t e d power p r o d u c e d i n kW
etamech = BP / IP ;.............................. //
Mechanical e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etamech *100 , M e c h a n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )
etaith = IP /(( mf /3600) * C ) ;..................... //
Indicated thermal e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etaith *100 , I n d i c a t e d t h e r m a l e f f i c i e n c y i n %:
)
Vs =( %pi /4) * D * D * L ;.......................... // S t r o k e
volume i n m3
r =( Vs + Vc ) / Vc ;................................ //
Compression r a t i o
etast =1 -(1/( r ^( ga -1) ) ) ;........................... //
Air standard e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etast *100 , A i r s t a n d a r d e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )

Scilab code Exa 17.46 Morse test


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 1 7 . 4 6
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s

236

Figure 17.46: Morse test


3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

n =4;.......................... //No o f c y l i n d e r s
D =0.06;...................... // E n g i n e b o r e i n m
L =0.09;....................... // E n g i n e s t r o k e i n m
N =2800;....................... // E n g i n e rpm
Ta =0.37;....................... // Length o f t o r q u e
arm i n m
spgr =0.74;..................... // S p e c i f i c g r a v i y o f
fuel
fc =8.986;...................... // F u e l c o n s u m p t i o n i n
l t r s /h
mf = fc * spgr ;..................... // F u e l consumed i n
kg / h
C =44100;...................... // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f
f u e l i n kJ / kg
BPnl =160;................. // Net b r a k e l o a d i n N
BP1 =110;................... // Brake l o a d w i t h
c y l i n d e r no 1 c u t o u t i n N
BP2 =107;................... // Brake l o a d w i t h
c y l i n d e r no 2 c u t o u t i n N
BP3 =104;................... // Brake l o a d w i t h

237

16
17
18
19
20
21
22

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36

c y l i n d e r no 3 c u t o u t i n N
BP4 =110;................... // Brake l o a d w i t h
c y l i n d e r no 4 c u t o u t i n N
k =0.5;..................... // Four s t r o k e e n g i n e
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
T = BPnl * Ta ;....................... // E n g i n e t o r q u e i n
Nm
disp (T , E n g i n e t o r q u e i n Nm: )
BP =(2* %pi * N * T ) /(60*1000) ;..........................
// Brake power i n kW
pmb =( BP *6) /( n * D * D * L * N *10*( %pi /4) * k )
;................... // Brake mean e f f e c t i v e
p r e s s u r e in bar
disp ( pmb , Brake mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e i n b a r : )
etabth = BP /(( mf /3600) * C ) ;...........................
// Brake t h e r m a l e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etabth *100 , Brake t h e r m a l e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )
sfc = mf / BP ;....................... // S p e c i f i c f u e l
c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg /kWh
disp ( sfc , S p e c i f i c f u e l c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg /kWh : )
IP1 = BPnl - BP1 ;........................... // I n d i c a t e d
power p r o d u c e d i n c y l i n d e r 1 i n kW
IP2 = BPnl - BP2 ;........................... // I n d i c a t e d
power p r o d u c e d i n c y l i n d e r 2 i n kW
IP3 = BPnl - BP3 ;........................... // I n d i c a t e d
power p r o d u c e d i n c y l i n d e r 3 i n kW
IP4 = BPnl - BP4 ;........................... // I n d i c a t e d
power p r o d u c e d i n c y l i n d e r 4 i n kW
IP = IP1 + IP2 + IP3 + IP4 ;............................. //
T o t a l I n d i c a t e d power p r o d u c e d i n kW
etamech = BPnl / IP ;.............................. //
Mechanical e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etamech *100 , M e c h a n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )
pmi = pmb / etamech ;............................ //
I n d i c a t e d mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e i n b a r
disp ( pmi , I n d i c a t e d mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e i n b a r :
)

238

Chapter 20
Air Compressors

Scilab code Exa 20.1 Single stage reciprocating compressor


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 1


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
v1 =1;......... // Volume o f a i r t a k e n i n m3/ min
p1 =1.013;............... // I n t a k e p r e s s u r e i n b a r
t1 =288;............... // I n t a k e t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
p2 =7;...................... // D e l i v e r y p r e s s u r e i n
bar
n =1.35;.............. // A d i a b a t i c i n d e x
R =287;.............. // Gas c o n s t a n t i n kJ /kgK
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
m =( p1 * v1 *10^5) /( R * t1 ) ;.............. // Mass o f a i r
d e l i v e r e d p e r min i n kg
t2 = t1 *(( p2 / p1 ) ^(( n -1) / n ) ) ;........... // D e l i v e r y
temperature in K
iw =( n /( n -1) ) * m * R *( t2 - t1 ) ;............ // I n d i c a t e d
work i n kJ / min
IP = iw /(60*1000) ;.................... // I n d i c a t e d
power
disp ( IP , I n d i c a t e d power i n kW: )
239

Figure 20.1: Single stage reciprocating compressor

Scilab code Exa 20.2 Motor power and bore of single stage compressor
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 2


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
N =300;............ // C o m p r e s s o r rpm
afr =15;......... // A i r f u e l r a t i o
etamech =0.85;.... // M e c h a n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y
etamt =0.9;....... // Motor t r a n s m i s s i o n e f f i c i e n c y
v =1;............ // Volume d e a l t w i t h p e r min a t i n l e t
i n m3/ min
rld =1.5;........ // R a t i o o f s t r o k e t o d i a m e t e r
v1 =1;......... // Volume o f a i r t a k e n i n m3/ min
p1 =1.013;............... // I n t a k e p r e s s u r e i n b a r
t1 =288;............... // I n t a k e t e m p e r a t u r e i n K

240

Figure 20.2: Motor power and bore of single stage compressor


12 p2 =7;...................... // D e l i v e r y

pressure in

bar
13 n =1.35;.............. // A d i a b a t i c i n d e x
14 R =287;.............. // Gas c o n s t a n t i n kJ /kgK
15 // C a l c u l a t i o n s
16 m =( p1 * v1 *10^5) /( R * t1 ) ;.............. // Mass o f

air

d e l i v e r e d p e r min i n kg
17 t2 = t1 *(( p2 / p1 ) ^(( n -1) / n ) ) ;........... // D e l i v e r y
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

temperature in K
iw =( n /( n -1) ) * m * R *( t2 - t1 ) ;............ // I n d i c a t e d
work i n kJ / min
IP = iw /(60*1000) ;.................... // I n d i c a t e d
power i n kW
vdc = v / N ;........ // Volume drawn i n p e r c y c l e i n m3
D =( vdc /(( %pi /4) * rld ) ) ^(1/3) ;.......... // C y l i n d e r
bore in m
disp ( D *1000 , C y l i n d e r b o r e i n mm: )
pc = IP / etamech ;......... // Power i n p u t t o t h e
c o m p r e s s o r i n kW
mp = pc / etamt ;.......... // Motor power i n kW

241

Figure 20.3: Work done and heat transferred during single stage compression
25

disp ( mp , Motor power i n kW: )

Scilab code Exa 20.3 Work done and heat transferred during single stage
compression
clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 3
// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
p1 =1;...... // S u c t i o n p r e s s u r e i n b a r
t1 =293;..... // S u c t i o n t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
n =1.2;...... // C o m p r e s s i o n i n d e x
p2 =10;...... // D e l i v e r y p r e s s u r e i n b a r
R =0.287;.... // Gas c o n s t a n t i n kJ /kgK
cv =0.718;... // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t volume i n kJ
/kgK
9 // C a l c u l a t i o n s

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242

Figure 20.4: Single stage compressor


10 t2 = t1 *(( p2 / p1 ) ^(( n -1) / n ) ) ;..... // T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e
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end o f c o m p r e s s i o n i n K
disp ( t2 , T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e end o f c o m p r e s s i o n i n K :
)
W =1* R * t1 *( n /( n -1) ) *((( p2 / p1 ) ^(( n -1) / n ) ) -1) ;....... //
Work done d u r i n g c o m p r e s s i o n o f a i r i n kJ
disp (W , Work done d u r i n g c o m p r e s s i o n p e r kg o f a i r
i n kJ : )
Q =( t2 - t1 ) *( cv -(( R ) /( n -1) ) ) ;.......... // Heat
t r a n s f e r r e d d u r i n g c o m p r e s s i o n o f a i r i n kJ / kg
disp (Q , Heat t r a n s f e r r e d d u r i n g c o m p r e s s i o n p e r kg
o f a i r i n kJ : )

Scilab code Exa 20.4 Single stage compressor


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 4

243

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// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
p1 =1;........ // S u c t i o n p r e s s u r e i n b a r
t1 =293;....... // S u c t i o n t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
p2 =6;.......... // D i s c h a r g e p r e s s u r e i n b a r
t2 =453;....... // D i s c h a r g e t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
N =1200;......... // C o m p r e s s o r rpm
Ps =6.25;........ // S h a f t power i n kW
ma =1.7;........ // Mass o f a i r d e l i v e r e d i n kg / min
D =0.14;...... // E n g i n e b o r e i n m
L =0.10;....... // E n g i n e s t r o k e i n m
R =287;.......... // Gas c o n s t a n t i n kJ /kgK
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
Vd =( %pi /4) * D * D * L * N ;......... // D i s p l l a c e m e n t volume
i n m3/ min
FAD = ma * R * t1 /( p1 *10^5) ;........ // F r e e a i r d e l i v e r e d
etav = FAD / Vd ;..... // V o l u m e t r i c e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etav *100 , V o l u m e t r i c E f f i c i e n c y i n %: )
n =1/(1 -(( log ( t2 / t1 ) ) /( log ( p2 / p1 ) ) ) ) ;........ // I n d e x
of compression
IP =( n /( n -1) ) *( ma /60) *( R /1000) * t1 *((( p2 / p1 ) ^(( n -1) / n )
) -1) ;.......... // I n d i c a t e d power i n kW
disp ( IP , I n d i c a t e d power i n kW: )
Piso =(( ma /60) *( R /1000) * t1 *( log ( p2 / p1 ) ) ) ;.......... //
I s o t h e r m a l power
etaiso = Piso / IP ;.............. // I s o t h e r m a l e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etaiso *100 , I s o t h e r m a l e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )
etamech = IP / Ps ;........... // M e c h a n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etamech *100 , M e c h a n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )
etao = Piso / Ps ;........ // O v e r a l l e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etao *100 , O v e r a l l e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )

Scilab code Exa 20.5 Low pressure water jacketed rotary compressor

244

Figure 20.5: Low pressure water jacketed rotary compressor


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clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 5


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
ma =6.75;......... // Mass o f a i r c o m p r e s s e d i n kg / min
p1 =1;............ // I n i t i a l p r e s s u r e i n atm
cp =1.003;......... // S p e c i f c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
v p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK
t1 =21;........... // I n i t i a l t e m p e r a t u r e i n C e l s i u s
t2 =43;.......... // F i n a l t e m p e r a t u r e i n C e l s i u s
rp =1.35;......... // P r e s s u r e r a t i o
ga =1.4;......... // R a t i o o s s p e c i f i c h e a t s
delt =3.3;....... // Change i n t e m p e r a t u r e
cpw =4.18;....... // S p e c i f i c h e a t f o r w a t e r i n kJ /kgK
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
W = ma * cp *( t2 - t1 ) ;............ // Work o u t p u t i n kJ
disp (W , Work o u t p u t i n kW: )
t21 =( t1 +273) *( rp ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;........... // F i n a l
t e m p e r a t u r e i f t h e c o m p r e s s i o n had b e e n
isentropic
Qr = ma * cp *( t21 -( t2 +273) ) ;............ // Heat r e j e c t e d
i n kJ

245

Figure 20.6: Single stage double acting compressor


17 mw = Qr /( cpw * delt ) ;........ // Mass o f
18

c o o l i n g water in

kg / min
disp ( mw , Mass o f c o o l i n g w a t e r i n kg / min : )

Scilab code Exa 20.6 Single stage double acting compressor


clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 6
// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
ma =14;........ // Q u a n t i t y o f a i r d e l i v e r e d i n kg / min
p1 =1.013;...... // I n t a k e p r e s s u r e i n b a r
t1 =288;......... // I n t a k e t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
p2 =7;........... // D e l i v e r y p r e s s u r e i n b a r
N =300;.......... // C o m p r e s s o r rpm
pervc =0.05;....... // P e r c e n t a g e o f c l e a r a n c e volume
i n t h e t o t a l s t r o k e volume
9 n =1.3;............ // C o m p r e s s o r and e x p a n s i o n i n d e x
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Figure 20.7: Single stage double acting compressor


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// C a l c u l a t i o n s
V1byVs = pervc +1;
v1minv4 = ma /( N *2) ; v4byv3 =(( p2 / p1 ) ^(1/ n ) ) ; v4byvs =
v4byv3 * pervc ; Vs = v1minv4 /( V1byVs - v4byvs ) ;..... //
Swept volume i n m3
disp ( Vs , Swept volume i n m 3 : )
t2 = t1 *(( p2 / p1 ) ^(( n -1) / n ) ) ;........ // D e l i v e r y
Temperature i n K
disp ( t2 , D e l i v e r y t e m p e r a t u r e i n K : )
IP =(( n ) /( n -1) ) * p1 *(10^5) *(( ma ) /(60*1000) ) *((( p2 / p1 )
^(( n -1) / n ) ) -1) ;
disp ( IP , I n d i c a t e d Power i n kW: )

Scilab code Exa 20.7 Single stage double acting compressor


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 7

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// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
FAD =14;........... // F r e e a i r d e l i v e r e d i n m3/ min
p1 =0.95;......... // I n d u c t i o n p r e s s u r e i n b a r
t1 =305;........ // I n d u c t i o n t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
p2 =7;........... // D e l i v e r y p r e s s u r e i n b a r
n =1.3;........... // A d i a b a t i c i n d e x
VcbyVs =0.05;........ // R a t i o o f c l e a r a n c e volume and
s w e p t volume
R =287;........... // Gas c o n s t a n t i n J /kgK
t =288;........... // f r e e a i r t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
p =1.013;......... // f r e e a i r p r e s s u r e i n b a r
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
m =( p *100000* FAD ) /( R * t ) ;.......... // Mass d e l i v e r e d
p e r min i n kg
t2 = t1 *(( p2 / p1 ) ^(( n -1) / n ) ) ;
IP =(( n /( n -1) ) * m *( R /1000) *( t2 - t1 ) ) /60;......... //
I n d i c a t e d power i n kW
disp ( IP , I n d i c a t e d power i n kW: )
v4byv3 =( p2 / p1 ) ^(1/ n ) ; v4byvs = v4byv3 * VcbyVs ; v1minv4
=(1+ VcbyVs ) - v4byvs ;
Vbyvs = v1minv4 *( t / t1 ) *( p1 / p ) ;
etav = Vbyvs /1;............. // V o l u m e t r i c e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etav *100 , V o l u m e t r i c e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )

Scilab code Exa 20.8 Single stage double acting compressor


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clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 8


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
FAD =16;....... // F r e e a i r d e l i v e r e d i n m3/ min
p1 =0.96;...... // S u c t i o n p r e s s u r e i n b a r
t1 =303;....... // S u c t i o n t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
n =1.3;........ // C o m p r e s s i o n i n d e x
k =0.04;........ // C l e a r a n c e r a t i o
248

Figure 20.8: Single stage double acting compressor


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p2 =6;......... // D e l i v e r y p r e s s u r e i n b a r
etamech =0.9;... // M e c h a n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y
vp =300;....... // P i s t o n s p e e d i n m/ min
N =500;........ // C o m p r e s s o r rpm
p =1;..... // Ambient p r e s s u r e i n b a r
t =288;..... // Ambient t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
etac =0.85;... // C o m p r e s s o r e f f i c i e n c y
R =0.287;...... // U n i v e r s a l g a s c o n s t a n t
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
m =( p *10^5* FAD ) /( R *1000* t ) ;........... // Mass f l o w
r a t e o f c o m p r e s s o r i n kg / min
t2 = t1 *(( p2 / p1 ) ^(( n -1) / n ) ) ;..... // T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e
end o f c o m p r e s s i o n i n K
P =( n /( n -1) ) *( m /60) * R *( t2 - t1 ) *(1/ etamech ) *(1/ etac )
;.......... // Power i n p u t t o c o m p r e s s o r i n kW
disp (P , Power i n p u t t o c o m p r e s s o r i n kW: )
L = vp /(2* N ) ;......... // S t r o k e i n m
disp ( L *1000 , C o m p r e s s o r s t r o k e i n mm: )
etav =(( t / t1 ) *( p1 / p ) *(1+ k -( k *(( p2 / p1 ) ^(1/ n ) ) ) ) )
;........ // V o l u m e t r i c e f f i c i e n c y

249

Figure 20.9: Single stage single acting compressor


24 D = sqrt ( FAD /(( %pi /4) * L * N *2* etav ) ) ;........... //
25

Compressor bore i n m
disp ( D *1000 , C o m p r e s s o r b o r e i n mm: )

Scilab code Exa 20.9 Single stage single acting compressor


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clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 9


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
m =0.6;.......... // Mass o f a i r d e l i v e r e d i n kg / min
p2 =6;......... // D e l i v e r y p r e s s u r e i n b a r
p1 =1;.......... // I n d u c t i o n p r e s s u r e i n b a r
t1 =303;........ // I n d u c t i o n t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
D =0.1;......... // C o m p r e s s o r b o r e i n m
L =0.15;........ // C o m p r e s s o r s t r o k e i n m
k =0.03;........ // C l e a r a n c e r a t i o
etamech =0.85;.... // M e c h a n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y
250

Figure 20.10: Percentage change in volume and power


11 R =0.287;....... // Gas c o n s t a n t i n kJ /kgK
12 n =1.3;........ // C o m p r e s s i o n i n d e x
13 // C a l c u l a t i o n s
14 etav =(1+ k ) -( k *(( p2 / p1 ) ^(1/ n ) ) ) ;.......... //

Volumetric e f f i c i e n c y
15 disp ( etav *100 , V o l u m e t r i c e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )
16 IP =( n /( n -1) ) *( m /60) * R * t1 *((( p2 / p1 ) ^(( n -1) / n ) ) -1)
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;......... // I n d i c a t e d power i n kW
P = IP / etamech ;........... // Power r e q u i r e d t o d r i v e
t h e c o m p r e s s o r i n kW
disp (P , Power r e q u i r e d t o d r i v e t h e c o m p r e s s o r i n kW
: )
FAD =( m * R * t1 *1000) /( p1 *10^5) ;........... // F r e e a i r
d e l i v e r y i n m3/ min
Vd = FAD / etav ;........ // D i s p l a c e m e n t volume i n m3/ min
N = Vd /(( %pi /4) * D * D * L ) ;......... // C o m p r e s s o r rpm
disp (N , C o m p r e s s o r rpm : )

251

Scilab code Exa 20.10 Percentage change in volume and power


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clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 1 0


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
L =88;........... // C o m p r e s s o r s t r o k e i n cm
k =0.02;........... // C l e a r a n c e r a t i o
p3 =8.2;........... // D e l i v e r y p r e s s u r e i n b a r
p4 =1.025;....... // S u c t i o n p r e s s u r e i n b a r
p1 = p4 ;....... // S u c t i o n p r e s s u r e i n b a r
n =1.3;......... // C o m p r e s s i o n i n d e x
lo =0.55;... // Length o f d i s t a n c e p i e c e f i t t e d a f t e r
o v e r h a u l i n cm
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
pcfa =((( L +( L * k ) ) -(( L * k ) *(( p3 / p4 ) ^(1/ n ) ) ) ) -((( k * L ) + lo
+ L ) -((( k * L ) + lo ) *(( p3 / p4 ) ^(1/ n ) ) ) ) ) /(( L + L * k ) -(( L * k
) *(( p3 / p4 ) ^(1/ n ) ) ) )
disp ( pcfa *100 , P e r c e n t a g e c h a n g e i n f r e e a i r
d e l i v e r y : )
pcpa = pcfa ;...... // P e r c e n t a g e c h a n g e i n power
delivered
disp ( pcpa *100 , P e r c e n t a g e c h a n g e i n power d e l i v e r e d :
)

