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The Default Mode

Network in Health
and Wellness

Andrew S. Bonci, BA, DC


Private Practice
Mission, Kansas

www.drbonci.com

Dr. Gary
Carver

And All
of You!

A
Special
Thank
You
Dr. Russ
Dr. Doran
Matthias
MSCA DII
Nicholson

Dr. Robert
Riley

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Get the Notes


Obtenga las Notas
Akiru la Notojn
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or
www.slideshare.net/drbonci
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Disclosures
I stand before you with NO
conflicts of interest.
I make my living the way
you do, by lightening the
burden of human suffering
with the aid of chiropractic.
nci
o
B
.
ew S tor
r
d
n
Dr. A iroprac
Ch

I have nothing to sell to


you, so relax and enjoy
yourself and your time with
your peers.
www.drbonci.com

Objectives
Review the Anatomy and Physiology of the
Default Mode Network through a review of
the peer-reviewed literature.
Examine the Role of the Default Mode Network
in Health and Disease based on the peerreviewed literature.
Explore Interventions that have been shown by
the peer-reviewed literature to improve the
function of the DMN and other brain networks
such as diet, exercise and meditation.
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The Determining
Cause
The determining cause
of disease are
traumatism, poison and
auto-suggestion.
Palmer DD. Textbook of the Science, Art and Philosophy of
Chiropractic for Students and Practitioners. Portland, OR.
Portland Printing House Company. (1910). p 359.

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Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita


mi ritrovai per una selva oscura
ch la diritta via era smarrita.
~ Dante Alighieri ~

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Midway through the journey of my life


I found myself lost in a dark forest,
Having wandered off the main path.
It is hard for me to express in words
How savage, rough, and stern this forest was to me.
The very thought of it renews my fear.
It was so bitter that death could not be worse;
But in order to show you the good that I eventually
found, I must first tell you of the other things I saw.
I cannot remember how I entered the forest,
My thoughts were full of other things
When I wandered off the path.
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~ Dante Alighieri ~

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Looking at My Own Loss,


I Saw the Pain of Loss in ...
Family
Friends
Patients
Young
Old
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I Witnessed How Loss


Manifests itself as Grief

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Grief ...
In Western cultures grief is
typically discussed as a
psychological phenomenon
largely as a cognitive
challenge, an emotional
reaction to loss.

International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family | 2003 | MURRAY, COLLEEN I.


COPYRIGHT 2003 The Gale Group Inc.

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Grief is Normal
Grief is normal and natural, but we have been ill
prepared to deal with it.
James, John W.; Friedman, Russell (2009-02-20). The Grief
Recovery Handbook, 20th Anniversary Expanded Edition: (20th Anniversary Edition) (p. 5). HarperCollins. Kindle Edition.

Grief is the emotional response to (significant)


loss.
Death is the event most often thought of as a loss,
but there are many others.

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Grieving Process
1. Shock and Denial
2. Intense Concern
3. Despair and Depression
4. Recovery

Mcdonald, P. C. (1985). Grieving: A Healing Process. Center city, MN: Hazelden Foundation

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14

Shock and Denial


Shock and Denial are the persons emotional
protection from being too overwhelmed by the
loss.
The person may not yet be willing or able to
believe what their mind knows to be true.

Mcdonald, P. C. (1985). Grieving: A Healing Process. Center city, MN: Hazelden Foundation

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Intense Concern
Intense concern often manifests by being unable
to think of anything else.
Even during daily tasks, thoughts of the loss keep
coming to mind.
Conversations with one at this stage always turn
to the loss as well.

Mcdonald, P. C. (1985). Grieving: A Healing Process. Center city, MN: Hazelden Foundation

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16

Despair and Depression


Despair and depression is the stage when the
griever gradually comes to terms with the reality
of the loss.
The process typically involves a wide range of
feelings, thoughts, and behaviors with attendant
loss of happiness.

Mcdonald, P. C. (1985). Grieving: A Healing Process. Center city, MN: Hazelden Foundation

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Recovery
The goal is to reorganize ones life, so the loss is
an important part of life rather than its center.
In this stage, one shows a new interest in daily
activities and begins to function normally day to
day.

Mcdonald, P. C. (1985). Grieving: A Healing Process. Center city, MN: Hazelden Foundation

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Wait.

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How is this Chiropractic?

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No man is an iland, intire of it selfe; every man is


a peece of the Continent, a part of the maine;[ ]
any mans death diminishes me, because I am
involved in Mankinde; And therefore never send to
know for whom the bell tolls; It tolls for thee.

John Donne 1572-1631

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Chiropractic gives relief to, and opens up a haven


for, those who are ailing, making them physically,
mentally and spiritually invigorated and whole.
Palmer, D.D.; Palmer, Daniel David (2007-09-03). The Chiropractor (p. 8).
Lord Majesty Productions, a division of The Harper. Kindle Edition.

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I Witnessed How Grief


Manifests itself as Suffering

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My Vipassana
I saw this suffering in the
eyes, faces, bodies, lives
and relationships of those I
met in all walks of life.
I remembered Dukkha from
the 4 Noble Truths of
Buddhism.

