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# I.D. No.

__________
BAHRA UNIVERSITY, WAKNAGHAT
TEST II, April 2015
Antenna and Wave Propagation (ECE 302)
(B. Tech. ECE) (VI Semester/ 3rd Year)
Max. Marks: 40
Note: Attempt all questions

Time: 90 mins.

## SECTION I (05 Marks)

Q1.
(i). Write the principle of pattern multiplication?
(ii). What part of a radio set is used for sending radio signals?
(iii). What is LPDA?
(iv). Standing waves result in
(v). For a broad side linear array which of the following is not correct

## SECTION II (20 Marks)

Q2. What do you understand by antenna array? What are its advantages and write various forms
of antenna arrays.
10
Q3. If
2

H e = j e , Where
2

e +k e = j

1
J .

10

## SECTION III (15 Marks)

Q4. Design a seven element broadside array which has the optimum pattern for a side lobe level
of -20 dB. The spacing between elements has to be /2.
15

## Scientific Calculators are allowed.

I.D. No.__________
BAHRA UNIVERSITY, WAKNAGHAT
TEST II, April 2015
Antenna and Wave Propagation (ECE 302)
(B. Tech. ECE) (VI Semester/ 3rd Year)
Max. Marks: 40
Note: Attempt all questions

Time: 90 mins.

## SECTION I (05 Marks)

Q1.
(i). Unit of relative permeability is
(ii).What do you understand by pattern multiplication?
(iii).
The total field of an array of identical elements, neglecting coupling, is referred to as:
(a). array factor
intensity

## (c). element pattern

(iv). For two isotropic sources, both fed with the same amplitude and phase, what is the
minimum spacing between elements required in order to form at least one null in the
array factor:
(a). equal to lambda

## (v).What do you understand by array factor?

SECTION II (20 Marks)
Q2. A horizontal infinitesimal electric dipole of constant current I0 is placed symmetrically about
the origin and directed along the x-axis. Derive the
10
(a). far-zone fields radiated by the dipole
(b). directivity of the antenna
Q3. Find electric field due to linear array of n-isotropic point sources of equal amplitude and
equal spacing.
10
SECTION III (15 Marks)
Q4. Design a 4 element broadside array of /2 spacing between elements the pattern is to be
optimum with a side lobe level 19.1 db. Find main lobe maximum?
15

## Scientific Calculators are allowed.

SOLUTION
SECTION I (05 Marks)
Q1.
(i). Write the principle of pattern multiplication?
The total field pattern of an array of non isotropic but similar sources is the multiplication of the
individual source pattern and the pattern of an array of isotropic point sources each located at the center
of individual sources. Whereas the total phase pattern is the addition of the phase pattern of the individual
sources and that of the array of isotropic point sources.
(ii). What part of a radio set is used for sending radio signals?
a. Demodulator b. Transmitter c. Receiver d. Amplifier
Ans. B
(iii). What is LPDA?
LPDA is log periodic dipole array. It is unidirectional broadband, multi element, narrow beam, frequency
independent antenna that has impedance and radiation characteristics that are regularly repetitive as a
logarithmic function of frequency.
(iv). Standing waves result in
a. a fire hazard in the area below the antenna. b. a power loss and poor antenna efficiency. c. improved
reception and greater power output. d. a perfect antenna and transmission line match.
Ans. B
(v). For a broad side linear array which of the following is not correct
(A) the maximum radiation occurs perpendicular to the line of the array at o = 90 . (B) the progressive
phase shift () between elements is zero. (C) width of principal lobe is less than that of an end fire array.
(D) the maximum radiation occurs along the line of array at o = 0 .
Ans: D
SECTION II (20 Marks)
Q2. What do you understand by antenna array? What are its advantages and write various forms
of antenna arrays.
10
Solution:
An antenna array (often called a 'phased array') is a set of 2 or more antennas. The signals from the
antennas are combined or processed in order to achieve improved performance over that of a single
antenna. The antenna array can be used to:
increase the overall gain
provide diversity reception
cancel out interference from a particular set of directions
"steer" the array so that it is most sensitive in a particular direction
determine the direction of arrival of the incoming signals
to maximize the Signal to Interference Plus Noise Ratio (SINR)
Antenna Array Basics
An antenna array is a set of N spatially separated antennas. The number of antennas in an array can be as
small as 2, or as large as several thousand (as in the AN/FPS-85 Phased Array Radar Facility operated by
U. S. Air Force). In general, the performance of an antenna array (for whatever application it is being
used) increases with the number of antennas (elements) in the array; the drawback of course is the
increased cost, size, and complexity.
The following figures show some examples of antenna arrays.

## Figure 1. Four-element microstrip antenna array (phased array).

Figure 2. Cell-tower Antenna Array. These Antenna Arrays are typically used in groups of 3 (2 receive
antennas and 1 transmit antenna).
The general form of an antenna array can be illustrated as in Figure 3. An origin and coordinate system
are selected, and then the N elements are positioned, each at location given by:
The positions of the elements in the phased array are illustrated in the following Figure.