Scilab code Exa 20.11 Single stage double acting compressor


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clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 1 1


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
v =30;............. // S u c t i o n volume i n m3/ min
p1 =1;........... // S u c t i o n p r e s s u r e i n b a r
t1 =300;......... // S u c t i o n t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
252

Figure 20.11: Single stage double acting compressor


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p2 =16;........... // D e l i v e r y p r e s s u r e i n b a r
N =320;.......... // C o m p r e s s o r rpm
k =0.04;......... // C l e a r a n c e r a t i o
rld =1.2;......... // R a t i o o f s t r o k e t o b o r e
etamech =0.82;.... // M e c h a n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y
n =1.32;......... // C o m p r e s s i o n i n d e x
ti =39+273;...... // T e m p e r a t u r e i n s i d e t h e s u c t i o n
chamber i n K
nc =4;......... //No o f c y l i n e d e r s
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
W =( n /( n -1) ) *( p1 /1000) *10^5*( v /60) *((( p2 / p1 ) ^(( n -1) / n
) ) -1) ;........ // Work done i n kW
mp = W / etamech ;.......... // Motor power i n kW
disp ( mp , Motor power i n kW: )
etav =((1+ k ) -( k *(( p2 / p1 ) ^(1/ n ) ) ) ) *( t1 / ti ) ;........ //
Volumetric e f f i c i e n c y
Vs =( v / nc ) *(1/(2* N ) ) *(1/ etav ) ;............ // Swept
volume o f c y l i n d e r i n m3
D =( Vs /(( %pi /4) * rld ) ) ^(1/3) ;............. // C o m p r e s s o r
bore in m

253

Figure 20.12: Two cylinder single acting compressor


21 L = D * rld ;.............. // Compresor s t r o k e
22 disp ( D *1000 , C o m p r e s s o r b o r e i n mm: )
23 disp ( L *1000 , C o m p r e s s o r s t r o k e i n mm: )

in m

Scilab code Exa 20.12 Two cylinder single acting compressor


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clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 1 2


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
n =2;........ //No o f c y l i n d e r s
ma =16;........ // Mass o f a i r s u p p l i e d p e r min i n kg
p1 =1;........ // S u c t i o n p r e s s u r e i n b a r
t1 =288;....... // S u c t i o n t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
k =0.04;....... // C l e a r a n c e r a t i o
ni =1.3;........ // C o m p r e s s i o n i n d e x
R =0.287;........ // Gas c o n s t a n t i n kJ /kgK
N =2000;........ // E n g i n e rpm
254

11 p3 =7;........... // D e l i v e r y p r e s s u r e i n b a r
12 rld =1.2;........... // R a t i o o f s t r o k e t o b o r e
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for
c o m p r e s s o r c y l i n d e r and e n g i n e c y l i n d e r
etamech =0.82;......... // M e c h a n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y o f
engine
pmb =5.5;.......... // Mean e f f e c t i v e p r e s s u r e i n b a r
in engine
ne =4;............. //No o f e n g i n e c y l i n d e r s
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
Vs =((( ma / n ) * R *1000* t1 ) /( p1 *10^5* N ) ) /((1+ k ) -( k *(( p3 /
p1 ) ^(1/ ni ) ) ) ) ;
Dc =( Vs /(( %pi /4) * rld ) ) ^(1/3) ;......... // D i a m e t e r o f
compressor c y l i n d e r in m
Lc = rld * Dc ;............. // S t r o k e o f t h e c o m p r e s s o r
cylinder in m
disp ( Dc *1000 , D i a m e t e r o f c o m p r e s s o r c y l i n d e r i n mm:
)
disp ( Lc *1000 , S t r o k e o f c o m p r e s s o r c y l i n d e r i n mm: )
IP =( ni /( ni -1) ) *( ma /60) * R * t1 *((( p3 / p1 ) ^(( ni -1) / ni ) )
-1) ;...... // I n d i c a t e d power o f t h e c o m p r e s s o r i n
kW
BP = IP / etamech ;............... // Brake power o f t h e
e n g i n e i n kW
De =(( BP *60*1000) /( ne * pmb *10^5* rld *( %pi /4) * N ) ) ^(1/3)
;...... // D i a m e t e r o f t h e e n g i n e c y l i n d e r i n m
Le = rld * De ;........... // S t r o k e o f t h e e n g i n e c y l i n d e r
in m
disp ( De *1000 , D i a m e t e r o f e n g i n e c y l i n d e r i n mm: )
disp ( Le *1000 , S t r o k e o f e n g i n e c y l i n d e r i n mm: )

Scilab code Exa 20.13 Single stage double acting compressor


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 1 3

255

Figure 20.13: Single stage double acting compressor


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// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
nc =1.25;...... // I n d e x o f c o m p r e s s i o n
ne =1.3;...... // I n d e x o f e x p a n s i o n
etamech =0.85;....... // M e c h a n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y
p1 =1;......... // S u c t i o n p r e s s u r e i n b a r
p2 =7.5;....... // D e l i v e r y p r e s s u r e i n b a r
t1 =25+273;.... // S u c t i o n t e m p e r a t u r e i n b a r
Vamb =2.2;..... // Volume o f f r e e a i r d e l i v e r e d i n m3
N =310;........ // E n g i n e rpm
k =0.05;....... // C l e a r a n c e r a t i o
pamb =1.03;..... // Ambient p r e s s u r e i n b a r
tamb =293;...... // Ambient t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
etav =(1+ k -( k *(( p2 / p1 ) ^(1/ ne ) ) ) ) ;........ // V o l u m e t r i c
efficiency
disp ( etav *100 , V o l u m e t r i c e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )
v1 =( pamb * Vamb * t1 ) /( p1 * tamb ) ;....... // Volume o f a i r
d e l i v e r e d a t s u c t i o n c o n d i t i o n i n m3
vs =( v1 /( etav * N *2) ) ;......... // Swept volume i n m3
D =( vs /( %pi /4) ) ^(1/3) ;........ // D i a m e t e r o f t h e

256

Figure 20.14: Single stage single acting compressor

20
21
22
23

24
25
26

cylinder in m
L=D;
disp ( D *100 , D i a m e t e r o f t h e c y l i n d e r i n cm : )
disp ( L *100 , S t r o k e o f t h e c y l i n d e r i n cm : )
W =2* vs *10^5*((( nc ) /( nc -1) ) * p1 *(1+ k ) *((( p2 / p1 ) ^(( nc
-1) /( nc ) ) ) -1) -(( ne ) /( ne -1) ) * p1 *( k *(( p2 / p1 ) ^(1/ ne )
) ) *((( p2 / p1 ) ^(( ne -1) /( ne ) ) ) -1) ) ;.......... // Work
done p e r c y c l e o f o p e r a t i o n i n Nm/ c y c l e
IP = W * N /(60*1000) ;............... // I n d i c a t e d power i n
kW
BP = IP / etamech ;............. // Brake power i n kW
disp ( BP , Brake power i n kW: )

Scilab code Exa 20.14 Single stage single acting compressor


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 1 4

257

2
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12
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15
16

// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
v =14;.......... // Volume o f a i r d e l i v e r e d i n m3
p1 =1;........ // S u c t i o n p r e s s u r e i n b a r
p2 =7;........ // D e l i v e r y p r e s s u r e i n b a r
N =310;........ // C o m p r e s s o r rpm
n =1.35;........ // C o m p r e s s i o n i n d e x
k =0.05;........ // C l e a r a n c e r a t i o
rld =1.5;......... // R a t i o o f c y l i n d e r l e n g t h and
diameter
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
etav =(1+ k ) -( k *(( p2 / p1 ) ^(1/ n ) ) ) ;.......... //
Volumetric e f f i c i e n c y
Vs = v /( etav * N ) ;............. // Swept volume i n m3
D =(( Vs ) /(( %pi /4) * rld ) ) ^(1/3) ;...... // C o m p r e s s o r
diameter in m
L = rld * D ;...................... // C o m p r e s s o r s t r o k e i n
m
disp ( D *100 , C o m p r e s s o r d i a m e t e r i n cm : )
disp ( L *100 , C o m p r e s s o r s t r o k e i n cm : )

Scilab code Exa 20.15 Double acting compressor


1
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3
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5
6
7
8
9
10
11

clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 1 5


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
D =0.33;......... // C y l i n d e r d i a m e t e r i n m
L =0.35;......... // C y l i n d e r s t r o k e i n m
k =0.05;......... // C l e a r a n c e r a t i o
N =300;.......... // C o m p r e s s o r rpm
psuc =0.95;........ // S u c t i o n p r e s s u r e i n b a r
tsuc =298;......... // S u c t i o n t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
pamb =1.013;...... // Ambient p r e s s u r e i n b a r
tamb =293;......... // Ambient t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
p2 =4.5;........... // D e l i v e r y p r e s s u r e i n b a r
258

Figure 20.15: Double acting compressor


12 n =1.25;.......... // C o m p r e s s i o n i n d e x
13 cv =0.717;........... // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
14
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volume i n kJ /kgK
ga =1.4;.......... // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
etamech =0.8;...... // M e c h a n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y
R =0.287;......... // Gas c o n s t a n t i n kJ /kgK
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
Vs =( %pi /4) * D * D * L * N *2;............ // Swept volume i n m
3
p1 = psuc ; etav =1 -( k *((( p2 / p1 ) ^(1/ n ) ) -1) ) ;........ //
Volumetric e f f i c i e n c y
Vad = Vs * etav ;................ // A c t u a l a i r drawn p e r
min i n m3
FAD =( psuc / pamb ) *( tamb / tsuc ) * Vad ;............ // F r e e
a i r d e l i v e r e d i n m3/ min
disp ( FAD , F r e e a i r d e l i v e r e d i n m3/ min : )
t1 = tsuc ; ma =( p1 *10^5* Vad ) /( R *1000* t1 ) ;....... // Mass
o f a i r d e l i v e r e d p e r min i n kg
t2 = t1 *(( p2 / p1 ) ^(( n -1) / n ) ) ;.......... // D e l i v e r y
temperature in K

259

Figure 20.16: Two stage compressor


25 Qr = ma * cv *(( ga - n ) /( n -1) ) *( t2 - t1 ) ;.......... // Heat

r e j e c t e d d u r i n g c o m p r e s s i o n i n kJ / min
disp ( Qr , Heat r e j e c t e d d u r i n g c o m p r e s s i o n i n kJ / min :
)
27 P =(( n ) /( n -1) ) * R * t1 *( ma /60) *((( p2 / p1 ) ^(( n -1) /( n ) ) ) -1)
*(1/ etamech ) ;.......... // Power n e e d e d t o d r i v e
t h e c o m p r e s s o r i n kW
28 disp (P , Power n e e d e d t o d r i v e t h e c o m p r e s s o r i n kW:
)
26

Scilab code Exa 20.16 Two stage compressor


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ;... // Example 2 0 . 1 6
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f v a r i a b l e s
3 p1 =1.03;........... // I n t a k e p r e s s u r e i n b a r
4 t1 =300;............ // I n t a k e t e m p e r a t u r e i n K

260

5 p2 =7;............. // I n t a k e

p r e s s u r e f o r High

p r e s s u r e c y l i n d e r in bar
6 t2 =310;.............. // T e m p e r a t u r e o f

air entering

high pressure c y l i n d e r in K
of air after
compression in bar
V =30;......... // volume o f a i r d e l i v e r e d i n m3/ h
R =0.287;............ // Gas c o n s t a n t f o r a i r i n kJ /kgK
ga =1.4;........... // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
m = p1 *10^5* V /( R *1000* t1 ) ;.......... // Mass o f a i r
c o m p r e s s e d i n kg / h
t21 = t1 *(( p2 / p1 ) ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;....... // A c t u a l
temperature of a i r e n t e r i n g high pressure
cylinder in K
t3 = t2 *(( p3 / p2 ) ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;........ // A c t u a l
temperature of a i r a f t e r compression in K
W =(( ga ) /( ga -1) ) * m *( R /3600) *( t21 - t1 + t3 - t2 ) ;..........
// Power r e q u i r e d t o run c o m p r e s s o r i n kW
disp (W , Power r e q u i r e d t o run t h e c o m p r e s s o r i n kW:
)

7 p3 =40;............ // P r e s s u r e
8
9
10
11
12
13

14
15
16

Scilab code Exa 20.17 Two stage compressor


1
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5
6
7
8

clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 1 7


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
FAD =6;....... // F r e e a i r d e l i v e r e d i n m3/ min
p1 =1;........ // s u c t i o n p r e s s u r e i n b a r
t1 =300;...... // S u c t i o n t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
p3 =40;....... // D e l i v e r y p r e s s u r e i n b a r
p2 =6;........ // I n t e r m e d i a t e p r e s s u r e i n b a r
t3 =300;........ // T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e i n l e t t o 2 nd
stage in K
261

Figure 20.17: Two stage compressor


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21

n =1.3;......... // C o m p r e s s i o n i n d e x
etamech =0.8;..... // M e c h a n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y
N =400;............ // C o m p r e s s o r rpm
R =0.287;......... // Gas c o n s t a n t i n kJ /kgK
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
dlp =( FAD /( N *( %pi /4) ) ) ^(1/3) ;............... //
D i a m e t e r o f t h e low p r e s s u r e c y l i n d e r i n m
dhp = sqrt (1/( dlp * N *( %pi /4) ) ) ;............ // D i a m e t e r
of high pressure c y l i n d e r in m
disp ( dlp *1000 , D i a m e t e r o f low p r e s s u r e c y l i n d e r i n
mm: )
disp ( dhp *1000 , D i a m e t e r o f h i g h p r e s s u r e c y l i n d e r i n
mm: )
m =( p1 * FAD *10^5) /( R * t1 *1000*60) ;........ // Mass f l o w
o f a i r i n kg / s
W = n *(1/( n -1) ) * m * R * t1 *((( p2 / p1 ) ^(( n -1) / n ) ) +(( p3 / p2 )
^(( n -1) / n ) ) -2) ;........ // I n d i c a t e d work i n kJ / s
P = W / etamech ;............... // Power r e q u i r e d i n kW
disp (P , Power r e q u i r e d t o run t h e c o m p r e s s o r : )

262

Figure 20.18: Two stage compressor

Scilab code Exa 20.18 Two stage compressor


clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 1 8
// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
ns =2;............. //No o f s t a g e s
v1 =0.2;......... // I n t a k e volume i n m3/ s
p1 =1;.......... // I n t a k e p r e s s u r e i n b a r
t1 =289;............... // I n t a k e t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
p3 =7;......... // F i n a l p r e s s u r e i n b a r
n =1.25;....... // C o m p r e s s i o n i n d e x
N =600;........ // C o m p r e s s o r rpm
cp =1.005;..... // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e
i n kJ /kgK
11 R =0.287;...... // Gas c o n s t a n t i n kJ /kgK
12 // C a l c u l a t i o n s
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7
8
9
10

263

13 p2 = sqrt ( p1 * p3 ) ;...... // I n t e r m e d i a t e p r e s s u r e i n b a r
14 disp ( p2 /10 , I n t e r m e d i a t e p r e s s u r e i n Mpa : )
15 vslp =60* v1 / N ;.......... // Volume o f low p r e s s u r e
16
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19

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c y l i n d e r i n m3
vshp = p1 * vslp / p2 ;.......... // Volume o f h i g h p r e s s u r e
c y l i n d e r i n m3
disp ( vslp , Volume o f low p r e s s u r e c y l i n d e r i n m 3 : )
disp ( vshp , Volume o f h i g h p r e s s u r e c y l i n d e r i n m 3 :
)
W =( ns *( n /( n -1) ) ) * p1 *10^5*( v1 /1000) *((( p3 / p1 ) ^(( n -1)
/( ns * n ) ) ) -1) ;........... // Power r e q u i r e d t o d r i v e
t h e c o m p r e s s o r i n kW
disp (W , Power r e q u i r e d t o d r i v e t h e c o m p r e s s o r i n kW
: )
m = p1 *10^5* v1 /( R * t1 *1000) ;......... // Mass o f a i r
h a n d l e d i n kg / s
t2 = t1 *(( p2 / p1 ) ^(( n -1) / n ) ) ;......... // T e m p e r a t u r e a t
t h e end o f f i r s t s t a g e c o m p r e s s i o n i n K
Qr = m * cp *( t2 - t1 ) ;....... // Heat r e j e c t e d i n t h e
i n t e r c o o l e r i n kW
disp ( Qr , Heat r e j e c t e d i n t h e i n t e r c o o l e r i n kW: )

Scilab code Exa 20.19 Two stage compressor


1
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7
8

clc , funcprot (0) ;....... // Example 2 0 . 1 9


// i n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f v a r i a b l e s
p3 =30;.......... // d e l i v e r y p r e s s u r e i n b a r
p1 =1;......... // s u c t i o n p r e s s u r e
in bar
t1 =273+15;....... // s u c t i o n t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
n =1.3;......... // a d i a b a t i c i n d e x
// c a l c u l a t i o n
p2 = sqrt ( p1 * p3 ) ;..... // P r e s s u r e b e f o r e e n t e r i n g High
p r e s s u r e c y l i n d e r in bar
264

Figure 20.19: Two stage compressor


9 t21 = t1 *(( p2 / p1 ) ^(( n -1) / n ) ) ;......... // A c t u a l

temperature b e f o r e e n t e r i n g the high p r e s s u r e


turbine in K
10 r = sqrt (( p2 ^(1/ n ) ) *( t21 / t1 ) ) ;............ // R a t i o o f
cylinder diameters
11 disp (r , R a t i o o f c y l i n d e r d i a m e t e r s : )

Scilab code Exa 20.20 Two stage compressor


1
2
3
4
5
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7

clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 2 0


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
ns =2;......... //No o f s t a g e s
p1 =1;........ // S u c t i o n p r e s s u r e i n b a r
p2 =7.4;....... // I n t e r c o o l e r p r e s s u r e i n b a r
p3 =42.6;....... // D e l i v e r y p r e s s u r e i n b a r
t1 =15+273;...... // S u c t i o n t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
265

Figure 20.20: Two stage compressor


8 n =1.3;........ // C o m p r e s s i o n i n d e x
9 R =0.287;....... // Gas c o n s t a n t i n kJ /kgK
10 dlp =0.09;....... // D i a m e t e r o f low p r e s s u r e
11
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15
16
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18
19
20

cylinder

in m
dhp =0.03;....... // D i a m e t e r o f h i g h p r e s s u r e c y l i n d e r
in m
etav =0.9;..... // V o l u m e t r i c e f f i c i e n c y
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
W = n *(1/( n -1) ) * R * t1 *((( p2 / p1 ) ^(( n -1) / n ) ) +(( p3 / p2 ) ^(( n
-1) / n ) ) -2) ;
disp (W , Work done i n c o m p r e s s i n g 1 kg o f g a s i n kJ :
)
// Given t h a t s t r o k e l e n g t h i s same i n b o t h c a s e s
rV = p2 / p1 ;......... // R a t i o o f v o l u m e s
rECV =(( dlp / dhp ) ^2) * etav ;......... // R a t i o o f
e f f e c t i v e c y l i n d e r volumes
if ( rECV > rV ) then disp ( P r e s s u r e i n t h e i n t e r c o o l e r
would r i s e . )
else if ( rECV < rV ) then disp ( P r e s s u r e i n t h e
i n t e r c o o l e r would f a l l )