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Dukkha
Suffering
Unease
Anguish
Unsatisfactoriness
Unhappiness
Pain
Misery
Sorrow
Conflict
.
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This is How We Encounter Each Other

Grief Reveals the Degree


to which Your Thoughts
are Already Disorganized

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27

Velcro for Negative Experiences


The brain is a Velcro for negative experiences
while Teflon for positive emotions; thus, bad
memories stick and good memories are easily
forgotten.
Those who are able to reverse the process
through neocortical influences enjoy peace and
happiness.

Ann Indian Acad Neurol. 2011 Oct-Dec; 14(4): 232238.

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Metanoia ()
The word literally breaks down [to mean] go
beyond the mind or go into the large mind.
[This] means to go beyond your little egoic
operating system that says, I think, therefore I
am, and try out the other onethe big one
that says, I am, therefore I think.

Bourgeault, Cynthia (2011-07-20). The Wisdom Jesus: Transforming Heart and Mind--A New Perspective on Christ and His
Message (p. 37). Shambhala Publications. Kindle Edition.

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Our Auto-Suggestions
The life-mind is; always open to suggestion; and
since our environment has more of unpleasant,
than pleasant; brings more forcibly to our notice,
disease, pain, suffering, etc., than joy, health
and exuberant life; our auto-suggestionsif we
are not advisedbecome wrong, suggest to our
life-mind weakness and lack of health.

Palmer DD. Textbook of the Science, Art and Philosophy of Chiropractic for Students and Practitioners. Portland, OR. Portland
Printing House Company. (1910). p 91.

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I Witnessed How Suffering


Manifests itself as Unhappiness

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31

Why are we Unhappy?


[W]e are much more concerned over things
which are more powerful to make us unhappy
than truth is to make us happy

~St. Augustine~

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The Source of Unhappiness


Many philosophical and religious traditions teach
that happiness is to be found by living in the
moment, and practitioners are trained to resist
mind wandering and to be here now.
These traditions suggest that a wandering mind is
an unhappy mind.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98, 676 (2001).


Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106, 8719 (2009)
Science. 2010 Nov 12;330(6006):932.

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Outside the Present Moment


Unlike other animals, human beings spend a lot of
time thinking about what is not going on around
them, contemplating events that happened in the
past, might happen in the future, or will never
happen at all.

Science. 2010 Nov 12;330(6006):932.

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There's an App for That!


[A] Web application for the
iPhone, [was] used to create
an unusually large database
of real-time reports of
thoughts, feelings, and
actions of a broad range of
people as they went about
their daily activities.
Science. 2010 Nov 12;330(6006):932.

www.trackyourhappiness.org/

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Mind Wandering Survey


How are you feeling right now?
What are you doing right now?
Are you thinking about
something other than what
youre currently doing?

Science. 2010 Nov 12;330(6006):932.

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Mind Wandering Results in Brief


First, peoples minds wandered frequently,
regardless of what they were doing.
Mind wandering occurred in 46.9% of the samples
and in at least 30% of the samples taken during
every activity except making love.

Science. 2010 Nov 12;330(6006):932.

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Mind Wandering Results in Brief


Second, people were less happy when their
minds were wandering than when they were not
and this was true during all activities, including the
least enjoyable.

Science. 2010 Nov 12;330(6006):932.

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Mind Wandering, Negative Moods


Although negative moods are known to cause
mind wandering
, mind wandering [is] the
cause of unhappiness.
Emotion 9, 271 (2009)

Science. 2010 Nov 12;330(6006):932.

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A Predictor of Happiness
[W]hat people were thinking was a better predictor
of their happiness than was what they were doing.
When your thoughts are not germane to your
present activity, then you are more likely to be
unhappy.

Science. 2010 Nov 12;330(6006):932.

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Wandering Mind, Unhappy Mind


In conclusion, a human mind is a wandering mind,
and a wandering mind is an unhappy mind.
The ability to think about what is not happening is
a cognitive achievement that comes at an
emotional cost.

Science. 2010 Nov 12;330(6006):932.

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Stop Mind Wandering Fast!


Fewer than 10% of people mind wander during
sex which may contribute to the happiness or
sense of joy during sexual relations.

Science. 2010 Nov 12;330(6006):932.

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The happiness of your life


depends upon the quality of
your thoughts.
Marcus Aurelius

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I Witnessed Unhappiness as a Manifestation of


Mind Wandering or a Lack of Mental Focus

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Stream of Free-Form Thought


As almost any human being can attest, when a
person disengages from externally oriented goaldirected behavior, his or her mind is not idle
instead, it can become absorbed in a dynamic
stream of free-form thought that is associated with
mind wandering, spontaneous recollection of
previous memories, production of hypothetical
scenarios and future plans, and other personal
and social thoughts and imaginings.
American Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 15761585.; Psychological Bulletin, 132, 946958.

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What is Mind Wandering?


Mind wandering is the common mental state
whereby task-oriented thoughts are hijacked by
internally generated, unrelated, or wandering
thoughts, usually with little meta-awareness of this
process.

Trends in Cognitive Science, 15, 319326.