## Figure 3. Geometry of an arbitrary N element antenna array.

Let

represent the output from antennas 1 thru N, respectively. The output from these

## - and added together as shown

Figure 4. Weighting and summing of signals from the antennas to form the output in a Phased Array.
The output of an antenna array can be written succinctly as:

This is what is going on in an antenna array. However, I haven't answered what the benefits of a phased
array are. To understand what happens in an antenna array, navigate to the next section on Antenna
Arrays.
Q3. If

H e = j e , Where

2 e +k 2 e = j

1
J .

Solution:

## SECTION III (15 Marks)

Q4. Design a seven element broadside array which has the optimum pattern for a side lobe level of -20
dB. The spacing between elements has to be /2.
15
Solution:
Finally we got
X0=1.5
A0=5.625
Relative amplitudes are: 1:1.66: :1.66:1

## SECTION I (05 Marks)

Q1.
(i). Unit of relative permeability is
(ii).What do you understand by pattern multiplication?
(iii).
The total field of an array of identical elements, neglecting coupling, is referred to as:
(a). array factor
intensity

## (c). element pattern

(iv). For two isotropic sources, both fed with the same amplitude and phase, what is the
minimum spacing between elements required in order to form at least one null in the
array factor:
(a). equal to lambda

## SECTION II (20 Marks)

Q2. A horizontal infinitesimal electric dipole of constant current I0 is placed
symmetrically about the origin and directed along the x-axis. Derive the
10
(a). far-zone fields radiated by the dipole
(b). directivity of the antenna
Q3. Find electric field due to linear array of n-isotropic point sources of equal amplitude and equal
spacing.
10

## Q4. Design a 4 element broadside array of /2 spacing between elements the

pattern is to be optimum with a side lobe level 19.1 db. Find main lobe
maximum?

## SECTION I (05 Marks)

What do you mean by ideal filter?

An ideal filter would pass all frequencies in a given without reduction in magnitude and
totally suppressing all other frequencies.
Define Decibel?

Decibel is defined as the ten times common logarithms of the input power to the output
power.
Give the relation between two units of attenuation?

## The relationship between two units of attenuation can 1 db = 0.115 neper.

What are the characteristics of ideal filter?

1.
2.
3.
4.

## Transmit pass band frequencies without any attenuation.

Provide infinite attenuation
The transition region between the stop band and pass band would be very small.
Throughout the pass band characteristic impedance of the filter match circuit to which it
is connected which prevents reflection loss.
Give the formula to calculate the cutoff frequency for low pass constant k

f c 1/ LC
For a low pass filter what is the condition for which the characteristic impedance Z0 is real?

## Sketch the group of Zo against w.

What are the different types of noise?

## SECTION I (05 Marks)

Define Decibel?
What are the characteristics of ideal filter?
For a low pass filter what is the condition for which the characteristic impedance Z0 is real?
What are the different types of noise?
Amplifiers can also act as an amplifier. True/False

Solution:

## SECTION III (15 Marks)

I.D. No.__________
BAHRA UNIVERSITY, WAKNAGHAT
TEST II, April 2015
Microwave Circuits and Applications (MECE 108)
(M. Tech. ECE) (II Semester/ 1st Year)
Max. Marks: 40
Note: Attempt all questions

Time: 90 mins.

Q1.
(i).
(ii).
(iii).
(iv).
(v).

## What do you mean by ideal filter?

Give the relation between two units of attenuation?
Give the formula to calculate the cutoff frequency for low pass constant k
Sketch the group of Zo against w.
Noise can be eliminated by filter. True/False
SECTION II (20 Marks)

Q2. A cellular telephone receiver front-end circuit is shown below. The operating frequency is
18051880 MHz, and the physical temperature of the system is 300 K. A noise source with
Ni = 95dBm is applied to the receiver input. (a) What is the equivalent noise temperature of
the source over the operating bandwidth? (b) What is the noise figure (in dB) of the
amplifier? (c) What is the noise figure (in dB) of the cascaded transmission line and
amplifier? (d) What is the total noise power output (in dBm) of the receiver over the
operating bandwidth?
Q3. What do you understand by noise? Deduce a relationship between power delivered and
bandwidth to explain ultraviolet catastrophe.
SECTION III (15 Marks)
Q4. Design a Butterworth filter with a cutoff frequency of 150MHz and an insertion loass of
50dB at 400MHz. it is to be used between a 75- load and a generator with its internal
resistance as 75-.

## Scientific Calculators are allowed.

I.D. No.__________
BAHRA UNIVERSITY, WAKNAGHAT
TEST II, April 2015
Microwave Circuits and Applications (MECE 108)
(M. Tech. ECE) (II Semester/ 1st Year)
Max. Marks: 40
Note: Attempt all questions

Time: 90 mins.

## SECTION I (05 Marks)

Q1.
(i).
(ii).
(iii).
(iv).
(v).

Define Decibel?
What are the characteristics of ideal filter?
For a low pass filter what is the condition for which the characteristic impedance Z0 is real?
What are the different types of noise?
Amplifiers can also act as an amplifier. True/False
SECTION II (20 Marks)

Q2. A lossy transmission line has a noise figure of F 0 at termperature T0=290K. Calculate and plot the
noise figureof this line as its physical temperature ranges from T=0K to 1000K, for F 0=1dB and
F0=3dB.
Q3. What are the different type of filters? Explain them by using Reflection coefficient and Insertion
coefficient diagram with respect to frequency.
SECTION III (15 Marks)
Q4. It is desired to design a maximally flat low pass filter with atleast 25dB attenuation at =2 c and
-1.5dB at its band endge. How many elements will be required for this filter? If Chebyshev filter is
used with 1.5 dB ripple in its pass band then find the number of elements.