266

Figure 20.21: Single acting two stage compressor


21
end
22 end

Scilab code Exa 20.21 Single acting two stage compressor


1
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11

clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 2 1


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
V =4;........... // Volume o f a i r h a n d l e d i n m3/ min
p1 =1.016;..... // S u c t i o n p r e s s u r e i n b a r
t1 =288;........ // S u c t i o n t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
N =250;......... // C o m p r e s s o r rpm
p3 =78.65;..... // D e l i v e r y p r e s s u r e i n b a r
vp =3;........ // P i s t o n s p e e d i n m/ s
etamech =0.75;..... // m e c h a n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y
etav =0.8;........ // V o l u m e t r i c e f f i c i e n c y
n =1.25;.......... // C o m p r e s s i o n i n d e x
267

Figure 20.22: Single acting two stage compressor


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23

R =287;........... // Gas c o n s t a n t i n J /kgK


ns =2;............ //No o f s t a g e s
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
l =( vp *60) /(2* N ) ;.......... // S t r o k e l e n g t h i n m
d = sqrt ( V /(( %pi /4) * l * N * etav ) ) ;....... // Bore i n m
disp (l , S t r o k e l e n g t h i n m: )
disp (d , Bore i n m: )
m =( p1 *10^5* V ) /( R * t1 ) ;....... // Mass o f a i r h a n d l e d by
t h e c o m p r e s s o r i n kg / min
p2 = sqrt ( p1 * p3 ) ;............. // I n t e r m e d i a t e p r e s s u r e
in bar
t2 = t1 *(( p2 / p1 ) ^(( n -1) / n ) ) ;......... // T e m p e r a t u r e a t
t h e end o f f i r s t s t a g e c o m p r e s s i o n i n K
W = ns *( n /( n -1) ) *( m /60) *( R /1000) *( t2 - t1 ) *(1/ etamech )
;.......... // Work r e q u i r e d i n kW
disp (W , Work r e q u i r e d i n kW: )

268

Scilab code Exa 20.22 Single acting two stage compressor


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clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 2 2


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
m =4.5;......... // Amount o f a i r c o m p r e s s e d i n kg / min
ps =1.013;....... // S u c t i o n p r e s s u r e i n b a r
ts =288;......... // S u c t i o n t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
rp =9;........... // P r e s s u r e r a t i o
n =1.3;......... // C o m p r e s s i o n i n d e x
k =0.05;........ // C l e a r a n c e r a t i o
N =300;......... // C o m p r e s s o r rpm
R =287;......... // Gas c o n s t a n t i n J /kgK
ns =2;............ //No o f s t a g e s
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
ti = round ( ts *(( sqrt ( rp ) ) ^(( n -1) / n ) ) ) ;...... //
Intermediate temperature in K
W = round ( ns * n *(1/( n -1) ) * m *( R /1000) *( ti - ts ) )
;.......... // Work r e q u i r e d p e r min i n kJ
IP = W /60;......... // I n d i c a t e d power i n kW
disp ( IP , I n d i c a t e d power i n kW: )
mc = m / N ;........... // Mass i n d u c e d p e r c y c l e i n kg
etav =(1+ k ) -( k *( sqrt ( rp ) ^(1/ n ) ) ) ;....... // V o l u m e t r i c
efficiency
Vs =( mc * R * ts ) /( ps *10^5* etav ) ;........ // Swept volume
f o r low p r e s s u r e c y l i n d e r i n m3
disp ( Vs , Swept volume f o r low p r e s s u r e c y l i n d e r i n m
3 : )
vdhp =( mc * ts * R ) /( sqrt ( rp ) * ps *10^5) ;............ //
Volume o f a i r drawn i n h i g h p r e s s u r e c y l i n d e r p e r
c y c l e i n m3
vshp = vdhp / etav ;............... // Swept volume o f h i g h
p r e s s u r e c y l i n d e r i n m3
disp ( vshp , Swept volume o f h i g h p r e s s u r e c y l i n d e r i n
m 3 : )
269

Figure 20.23: Two stage compressor

Scilab code Exa 20.23 Two stage compressor


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 2 3
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 v1 =2.2;........... // f r e e a i r d e l i v e r e d by t h e
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

c o m p r e s s o r i n m3/ min
p1 =1;........ // S u c t i o n p r e s s u r e i n b a r
t1 =298;....... // S u c t i o n t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
pd =55;........ // D e l i v e r y p r e s s u r e i n b a r
N =210;....... // C o m p r e s s o r rpm
n =1.3;........ // C o m p r e s s i o n i n d e x
k =0.05;....... // C l e a r a n c e r a t i o f o r h i g h p r e s s u r e
and low p r e s s u r e c y l i n d e r s
R =287;....... // Gas c o n s t a n t i n J /kgK
ns =2;....... //No o f s t a g e s
270

12 // C a l c u l a t i o n s
13 ps = p1 ;
14 m =( p1 * v1 *10^5) /( R * t1 ) ;......... // Mass o f

air

d e i v e r e d i n m3/ min
15 W =( ns *( n /( n -1) ) ) * m * R * t1 *((( pd / ps ) ^(( n -1) /( ns * n ) ) ) -1)
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30

;........... // Work done by c o m p r e s s o r i n Nm/ min


P = W /(60*1000) ;........... // Power r e q u i r e d t o run t h e
compressor
disp (P , Power r e q u i r e d t o run t h e c o m p r e s s o r i n kW:
)
pi = sqrt ( ps * pd ) ;........ // I n t e r m e d i a t e p r e s s u r e i n
bar
etav1 =(1+ k ) -( k *(( pi / p1 ) ^(1/ n ) ) ) ;........... //
V o l u m e t r i c e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e low p r e s s u r e
cylinder
Vs =( v1 *10^6) /( etav1 * N ) ;............ // Swept volume i n
cm3
dlp =( Vs /(( %pi /4) ) ) ^(1/3) ;.......... // D i a m e t e r o f low
p r e s s u r e c y l i n d e r i n cm
llp = dlp ;................. // S t r o k e o f low p r e s s u r e
c y l i n d e r i n cm
disp ( dlp , Bore o f low p r e s s u r e c y l i n d e r i n cm : )
disp ( llp , S t r o k e o f low p r e s s u r e c y l i n d e r i n cm : )
dhp = sqrt ( dlp * dlp / pi ) ;......... // D i a m e t e r o f h i g h
p r e s s u r e c y l i n d e r i n cm
lhp = llp ;
disp ( dhp , Bore o f h i g h p r e s s u r e c y l i n d e r i n cm : )
disp ( lhp , S t r o k e o f h i g h p r e s s u r e c y l i n d e r i n cm : )
rcv = pi / ps ;..... // R a t i o o f c y l i n d e r v o l u m e s
disp ( rcv , R a t i o o f c y l i n d e r v o l u m e s : )

Scilab code Exa 20.24 Two stage double acting compressor

271

Figure 20.24: Two stage double acting compressor


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15
16

clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 2 4


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
p1 =1;........ // S u c t i o n p r e s s u r e i n b a r
p2 =4;..... // I n t e r m e d i a t e p r e s s u r e i n b a r
p5 =3.8;....... // P r e s s u r e o f a i r l e a v i n g t h e
i n t e r o o l e r in bar
p6 =15.2;........ // D e l i v e r y p r e s s u r e i n b a r
t1 =300;.......... // S u c t i o n t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
dlp =0.36;........ // D i a m e t e r o f low p r e s s u r e c y l i n d e r
in m
llp =0.4;........ // S t r o k e o f low p r e s s u r e c y l i n d e r i n
m
N =220;........ // C o m p r e s s o r rpm
k =0.04;........ // C l e a r a n c e r a t i o
cp =1.0035;......... // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK
n =1.3;........ // C o m p r e s s i o n i n d e x
R =0.287;........ // Gas c o n s t a n t i n kJ /kgK
p8 = p5 ; p3 = p2 ; p7 = p6 ; t5 = t1 ;
// C a l c u l a t i o n s

272

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Vslp =( %pi /4) * dlp * dlp * llp * N *2;....... // Swept volume


i n m3
etavlp =(1+ k ) -( k *(( p2 / p1 ) ^(1/ n ) ) ) ;..... // V o l u m e t r i c
efficiency
valp = Vslp * etavlp ;................ // Volume o f a i r
drawn i n low p r e s s u r e c y l i n d e r i n m3
m =( p1 *10^5* valp ) /( R *1000* t1 ) ;........ // Mass o f a i r
d r a w i n i n kg / min
t2 = round ( t1 *(( p2 / p1 ) ^(( n -1) / n ) ) ) ;
Qr = m * cp *( t2 - t5 ) ;........ // Heat r e j e c t e d t o t h e
i n t e r c o o l e r i n kJ / min
disp ( Qr , Heat r e j e c t e d t o t h e i n t e r c o o l e r i n kJ / min :
)
vahp =( m * R * t5 *1000) /( p5 *10^5) ;... // Volume o f a i r
drawn i n t o h i g h p r e s s u r e c y l i n d e r p e r min i n m3
Vshp = vahp / etavlp ;......... // Swept volume o f h i g h
p r e s s u r e c y l i n d e r i n m3/ min
dhp = sqrt ( Vshp /(( %pi /4) *2* N * llp ) ) ;.......... //
Diameter o f high p r e s s u r e c y l i n d e r in m
disp ( dhp *1000 , D i a m e t e r o f h i g h p r e s s u r e c y l i n d e r i n
mm: )
P =( n /( n -1) ) * m *(1/60) * R *( t2 - t1 ) ;....... // Power
r e q u i r e d f o r h i g h p r e s s u r e c y l i n d e r i n kW
disp (P , Power r e q u i r e d f o r h i g h p r e s s u r e c y l i n d e r i n
kW: )

Scilab code Exa 20.25 Two stage single acting compressor


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4
5

clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 2 5


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
ps =1;........ // S u c t i o n p r e s s u r e i n b a r
pi =4.2;..... // I n t e r m e d i a t e p r e s s u r e i n b a r
pi1 =4;....... // P r e s s u r e o f a i r l e a v i n g t h e
273

Figure 20.25: Two stage single acting compressor

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i n t e r o o l e r in bar
pd =18;........ // D e l i v e r y p r e s s u r e i n b a r
t1 =298;.......... // S u c t i o n t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
t5 = t1 ;
dlp =0.4;........ // D i a m e t e r o f low p r e s s u r e c y l i n d e r
in m
llp =0.5;........ // S t r o k e o f low p r e s s u r e c y l i n d e r i n
m
N =200;........ // C o m p r e s s o r rpm
k =0.05;........ // C l e a r a n c e r a t i o
cp =1.004;......... // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK
n =1.25;........ // C o m p r e s s i o n i n d e x
R =0.287;........ // Gas c o n s t a n t i n kJ /kgK
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
Vslp =( %pi /4) * dlp * dlp * llp ;.......... // Swept volume o f
low p r e s s u r e c y l i n d e r i n m3
etavlp =(1+ k ) -( k *(( pi / ps ) ^(1/ n ) ) ) ;..... // V o l u m e t r i c
efficiency
t2 = round ( t1 *(( pi / ps ) ^(( n -1) / n ) ) ) ;

274

Figure 20.26: Two stage single acting compressor


20 m =( ps *10^5* etavlp * Vslp ) /( R *1000* t1 ) ;... // Mass o f

air

i n kg
21 wlp =(( n ) /( n -1) ) * R *1000* t1 * m *((( pi / ps ) ^(( n -1) /( n ) ) )

22

23
24
25
26
27

-1) ;.......... // Work done p e r min i n Nm i n low


pressure cylinder
whp =(( n ) /( n -1) ) * R * t5 * m *1000*((( pd / pi1 ) ^(( n -1) /( n ) ) )
-1) ;.......... // Work done p e r min i n Nm i n h i g h
pressure cylinder
W = wlp + whp ;......... // Net work done i n Nm
IP =( W * N ) /(60*1000) ;............ // Power r e q u i r e d t o
run t h e c o m p r e s s o r i n kW
disp ( IP , Power r e q u i r e d t o run t h e c o m p r e s s o r i n kW:
)
Qr = m * N * cp *( t2 - t1 ) ;........... // Heat r e j e c t e d i n
i n t e r c o o l e r i n kJ / min
disp ( Qr , Heat r e j e c t e d i n i n t e r c o o l e r i n kJ / min : )

275

Scilab code Exa 20.26 Two stage single acting compressor


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 2 6
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 p1 =1;............ // I n t a k e p r e s s u r e i n b a r
4 p2 =4;.............. // P r e s s u r e a f t e r f i r s t s t a g e i n
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bar
p3 =16;............ // F i n a l p r e s s u r e i n b a r
ns =2;............ //No o f s t a g e s
t1 =300;............ // I n t a k e t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
n =1.3;............ // C o m p r e s s i o n i n d e x
klp =0.04;......... // C l e a r a n c e r a t i o f o r low p r e s s u r e
cylinder
khp =0.06;........ // C l e a r a n c e r a t i o f o r h i g h p r e s s u r e
cylinder
N =440;............ // E n g i n e rpm
R =0.287;.......... // Gas c o n s t a n t i n kJ /kgK
m =10.5;............. // Mass o f a i r d e l i v e r e d i n kg /
min
cp =1.005;......... // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
rp = sqrt ( p1 * p3 ) ;........... // P r e s s u r e r a t i o p e r s t a g e
P =(( ns * n ) /( n -1) ) * R * t1 *( m /60) *((( p3 / p1 ) ^(( n -1) /( ns * n )
) ) -1) ;.......... // Work done p e r min i n Nm
disp (P , Power r e q u i r e d i n kW: )
isoWd =( m /60) * R * t1 * log ( p3 / p1 ) ;.......... // I s o t h e r m a l
work done i n Nm
disp ( isoWd , I s o t h e r m a l work done i n kW: )
etaiso = isoWd / P ;............... // I s o t h e r m a l
efficiency
disp ( etaiso *100 , I s o t h e r m a l e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )
FAD =( m * R * t1 *1000) /( p1 *10^5) ;............. // F r e e a i r
d e l i v e r e d i n m3/ min
276

24 disp ( FAD , F r e e a i r d e l i v e r e d i n m3/ min : )


25 t2 = t1 *(( p2 / p1 ) ^(( n -1) / n ) ) ;..... // T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e
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end o f c o m p r e s s i o n i n K
Qt =( m /60) * cp *( t2 - t1 ) ;.............. // Heat
t r a n s f e r r e d i n i n t e r c o o l e r i n kW
disp ( Qt , Heat t r a n s f e r r e d i n i n t e r c o o l e r i n kW: )
etavlp =(1+ klp ) -( klp *(( p2 / p1 ) ^(1/ n ) ) ) ;.......... //
V o l u m e t r i c e f f i c i e n c y o f low p r e s s u r e s t a g e
etavhp =(1+ khp ) -( khp *(( p2 / p1 ) ^(1/ n ) ) ) ;.......... //
Volumetric e f f i c i e n c y of high pressure stage
vslp = FAD /( N * etavlp ) ;...... // Swept volume f o r low
p r e s s u r e s t a g e i n m3
vclp = klp * vslp ;.............. // C l e a r a n c e volume f o r
low p r e s s u r e s t a g e i n m3
printf ( \ nSwept volume f o r low p r e s s u r e s t a g e i n m
3:
%f\n , vslp )
printf ( \ n C l e a r a n c e volume f o r low p r e s s u r e s t a g e i n
m 3 : %f\n , vclp )
vshp = FAD /( N * rp * etavhp ) ;...... // Swept volume f o r h i g h
p r e s s u r e s t a g e i n m3
vchp = khp * vshp ;.............. // C l e a r a n c e volume f o r
h i g h p r e s s u r e s t a g e i n m3
printf ( \ nSwept volume f o r h i g h p r e s s u r e s t a g e i n m
3 : %f\n , vshp )
printf ( \ n C l e a r a n c e volume f o r h i g h p r e s s u r e s t a g e
i n m 3 : %f\n , vchp )

Scilab code Exa 20.27 Three stage compressor


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 2 7
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 ns =3;...... //No o f s t a g e s
4 p1 =1.05;...... // I n t a k e p r e s s u r e i n b a r

277

Figure 20.27: Three stage compressor


5 pd =40;.......... // D e l i v e r y p r e s s u r e i n b a r
6 V =3;.......... // Volume o f a i r x u p p l i e d p e r min i n m
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3
n =1.25;........ // C o m p r e s s i o n i n d e x
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
Wd =(( ns * n ) /( n -1) ) * p1 * V *10^5*((( pd / p1 ) ^(( n -1) /( ns * n ) )
) -1) ;.......... // Work done p e r min i n Nm
disp ( Wd , Work done i n Nm: )
isoWd =10^5* p1 * V * log ( pd / p1 ) ;.......... // I s o t h e r m a l
work done i n Nm
disp ( isoWd , I s o t h e r m a l work done i n Nm: )
etaiso = isoWd / Wd ;............... // I s o t h e r m a l
efficiency
disp ( etaiso *100 , I s o t h e r m a l e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )
wdss =(( n ) /( n -1) ) * p1 * V *10^5*((( pd / p1 ) ^(( n -1) /( n ) ) ) -1)
;.......... // S i n g l e s t a g e Work done p e r min i n Nm
disp ( wdss , S i n g l e s t a g e work done p e r min i n Nm: )
perws =( wdss - Wd ) / wdss ;....... // P e r c e n t a g e o f work
saved
disp ( perws *100 , P e r c e n t a g e o f work s a v e d : )

278

Figure 20.28: Three stage compressor

Scilab code Exa 20.28 Three stage compressor


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13

clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 2 8


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
p1 =1;............. // I n t a k e p r e s s u r e i n b a r
p4 =36;........ // F i n a l p r e s s u r e i n b a r
n =1.25;......... // C o m p r e s s i o n i n d e x
R =0.287;....... // Gas c o n s t a n t i n kJ /kgK
t1 =300;.......... // I n t a k e t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
ns =3;........... //No o f s t a g e s
v =15;.......... // Volume o f a i r d e l i v e r e d i n m3
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
p2 = p1 *(( p4 / p1 ) ^(1/ ns ) ) ;
p3 = p2 *(( p4 / p1 ) ^(1/ ns ) ) ;
printf ( \n\ n I n t e r m e d i a t e p r e s s u r e s \n\n p2=%f\n
279

p3=

Figure 20.29: Three stage compressor

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%f\n\n ,p2 , p3 )
t2 = t1 *(( p4 / p1 ) ^((( n -1) / n ) *(1/ ns ) ) ) ;.... // D e l i v e r y
temperature
in K
m = p1 *10^5* v /( R *1000* t1 ) ;........... // Mass o f a i r
h a n d l e d p e r min i n kg
Wt =(( n /( n -1) ) * m * R *(1/60) *( t2 - t1 ) * ns ) ;........ // T o t a l
work done i n t h r e e s t a g e s
disp ( Wt , I n d i c a t e d power r e q u i r e d i n kW: )

Scilab code Exa 20.29 Three stage compressor


1
2
3
4
5

clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 2 9


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
ns =3;........ //No o f s t a g e s
N =200;....... // C o m p r e s s o r rpm
p1 =1;....... // I n t a k e p r e s s u r e i n b a r
280