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Mind Wandering is Mindlessness


If our attention is on something other than what
we are doing for most of our lives we can come to
feel empty and numb.
A cascade of reinforcing mindlessness can create
a world of thoughtless interactions, cruelty, and
destruction.

Siegel, Daniel J. (2007-04-17). The Mindful Brain: Reflection and Attunement in the Cultivation of Well-Being (Norton Series on
Interpersonal Neurobiology) (p. 14). W. W. Norton & Company. Kindle Edition.

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Mindlessness is Autopilot
Living on automatic also places us at risk of
mindlessly reacting to situations without reflecting
on various options of response.
The result can often be knee-jerk reactions that in
turn initiate similar mindless reflexes in others.

Siegel, Daniel J. (2007-04-17). The Mindful Brain: Reflection and Attunement in the Cultivation of Well-Being (Norton Series on
Interpersonal Neurobiology) (p. 14). W. W. Norton & Company. Kindle Edition.

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Yoga Sutra of Patanjali

yogah a means, method of union


citta thinking, reflecting, imagining, thought
vr tti mental habits -cyclical permutations of the mind
nirodhah to stop the momentum
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Yoga Sutra of Patanjali

Yoga is the re-channeling of the


impressions and habits of the mind

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Yoga Sutra of Patanjali


Yoga is the re-channeling of the
impressions and habits of the mind.

(v2)

Otherwise [you] will identify with the


habits of [your] mind.
(v4)

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Citta Vr tti: Whirlpool of Thoughts


The mind gets drawn to worries and hurts, mostly
in the domain of the past and future, leading to
mind wandering.
Explore (NY). 2013 May-Jun;9(3):136-41

Stimulus-independent thought or mind


wandering appears to be the brains default
mode of operation.
Science. 2010 Nov 12;330(6006):932.

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Mind is Never Idle


The mind is not idle in the absence of externally
focused, goal-directed tasksinstead, the relative
lapse in perceptual vigilance provides an
opportunity to mentally wander far from the
current physical context, maintaining just enough
attention to engage automatic behaviors and to
monitor the environment for interruptions, while
indulging thoughts, fantasies, and memories
about the social world and the psychological self.
Perspectives on Psychological Science 7(4) 352 364.

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Thought and More Thoughts


Our brains produce as many as 50,000 thoughts
per day (National Science Foundation).
Ninety-five percent of these thoughts are repeated
daily and reflect the mindset or beliefs we hold or
to which we tenaciously cling.

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Source of Thoughts
Let's take 5 minutes to simply sit quietly with our
eyes closed and watch our thoughts.
Sitting comfortably, allow your breath to move in
and out naturally and effortlessly.
Let us see if we can identify from where our
thoughts originate.

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Thoughts and Breaths


Stimulus-independent thoughts, wandering
thoughts, spontaneous thoughts arise and fall in
very much the same way as your breath arises
and falls.
Just as your automatic, spontaneous breath has a
neurological trigger so do many of your selfdefining, stimulus-independent thoughts.

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Thoughts and Breaths Analogy


Spontaneous, automatic respiration is to the
respiratory centers as ...
Spontaneous, stimulus-independent thought is to
the default mode network.

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Loss Grief
Grief Suffering
Suffering Unhappiness
Unhappiness Mind Wandering

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Antithesis of Mind Wandering


The antithesis of mind wandering might be
thought of as the ability to sustain focus on the
moment.
This may rightfully be called mindfulness.

Clinical Psychological Science 1(1) 7583

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What is Mindfulness?
Mindfulness includes paying attention to the
moment, with intention and without judgment, and
disengaging oneself from strong attachment to
beliefs, thoughts, or emotions, which in turn is
predicted to reduce suffering and promote wellbeing.

Journal of the American Medical Association, 300, 1350 1352.).

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Mindfulness Opens Doors


Being mindful opens the doors not only to being
aware of the moment in a fuller way, but by
bringing the individual closer to a deep sense of
his or her own inner world, it offers the opportunity
to enhance compassion and empathy.

Siegel, Daniel J. (2007-04-17). The Mindful Brain: Reflection and Attunement in the Cultivation of Well-Being (Norton Series on
Interpersonal Neurobiology) (p. 14). W. W. Norton & Company. Kindle Edition.

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The COAL of Mindfulness


Life becomes more enriched as we are aware of
the extraordinary experience of being, of being
alive, of living in this moment.
We approach our here-and-now experience with
curiosity, openness, acceptance, and love
(COAL).

Siegel, Daniel J. (2007-04-17). The Mindful Brain: Reflection and Attunement in the Cultivation of Well-Being (Norton Series on
Interpersonal Neurobiology) (p. 14). W. W. Norton & Company. Kindle Edition.

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The Means to Mindfulness


For more than two millennia, mindfulness
meditation has been practiced as a means of
achieving psychological equanimity and selfawareness, yet it has only recently become the
target of systematic research by fields such as
medicine, psychology, and neuroscience for its
relevance to mental and physical health.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012; 2012: 680407.

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Mindfulness is the
miracle by which
we master and
restore ourselves.
~Thich Nhat Hanh~

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I Witnessed Mind Wandering Manifest itself as


Disenfranchisement, Pain,
Dysfunction and Disease

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67

Psychological Health
Considering psychological health, it is noted that
health is not just the absence of stress or mental
illness (i.e., languishing), but also the presence of
flourishing (i.e., well-being).