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t1 =20+273;.... // I n t a k e t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
D =0.35;...... // E n g i n e b o r e i n m
L =0.4;....... // E n g i n e s t r o k e i n m
p2 =4;........ // D i s c h a r g e p r e s s u r e from f i r s t s t a g e
in bar
p6 =16;........ // D i s c h a r g e p r e s s u r e from s e c o n d s t a g e
in bar
p10 =64;........ // D i s c h a r g e p r e s s u r e from t h i r d s t a g e
in bar
pd =0.2;........ // L o s s o f p r e s s u r e b e t w e e n
i n t e r c o o l e r s in bar
R =0.287;...... // Gas c o n s t a n t i n kJ /kgK
k =0.04;....... // C l e a r e n c e volume i n 4% o f t h e s t r o k e
volume
n1 =1.2;..... // C o m p r e s s o r i n d e x f o r f i r s t s t a g e
n2 =1.25;..... // C o m p r e s s o r i n d e x f o r s e c o n d s t a g e
n3 =1.3;..... // C o m p r e s s o r i n d e x f o r t h i r d s t a g e
cp =1.005;...... // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e
i n kJ /kgK
etamech =0.8;..... // M e c h a n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
p5 = p2 - pd ; p9 = p6 - pd ; t5 = t1 ; t9 = t1 ;
Vs =( %pi /4) * D * D * L * N *2;............ // Swept volume o f
low p r e s s u r e c y l i n d e r p e r min i n m3
etav1 =(1+ k ) -( k *(( p2 / p1 ) ^(1/ n1 ) ) ) ;..... // V o l u m e t r i c
e f f i c i e n c y in f i r s t stage
etav2 =(1+ k ) -( k *(( p6 / p5 ) ^(1/ n2 ) ) ) ;..... // V o l u m e t r i c
e f f i c i e n c y in second stage
etav3 =(1+ k ) -( k *(( p10 / p9 ) ^(1/ n3 ) ) ) ;..... // V o l u m e t r i c
e f f i c i e n c y in third stage
vain1 = Vs * etav1 ;................. // Volume o f a i r
t a k e n i n f i r s t s t a g e i n m3/ min
m =( p1 *10^5) * vain1 /( R * t1 *1000) ;........... // Mass o f
a i r i n t a k e i n kg / min i n f i r s t s t a g e
t2 = round ( t1 *(( p2 / p1 ) ^(( n1 -1) / n1 ) ) ) ;
t6 = t5 *(( p6 / p5 ) ^(( n2 -1) / n2 ) ) ;
t10 = t9 *(( p10 / p9 ) ^(( n3 -1) / n3 ) ) ;
Qr1 = m * cp *( t2 - t5 ) ;........ // Heat r e j e c t e d i n
281

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i n t e r c o o l e r a f t e r f i r s t s t a g e i n kJ / min
Qr2 = m * cp *( t6 - t9 ) ;........ // Heat r e j e c t e d i n
i n t e r c o o l e r a f t e r s e c o n d s t a g e i n kJ / min
Qr3 = m * cp *( t10 - t1 ) ;........ // Heat r e j e c t e d i n
i n t e r c o o l e r a f t e r t h i r d s t a g e i n kJ / min
disp ( Qr1 , Heat r e j e c t e d i n i n t e r c o o l e r a f t e r f i r s t
s t a g e i n kJ / min : )
disp ( Qr2 , Heat r e j e c t e d i n i n t e r c o o l e r a f t e r s e c o n d
s t a g e i n kJ / min : )
disp ( Qr3 , Heat r e j e c t e d i n i n t e r c o o l e r a f t e r t h i r d
s t a g e i n kJ / min : )
vainip = m * R * t5 *1000/( p5 *10^5) ;......... // Volume drawn
i n i n t e r m e d i a t e p r e s s u r e c y l i n d e r / min
Vsip = vainip / etav2 ;............. // Swept volume o f
i n t e r m e d i a t e c y l i n d e r i n m3/ min
Dip = sqrt ( Vsip /(2* N * L *( %pi /4) ) ) ;............ //
Diameter o f the i n t e r m e d i a t e c y l i n d e r in m
disp ( Dip *1000 , D i a m e t e r o f t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e c y l i n d e r
i n mm: )
vainhp = m * R * t9 *1000/( p9 *10^5) ;......... // Volume drawn
i n h i g h p r e s s u r e c y l i n d e r / min
Vshp = vainhp / etav3 ;............. // Swept volume o f
h i g h p r e s s u r e c y l i n d e r i n m3/ min
Dhp = sqrt ( Vshp /(2* N * L *( %pi /4) ) ) ;............ //
Diameter o f the i n t e r m e d i a t e c y l i n d e r in m
disp ( Dhp *1000 , D i a m e t e r o f t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e c y l i n d e r
i n mm: )
Ps =[{( n1 /( n1 -1) ) * m * R *( t2 - t1 ) }+{( n2 /( n2 -1) ) * m * R *( t6 t5 ) }+{( n3 /( n3 -1) ) * m * R *( t10 - t9 ) }]*(1/(60* etamech ) )
;... // S h a f t power i n kW
disp ( Ps , S h a f t power i n kW: )
cv = cp - R ;.......... // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t volume
i n kJ /kgK
ga = cp / cv ;........... // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
Qt1 = cv *(( ga - n1 ) /( ga -1) ) *( t2 - t1 ) * m ;............ // Heat
t r a n s f e r d u r i n g f i r s t s t a g e i n kJ / min
Qt2 = cv *(( ga - n2 ) /( ga -1) ) *( t6 - t1 ) * m ;............ // Heat
t r a n s f e r d u r i n g s e c o n d s t a g e i n kJ / min
282

Figure 20.30: Multi stage compressor


51 Qt3 = cv *(( ga - n3 ) /( ga -1) ) *( t10 - t1 ) * m ;............ //

Heat t r a n s f e r d u r i n g t h i r d s t a g e i n kJ / min
printf ( \ nHeat t r a n s f e r r e d d u r i n g f i r s t s t a g e i n kJ /
min : %f\n , Qt1 )
53 printf ( \ nHeat t r a n s f e r r e d d u r i n g s e c o n d s t a g e i n kJ
/ min : %f\n , Qt2 )
54 printf ( \ nHeat t r a n s f e r r e d d u r i n g t h i r d s t a g e i n kJ /
min : %f\n , Qt3 )
52

Scilab code Exa 20.30 Multi stage compressor


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clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 3 0


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
p1 =1;..... // I n t a k e p r e s s u r e i n b a r
p5 =125;..... // P r e s s u r e o f t h e c o m p r e s s e d a i r i n b a r
rpr =4;......... // P r e s s u r e r a t i o i s r e s t r i c t e d t o 4
283

Figure 20.31: Multi stage compressor


// C a l c u l a t i o n s
X =( log ( p5 / p1 ) / log ( rpr ) ) ;
if (X > round ( X ) )
x = round ( X ) +1;
else
x = round ( X ) ;
end
disp (x , No o f s t a g e s : )
esrp =( p5 / p1 ) ^(1/ x ) ;
disp ( esrp , Exact s t a g e p r e s s u r e r a t i o s : )
p4 = p5 / esrp ; p3 = p4 / esrp ; p2 = p3 / esrp ;...... //
I n t e r m e d i a t e p r e s s u r e s in bar
17 printf ( \ n I n t e r m e d i a t e p r e s s u r e s \ np4=%f\ np3=%f\ np2=
%f ,p4 , p3 , p2 )

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Scilab code Exa 20.31 Multi stage compressor


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clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 3 1


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
ps =1;......... // S u c t i o n p r e s s u r e i n b a r
t1 =273+125;....... // D e l i v e r y t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
pd =160;........... // D e l i v e r y p r e s s u r e i n b a r
tm =40+273;........ // Min t e m p e r a t u r e
ts =298;........ // S u c t i o n t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
n =1.25;...... // A d i a b a t i c i n d e x
cv =0.71;....... // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t volume i n
kJ /kgK
R =0.287;...... // Gas c o n s t a n t i n kJ /kgK
ns =3;....... //No o f s t a g e s
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
p1 = ps *(( t1 / ts ) ^( n /( n -1) ) ) ;
x =( log ( pd / p1 ) ) /((( n /( n -1) ) *( log ( t1 / tm ) ) ) ) ;
disp ( round ( x ) +1 , No o f s t a g e s : )
rp1 = p1 ;........... // P r e s s u r e r a t i o i n 1 s t s t a g e
rp =( pd / rp1 ) ^(1/ ns ) ;......... // P r e s s u r e r a t i o i n t h e
following stage
W =( n /( n -1) ) * R * ts *((( rp1 ) ^(( n -1) / n ) ) -1) ;......... //
Work done i n f i r s t s t a g e i n kJ
Wf = ns *( n /( n -1) ) * R * tm *((( rp ) ^(( n -1) / n ) ) -1) ;.........
// Work done i n n e x t t h r e e s t a g e s i n kJ
wt = W + Wf ;............ // T o t a l work done p e r kg i n kJ
disp ( wt , T o t a l work done i n kJ / kg : )
cp = cv + R ;.............. // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK
Qr = ns * cp *( t1 - tm ) ;............. // Heat r e j e c t e d i n
i n t e r c o o l e r s i n kJ / kg
disp ( Qr , Heat r e j e c t e d i n i n t e r c o o l e r s i n kJ / kg : )

Scilab code Exa 20.32 Three stage compressor

285

Figure 20.32: Three stage compressor


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 3 2
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 Vamb =10.5;........ // F r e e a i r volume i n m3
4 Pamb =1.013;........... // F r e e a i r p r e s s s u r e i n b a r
5 Tamb =273+15;.......... // F r e e a i r t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
6 T1 =(273+25) ;........... // T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e end o f
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suction in a l l cylinders in K
P1 =1;............ // P r e s s u r e a t t h e s u c t i o n i n b a r
pd =95;........... // D e l i v e r y p r e s s s u r e i n b a r
N =100;......... // C o m p r e s s o r rpm
n =1.25;.......... // A d i a b a t i c i n d e x
k =0.04;......... // F r a c t i o n a l c l e a r a n c e s f o r LP
k1 =0.07;......... // F r a c t i o n a l c l e a r a n c e s f o r HP
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
z =( pd / P1 ) ^(1/3) ;......... // P r e s s u r e r a t i o
pi1 = z * P1 ;
pi2 = z * pi1 ;
etavollp =1+ k -( k *( z ^(1/ n ) ) ) ;
etavolhp =1+ k1 -( k1 *( z ^(1/ n ) ) ) ;
v1 =( Pamb * Vamb * T1 ) /( Tamb * P1 ) ;

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sclp =( round ( v1 ) ) /( etavollp * N ) ;......... // Swept


c a p a c i t y o f LP c y l i n d e r i n m3
disp ( sclp , Swept c a p a c i t y o f low p r e s s u r e c y l i n d e r
i n m 3 : )
vip =( Pamb * Vamb * T1 ) /( pi1 * Tamb ) ;......... // Volume o f
f r e e a i r r e d u c e d t o s u c t i o n c o n d i t i o n s o f IP
cylinder
scip = vip /( etavolhp * N ) ;......... // Swept c a p a c i t y o f
IP c y l i n d e r i n m3
disp ( scip , Swept c a p a c i t y o f i n t e r m e d i a t e p r e s s u r e
c y l i n d e r i n m 3 : )
vhp =( Pamb * Vamb * T1 ) /( pi2 * Tamb ) ;......... // Volume o f
f r e e a i r r e d u c e d t o s u c t i o n c o n d i t i o n s o f HP
cylinder
schp = vhp /( etavolhp * N ) ;......... // Swept c a p a c i t y o f
HP c y l i n d e r i n m3
disp ( schp , Swept c a p a c i t y o f i n t e r m e d i a t e p r e s s u r e
c y l i n d e r i n m 3 : )

Scilab code Exa 20.34 Indicated power and air supplied per minute
clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 3 4
// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
D =0.0635;....... // E n g i n e b o r e i n m
L =0.114;......... // E n g i n e s t r o k e i n m
p1 =6.3;.......... // S u p p l y p r e s s u r e i n b a r
t1 =273+24;......... // S u p p l y t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
p4 =1.013;.......... // Exhaust p r e s s u r e i n b a r
cv =0.05;............ // C l e a r a n c e volume i s 5% o f t h e
s w e p t volume
9 cr =0.5;.......... // Cut o f f r a t i o
10 n =1.3;........... // A d i a b a t i c i n d e x
11 R =287;............... // g a s c o n s t a n t i n kJ /kgK
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287

Figure 20.33: Indicated power and air supplied per minute


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N =300;............. // E n g i n e rpm
ga =1.4;........... // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
Vs =( %pi * D * D * L ) /4;........ // Swept volume i n m3
Vc = cv * Vs ;.......... // C l e a r a n c e volume i n m3
v6 = Vc ; v5 = v6 ;
v1 =( Vs /2) + Vc ; v2 = Vs + Vc ; v3 = v2 ; p3 = p4 ; v4 = v5 +( cv * Vs ) ;
p2 = p1 *(( v1 / v2 ) ^ n ) ;....... // P r e s s u r e a t t h e end o f
expansion
t2 = t1 *(( v1 / v2 ) ^( n -1) ) ;........ // T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e
end o f e x p a n s i o n i n K
disp ( t2 , T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e end o f e x p a n s i o n i n K : )
p5 = p4 *(( v4 / v5 ) ^ n ) ;
w =(( p1 *( v1 - v6 ) ) +((( p1 * v1 ) -( p2 * v2 ) ) /( n -1) ) -( p3 *( v3 - v4
) ) -((( p5 * v5 ) -( p4 * v4 ) ) /( n -1) ) ) *10^5;....... // Workk
done p e r c y c l e i n Nm
IP =( w * N ) /(60*1000) ;.......... // I n d i c a t e d power i n kW
disp ( IP , I n d i c a t e d power o f t h e motor i n kW: )
t3 = t2 *(( p3 / p2 ) ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;
t4 = t3 ; m4 =( p4 * v4 *10^5) /( R * t4 ) ; m1 =( p1 * v1 *10^5) /( R * t1 ) ;

288

Figure 20.34: Comparison of roots blower and vane type compressor


28 ma =( m1 - m4 ) * N ;.......... // Mass o f
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a i r supplied per

min
disp ( ma , Mass o f a i r s u p p l i e d p e r min i n kg : )

Scilab code Exa 20.35 Comparison of roots blower and vane type compressor
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clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 3 5


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
v =0.03;.............. // I n d u c e d volume i n m3/ r e v
p1 =1.013;........... // I n l e t p r e s s u r e i n b a r
rp =1.5;............ // P r e s s u r e r a t i o
ga =1.4;........... // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
p2 = rp * p1 ;

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Figure 20.35: Roots blower


9 wr =( p2 - p1 ) *(10^5) * v /1000;..... // Work i n p u t

for roots

c o m p r e s s o r i n kJ
10 disp ( wr , Work i n p u t f o r r o o t s c o m p r e s s o r i n kJ / r e v )
11 pi =( p2 + p1 ) /2;
12 wv =(( p2 - pi ) *(10^5) * v *(( p1 / pi ) ^(1/ ga ) ) *(1/1000) ) +(( ga

/( ga -1) ) * p1 *(10^5) *( v /1000) *((( pi / p1 ) ^(( ga -1) / ga )


) -1) ) ;... // Work i n p u t r e q u i r e d f o r vane t y p e i n
kJ / r e v
13 disp ( wv , Work i n p u t f o r vane c o m p r e s s o r i n kJ / r e v )

Scilab code Exa 20.36 Roots blower


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 3 6
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 v =0.08;......... // Volume o f a i r c o m p r e s s e d i n m3
4 p1 =1;.......... // I n t a k e p r e s s u r e i n b a r

290

Figure 20.36: Centrifugal compressor


5 p2 =1.5;........ // P r e s s u r e

a f t e r compression in in

bar
6 ga =1.4;......... // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
7 // C a l c u l a t i o n s
8 wac = v *( p2 - p1 ) *10^5;........ // A c t u a l work done i n Nm
9 wid =( ga /( ga -1) ) * p1 * v *(10^5) *((( p2 / p1 ) ^(( ga -1) / ga ) )

-1) ;........... // I d e a l work done p e r r e v o l u t i o n


i n Nw
10 etac = wid / wac ;................ // C o m p r e s s o r e f f i c i e n c y
11 disp ( etac *100 , C o m p r e s s o r e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )

Scilab code Exa 20.37 Centrifugal compressor


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 3 7
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 m =2.5;.......... // A i r f l o w r a t e i n kg / s

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p1 =1;........ // I n l e t p r e s s u r e i n b a r
t1 =290;............ // I n l e t t e m p e r a t u r e i n b a r
C1 =80;.......... // I n l e t V e l o c i t y i n m/ s
p2 =1.5;........ // p r e s s u r e a f t e r c o m p r e s s i o n i n b a r
t2 =345;............ // t e m p e r a t u r e a f t e r c o m p r e s s i o n
in bar
C2 =220;.......... // V e l o c i t y a f t e r c o m p r e s s i o n i n m/ s
cp =1.005;........... // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK
ga =1.4;............ // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
R =287;.............. // Gas c o n s t a n t f o r a i r i n kJ /kgK
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
t21 = t1 *(( p2 / p1 ) ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;
wisen = cp *( t21 - t1 ) +(( C2 * C2 ) -( C1 * C1 ) ) /(2*1000) ;..... //
I s e n t r o p i c work done i n kJ / kg
w = cp *( t2 - t1 ) +(( C2 * C2 ) -( C1 * C1 ) ) /(2*1000) ;..... //
A c t u a l work done ( i n i m p e l l e r ) i n kJ / kg
etaisen = wisen / w ;............... // I s e n t r o p i c
efficiency
disp ( etaisen *100 , I s e n t r o p i c e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )
P = m * w ;.......... // Power r e q u i r e d t o d r i v e t h e
c o o m p r e s s o r i n kW
disp (P , Power r e q u i r e d t o d r i v e t h e c o o m p r e s s o r i n
kW: )
t3 =((( C2 * C2 ) -( C1 * C1 ) ) /(2*1000* cp ) ) + t2 ;.... //
Temperature o f a i r a f t e r l e a v i n g the d i f f u s e r i n
K
p3 = p2 *(( t3 / t2 ) ^( ga /( ga -1) ) ) ;.......... // P r e s s u r e o f
a i r a f t e r l e a v i n g the d i f f u s e r in bar
t31 = t1 *(( p3 / p1 ) ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;........... // D e l i v e r y
t e m p e r a t u r e from d i f f u s e r i n K
etao =( t31 - t1 ) /( t3 - t1 ) ;............... // O v e r a l l
efficiency
disp ( etao *100 , O v e r a l l e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )

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Figure 20.37: Single inlet type centrifugal compressor

Scilab code Exa 20.38 Single inlet type centrifugal compressor


clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 3 8
// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
ma =528;............. // A i r f l o w i n kg / min
m = ma /60;............. // A i r f l o w i n kg / s
p1 =1;........ // I n l e t p r e s s u r e i n b a r
t1 =293;............ // I n l e t t e m p e r a t u r e i n b a r
N =20000;.............. // C o m p r e s s o r rpm
etaisen =0.8;......... // I s e n t r o p i c e f f i c i e n c y
po1 =1;......... // S t a t i c p r e s s u r e i n b a r
p02 =4;........... // F i n a l t o t a l p r e s s u r e i n b a r
C1 =145;......... // V e l o c i t y o f a i r when e n t e r i n g t h e
i m p e l l e r i n m/ s
12 rwt =0.9;.......... // R a t i o o f w h i r l s p e e d t o t i p
speed
13 dh =0.12;........ //Hub d i a m e t e r i n m

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14 cp =1.005;........... // S p e c i f i c

heat at constant

p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK
15 ga =1.4;............ // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
16 R =287;.............. // Gas c o n s t a n t f o r a i r i n kJ /kgK
17 // C a l c u l a t i o n s
18 t01 = t1 +(( C1 * C1 ) /(2* cp *1000) ) ;.......... // S t a g n a t i o n

t e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e i n l e t t o t h e machine i n K
19 p01 = p1 *(( t01 / t1 ) ^( ga /( ga -1) ) ) ;..... // S t a g n a t i o n
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p r e s s u r e a t t h e i n l e t t o t h e machine i n b a r
t021 = t01 *(( p02 / p01 ) ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;
deltisen = t021 - t01 ;......... // I s e n t r o p i c r i s e i n
temperature in K
delt = round ( deltisen / etaisen ) ;........ // A c t u a l r i s e
in temperature
disp ( delt , A c t u a l r i s e i n t e m p e r a t u r e : )
wc = cp * delt ;......... // Work consumed by c o m p r e s s o r i n
kJ / kg
Cbl2 = sqrt ( wc *1000/ rwt ) ;
d2 = Cbl2 *60/( %pi * N ) ;.......... // Tip d i a m e t e r o f t h e
impeller in m
disp ( d2 *100 , Tip d i a m e t e r o f t h e i m p e l l e r i n cm : )
P = m * wc ;............ // Power r e q u i r e d i n kW
disp (P , Power r e q u i r e d i n kW: )
rho1 =( p1 *10^5) /( R * t1 ) ;....... // D e n s i t y a t e n t r y i n
kg /m3
d1 = sqrt ((( m *4) /( C1 * rho1 * %pi ) ) +( dh ^2) ) ;....... // Eye
diameter in m
disp ( d1 *100 , D i a m e t e r o f t h e e y e i n cm : )

Scilab code Exa 20.39 Centrifugal compressor


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 3 9
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s

294

Figure 20.38: Centrifugal compressor


3 N =10000;................. // C o m p r e s s o r rpm
4 v =660;............ // Volume o f a i r d e l i v e r e d
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min
p1 =1;................. // I n l e t p r e s s u r e i n b a r
t1 =293;............. // I n l e t t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
rp =4;............. // P r e s s u r e r a t i o
etaisen =0.82;........ // I s e n t r o p i c e f f i c i e n c y
Cf2 =62;............... // Flow v e l o c i t y i n m/ s
rr =2;............. // R a t i o o f o u t e r r a d i u s o f
i m p e l l e r to inner radius of i m p e l l e r
ka =0.9;.............. // B l a d e a r e a c o e f f i c i e n t
fis =0.9;........... // S l i p f a c t o r
cp =1.005;.............. // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK
ga =1.4;............ // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
R =287;.............. // Gas c o n s t a n t f o r a i r i n kJ /kgK
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
t21 = t1 *( rp ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ; Cf1 = Cf2 ;
t2 = t1 +(( t21 - t1 ) / etaisen ) ;.......... // F i n a l
temperature of a i r

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19 m =( p1 *10^5* v /60) /( R * t1 ) ;............... // Mass f l o w

r a t e i n m3/ s
20 P = m * cp *( t2 - t1 ) ;......... // T h e o r e t i c a l power i n kW
21 disp ( t2 , F i n a l t e m p e r a t u r e o f a i r i n Kevin : )
22 disp (P , T h e o r e t i c a l power i n kW: )
23 Cbl2 = sqrt (1000* cp *( t2 - t1 ) / fis ) ;
24 d2 =60* Cbl2 /( %pi * N ) ;.......... // I m p e l l e r d i a m e t e r a t
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outlet in m
d1 = d2 / rr ;............... // I m p e l l e r d i a m e t e r a t i n l e t
in m
disp ( d2 *100 , I m p e l l e r d i a m e t e r a t o u t l e t i n cm )
disp ( d1 *100 , I m p e l l e r d i a m e t e r a t i n l e t i n cm )
b1 =( v /60) /(2* %pi *( d1 /2) * Cf1 * ka ) ;......... // B r e a d t h
of i m p e l l e r at i n l e t in m
disp ( b1 *100 , B r e a d t h o f i m p e l l e r a t i n l e t i n cm : )
Cbl1 = Cbl2 / rr ;
beta1 =( atan ( Cf1 / Cbl1 ) ) *180/ %pi ;
al2 =( atan ( Cf2 /( fis * Cbl2 ) ) ) *180/ %pi ;
disp ( beta1 , I m p e l l e r b l a d e a n g l e a t i n l e t i n d e g r e e s
: )
disp ( al2 , D i f f u s e r b l a d e a n g l e a t i n l e t i n d e g r e e s )

Scilab code Exa 20.40 Centrifugal compressor


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3
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7
8

clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 4 0


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
v1 =4.8;...... // Volume o f a i r c o m p r e s s e d i n m3/ s
p1 =1;.... // I n l e t p r e s s u r e i n b a r
t1 =293;........ // I n l e t p r e s s u r e i n K
n =1.5;........ // C o m p r e s s i o n i n d e x
Cf1 =65;...... // A i r f l o w v e l o c i t y a t i n l e t i n m/ s
Cf2 = Cf1 ;...... // Flow v e l o c i t y i s same a t i n l e t and
outlet
296

Figure 20.39: Centrifugal compressor


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19
20

d1 =0.32;.......... // I n l e t i m p e l l e r d i a m e t e r i n m
d2 =0.62;........ // O u t l e t i m p e l l e r d i a m e t e r i n m
N =8000;........ // B l o w e r rpm
cp =1.005;...... // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e
i n kJ /kgK
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
t21 = t1 *(( n / p1 ) ^(( n -1) / n ) ) ;.... // T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e
o u t l e t of compressor in K
Cbl1 =( %pi * d1 * N ) /60;...... // P e r i p h e r a l v e l o c i t y a t
i n l e t i n m/ s
Cbl2 =( %pi * N * d2 ) /60;...... // Tip p e r i p h e r a l v e l o c i t y
a t o u t l e t i n m/ s
Cw2 =( cp *( t21 - t1 ) *1000) / Cbl2 ;
be1 =( atan ( Cf1 / Cbl1 ) ) *180/ %pi ; be2 =( atan ( Cf2 /( Cbl2 - Cw2
) ) ) *180/ %pi ;...... // B l a d e a n g l e s a t t h e t i p o f
the i m p e l l e r
al2 = ( atan ( Cf2 / Cw2 ) ) *180/ %pi ;
printf ( \ n B l a d e a n g l e s \n\n\ t B l a d e a n g l e a t t h e
i n l e t o f t h e i m p e l l e r : b e t a 1=%f \n\ t B l a d e a n g l e
a t t h e o u t l e t o f t h e i m p e l l e r : b e t a 2=%f \n\ t

297

Figure 20.40: Centrifugal compressor

21
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25

A b s o l u t e a n g l e a t t h e t i p o f i m p e l l e r : a l p h a 2=%f
\n\n ,be1 , be2 , al2 )
b1 = v1 /(2* %pi *( d1 /2) * Cf1 ) ;........ // B r e a d t h o f b l a d e
at i n l e t in m
disp ( b1 *100 , B r e a d t h o f t h e b l a d e a t i n l e t i n cm )
v2 =( v1 * t21 * p1 ) /( n * t1 ) ;.............. // D i s c h a r g e a t
t h e o u t l e t i n m3/ s
b2 = v2 /(2* %pi *( d2 /2) * Cf2 ) ;........ // B r e a d t h o f b l a d e
at o u t l e t in m
disp ( b2 *100 , B r e a d t h o f t h e b l a d e a t o u t l e t i n cm )

Scilab code Exa 20.41 Centrifugal compressor


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 4 1
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 m =16.5;....... // A i r f l o w i n kg / s

298

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rp =4;........ // P r e s s u r e r a t i o
N =15000;......... // C o m p r e s s o r rpm
t01 =293;......... // I n l e t head t e m p e r a t u r e
fis =0.9;........... // S l i p f a c t o r
fiw =1.04;......... // Power i n p u t f a c t o r
etaisen =0.8;....... // I s e n t r o p i c e f f i c i e n c y
cp =1.005;........ // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK
ga =1.4;...... // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
t021 = t01 *( rp ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;
delt =( t021 - t01 ) / etaisen ; Cbl2 = sqrt ((1000* cp * delt ) /(
fiw * fis ) ) ;
D =(60* Cbl2 ) /( %pi * N ) ;.............. // D i a m e t e r o f
impeller
disp (D , D i a m e t e r o f t h e i m p e l l e r i n m: )
P = m * cp * delt ;
disp (P , Power i n p u t t o c o m p r e s s o r i n kW: )

Scilab code Exa 20.42 Centrifugal compressor


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 4 2
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 rp =3.6;.......... // P r e s s u r e r a t i o
4 die =0.35;....... // D i a m e t e r o f i n l e t
5
6
7
8
9

eye of

compressor in m
Cf =140;.......... // A x i a l v e l o c i t y i n m/ s
m =12;............. // Mass f l o w i n kg / s
Cbl2 =120;......... // V e l o c i t y i n t h e d e l i v e r y d u c t i n
m/ s
Ci =460;.......... // The t i p s p e e d o f t h e i m p e l l e r i n
m/ s
N =16000;............ // Speed o f i m p e l l e r i n rpm
299

Figure 20.41: Centrifugal compressor


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etaisen =0.8;....... // I s e n t r o p i c e f f i c i e n c y
pc =0.73;........ // P r e s s u r e c o e f f i c i e n t
pa =1.013;.......... // Ambient p r e s s u r e i n b a r
ta =273+15;................ // Ambient t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
ga =1.4;.......... // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
cp =1.005;......... // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK
R =0.287;........ // Gas c o n s t a n t i n kJ /kgK
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
delt =(( ta *(( rp ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) -1) ) / etaisen ) ;....... //
Rise in temperature
t02 = ta + delt ;............ // T o t a l head t e m p e r a t u r e i n
K
disp ( t02 , T o t a l head t e m p e r a t u r e i n K : )
t2 = t02 -(( Cbl2 * Cbl2 ) /(2* cp *1000) ) ;.......... // S t a t i c
temperature at o u t l e t in K
disp ( t2 , S t a t i c t e m p e r a t u r e a t o u t l e t i n K : )
p02 = pa * rp ;
p2 = p02 /(1+(( Cbl2 * Cbl2 ) /(2* R * t2 *1000) ) ) ;........... //
S t a t i c p r e s s u r e at e x i t in bar

300

Figure 20.42: Centrifugal compressor


25 disp ( p2 , S t a t i c p r e s s u r e a t e x i t i n b a r : )
26 t1 = ta -(( Cf * Cf ) /(2* cp *1000) ) ;............. // S t a t i c
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temperature at i n l e t in K
disp ( t1 , S t a t i c t e m p e r a t u r e a t i n l e t i n K: )
p1 = pa /(1+(( Cf * Cf ) /(2* R * t1 *1000) ) ) ;........... //
S t a t i c p r e s s u r e at i n l e t in bar
disp ( p1 , S t a t i c p r e s s u r e a t i n l e t i n b a r : )
rp = p2 / p1 ;..... // S t a t i c p r e s s u r e r a t i o
disp ( rp , S t a t i c p r e s s u r e r a t i o : )
W = cp * delt ;........... // Work done on a i r i n kJ / kg o f
air
disp (W , Work done on a i r i n kJ / kg : )
P = m * cp * delt ;.......... // Power r e q u i r e d t o d r i v e t h e
c o m p r e s s o r i n kW
disp (P , Power r e q u i r e d t o d r v e t h e c o m p r e s s o r i n kW:
)

301

Scilab code Exa 20.43 Centrifugal compressor


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14
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clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 4 3


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
t1 =300;......... // I n l e t t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
N =18000;............. // C o m p r e s s o r rpm
etaisen =0.76;....... // I s e n t r o p i c e f f i c i e n c y
od =0.55;...... // Outer d i a m e t e r o f b l a d e t i p
sf =0.82;...... // S l i p f a c t o r
cp =1.005;......... // S p e c i f i c h e a t c a p a c i t y a t
c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK
ga =1.4;............. // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
Cbl2 =( %pi * od * N ) /60; W = Cbl2 * Cbl2 * sf /1000;........... //
Work done p e r kg o f a i r i n kW
delt = W / cp ;.............. // T e m p e r a t u r e r i s e o f a i r
while passing through compressor
disp ( delt , T e m p e r a t u r e r i s e o f a i r w h i l e p a s s i n g
through compressor : )
t21 =( etaisen * delt ) + t1 ; rp =(( t21 / t1 ) ^( ga /( ga -1) ) )
;..... // P r e s s u r e r a t i o
disp ( rp , P r e s s u r e r a t i o : )

Scilab code Exa 20.44 Axial flow compressor


1
2
3
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5

clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 4 4


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
Cbl =240;........ // Mean b l a d e v e l o c i t y i n m/ s
Cf =190;......... // A i r f l o w v e l o c i t y i n m/ s
al1 =45; al2 =14;......... // B l a d e a n g e l s i n d e g r e e s
302

Figure 20.43: Axial flow compressor


6 rho =1;......... // D e n s i t y o f a i r i n kg /m3
7 // C a l c u l a t i o n s
8 pr =(1/2) *( rho * Cf * Cf /(10^5) ) *((( tan ( al1 * %pi /180) ) ^2)

-(( tan ( al2 * %pi /180) ) ^2) ) ;....... // P r e s s u r e r i s e


in bar
9 disp ( pr , P r e s s u r e r i s e i n b a r : )
10 W = Cbl * Cf /1000*(( tan ( al1 * %pi /180) ) -( tan ( al2 * %pi /180) )
) ;............. // Work done p e r kg o f a i r i n kW
11 disp (W , Work done p e r kg o f a i r i n kW: )

Scilab code Exa 20.45 Axial flow compressor


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 4 5
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 etaisen =0.82;....... // O v e r a l l i s e n t r o p i c
4 N =8;............ //No o f s t a g e s

303

efficiency

Figure 20.44: Axial flow compressor


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t1 =293;........... // I n l e t t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
ga =1.4;............ // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
rp =4;............. // P r e s s u r e r a t i o
Rd =0.5;................ // R e a c t i o n f a c t o r
Cbl =180;................. // Mean b l a d e s p e e d i n m/ s
Cf =90;............... // A i r f l o w v e l o c i t y i n m/ s
cp =1.005;......... // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
t21 = t1 *( rp ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;
t2 =(( t21 - t1 ) / etaisen ) + t1 ;
wrt = cp *( t2 - t1 ) ;......... // Work done by t h e machine
i n kJ / kg
disp ( wrt , Work done by t h e machine i n kJ / kg )
be1 = atan ((( cp *( t2 - t1 ) *1000/( Cf * Cbl * N ) ) +( Cbl / Cf ) ) /2)
*180/ %pi ;
al1 = atan (( Cbl / Cf ) - tan ( be1 * %pi /180) ) *180/ %pi ;
printf ( \ n B l a d e a n g e l s a r e a s f o l l o w s ( I n d e g r e e s ) \n
\ n a l p h a 1=%f\ t b e t a 1=%f\n\ n a l p h a 2=%f\ t b e t a 2=%f\n\n
,al1 , be1 , be1 , al1 )

304

Figure 20.45: Axial flow compressor

Scilab code Exa 20.46 Axial flow compressor


clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 4 6
// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
etaisen =0.85;....... // O v e r a l l i s e n t r o p i c e f f i c i e n c y
t1 =293;........... // I n l e t t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
rp =4;............. // P r e s s u r e r a t i o
Rd =0.5;................ // R e a c t i o n f a c t o r
Cbl =180;................. // Mean b l a d e s p e e d i n m/ s
wip =0.82;.............. // Work i n p u t f a c t o r
al1 =12; be1 =42;...... // B l a d e a n g e l s i n d e g r e e s
ga =1.4;............ // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
cp =1.005;......... // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK
12 // C a l c u l a t i o n s

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305

Figure 20.46: Eight stage axial flow compressor


13 t21 = t1 *( rp ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;
14 t2 =(( t21 - t1 ) / etaisen ) + t1 ;
15 wrt = cp *( t2 - t1 ) ;......... // T h e o r e t i c a l work r e q u i r e d
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i n kJ / kg
Cf = Cbl /( tan ( al1 * %pi /180) + tan ( be1 * %pi /180) ) ;
Cw1 = Cf * tan ( al1 * %pi /180) ; Cw2 = Cf * tan ( be1 * %pi /180) ;
wcps = Cbl *( Cw2 - Cw1 ) * wip /1000;............. // Work
consumed p e r s t a g e i n kJ / kg
N = round ( wrt / wcps ) ;....... //No o f s t a g e s
disp ( Cf , Flow v e l o c i t y i n m/ s : )
disp (N , No o f s t a g e s : )

Scilab code Exa 20.47 Eight stage axial flow compressor


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 4 7
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s

306

3 rp =5;.......... // S t a g n a t i o n p r e s s u r e r a t i o ga
4 etaisen =0.92;....... // O v e r a l l i s e n t r o p i c e f f i c i e n c y
5 t1 =290;............. // I n l e t s t a g n a t i o n t e m p e r a t u r e

in K
6 p1 =1;............... // I n l e t
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stagnation pressure in

bar
Cbl =160;........... // Mean b l a d e s p e e d i n m/ s
ga =1.4;........... // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
Rd =0.5;............ // D e g r e e o f r e a c t i o n
Cf =90;................ // A x i a l v e l o c i t y o f a i r
t h r o u g h c o m p r e s s o r i n m/ s
N =8;............. //No o f s t a g e s
m =1;......... // Mass f l o w i n kg / s
cp =1.005;............ // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
tN1 = t1 *( rp ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;...... // T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e
end o f c o m p r e s s i o n s t a g e due t o i s e n t r o p i c
expansion in K
tN =(( tN1 - t1 ) / etaisen ) + t1 ;
be1 = atan ((( cp *( tN - t1 ) *1000/( Cf * Cbl * N ) ) +( Cbl / Cf ) ) /2)
*180/ %pi ;
al1 = atan (( Cbl / Cf ) - tan ( be1 * %pi /180) ) *180/ %pi ;
printf ( \ n B l a d e a n g e l s a r e a s f o l l o w s ( I n d e g r e e s ) \n
\ n a l p h a 1=%f\ t \ t b e t a 1=%f\n\ n a l p h a 2=%f\ t b e t a 2=%f\n\
n ,al1 , be1 , be1 , al1 )
P = m * cp *( tN - t1 ) ;.......... // Power r e q u i r e d by t h e
c o m p r e s s o r i n kW
disp (P , Power r e q u i r e d by t h e c o m p r e s s o r i n kW: )

Scilab code Exa 20.48 Axial flow compressor


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 4 8

307

Figure 20.47: Axial flow compressor


2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 rp =4;........ // S t a g n a t i o n p r e s s u r e r a t i o
4 etaisen =0.85;..... // S t a g n a t i o n i s e n t r o p i c e f f i c i e n c y
5 p1 =1;............. // I n l e t s t a g n a t i o n p r e s s u r e i n b a r
6 t1 =300;........... // I n l e t s t a g n a t i o n t e m p e r a t u r e i n
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K
Rd =0.5;............ // D e g r e e o f r e a c t i o n
Cu =180;........... // Mean b l a d e s p e e d i n m/ s
Wd =0.9;........... // Work done f a c t o r
htr =0.42;....... //Hub t i p r a t i o
al1 =12; be2 = al1 ;....... // R e l a t i v e a i r a n g l e a t r o t o r
i n l e t in degrees
al2 =32; be1 = al2 ;........ // R e l a t i v e a i r a n g l e a t r o t o r
at o u t l e t in degrees
ga =1.4;........... // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
cp =1.005;.......... // S p e c i f i c h e a t c a p a c i t y a t
c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK
R =287;.......... // Gas c o n s t a n t i n J /kgK
m =19.5;.......... // Mass f l o w i n kg / s
// C a l c u l a t i o n s