Am Psychol. 2007;62:95108.

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Predictor of Well-Being
Scientific evidence suggests that mind wandering
predicts unhappiness, whereas presence in the
moment [mindfulness] predicts well-being.

Clinical Psychological Science 1(1) 7583.

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Mind Wandering, Aging, Disease


Emerging research suggests that a wandering
mind may [also be] a sign of cellular aging and
disease.

Clinical Psychological Science 1(1) 7583.

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Telomere Length-Mind Wandering


[Individuals who report themselves as] high mind
wanders have shorter telomeres consistently
across immune cell types, than do those who
report low mind wandering.

Clinical Psychological Science 1(1) 7583.

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Predictor of Morbidity & Mortality


Telomeres typically shorten with age and
psychological and physiological stressors, and
telomere shortness predicts early disease and
mortality.
Mutation Research, 730(12), 8589

Telomere shortness may be a useful marker of


accelerated aging early in life.

Molecular Psychiatry. Advance online publication.

doi:10.1038/mp.2012.32

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Didn't I Hear that Diet and Nutrition


has an Affect on Telomere Length?

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Nutritional Influences on
Telomere Length
Various nutrients influence telomere length
potentially through mechanisms that reflect their
role in cellular functions including inflammation,
oxidative stress, DNA integrity, DNA
methylation and activity of telomerase [which
adds or restores length to] the newly synthesized
DNA.

J Nutr Biochem. 2011 Oct;22(10):895-901.

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Diet, Nutrition & Telomere Length

Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 2011 22, 895-901DOI: (10.1016/j.jnutbio.2010.12.001)


Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. Terms and Conditions

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Increased Telomerase Activity


Brief training in meditation over
4 months and intensive
meditation over 3 months were
both associated with higher
telomerase activity.

Psychoneuroendocrinology, 36, 664681.

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Mindfulness Makes a Difference


Telomere length varies widely
between adults, and these
findings suggest that presence
of mind may explain some of
these differences.
A present attentional state may
promote a healthy biochemical
milieu and, in turn, cell
longevity.
Clinical Psychological Science 1(1) 7583.

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Auto-Suggestion
It is an evident fact, that within the means of self,
there is no more fruitful source of health than
correct auto-suggestion.

Palmer DD. Textbook of the Science, Art and Philosophy of Chiropractic for Students and Practitioners. Portland, OR. Portland
Printing House Company. (1910). pp 90-91.

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Mindfulness and Wellness


[T]raining in the ability to be more mindful is
consistently related to improvements in
psychological well-being and physical health,
typically as self-reported health measures.

Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 57(1), 3543

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Mind, Longevity & Wellness


The belief that presence of mind [or mindfulness]
is intricately linked to well-being and longevity has
roots in many ancient contemplative traditions.
Clinical Psychological Science 1(1) 7583

Science is running to catch up while an arrogant


modern culture is being naturally selected out of
existence.

BOOM!
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The secret of health for both mind and body


ot to mourn for the past, worry about the fut
or anticipate troubles but to live
in the present moment wisely and earnestly.

~ Buddh

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What is the Anatomical Basis


for Mind Wandering?

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Anatomy of Mind Wandering


In the brain, a network of neurons called the
default mode network has been associated with
mind wandering.
This network is active when the individual is not
focused on the outside world and the brain is at
wakeful rest.

Explore (NY). 2013 May-Jun;9(3):136-41

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The Resting Brain


[A resting brain] might best be characterized by
Random Episodic Silent Thinking about one's
life and experiences.

Front Hum Neurosci. 2012 Jun 21;6:189.

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Marcus Raichle, MD
Raichle (2001) noticed that when
his subjects were lying in an MRI
scanner and doing the demanding
cognitive tasks of his experiments,
there were brain areas whose
activity actually decreased.

Smart, Andrew (2013-07-30). Autopilot: The Art and Science of Doing Nothing (Kindle
Locations 225-227). OR Books. Kindle Edition.

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Various Monikers Used


Various names are used throughout the literature
to denote this area of resting state activity.

Default Mode Network (DMN)


Resting State Network (RSN)

Task Negative Network (TNN)

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DMN Components

Posterior Cingulate Cortex (PCC)

Precuneus

Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC)

Medial Prefrontal Cortices (dmPFC and


vmPFC)

Medial Temporal Lobe (MTL)

Inferior Parietal Cortex (IPC)

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DMN Anatomy

Sandrone S , and Catani M Neurology 2013;81:e172-e175

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Posterior Cingulate Cortex


The posterior cingulate cortex is highly connected
and one of the most metabolically active regions
in the brain, but there is no consensus as to its
cognitive role.
Cerebral blood flow and metabolic rate in the
posterior cingulate cortex are approximately 40%
higher than average across the brain.
Brain 137 (Pt 1): 1232.
Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15 (4): 143151.

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Posterior Cingulate Cortex


[The Posterior Cingulate Cortex and its
associated posterior-medial cortical connections]
have been found to be related to self-awareness
and autobiographical self.