308

18 tN1 = t1 *( rp ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;...... // T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e

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36

end o f c o m p r e s s i o n s t a g e due t o i s e n t r o p i c
expansion in K
tN =(( tN1 - t1 ) / etaisen ) + t1 ;
etap = log ( rp ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) / log ( tN / t1 ) ;........... //
Stagnation polytropic e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etap *100 , S t a g n a t i o n p o l y t r o p i c e f f i c i e n c y i n %
: )
Cf = Cu /( tan ( al1 * %pi /180) + tan ( be1 * %pi /180) ) ;
Cw1 = Cf * tan ( al1 * %pi /180) ; Cw2 = Cf * tan ( al2 * %pi /180) ;
wcps = Cu *( Cw2 - Cw1 ) * Wd /1000;............. // Work
consumed p e r s t a g e i n kJ / kg
wc = cp *( tN - t1 ) ;............... // Work consumed by
c o m p r e s s o r i n kJ / kg
N = round ( wc / wcps ) ;....... //No o f s t a g e s
disp (N , No o f s t a g e s : )
C1 = Cf / cos ( al1 * %pi /180) ;....... // A b s o l u t e v e l o c i t y a t
e x i t from g u i d e v a n e s i n m/ s
ti = t1 -(( C1 * C1 ) /(2* cp *1000) ) ;.......... // I n l e t
temperature in K
disp ( ti , I n l e t t e m p e r a t u r e i n K : )
pi = p1 *(( ti / t1 ) ^( ga /( ga -1) ) ) ;...... // I n l e t p r e s s u r e
in bar
disp ( pi , I n l e t p r e s s u r e i n b a r : )
rho1 =( pi *10^5) /( R * ti ) ;............. // D e n s i t y o f a i r
approaching the f i r s t stage
r1 = sqrt ( m /( rho1 * %pi * Cf *(1 -( htr ^2) ) ) ) ; rh = r1 * htr ;
l = r1 - rh ;............ // H e i g h t o f t h e b l a d e i n t h e
f i r s t stage in m
disp ( l *100 , H e i g h t o f t h e b l a d e i n t h e f i r s t s t a g e
i n cm : )

Scilab code Exa 20.49 Multi stage axial flow compressor


309

Figure 20.48: Multi stage axial flow compressor


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clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 0 . 4 9


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
ma =20;.......... // A i r f l o w r a t e i n kg / s
p1 =1;......... // I n l e t s t a g n a t i o n p r e s s u r e i n b a r
t1 =290;......... // I n l e t s t a g n a t i o n t e m p e r a t u r e i n
Kelvin
t2 =305;......... // T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e end o f f i r s t
stage in K
etapc =0.88;..... // P o l y t r o p i c e f f i c i e n c y o f
compression
P =4350;...... // Power consumed by c o m p r e s s o r i n kW
ga =1.4;..... // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
cp =1.005;...... // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
p2byp1 =( %e ^( etapc * log ( t2 / t1 ) ) ) ^( ga /( ga -1) ) ;
tN =( P /( ma * cp ) ) + t1 ;
pN = p1 *(( tN / t1 ) ^(( etapc * ga ) /( ga -1) ) ) ;...... // D e l i v e r y
p r e s s u r e in bar
disp ( pN , D e l i v e r y p r e s s u r e i n b a r : )
N = log ( pN / p1 ) / log ( p2byp1 ) ;........... //No o f s t a g e s

310

17 disp ( round ( N ) ,No o f s t a g e s : )


18 tN1 = t1 *(( pN / p1 ) ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;
19 etao =( tN1 - t1 ) /( tN - t1 ) ;............... // O v e r a l l
20

efficiency
disp ( etao *100 , O v e r a l l e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )

311

Chapter 21
Gas Turbines and Jet
Propulsion

Scilab code Exa 21.1 Open cycle gas turbine


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 1 . 1
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 p1 =1;......... // P r e s s u r e o f a i r

while e n t e r i n g the

t u r b i n e in bar
4 t1 =293;........ // T e m p e r a t u r e o f

a i r e n t e r i n g the

turbine in K
5 p2 =4;......... // P r e s s u r e
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

of a i r a f t e r compression in

bar
etac =0.8;.... // E f f i c i e n c y o f c o m p r e s s o r
etat =0.85;..... // E f f i c i e n c y o f t u r b i n e
afr =90;........ // A i r f u e l r a t i o
ma =3;........... // Mass o f a i r i n kg / s
ga =1.4;........ // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
cp =1;............. // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK
C =41800;............. // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f f u e l i n kJ
/ kg
312

Figure 21.1: Open cycle gas turbine


13 // C a l c u l a t i o n s
14 t2 = t1 *(( p2 / p1 ) ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;............... // I d e a l
15
16
17

18
19
20
21
22
23

temperature of a i r a f t e r compression in K
t21 =(( t2 - t1 ) / etac ) + t1 ;.............. // A c t u a l
temperature of a i r a f t e r compression in K
t3 = round (( C /(( afr +1) * cp ) ) + t21 ) ;.............. //
Temperature b e f o r e ex p an si o n i n t u r b i n e i n K
p4 = p1 ; p3 = p2 ; t4 = t3 *(( p4 / p3 ) ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;............
// I d e a l t e m p e r a t u r e a f t e r e x p a n s i o n i n t u r b i n e i n
K
t41 = t3 -( etat *( t3 - t4 ) ) ;................. // A c t u a l
temperature a f t e r expansion in turbine in K
wt =(( afr +1) / afr ) * cp *( t3 - t41 ) ;........ // Work done by
turbine
i n kJ / kg o f a i r
wc = round (1* cp *( t21 - t1 ) ) ;................. // Work done
by c o m p r e s s i o n i n kJ / kg o f a i r
wnet = wt - wc ;.......... // Net work done i n kJ / kg
P = wnet * ma ;................. // Power d e v e l o p e d i n kW/
kg o f a i r
disp (P , Power d e v e l o p e d i n kW/ kg o f a i r : )

313

Figure 21.2: Open cycle gas turbine


24 qs =(1/ afr ) * C ;................ // Heat s u p p l i e d i n kJ /
25
26

kg o f a i r
etath = wnet / qs ;................ // Thermal e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etath *100 , Thermal e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )

Scilab code Exa 21.2 Open cycle gas turbine


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 1 . 2
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 t1 =288;........ // T e m p e r a t u r e o f
4
5
6
7

a i r e n t e r i n g the

turbine in K
t3 =883;.............. // T e m p e r a t u r e b e f o r e e x p a n s i o n
in turbine in K
etac =0.8;.... // E f f i c i e n c y o f c o m p r e s s o r
etat =0.82;..... // E f f i c i e n c y o f t u r b i n e
rp =6;........... // P r e s s u r e r a t i o
314

8 ma =16;........... // Mass o f
9 gac =1.4;........ // R a t i o o f
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23

a i r i n kg / s
s p e c i f i c heats for

compression process
gae =1.333;............ // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s f o r
expansion process
cpc =1.005;............. // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK d u r i n g c o m p r e s s i o n p r o c e s s
cpe =1.11;............. // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK d u r i n g e x p a n s i o n p r o c e s s
C =41800;............. // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f f u e l i n kJ
/ kg
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
t2 = t1 *(( rp ) ^(( gac -1) / gac ) ) ;............... // I d e a l
temperature of a i r a f t e r compression in K
t21 =(( t2 - t1 ) / etac ) + t1 ;.............. // A c t u a l
temperature of a i r a f t e r compression in K
t4 = t3 /(( rp ) ^(( gae -1) / gae ) ) ;............ // I d e a l
temperature a f t e r expansion in turbine in K
t41 = t3 -( etat *( t3 - t4 ) ) ;................. // A c t u a l
temperature a f t e r expansion in turbine in K
wt = cpe *( t3 - t41 ) ;........ // Work done by t u r b i n e
in
kJ / kg o f a i r
wc =(1* cpc *( t21 - t1 ) ) ;................. // Work done by
c o m p r e s s i o n i n kJ / kg o f a i r
wnet = wt - wc ;.......... // Net work done i n kJ / kg
P = wnet * ma ;................. // Power d e v e l o p e d i n kW/
kg o f a i r
disp (P , Power d e v e l o p e d i n kW/ kg o f a i r : )

Scilab code Exa 21.3 Thermal efficiency of Gas turbine


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 1 . 3
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s

315

Figure 21.3: Thermal efficiency of Gas turbine


3 p1 =1;......... // P r e s s u r e

of a i r while e n t e r i n g the

t u r b i n e in bar
4 t1 =300;........ // T e m p e r a t u r e o f
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

a i r e n t e r i n g the

turbine in K
p2 =6.2;......... // P r e s s u r e o f a i r a f t e r c o m p r e s s i o n
in bar
etac =0.88;.... // E f f i c i e n c y o f c o m p r e s s o r
etat =0.9;..... // E f f i c i e n c y o f t u r b i n e
far =0.017;........ // F u e l a i r r a t i o
ga =1.4;........ // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s f o r
compression
gae =1.333;........ // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s f o r
expansion
cp =1.147;............. // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK d u r i n g e x p a n s i o n
cpc =1.005;............. // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK d u r i n g c o m p r e s s i o n
C =44186;............. // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f f u e l i n kJ
/ kg
// C a l c u l a t i o n s

316

15 t2 = t1 *(( p2 / p1 ) ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;............... // I d e a l

temperature of a i r a f t e r compression in K
16 t21 =(( t2 - t1 ) / etac ) + t1 ;.............. // A c t u a l

temperature of a i r a f t e r compression in K
17 t3 =((( C * far ) /(( far +1) * cpc ) ) + t21 ) ;.............. //
18

19
20
21
22
23
24
25

Temperature b e f o r e ex p an si o n i n t u r b i n e i n K
p4 = p1 ; p3 = p2 ; t4 = t3 *(( p4 / p3 ) ^(( gae -1) / gae ) )
;............ // I d e a l t e m p e r a t u r e a f t e r e x p a n s i o n
in turbine in K
t41 = t3 -( etat *( t3 - t4 ) ) ;................. // A c t u a l
temperature a f t e r expansion in turbine in K
wt =( cp *( t3 - t41 ) ) ;........ // Work done by t u r b i n e
in
kJ / kg o f a i r
wc = round (1* cpc *( t21 - t1 ) ) ;................. // Work
done by c o m p r e s s i o n i n kJ / kg o f a i r
wnet = wt - wc ;.......... // Net work done i n kJ / kg
qs =( far ) * C ;................ // Heat s u p p l i e d i n kJ / kg
of air
etath = wnet / qs ;................ // Thermal e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etath *100 , Thermal e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )

Scilab code Exa 21.4 Air fuel ratio for gas turbine
1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 1 . 4
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 t1 =300;........ // T e m p e r a t u r e o f

a i r e n t e r i n g the

turbine in K
4 t3 =1148;.............. // T e m p e r a t u r e b e f o r e e x p a n s i o n

in turbine in K
5 etac =0.8;.... // E f f i c i e n c y o f c o m p r e s s o r
6 etat =0.852;..... // E f f i c i e n c y o f t u r b i n e
7 rp =4;........... // P r e s s u r e r a t i o
8 p1 =1;............... // P r e s s u r e o f a i r b e f o r e

317

Figure 21.4: Air fuel ratio for gas turbine

9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

entering compressor
ga =1.4;........ // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
cp =1.0;............. // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK
C =42000;............. // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f f u e l i n kJ
/ kg
perlcc =10;............ // P e r c e n t l o s s o f c a l o r i f i c
v a l u e o f f u e l i n c o m b u s t i o n chamber
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
p2 = p1 * rp ;................. // P r e s s u r e o f a i r a f t e r
compression in bar
etacc =(100 - perlcc ) /100;....... // E f f i c i e n c y o f
c o m b u s t i o n chamber
t2 = t1 *(( rp ) ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;............... // I d e a l
temperature of a i r a f t e r compression in K
t21 =(( t2 - t1 ) / etac ) + t1 ;.............. // A c t u a l
temperature of a i r a f t e r compression in K
afr =(( C * etacc ) /( cp *( t3 - t21 ) ) ) -1;........ // A i r f u e l
ratio
printf ( A i r f u e l r a t i o i s %d : 1 , round ( afr ) )

318

Figure 21.5: Thermal efficiency of gas turbine

Scilab code Exa 21.5 Thermal efficiency of gas turbine


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 1 . 5
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 t1 =300;........ // T e m p e r a t u r e o f
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

a i r e n t e r i n g the
turbine in K
t3 =883;.............. // T e m p e r a t u r e b e f o r e e x p a n s i o n
in turbine in K
etac =0.8;.... // E f f i c i e n c y o f c o m p r e s s o r
etat =0.852;..... // E f f i c i e n c y o f t u r b i n e
rp =4;........... // P r e s s u r e r a t i o
p1 =1;............... // P r e s s u r e o f a i r b e f o r e
entering compressor
ga =1.4;........ // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
cp =1.11;............. // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
319

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK
C =42000;............. // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f f u e l i n kJ
/ kg
perlcc =10;............ // P e r c e n t l o s s o f c a l o r i f i c
v a l u e o f f u e l i n c o m b u s t i o n chamber
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
p2 = p1 * rp ;................. // P r e s s u r e o f a i r a f t e r
compression in bar
etacc =(100 - perlcc ) /100;....... // E f f i c i e n c y o f
c o m b u s t i o n chamber
t2 = t1 *(( rp ) ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;............... // I d e a l
temperature of a i r a f t e r compression in K
t21 =(( t2 - t1 ) / etac ) + t1 ;.............. // A c t u a l
temperature of a i r a f t e r compression in K
qs = cp *( t3 - t21 ) ;................... // Heat s u p p l i e d i n
kJ / kg
t4 = t3 /(( rp ) ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;............ // I d e a l
temperature a f t e r expansion in turbine in K
t41 = t3 -( etat *( t3 - t4 ) ) ;................. // A c t u a l
temperature a f t e r expansion in turbine in K
wt = cp *( t3 - t41 ) ;........ // Work done by t u r b i n e
i n kJ
/ kg o f a i r
wc =(1* cp *( t21 - t1 ) ) ;................. // Work done by
c o m p r e s s i o n i n kJ / kg o f a i r
wnet = wt - wc ;.......... // Net work done i n kJ / kg
etath = wnet / qs ;................ // Thermal e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etath *100 , Thermal e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )
wrr = wnet / wt ;................... // Work r a t i o
disp ( wrr , The work r a t i o i s : )

Scilab code Exa 21.6 Open cycle gas turbine


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 1 . 6

320

Figure 21.6: Open cycle gas turbine


2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 p1 =1;......... // P r e s s u r e o f a i r
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

while e n t e r i n g the
t u r b i n e in bar
t1 =293;........ // T e m p e r a t u r e o f a i r e n t e r i n g t h e
turbine in K
p2 =5;......... // P r e s s u r e o f a i r a f t e r c o m p r e s s i o n i n
bar
plcc =0.1;..... // P r e s s u r e l o s s i n c o m b u s t i o n chamber
in bar
t3 =953;............ // T e m p e r a t u r e b e f o r e e x p a n s i o n i n
turbine in K
etac =0.85;.... // E f f i c i e n c y o f c o m p r e s s o r
etat =0.8;..... // E f f i c i e n c y o f t u r b i n e
etacc =0.85;...... // E f f i c i e n c y o f c o m b u s t i o n chamber
ga =1.4;........ // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
cp =1.024;............. // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK
P =1065;............. // Power d e v e l o p e d by t h e p l a n t
i n kW

14

321

15 // C a l c u l a t i o n s
16 p3 = p2 - plcc ;........................ // P r e s s u r e
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

before
expansion in t u r b i n e in bar
p4 = p1 ;
t2 = t1 *(( p2 / p1 ) ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;............... // I d e a l
temperature of a i r a f t e r compression in K
t21 =(( t2 - t1 ) / etac ) + t1 ;.............. // A c t u a l
temperature of a i r a f t e r compression in K
t4 = t3 *(( p4 / p3 ) ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;............ // I d e a l
temperature a f t e r expansion in turbine in K
t41 = t3 -( etat *( t3 - t4 ) ) ;................. // A c t u a l
temperature a f t e r expansion in turbine in K
wt =( cp *( t3 - t41 ) ) ;........ // Work done by t u r b i n e
in
kJ / kg o f a i r
wc = round (1* cp *( t21 - t1 ) ) ;................. // Work done
by c o m p r e s s i o n i n kJ / kg o f a i r
wnet = wt - wc ;.......... // Net work done i n kJ / kg
ma = P / wnet ;............. // Q u a n t i t y o f a i r i n
c i r c u l a t i o n i n kg
disp ( ma , Q u a n t i t y o f a i r i n c i r c u l a t i o n i n kg )
qs = cp *( t3 - t21 ) / etac ;.................. // A c t u a l h e a t
s u p p l i e d p e r kg o f a i r c i r c u l a t i o n i n kJ
disp ( qs , A c t u a l h e a t s u p p l i e d p e r kg o f a i r
c i r c u l a t i o n i n kJ : )
etath = wnet / qs ;............. // Thermal e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etath *100 , Thermal e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )

Scilab code Exa 21.7 Pressure ratio and temperature of the exhaust
1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 1 . 7
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 ma =20;.............. // A i r f l o w r a t e
4 t1 =300;........ // T e m p e r a t u r e o f a i r

322

i n kg / s
e n t e r i n g the

Figure 21.7: Pressure ratio and temperature of the exhaust

5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

turbine in K
t3 =1000;............ // T e m p e r a t u r e b e f o r e e x p a n s i o n
in turbine in K
rp =4;............... // P r e s s u r e r a t i o
cp =1;............. // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK
ga =1.4;........ // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
t2 = t1 *(( rp ) ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;............... //
Temperature o f a i r a f t e r c o m p r e s s i o n i n K
t4 = t3 - t2 + t1 ;............ // T e m p e r a t u r e a f t e r
expansion in turbine in K
prlp = rp /(( t3 / t4 ) ^( ga /( ga -1) ) ) ;............. //
P r e s s u r e r a t i o o f low p r e s s u r e t u r b i n e
disp ( prlp , P r e s s u r e r a t i o o f low p r e s s u r e t u r b i n e : )
t5 = t4 /(( prlp ) ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;............ // T e m p e r a t u r e
o f t h e e x h a u s t from t h e u n i t i n K
disp ( t5 , T e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e e x h a u s t from t h e u n i t i n
K: )

323

Figure 21.8: Efficiency of open cycle gas turbine

Scilab code Exa 21.8 Efficiency of open cycle gas turbine


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 1 . 8
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 p1 =1;......... // P r e s s u r e o f a i r
4
5
6
7
8
9

while e n t e r i n g the
t u r b i n e in bar
t1 =300;........ // T e m p e r a t u r e o f a i r e n t e r i n g t h e
turbine in K
t21 =490;........ // A c t u a l t e m p e r a t u r e o f a i r a f t e r
compression in K
t3 =1000;............ // T e m p e r a t u r e b e f o r e e x p a n s i o n
in turbine in K
rp =5;............. // P r e s s u r e r a t i o
etac =0.8;.... // E f f i c i e n c y o f c o m p r e s s o r
etat =0.8;..... // E f f i c i e n c y o f t u r b i n e
324