Perspectives on Psychological Science 7(4) 352 364.

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Precuneus
Functional imaging has linked the precuneus to
the processes involved in self-consciousness,
such as reflective self-awareness, that involve
rating ones own personality traits compared to
those judged of other people.
[T]he precuneus plays a role in self-processing
operations like reflecting and maintaining a firstperson perspective.
Smart, Andrew (2013-07-30). Autopilot: The Art and Science of Doing Nothing (Kindle Locations 552-553). OR Books. Kindle Edition.
Neuroimage 17 (2): 10806.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101 (17): 682732.

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Anterior Cingulate Cortex


[T]he anterior cingulate cortex seems to be
involved in the reduction of negative affective
states and it interacts with other midline
structures, such as the medial prefrontal cortex.

Siegel, Daniel J. (2007-04-17). The Mindful Brain: Reflection and Attunement in the Cultivation of Well-Being (Norton Series on
Interpersonal Neurobiology) (p. 116). W. W. Norton & Company. Kindle Edition.

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Anterior Cingulate Cortex


[T]he anterior cingulate cortex serves to
determine the distribution of an attentional focus
and to be involved in the regulation of emotional
arousal.

Siegel, Daniel J. (2007-04-17). The Mindful Brain: Reflection and Attunement in the Cultivation of Well-Being
(Norton Series on Interpersonal Neurobiology) (p. 114). W. W. Norton & Company. Kindle Edition.

[T]he ventral part of the ACC is connected with


amygdala, nucleus accumbens, hypothalamus,
and anterior insula, and is involved in assessing
the salience of emotion and motivational
information.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 935 (1): 10717.

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Anterior Cingulate Cortex


Brain imaging investigations have implicated the
role of the anterior cingulate cortex as a crucial
node in the executive attention network.
The anterior cingulate cortex can be considered
the chief operating officer of the brain because it
allocates attentional resources as they are
needed.

Siegel, Daniel J. (2007-04-17). The Mindful Brain: Reflection and Attunement in the Cultivation of Well-Being (Norton Series on
Interpersonal Neurobiology) (p. 114). W. W. Norton & Company. Kindle Edition.

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Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex


Areas within the ventral medial prefrontal cortex
are also heavily connected to the limbic
structures, such as the amygdala, ventral
striatum, hypothalamus, mid-brain periaqueductal
grey region and brainstem autonomic nuclei.
[The vmPFC ] plays a role in the inhibition of
emotional responses, and in the process of
decision making.
Siegel, Daniel J. (2007-04-17). The Mindful Brain: Reflection and Attunement in the Cultivation of Well-Being (Norton Series on
Interpersonal Neurobiology) (p. 218). W. W. Norton & Company. Kindle Edition.

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Dorsomedial Prefrontal Cortex


The mental functions associated with the dmPFC
region involve the monitoring of ones own mental
state and reporting these internal states to others,
intentional speech, self-generated thoughts, and
emotions.
Another set of activities associated with the
dmPFC include attributing mental states to others .

Siegel, Daniel J. (2007-04-17). The Mindful Brain: Reflection and Attunement in the Cultivation of Well-Being (Norton Series on
Interpersonal Neurobiology) (pp. 218-219). W. W. Norton & Company. Kindle Edition.

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Medial Temporal Lobe


Medial temporal lobe structures that are critical for
long-term memory include the amygdala,
brainstem, and hippocampus, along with the
surrounding hippocampal region consisting of the
perirhinal, parahippocampal, and entorhinal
neocortical regions.

Smith; Kosslyn (2007). Cognitive Psychology: Mind and Brain. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. pp. 21, 194199, 349.

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Inferior Parietal Cortex


Inferior parietal cortex has been involved in the
perception of emotions in facial stimuli, and
interpretation of sensory information.

NeuroImage 49 (1): 939946.

Like the precuneus, the parietal cortex is also


involved in representing you to yourself,
sometimes called metacognition.

Smart, Andrew (2013-07-30). Autopilot:

The Art and Science of Doing Nothing (Kindle Locations 556-558). OR Books. Kindle Edition.

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A Simplified
Connectome
of the DMN

PFC

PCC

Precuneus

ACC

Inferior
Parietal
Cortex

Medial
Temporal
Lobe

Brainstem
Auntonomic
Nuclei

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Energy Expenditure of DMN


Default mode network regions receive more blood
flow
and consume more
energy
than
other brain regions.
Neuroimage 48, 515524 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.07.006

Neuroimage 37, 10831090 discussion: 10971099. 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2007.02.041

Indeed, cerebral blood flow and metabolic rate are


approximately 40% higher in the PCC than the
average of the rest of the brain
.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98, 676682

10.1073/pnas.98.2.676

Front Hum Neurosci. 2014; 8: 20.

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Energy Expenditure of DMN


The magnitude of the default mode network's
energy consumption dwarfs the comparatively
trivial energy changes induced by stimulus cues.
This [energetic] centrality of the default mode
network is not shared by other brain networks ,
implying that [...] it serves as a central
orchestrator or conductor of global brain function.

Front Hum Neurosci. 2014; 8: 20.

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Blood Supply and Metabolic Activity


Begs the Mention of Nutrition and Exercise

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Antioxidant Nutrition
Exogenous antioxidants cross the blood brain
barrier and help to stem oxidative damage
secondary to shifts in perfusion.

Alpha Lipoic Acid Free Radic Biol Med. 1997;22(1-2):359-78.


Polyphenols Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2012;2012:914273.
Resveratrol Eur J Neurosci. 2012 Oct;36(7):2899-905.
Vitamin C J Clin Invest. 1997 Dec 1;100(11):2842-8.

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Polyphenols in Brain Function


[R]ecent evidence suggests that their beneficial
effects involve decreases in
oxidative/inflammatory stress signaling, increases
in protective signaling and neurohormetic effects
leading to the expression of genes that encode
antioxidant enzymes, phase-2 enzymes,
neurotrophic factors, and cytoprotective proteins.

Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2012;2012:914273.

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Supplement Takers
"People who take supplements are healthier than
the population at large, but their health probably
has nothing whatsoever to do with the
supplements they takewhich recent studies
have suggested are worthless, says Michael
Pollan.

http://www.takepart.com/article/2011/12/29/do-multi-vitamins-do-anything

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Supplement Takers
and Mind Wandering ?
Is it possible that health conscious people derive
a health benefit NOT from the supplements that
they are taking, but rather from the mindfulness
they pay to their personal health?
Is there a possible synergistic effect when
coupling mindfulness and nutrition?

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Supplement Takers
"Supplement-takers are better-educated, moreaffluent people who, almost by definition, take a
greater-than-normal interest in personal health
confounding factors that probably account for
their superior health," says Michael Pollan

http://www.takepart.com/article/2011/12/29/do-multi-vitamins-do-anything

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12 Miles/Day
From an evolutionary perspective, our brains
developed while working out , walking as many as
12 miles a day.
The brain still craves that experience, especially
in sedentary populations like our own.

Medina, John (2010-07-06). Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School (pp. 2-3). Pear Press.
Kindle Edition.

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Exercise & Default Mode Network


Regular exercise improves the age-related
decline in cerebral blood flow.

Exp Gerontol. 2012 Aug;47(8):541-51.

Exercise reduces default mode network


overactivity in obese individuals.

Neuroreport. 2013 Oct 23;24(15):866-71.

Reducing default mode network activity causes


people who exercise to have less focus on their
hunger causing them to eat less often.
Neuroreport. 2013 Oct

23;24(15):866-71.

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What about Developing Brains


and Nonhuman Brains?

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DMN in Developing Brains


Over the course of development, connectivity is
established between disparate anatomic regions,
temporarily including regions not part of the adult
network, resulting in anteriorposterior integration
of the DMN and functional dissociation from other
networks.

J Psychiatry Neurosci. Jan 2011; 36(1): 5659.

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DMN in Preterm Infant Brains


Default mode network connectivity could not be
fully established in lightly sedated preterm infants
or in full-term neonates during natural sleep.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:155316.


Pediatr Res. 2009;66:3015.
J Psychiatry Neurosci. Jan 2011; 36(1): 5659.

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DMN in Infant Brains


[Reports have demonstrated] strong coactivation
between the precuneus, the posterior cingulate
cortex and the bilateral parietal cortex in infants.

J Psychiatry Neurosci. Jan 2011; 36(1): 5659.

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DMN in Infant Brains


[It has been reported] that connectivity between
frontal and posterior areas of infants was absent.
This lack of anteriorposterior integration is likely
due to less well-developed white matter tracts
supporting functional connectivity in the anterior
posterior direction in infants.

J Psychiatry Neurosci. Jan 2011; 36(1): 5659.

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DMN in Toddler Brains


By 1 year of age, reports have noted that
anteriorposterior integration begins to emerge.

J Psychiatry Neurosci. Jan 2011; 36(1): 5659.

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DMN in Adolescent Brains


By 9 years of age, the default mode network
anteriorposterior integration appears comparable
to adult integration levels.

J Psychiatry Neurosci. Jan 2011; 36(1): 5659

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DMN in Monkeys
Positron Emission Tomography studies in
monkeys showed regional blood flow increases in
the medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate
cortex during rest as compared to an active
working memory task, providing support for the
existence of the monkey default mode network.

J Neurosci. 29:1446314471.

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DMN in Monkeys
[T]ask-induced suppression of neuronal activity
has been shown in the monkey posterior cingulate
cortex during attention and working memory
tasks.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 106:59485953.

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DMN in Rats
[R]ats possess a default mode network that is
broadly similar to the DMNs of nonhuman
primates and humans.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Mar 6;109(10):3979-84.

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DMN in Mammals
[A] well-organized, intrinsically coherent DMN
appears to be a fundamental feature in the
mammalian brain whose primary functions might
be to integrate multimodal sensory and affective
information to guide behavior in anticipation of
changing environmental contingencies .

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Mar 6;109(10):3979-84.

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What about the Role of the DMN


in Ordinary Consciousness?

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Role of Default Mode Network


[E]ach of the nodes in the default mode network is
involved in thinking about yourself, reflecting on
the past, and introspection.
[T]hese brain regions are all intimately involved in
consciousness (in the ordinary sense).