Figure 21.9: Multi stage gas turbine


10 ga =1.4;........ // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
11 cp =1.005;............. // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
t4 = t3 /(( rp ) ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;............ // I d e a l
temperature a f t e r expansion in turbine in K
t41 = t3 -( etat *( t3 - t4 ) ) ;................. // A c t u a l
temperature a f t e r expansion in turbine in K
t5 =(( t41 - t21 ) * etac ) + t21 ;........... // T e m p e r a t u r e o f
t h e e x h a u s t from t h e u n i t i n K
wc = cp *( t21 - t1 ) ;............. // Work consumed by
c o m p r e s s o r i n kJ / kg
wt = cp *( t3 - t41 ) ;........ // Work done by t u r b i n e i n kJ /
kg
qs = cp *( t3 - t5 ) ;.......... // Heat s u p p l i e d i n kJ / kg
etac =( wt - wc ) / qs ;......... // C y c l e e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etac *100 , C y c l e e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )

325

Scilab code Exa 21.9 Multi stage gas turbine


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 1 . 9
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 p1 =1;......... // P r e s s u r e o f a i r
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

while e n t e r i n g the
t u r b i n e in bar
t1 =288;........ // T e m p e r a t u r e o f a i r e n t e r i n g t h e
turbine in K
p2 =8;......... // P r e s s u r e o f a i r a f t e r c o m p r e s s i o n i n
bar
t3 =1173;............. // T e m p e r a t u r e b e f o r e e x p a n s i o n
in turbine in K
etac =0.76;.... // E f f i c i e n c y o f c o m p r e s s o r
etat =0.86;..... // E f f i c i e n c y o f t u r b i n e
ma =23;......... // Q u a n t i t y o f a i r c i r c u l a t i o n i n kg / s
ga =1.4;........ // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s f o r
compression
gag =1.34;........ // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s f o r
expansion
cp =1.005;............. // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK
cpg =1.128;............. // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK
C =4200;............. // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f f u e l i n kJ /
kg
etamech =0.95;........ // M e c h a n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y
etagen =0.96;......... // G e n e r a t o r e f f i c i e n c y
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
t2 = t1 *(( p2 / p1 ) ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;............... // I d e a l
temperature of a i r a f t e r compression in K
t21 =(( t2 - t1 ) / etac ) + t1 ;.............. // A c t u a l
temperature of a i r a f t e r compression in K
p4 = p1 ; p3 = p2 ;............. // I s o b a r i c p r o c e s s e s
t4 = t3 *(( p4 / p3 ) ^(( gag -1) / gag ) ) ;............ // I d e a l
326

22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

temperature a f t e r expansion in turbine in K


t41 = t3 -( etat *( t3 - t4 ) ) ;................. // A c t u a l
temperature a f t e r expansion in turbine in K
wc = cp *( t21 - t1 ) ;................ // Work dony by
compressor
m1 =( wc ) /( cpg *( t3 - t41 ) ) ;............. // Flow t h r o u g h
c o m p r e s s o r t u r b i n e i n kg
m2 =1 - m1 ;.............. // Flow t h r o u g h power t u r b i n e
i n kg
wpt = m2 *( cpg *( t3 - t41 ) ) ;......... // t u r b i n e work i n kJ /
kg
P = ma * wpt * etamech * etagen ;......... // Power o u t p u t i n
kW
qi = cpg * t3 - cp * t21 ;............. // I n p u t h e a t i n kJ / kg
of air
etath = wpt / qi ;............. // Thermal e f f i c i e n c y o f
power t u r b i n e
disp ( etath *100 , Thermal e f f i c i e n c y o f power t u r b i n e
i n %: )

Scilab code Exa 21.10 Multi stage gas turbine


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 1 . 1 0
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 t1 =288;........ // T e m p e r a t u r e o f
4
5
6
7

a i r e n t e r i n g the

turbine in K
t3 =883;.............. // T e m p e r a t u r e b e f o r e e x p a n s i o n
in turbine in K
etac =0.82;.... // E f f i c i e n c y o f c o m p r e s s o r
etathp =0.85;..... // E f f i c i e n c y o f h i g h p r e s s u r e
turbine
etatlp =0.85;..... // E f f i c i e n c y o f low p r e s s u r e
turbine
327

Figure 21.10: Multi stage gas turbine


8 rp =7;........... // P r e s s u r e r a t i o
9 p1 =1.01;............... // P r e s s u r e
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

of air before
entering compressor
ga =1.4;........ // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s f o r
compression
gag =1.333;........ // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s f o r
expansion
cp =1.005;............. // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK
cpg =1.15;............. // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK i n g e n e r a t o r
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
p2 = p1 * rp ;
t2 = t1 *(( p2 / p1 ) ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;............... // I d e a l
temperature of a i r a f t e r compression in K
t21 =(( t2 - t1 ) / etac ) + t1 ;.............. // A c t u a l
temperature of a i r a f t e r compression in K
wc = cp *( t21 - t1 ) ;............ // C o m p r e s s o r work i n kJ /
kg
t41 = t3 -( wc / cpg ) ;.......... // T e m p e r a t u r e o f g a s s e s

328

20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33

e n t e r i n g the turbine in K
disp ( t41 , T e m p e r a t u r e o f g a s s e s e n t e r i n g t h e t u r b i n e
i n K: )
t4 = round ( t3 -(( t3 - t41 ) / etathp ) ) ;......... // I d e a l
temperature of gases e n t e r i n g the turbine in K
p3 = p2 ;......... // I s o b a r i c p r o c e s s e s
p4 = p3 /(( t3 / t4 ) ^(1/(( gag -1) / gag ) ) ) ;.... // P r e s s u r e o f
g a s s e s e n t e r i n g t h e power t u r b i n e i n b a r
disp ( p4 , P r e s s u r e o f g a s s e s e n t e r i n g t h e power
t u r b i n e in bar : )
t5 = t41 *(((( t3 / t4 ) ^(1/(( gag -1) / gag ) ) ) /( rp ) ) ^(( gag -1) /
gag ) ) ;
t51 = t41 -( etatlp *( t41 - t5 ) ) ;
wlp = cpg *( t41 - t51 ) ;............ // Net power o u t p u t i n
kW
disp ( wlp , Net power o u t p u t i n kW: )
wr = wlp /( wlp + wc ) ;............ // Work r a t i o
disp ( wr , Work r a t i o : )
qs = cpg *( t3 - t21 ) ;........... // Heat s u p p l i e d i n kJ / kg
etath = wlp / qs ;.......... // Thermal e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etath *100 , Thermal e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e u n i t : )

Scilab code Exa 21.11 Power developed and efficiency of power plant
clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 1 . 1 1
// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
rp =5.6;................ // P r e s s u r e r a t i o
t1 =303;............. // T e m p e r a t u r e o f i n t a k e a i r i n K
p1 =1;............ // P r e s s u r e o f i n t a k e a i r i n b a r
t5 =973;............ // H i g h e s t t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e
cycle in K
7 etac =0.85;.......... // E f f e c i e n c y o f c o m p r e s s o r
8 etat =0.9;.......... // E f f i c i e n c y o f t u r b i n e
1
2
3
4
5
6

329

Figure 21.11: Power developed and efficiency of power plant


9 ma =1.2;.......... // Rate o f a i r f l o w i n kg / s
10 cp =1.02;........... // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23

volume i n kJ /kgK
ga =1.41;............. // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
t2 = t1 *(( sqrt ( rp ) ) ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;
t21 =(( t2 - t1 ) / etac ) + t1 ;
wc =2* ma * cp *( t21 - t1 ) ;............ // Work i n p u t f o r t h e
two s t a g e c o m p r e s s o r i n kJ / s
t6 = t5 /( rp ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;
t61 = t5 - etat *( t5 - t6 ) ;
wt = ma * cp *( t5 - t61 ) ;............... // Work o u t p u t from
t u r b i n e i n kJ / s
wnet = wt - wc ;.................... // Net work a v a i l a b l e
i n kJ / s
disp ( wnet , Net work o u t p u t i n kW: )
qs = ma * cp *( t5 - t21 ) ;................. // Heat s u p p l i e d
i n kJ / s
etath = wnet / qs ;
disp ( etath *100 , Power p l a n t e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )

330

Figure 21.12: Efficiency of gas turbine cycle

Scilab code Exa 21.13 Efficiency of gas turbine cycle


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 1 . 1 3


// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
t1 =288;............. // T e m p e r a t u r e o f i n t a k e a i r i n K
rp =4;............. // P r e s s u r e r a t i o
etac =0.82;......... // C o m p r e s s o r e f f i c i e n c y
etahe =0.78;........... // E f f i c i e n c y o f h e a t e x c h a n g e r
etat =0.7;........... // T u r b i n e e f f i c i e n c y
t3 =873;............ // T e m p e r a t u r e b e f o r e e x p a n s i o n i n
turbine in K
R =0.287;............ // Gas c o n s t a n t f o r a i r i n kJ /kgK
ga =1.4;........... // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
t2 = t1 *(( rp ) ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;............... // I d e a l
331

13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23

temperature of a i r a f t e r compression in K
t21 =(( t2 - t1 ) / etac ) + t1 ;............... // A c t u a l
temperature of a i r a f t e r compression in K
t4 = t3 /( rp ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;............ // I d e a l
temperature a f t e r expansion in turbine in K
t41 = t3 - etat *( t3 - t4 ) ;............ // A c t u a l t e m p e r a t u r e
a f t e r expansion in turbine in K
cp = R *( ga /( ga -1) ) ;.............. // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t
c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK
wc = cp *( t21 - t1 ) ;............. // C o m p r e s s o r work i n kJ /
kg
wt = cp *( t3 - t41 ) ;.................... // T u r b i n e work i n
kJ / kg
wnet = wt - wc ;.................... // Net work a v a i l a b l e
i n kJ / s
t5 =( etahe *( t41 - t21 ) ) + t21 ;
qs = cp *( t3 - t5 ) ;................. // Heat s u p p l i e d i n kJ
/ kg
etac = wnet / qs ;............... // C y c l e e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etac *100 , C y c l e e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )

Scilab code Exa 21.14 Heat exchanger in gas turbine


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 1 . 1 4
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 etahe =0.72;................. // E f f i c i e n c y

of heat

exchanger
4 p1 =1.01;......... // P r e s s u r e

of air while entering

the t u r b i n e in bar
5 t1 =293;........ // T e m p e r a t u r e o f

a i r e n t e r i n g the

turbine in K
6 p2 =4.04;......... // P r e s s u r e o f a i r a f t e r c o m p r e s s i o n
in bar
332

Figure 21.13: Heat exchanger in gas turbine


7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

etat =0.85;.......... // T u r b i n e e f f i c i e n c y
pdhe =0.05;............ // P r e s s u r e d r o p on e a c h s i d e
o f heat exchanger in bar
pdcc =0.14;........... // P r e s s u r e d r o p i n c o m b u s t i o n
chamber i n b a r
etac =0.8;........... // C o m p r e s s o r e f f i c i e n c y
ga =1.4;............. // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
C =41800;............. // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f f u e l i n kJ
/ kg
cp =1.024;........... // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK
afrc =90;.............. // A i r f u e l r a t i o f o r s i m p l e
cycle
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
t2 =( t1 *(( p2 / p1 ) ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ) ;............... // I d e a l
temperature of a i r a f t e r compression in K
t21 = round ((( t2 - t1 ) / etac ) + t1 ) ;............... // A c t u a l
temperature of a i r a f t e r compression in K
t3 =((1* C ) /( cp *( afrc +1) ) ) + t21 ;............ //
Temperature b e f o r e ex p an si o n i n t u r b i n e i n K

333

19 p4 = p1 ; p3 = p2 - pdcc ; t4 = round ( t3 *(( p4 / p3 ) ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) )

20
21
22
23

24

25

26

27
28
29
30
31

;............ // I d e a l t e m p e r a t u r e a f t e r e x p a n s i o n
in turbine in K
t41 = t3 -( etat *( t3 - t4 ) ) ;................. // A c t u a l
temperature a f t e r expansion in turbine in K
etath =( t3 - t41 - t21 + t1 ) /( t3 - t21 ) ;........... // Thermal
e f f i c i e n c y in simple cycle
disp ( etath *100 , Thermal e f f i c i e n c y i n s i m p l e c y c l e
i n %: )
p3he = p2 - pdhe - pdcc ;.......... // P r e s s u r e b e f o r e
expansion in t u r b i n e in bar in heat exchanger
cycle
p4he = p1 + pdhe ;................ // P r e s s u r e a f t e r
expansion in t u r b i n e in bar in heat exchanger
cycle
t4he = t3 *(( p4he / p3he ) ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;............ //
Ideal temperature a f t e r expansion in turbine in K
in heat exchanger c y c l e
t41he = round ( t3 -( etat *( t3 - t4he ) ) ) ;................. //
Actual temperature a f t e r expansion in turbine in
K in heat exchanger c y c l e
t5 =( etahe *( t41he - t21 ) ) + t21 ;
etathhe =( t3 - t41he - t21 + t1 ) /( t3 - t5 ) ;............. //
Thermal e f f i c i e n c y f o r h e a t e x c h a n g e r c y c l e
disp ( etathhe *100 , Thermal e f f i c i e n c y i n h e a t
e x c h a n g e r c y c l e i n %: )
inc = etathhe - etath ;
disp ( inc *100 , I n c r e a s e i n t h e r m a l e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )

Scilab code Exa 21.15 Multi stage gas turbine with intercooler and heat
exchanger
1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 1 . 1 5

334

Figure 21.14: Multi stage gas turbine with intercooler and heat exchanger
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 t1 =293;........ // T e m p e r a t u r e o f
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

a i r e n t e r i n g the
turbine in K
rp =9;............ // O v e r a l l p r e s s u r e r a t i o
etac =0.8;........ // E f f i c i e n c y o f c o m p r e s s o r
t6 =898;.......... // Reheat r e m p e r a t u r e
t8 = t6 ; etat =0.85;....... // E f f i c i e n c y o f t u r b i n e
etamech =0.95;.......... // M e c h a n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y
etahe =0.8;............... // Heat e x c h a n g e r t h e r m a l
efficiency
cpg =1.15;............. // S p e c i f i c h e a t c a p a c i t y f o r
g a s e s i n h e a t e x c h a n g e r i n kJ /kgK
cpa =1.005;............ // S p e c i f i c h e a t c a p a c i t y f o r
n o r m a l a i r i n kJ /kgK
gag =1.333;............. // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s f o r
gases in heat exchanger
ga =1.4;............... // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s f o r
normal g a s e s
P =4500;................. // Power o u t p u t o f t u r b i n e i n
kW

335

15 // C a l c u l a t i o n s
16 t2 = t1 *(( sqrt ( rp ) ) ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;
17 t21 =(( t2 - t1 ) / etac ) + t1 ;
18 wc = cpa *( t21 - t1 ) ;............ // Work i n p u t p e r
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34

compressor stage
whp =(2* wc ) / etamech ;......... // Work o u t p u t o f HP
t u r b i n e i n kJ / kg
t71 = t6 -( whp / cpg ) ; t7 = round ( t6 -(( t6 - t71 ) / etat ) ) ;
k =( rp /(( t6 / t7 ) ^(( gag ) /( gag -1) ) ) ) ^(( gag -1) / gag ) ;
k1 =(( round (( k /2) *100) ) *2) /100;.............. //
Rounding o f f u p t o 2 d e c i m a l s
t9 = t8 /( k1 ) ;
t91 = t8 -(( t8 - t9 ) * etat ) ;
wout = cpg *( t8 - t91 ) * etamech ;.............. // Net work
o u t p u t i n kJ / kg
t5 = etahe *( t91 - t21 ) + t21 ;
qs = cpg *( t6 - t5 ) + cpg *( t8 - t71 ) ;............... // Heat
supplied
etath = wout / qs ;................. // Thermal e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etath *100 , Thermal e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )
wgross = whp +( wout / etamech ) ;......... // G r o s s work
o u t p u t i n kJ / kg
wr = wout / wgross ;................ // Work r a t i o
disp ( wr , The workk r a t i o i s : )
m1 = P / wout ;............... // Mass f l o w i n kg / s
disp ( m1 , Mass f l o w i n kg / s : )

Scilab code Exa 21.16 Multi stage gas turbine


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 1 . 1 6
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 // C o n d i t i o n s o f t h e c l o s e d g a s t u r b i n e
4 t1 =293;............. // T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e

336

i n l e t of

Figure 21.15: Multi stage gas turbine

5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

f i r s t stage compressor in K
t5 =1023;................. //Maximum t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
p1 =1.5;................ // I n l e t p r e s s u r e i n b a r
p2 =6;................. // P r e s s u r e i n b a r
etac =0.82;.............. // C o m p r e s s o r e f f i c i e n c y
etat =0.82;.............. // T u r b i n e e f f i c i e n c y
etare =0.70;................ // R e g e n e r a t o r e f f i c i e n c y
P =350;.................... // Power d e v e l o p e d by t h e
p l a n t i n kW
ga =1.4;................ // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
cp =1.005;.............. // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK
t3 = t1 ;
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
t2 = t1 *(( sqrt ( p2 / p1 ) ) ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;
t21 =(( t2 - t1 ) / etac ) + t1 ; t41 = t21 ;
t6 = t5 /(( p2 / sqrt ( p1 * p2 ) ) ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;
t61 = t5 -( etat *( t5 - t6 ) ) ; t81 = t61 ;
t7 = t5 ;
ta =( etare *( t81 - t41 ) ) + t41 ;....... // T e m p e r a t u r e o f a i r

337

22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

coming o u t o f r e g e n e r a t o r i n K
wnet =2* cp *( t5 - t61 - t21 + t1 ) ;........ // Net work done i n
kJ / kg o f a i r
qs = cp *( t5 - t41 + t7 - t61 ) ;........... // Heat s u p p l i e d
w i t h o u t r e g e n e r a t o r i n kJ / kg o f a i r
qsr = cp *( t5 - ta + t7 - t61 ) ;............ // Heat s u p p l i e d
w i t h r e g e n e r a t o r i n kJ / kg o f a i r
etath = wnet / qs ;............. // Thermal e f f i c i e n c y (
without re ge n er at or )
etathr = wnet / qsr ;......... // Thermal e f f i c i e n c y ( w i t h
regenerator )
mfl = P / wnet ;.......... // mass o f f l u i d c i r c u l a t e d i n
kg / s
disp ( etath *100 , Thermal e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e t u r b i n e
w i t h o u t r e g e n e r a t o r ( i n %) : )
disp ( etathr *100 , Thermal e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e t u r b i n e
w i t h r e g e n e r a t o r ( i n %) : )
disp ( mfl , Mass o f f l u i d c i r c u l a t e d i n kg / s : )

Scilab code Exa 21.17 gas turbine power plant


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 1 . 1 7
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 t1 =293;............ // T e m p e r a t u r e o f
4
5
6
7
8

inlet air into


low p r e s s u r e c o m p r e s s o r i n K
p1 =1.05;......... // P r e s s u r e o f i n l e t a i r i n t o low
p r e s s u r e compressor in bar
t3 =300;........... // T e m p e r a t u r e o f a i r a f t e r p a s s i n g
i t through i n t e r c o o l e r in K
t6 =1023;.......... // t e m p e r a t u r e o f a i r i n c o m b u s t i o n
chamber i n K
rp =2;........... // P r e s s u r e r a t i o o f e a c h c o m p r e s s o r
etac =0.82;........ // C o m p r e s s o r e f f i c i e n c y
338

Figure 21.16: gas turbine power plant


9 etat =0.82;.......... // T u r b i n e e f f i c i e n c y
10 etaht =0.72;............ // Heat e x c h a n g e r e f f i c i e n c y
11 ma =16;........... // A i r f l o w i n kg / s
12 ga =1.4;........... // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s f o r a i r
13 gag =1.33;.......... // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s f o r
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

gases
cpa =1.0;........... // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK f o r a i r
cpg =1.15;......... // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK f o r g a s e s
C =42000;......... // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f f u e l i n kJ / kg
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
t2 = round ( t1 *( rp ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ) ;
t21 = round ((( t2 - t1 ) / etac ) + t1 ) ;
t4 = t3 *( rp ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;
t41 = round ((( t4 - t3 ) / etac ) + t3 ) ;
t71 = round ((( cpg * t6 ) - cpa *( t21 - t1 + t41 - t3 ) ) / cpg ) ;
t7 = t6 -(( t6 - t71 ) / etat ) ;
p6 = p1 * rp * rp ;
p7 = p6 /(( t6 / t7 ) ^(( gag ) /( gag -1) ) ) ;