Smart, Andrew (2013-07-30). Autopilot: The Art and Science of Doing Nothing (Kindle Locations 618-620). OR Books. Kindle Edition.

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Default Mode Network and Ego


The high metabolic activity of the posterior
cingulate cortex and the default mode network
has led some to speculate about its functional
importance, positing a role in consciousness and
high-level constructs, such as the self or ego.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Feb 7;109(6):2138-43.

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Consciousness (Ordinary)
Consciousness is the quality or state of
awareness, or, of being aware of an external
object or something within oneself.

Robert van Gulick (2004).

"Consciousness". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

It has been defined as: sentience, awareness,


subjectivity, the ability to experience or to feel,
wakefulness, having a sense of selfhood, and the
executive control system of the mind.
Farthing G (1992). The

Psychology of Consciousness. Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-728668-3.

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How do Stimulants and Entheogenic Compounds


Affect the DMN and Ordinary Consciousness?

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Nicotine and DMN


Suppression of default mode network suggest that
nicotines cognitive effects may involve a shift in
activity from networks that process internal to
those that process external information.

Psychopharmacology (Berl). Jul 2011; 216(2): 287295.

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Caffeine and DMN


[A]fter caffeine ingestion, the default mode
network involved more attentional networks.
[M]ore extrastriate areas were integrated into the
functional connectivity of the visual cortex, which
may be associated with the known
pharmacological effect of caffeine in elevating
alertness.

NMR Biomed. 2014 Apr;27(4):444-52.

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Marijuana and DMN


THC administration results in less deactivation in
the default mode network during an executive
function task, an effect that is correlated with task
performance.

PLoS One. 2013 Jul 31;8(7):e70074.

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Psilocybin and DMN


Psilocybin caused a significant decrease in the
positive coupling between the medial prefrontal
cortex and the posterior cingulate cortex.
[T]he subjective effects of psychedelic drugs are
caused by decreased activity and connectivity in
the brain's key connector hubs, enabling a state
of unconstrained cognition.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Feb 7;109(6):2138-43.

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I was there when the


bear ate his head
and thought it was a
candy.
Dave Matthews
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Brain as Reducing Valve


To make biological survival possible, Mind at
Large has to be funneled through the reducing
valve of the brain and nervous system.
What comes out at the other end is a measly
trickle of the kind of consciousness which will help
us to stay alive on the surface of this particular
planet.

Huxley, Aldous (2009-09-16). The Doors of Perception and Heaven and Hell (p. 8). HarperCollins. Kindle Edition.

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Exposing My Bias
Biology is NOT the
study of life as such,
rather it is the study of
the mechanisms
through which life
acts or expresses
itself.

From Chapter 9 of Psycho-Bio-Physiology by Willard


Carver, LLB, DC; 1920.

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What about the Role of the DMN in


Psycho-Social Well-Being?

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He who knows others is wise;


He who knows himself is
enlightened.
~Lao Tzu~

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Default Mode or Social Brain?


It has been observed that there is strong overlap
between the areas activated in social cognition
and the default mode network.
[E]ffects of sociality, operationalized by social
network size and mentalizing ability have been
shown to correlate with gray matter density in
areas of the human brain similar to the results
obtained in macaques.

Front Hum Neurosci. 2012 Jun 21;6:189.

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Mirror Neurons and DMN


[H]aving privileged access to our own physical
and mental states allows us to gain insight into
others physical and mental states through the
processes of embodiment and mentalizing.
These cognitive processes are supported at the
neural level by two large-scale, interacting
networks the mirror neuron system and the
DMN, respectively.

Front Hum Neurosci. 2013; 7: 571.

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Self and Social Processing


The brains functioning at rest, may be related to
self and social processing and to thought that
transcends concrete, semantic representations
and that the brains efficient monitoring and
control of task-directed and non-task-directed
states may underlie important dimensions of
psychological
and biological
(telomere)
functioning.
Perspectives on Psychological Science 7(4) 352 364

Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2011 Jun;36(5):664-81

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Making Sense of Experience


Clinicians and teachers often discuss the benefits
of down time and reflection for making sense of
ones experiences and decisions about future
behavior [within the constrains of ordinary
consciousness].

Perspectives on Psychological Science 7(4) 352 364.

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Time for Introspection


[M]any experiential education programs
emphasize the importance of time for
introspection, and interventions and therapies that
teach skills for quiet reflection and mindfulness
produce benefits especially for social and
emotional functioning
but also for academic achievement.
Harvard Educational Review, 76, 201237.; Journal of Child and Family

Studies, 19, 218229.


Individual Differences, 22, 218-224.

Learning and

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Without Time for Introspection


Without the time for introspection the story about
a wolf and three little pigs is just a literal story
about a wolf and three little pigs.
Without the introspection that is associated with
the default mode network the mind becomes
literal and inflexible.

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Social-Emotional Well-Being
[I]nadequate opportunities for children to play and
for adolescents to quietly reflect and to daydream
may have negative consequencesboth for
social-emotional well-being and for their ability to
attend well to tasks.

Perspectives on Psychological Science 7(4) 352 364.