339

Figure 21.17: Multi stage gas turbine


26 t8 = round ( t71 /(( p7 / p1 ) ^(( gag -1) / gag ) ) ) ;
27 t81 = round ( t71 -( etat *( t71 - t8 ) ) ) ;
28 P = cpg *( t71 - t81 ) ;........... // Net power o u t p u t i n kJ /
29
30
31
32
33
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35
36
37

kg
disp ( P * ma , Net power o u t p u t i n kW: )
t5 = etaht *( t81 - t41 ) + t41 ;
qs = ma * cpg *( t6 - t5 ) ;...... // Heat s u p p l i e d i n
c o m b u s t i o n chamber i n kJ / s
etath = P * ma / qs ;......... // Thermal e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etath *100 , Thermal e f f i c i e n c y i s ( i n %) : )
afr = C /( cpg *( t6 - t5 ) ) ;...... // A i r f u e l r a t i o
mf = ma *3600/ afr ;.............. // F u e l s u p p l i e d p e r
h o u r i n kg
sfc = mf /( P * ma ) ;........... // S p e c i f i c f u e l c o n s u m p t i o n
i n kg /kWh
disp ( sfc , S p e c i f i c f u e l c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg /kWh : )

340

Scilab code Exa 21.18 Multi stage gas turbine


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 1 . 1 8
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 t1 =293;............ // T e m p e r a t u r e o f
4
5
6
7
8
9
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12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

inlet air into


low p r e s s u r e c o m p r e s s o r i n K
p1 =1.1;......... // P r e s s u r e o f i n l e t a i r i n t o low
p r e s s u r e compressor in bar
p2 =3.3;.......... // P r e s s u r e o f a i r i n t h e low
p r e s s u r e compressor in bar
t3 =300;............. // I n t e r c o o l e d t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
pli =0.15;.......... // L o s s i n p r e s s u r e due t o
i n t e r c o o l i n g in bar
p3 = p2 - pli ;........... // P r e s s u r e a f t e r i n t e r c o o l i n g
in bar
p4 =9.45;............ // P r e s s u r e o f a i r a f t e r h i g h
p r e s s u r e compressor in bar
p6 = p4 ; t6 =973;......... // T e m p e r a t u r e o f g a s e s
supplied to high p r e s s u r e turbine in K
t8 =943;......... // Reheat t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
plr =0.12;........... // L o s s o f p r e s s u r e a f t e r
r e h e a t i n g in bar
p7 =3.62;............ // P r e s s u r e o f g a s e s a t t h e end
o f expansion in high p r e s s u r e t u r b i n e in bar
p8 = p7 - plr ;........... // P r e s s u r e o f o u t l e t g a s e s i n
bar
ga =1.4;........... // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s f o r a i r
gag =1.33;.......... // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s f o r
gases
cpa =1.005;........... // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK f o r a i r
cpg =1.15;......... // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK f o r g a s e s
etac =0.82;........ // C o m p r e s s o r e f f i c i e n c y
341

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etat =0.85;.......... // T u r b i n e e f f i c i e n c y
etaht =0.65;......... // E f f i c i e n c y o f h e a t e x c h a n g e r
P =6000;.................. // Power g e n e r a t e d i n kW
p9 = p1 ;
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
t2 = round ( t1 *(( p2 / p1 ) ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ) ;
t21 = round ((( t2 - t1 ) / etac ) + t1 ) ;
t4 = round ( t3 *(( p4 / p3 ) ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ) ;
t41 = round ((( t4 - t3 ) / etac ) + t3 ) ;
t7 = round ( t6 /(( p6 / p7 ) ^(( gag -1) / gag ) ) ) ;
t71 = round ( t6 -( etat *( t6 - t7 ) ) ) ;
t9 = round ( t8 /(( p8 / p9 ) ^(( gag -1) / gag ) ) ) ;
t91 = round ( t8 -( etat *( t8 - t9 ) ) ) ;
t5 = round ( etaht *( t91 - t41 ) + t41 ) ;
wthp = cpg *( t6 - t71 ) ;....... // Work done by h i g h
p r e s s u r e t u r b i n e i n kJ / kg o f g a s
wtlp = cpg *( t8 - t9 ) ;....... // Work done by low p r e s s u r e
t u r b i n e i n kJ / kg o f g a s
wchp = cpg *( t21 - t1 ) ;....... // Work done by h i g h
p r e s s u r e c o m p r e s s o r i n kJ / kg o f g a s
wclp = cpg *( t41 - t3 ) ;....... // Work done by low p r e s s u r e
c o m p r e s s o r i n kJ / kg o f g a s
qs = cpg *( t6 - t5 + t8 - t71 ) ;......... // Heat s u p p l i e d i n kJ
/ kg o f g a s
etath =( wthp + wtlp - wchp - wclp ) / qs ;.. // O v e r a l l
efficiency
disp ( etath *100 , O v e r a l l e f f i c i e n c y ( i n %) : )
wr =( wthp + wtlp - wchp - wclp ) /( wthp + wtlp ) ;...... // Work
ratio
disp ( wr , Work r a t i o : )
m = P /( wthp + wtlp - wchp - wclp ) ;..... // Mass f l o w r a t e
disp (m , Mass f l o w r a t e i n kg / s : )

342

Figure 21.18: Turbo jet engine


Scilab code Exa 21.19 Turbo jet engine
1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 1 . 1 9
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 ma =60.2;........... // Rate o f a i r c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg / s
4 delh =230;....... // E n t h a l p y c h a n g e f o r n o z z l e i n kJ /

kg
5 z =0.96;.......... // V e l o c i t y c o e f f i c i e n t
6 afr =70;............ // A i r f u e l r a t i o
7 etaco =0.92;............... // Combustion e f i c i e n c y
8 CV =42000;.............. // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f f u e l
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

in

kJ / kg
v =1000;............ // V e l o c i t y o f a i r c r a f t i n km/ h
Ca = v *(5/18) ;............ // A i r c r a f t v e l o c i t y i n m/ s
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
Cj = z * sqrt (2* delh * v ) ;........... // E x i t v e l o c i t y o f
jet
disp ( Cj , E x i t v e l o c i t y o f j e t i n m/ s : )
mf = ma / afr ;......... // Rate o f f u e l c o n s u m p t i o n
disp ( mf , Rate o f f u e l c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg / s : )

343

Figure 21.19: Turbo jet engine


16 tp = ma *( Cj - Ca ) ;...... // T h r u s t p r o d u c e d i n N
17 tsfc = mf / tp ;......... // T h r u s t s p e c i f i c f u e l
18
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26

c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg /N
disp ( tsfc , T h r u s t s p e c i f i c f u e l c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg /N :
)
etath =(( Cj ^2) -( Ca ^2) ) /(2*(1/ afr ) * CV * etaco *1000)
;......... // Thermal e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etath *100 , Thermal e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )
pp =( ma /1000) *(( Cj ^2) -( Ca ^2) ) /2;................ //
P r o p u l s i v e power i n kW
disp ( pp , P r o p u l s i v e power i n kW: )
etapp =(2* Ca ) /( Cj + Ca ) ;...................... //
Propulsive e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etapp *100 , P r o p u l s i v e e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )
etao =(( Cj - Ca ) * Ca ) /((1/ afr ) * CV * etaco *1000)
;............ // O v e r a l l e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etao *100 , O v e r a l l e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )

344

Scilab code Exa 21.20 Turbo jet engine


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 1 . 2 0
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 v =800;............. // Speed o f t h e t u r b o j e t i n km/h
4 etapp =0.55;...... // P r o p u l s i v e e f f i c i e n c y
5 etao =0.17;......... // O v e r a l l e f f i c i e n c y
6 al =9500;............... // A l t i t u d e i n m
7 rhoa =0.17;............ // D e n s i t y o f a i r a t t h e g i v e n
8
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a l t i t u d e i n kg /m3
dr =6100;........... // Drag on t h e p l a n e i n N
CV =46000;......... // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f f u e l i n kJ / kg
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
Ca = v *(1000/3600) ;......... // V e l o c i t y o f j e t i n m/ s
Cj =((2* Ca ) / etapp ) - Ca ;........ // V e l o c i t y o f g a s e s a t
n o z z l e e x i t r e l a t i v e t o t h e a i r c r a f t i n m/ s
disp ( Cj - Ca , A b s o l u t e v e l o c i t y o f j e t i n m/ s : )
ma = dr /( Cj - Ca ) ;............ // Rate o f a i r f l o w i n kg / s
Va =( ma / rhoa ) *60;.......... // Volume o f a i r
c o m p r e s s s e d p e r min i n kg
disp ( Va , Volume o f a i r c o m p r e s s e d i n kg / min : )
d = sqrt (( Va *4) /(60* %pi * Cj ) ) ;.......... // D i a m e t e r o f
the j e t in m
disp ( d *1000 , D i a m e t e r o f t h e j e t i n mm: )
tp = dr *( Ca /1000) ;........... // T h r u s t power i n kW
wt = tp / etapp ;................ // T u r b i n e o u t p u t i n kW
disp ( wt , T u r b i n e o u t p u t i n kW: )
mf = wt /( etao * CV ) ;........... // Rate o f f u e l
c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg / s
afr = ma / mf ;.......... // A i r f u e l r a t i o
printf ( \n\ n A i r f u e l r a t i o i s %f : 1 , afr )

345

Figure 21.20: Jet propulsion

Scilab code Exa 21.21 Jet propulsion


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 1 . 2 1
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
3 t1 =288;.......... // T e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

inlet air into


compressor in K
p1 =1.01;...... // P r e s s u r e o f t h e i n l e t a i r i n t o
compressor in bar
t3 =1023;......... //Maximum t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
p2 =4.04;......... // P r e s s u r e o f a i r a t t h e end o f
compression in bar
etac =0.82;....... // c o m p r e s s o r e f f i c i e n c y
etat =0.78;...... // T u r b i n e e f f i c i e n c y
etan =0.88;........ // N o z z l e e f f i c i e n c y
R =0.287;......... // Gas c o n s t a n t f o r a i r i n kJ /kgK
ga =1.4;............ // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
C =42000;.......... // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f f u e l i n kJ / kg
346

13 // C a l c u l a t i o n s
14 t2 = t1 *(( p2 / p1 ) ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;........ // I d e a l
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t e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e end o f c o m p r e s s i o n i n K
t21 =(( t2 - t1 ) / etac ) + t1 ;........... // A c t u a l
t e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e end o f c o m p r e s s i o n i n K
cp = R *( ga /( ga -1) ) ;.............. // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t
c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK
Pc = cp *( t21 - t1 ) ;............. // Power r e q u i r e d t o
d r i v e t h e c o m p r e s s o r i n kW
disp ( Pc , Power r e q u i r e d t o d r i v e t h e c o m p r e s s o r i n
kW: )
afr =(( C ) /( cp *( t3 - t21 ) ) ) -1;.... // A i r f u e l r a t i o
printf ( \n\ n A i r f u e l r a t i o %f : 1 \ n , afr )
t41 = t1 + t3 - t21 ;...... // A c t u a l t e m p e r a t u r o f g a s e s
l e a v i n g the turbine in K
t4 = t3 -(( t3 - t41 ) / etat ) ;...... // I d e a l t e m p e r a t u r e o f
gases l e a v i n g the turbine in K
p3 = p2 ; p4 = p3 *(( t4 / t3 ) ^( ga /( ga -1) ) ) ;....... // P r e s s u r e
o f g a s e s l e a v i n g the t u r b i n e in bar
disp ( p4 , P r e s s u r e o f g a s e s l e a v i n g t h e t u r b i n e i n
bar : )
p5 = p1 ; t5 = t41 /(( p4 / p5 ) ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;
t51 = t41 -( etan *( t41 - t5 ) ) ;
Cj = sqrt (2* cp *( t41 - t51 ) *1000) ;.............. // J e t
v e l o c i t y i n m/ s
th = Cj *1;.................. // T h r u s t p e r kg p e r s e c o n d
in N
disp ( th , T h r u s t p e r kg o f a i r p e r s e c o n d i n N : )

Scilab code Exa 21.22 Turbo jet with diffuser and nozzle
1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 1 . 2 2
2 // I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s

347

Figure 21.21: Turbo jet with diffuser and nozzle


3 Ca =216;................ // Speed o f a i r c r a f t i n m/ s
4 t1 =265.8;............... // I n t a k e a i r t e m p e r a t u r e i n
5
6
7
8
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12
13
14
15
16

K
p1 =0.78;............... // I n t a k e a i r p r e s s u r e i n b a r
rp =5.8;.................. // P r e s s u r e r a t i o i n
compressor
t4 =1383;................. // T e m p e r a t u r e o f g a s e s
e n t e r i n g the gas turbine in K
pd =0.168;............... // P r e s s u r e d r o p i n
c o m b u s t i o n chamber i n b a r
etad =0.9;.............. // D i f f u s e r e f f i c i e n c y
etan =0.9;............ // N o z z l e e f f i c i e n c y
etac =0.9;............ // C o m p r e s s o r e f f i c i e n c y
etat =0.8;............. // T u r b i n e e f f i c i e n c y
C =44150;............ // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f f u e l i n kJ /
kg
cp =1.005;............. // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK
ga =1.4;............... // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s
cin =0.12;............... // I n l e t c r o s s s e c t i o o f t h e

348

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d i f f u s e r i n m3
R =0.287;............ // Gas c o n s t a n t i n kJ /kgK
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
t2 = t1 +(( Ca * Ca ) /(2* cp *1000) ) ;...... // For i d e a l
diffuser
t21 = t1 +(( Ca * Ca ) /(2* cp * etad *1000) ) ;...... // For a c t u a l
diffuser
p2 = p1 *(( t2 / t1 ) ^( ga /( ga -1) ) ) ;
t3 = t21 *( rp ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ; t31 = t21 +(( t3 - t21 ) / etac ) ;
afr =( C -( cp * t4 ) ) /( cp *( t4 - t31 ) ) ;............ // A i r f u e l
ratio
disp ( afr , A i r f u e l r a t i o : )
p3 = p2 * rp ; p4 = p3 - pd ;............... // P r e s s u r e o f g a s e s
e n t e r i n g the t u r b i n e in bar
t51 = t4 -( t31 - t21 ) ; t5 = round ( t4 -(( t4 - t51 ) / etat ) ) ;
p5 = p4 /(( t4 / t5 ) ^( ga /( ga -1) ) ) ; p6 = p1 ;
t6 = t51 /(( p5 / p6 ) ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ; t61 = t51 -( etac *( t51 - t6 ) )
;
Cj =44.72* sqrt ( cp *( t51 - t61 ) ) ;........ // V e l o c i t y a t
t h e e x i t o f t h e n o z z l e i n m/ s
st =(1+(1/ afr ) ) * Cj ;............ // S p e c i f i c t h r u s t i n N
/ kg
disp ( st , S p e c i f i c t h r u s t i n N/ kg : )
v1 = Ca * cin ;........... // Volume o f f l o w i n g a i r i n m3/
s
ma =( p1 * v1 *10^5) /( R * t1 *1000) ;......... // Mass f l o w o f
air
tt = ma * st ;.............. // T o t a l t h r u s t i n N
disp ( tt , T o t a l t h r u s t i n N : )

Scilab code Exa 21.23 Jet engine


1 clc ; funcprot (0) ; //EXAMPLE 2 1 . 2 3

349

Figure 21.22: Jet engine


2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s
al =9000;.......... // A l t i t u d e i n m
Ca =215;........... // Speed o f a i r c r a f t i n m/ s
TP =750;............. // T h r u s t power d e v e l o p e d i n kW
p1 =0.32;........... // I n l e t p r e s s u r e o f a i r i n b a r
t1 =231;............. // I n l e t t e m p e r a t u r e o f a i r i n K
t3 =963;............. // T e m p e r a t u r e o f g a s e s l e a v i n g
t h e c o m b u s t i o n chamber i n K
rpc =5.2;............ // P r e s s u r e r a t i o
C =42500;.......... // C a l o r i f i c v a l u e o f f u e l i n kJ / kg
C41 =195;......... // V e l o c i t y i n d u c t s
etac =0.86;.......... // C o m p r e s s o r e f f i c i e n c y
ga =1.4;............ // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s f o r a i r
gag =1.33;............ // R a t i o o f s p e c i f i c h e a t s f o r
gases
etat =0.86;.......... // T u r b i n e e f f i c i e n c y
etajt =0.9;.......... // J e t t u b e e f f i c i e n c y
cp =1.005;............ // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t
p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK f o r a i r
cpg =1.087;............ // S p e c i f i c h e a t a t c o n s t a n t

350

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p r e s s u r e i n kJ /kgK f o r g a s e s
R =0.29;.................. // Gas c o n s t a n t f o r e x h a u s t
g a s e s i n kJ /kgK
// C a l c u l a t i o n s
t2 = t1 *( rpc ^(( ga -1) / ga ) ) ;
t21 = t1 +(( t2 - t1 ) / etac ) ;
mf =( cpg *( t3 - t21 ) ) /( C -( cpg *( t3 - t21 ) ) ) ;
afr =1/ mf ;.......... // A i r f u e l r a t i o
t41 = round ( t3 -(( cp *( t21 - t1 ) ) /( cpg *(1+ mf ) ) ) ) ;
t4 = t3 -(( t3 - t41 ) / etat ) ; p4 = rpc ;
rpt =( t3 / t4 ) ^( gag /( gag -1) ) ;............. // E x p a n s i o n
pressure ratio in turbine
rpj = p4 / rpt ;.................... // E x p a n s i o n p r e s s u r e
r a t i o in j e t tube
t5 = t41 /( rpj ^(( gag -1) / gag ) ) ;
Cj = sqrt ( etajt *2*(( cpg *1000*( t41 - t5 ) ) +(( C41 * C41 ) /2) ) )
;
etao =((((1+ mf ) * Cj ) - Ca ) * Ca ) /(1000* mf * C ) ;...... //
Overall e f f i c i e n c y
disp ( etao *100 , O v e r a l l e f f i c i e n c y i n %: )
ma =( TP *1000) /((((1+ mf ) * Cj ) - Ca ) * Ca ) ;........ // Rate o f
a i r c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg / s
disp ( ma , Rate o f a i r c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg / s : )
P = ma *(1+ mf ) * cpg *( t3 - t41 ) ;.............. // Power
d e v e l o p e d by t h e t u r b i n e i n kW
disp (P , Power d e v e l o p e d by t u r b i n e i n kW: )
t51 = t41 -((( Cj ^2) -( C41 ^2) ) /(2*1000* cpg ) ) ;
rhoe =( p1 *10^5) /( R *1000* t51 ) ;.......... // D e n s i t y o f
exhaust gases
Ajt =( ma *(1+ mf ) ) /( Cj * rhoe ) ;....... // D i s c h a r g e o f j e t
a r e a i n m2
disp ( Ajt , The o u t l e t a r e a o f j e t t u b e i n m 2 : )
sfc =( mf * ma *3600) /(1000*( TP / Ca ) ) ;.......... // S p e c i f i c
f u e l c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg / t h r u s t h o u r
disp ( sfc , S p e c i f i c f u e l c o n s u m p t i o n i n kg p e r kg o f
t h r u s t : )

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