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Mind Wandering as a Risk Factor


Mind wandering fails to serve its adaptive
function, and turns into a risk factor for health
whenever it [takes on] a rigid and inflexible
pattern [as with preservative cognition].

Biol Psychol. 2013 Sep;94(1):38-43

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Preservative Cognition
Perseverative cognition indicates repetitive or
sustained activation of cognitive representations
of past stressful events or feared events in the
future.
In daily life, most prolonged physiological activity
is not due to stressful events but to perseverative
cognition about them.

J Psychosom Res. 2010 Oct;69(4):407-16

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Thinking and Health


Perseverative cognition [is] associated with higher
levels of cognitive inflexibility (slower reaction
times, highest intrusiveness, efforts to inhibit),
autonomic rigidity (low heart rate variability), and
mood worsening compared to being focused on
task.

Biol Psychol. 2013 Sep;94(1):38-43

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What Constitutes a Healthy


Brain Network?

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Major Brain Networks


[S]even major networks have been identified by
fMRI studies including:
One Task Negative Network: default mode (DMN)
Six Task Positive Networks: dorsal attention
network (DAN), executive control (ECN), salience
(SN), sensorimotor, visual, and auditory networks.

Brain Connectivity. 2011;1(1):312.

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Task-Positive Networks
During performance of attention-demanding
tasks, prefrontal and parietal structures
comprising the task-positive network are
characterized by increases in activation; in
contrast, default mode network structures,
including posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal
cortices, are characterized by decreased activity.

Biological Psychiatry, Society of Biological Psychiatry 70: 327333.

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Salience Network
Efficiently changing behavior requires rapid and
coordinated activity across brain networks.

Proc Natl Acad

Sci U S A. Mar 20, 2012; 109(12): 46904695.

The salience network is thought to be important


for signaling the need to change behavior.

Brain Struct Funct.

2010;214:655667.

The salience network [consists] most prominently


of the anterior insulae and medial prefrontal areas
such as the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex which
are anatomically and functionally interconnected.
J Neurosci. 2007;27:23492356. Hum Brain Mapp. 2009;30:31273141.

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Attention Toggle
The anterior cingulate cortex [in conjunction with
the anterior insulae] can be considered the chief
operating officer of the brain because it allocates
attentional resources.

Siegel, Daniel J. (2007-04-17). The Mindful Brain: Reflection and Attunement in the Cultivation of Well-Being (Norton Series on
Interpersonal Neurobiology) (p. 114). W. W. Norton & Company. Kindle Edition.

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Externalizing Attention
Drawing attentional resources from internal
awareness to external awareness has been
described as undergoing three specific modes.
(1) Alerting
(2) Orienting
(3) Executive Attention

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Alerting
Alerting involves sustained attention, vigilance,
and alertness that create the ability to enhance
and maintain readiness to respond as a
preparation for anticipated stimuli.
It involves the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on the
right and the anterior cingulate cortex.

Siegel, Daniel J. (2007-04-17). The Mindful Brain: Reflection and Attunement in the Cultivation of Well-Being (Norton Series on
Interpersonal Neurobiology) (p. 113). W. W. Norton & Company. Kindle Edition.

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Orienting
Orienting is the capacity to specifically select
certain information from a variety of options in a
process of scanning or selection.

Siegel, Daniel J. (2007-04-17). The Mindful Brain: Reflection and Attunement in the Cultivation of Well-Being (Norton Series on
Interpersonal Neurobiology) (p. 113). W. W. Norton & Company. Kindle Edition.

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Executive Attention
Executive attention has many features with
descriptions such as selective, supervisory, and
focused attention.
Conflict resolution among competing stimuli is
also an essential aspect of executive attentional
control.

Siegel, Daniel J. (2007-04-17). The Mindful Brain: Reflection and Attunement in the Cultivation of Well-Being (Norton Series on
Interpersonal Neurobiology) (p. 114). W. W. Norton & Company. Kindle Edition.

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Executive Attention
Effortful control is a phrase used to describe the
nature of this executive function.
It is here where we can begin to imagine the
power of mindful awareness to decouple
automatic habitual thinking within the
framework of executive attentional control.

Siegel, Daniel J. (2007-04-17). The Mindful Brain: Reflection and Attunement in the Cultivation of Well-Being (Norton Series on
Interpersonal Neurobiology) (p. 114). W. W. Norton & Company. Kindle Edition.

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Metastable Brain State


Metastable [in neurological context] refers to the
balance the brain must strike between stability
and flexibility.
Smart, Andrew (2013-07-30). Autopilot: The Art and Science of Doing Nothing (Kindle
Locations 621-622). OR Books. Kindle Edition.

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Neural and Psychological Health


The efficiency with which a brain toggles
between activity associated with the default mode
network and outward attention [ is ...]
associated with neural and psychological
health, especially around social and emotional
functioning.

Perspectives on Psychological Science 7(4) 352 364.

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Blinking: DMN Toggle Switch


[S]pontaneous eyeblinks play an active role in the
release of attention from external stimuli while
attentively engaging in a cognitive task.
This release of attention from external stimuli may
represent a need to processes or reflect on
incoming events.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Jan 8, 2013; 110(2): 702706.

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Rest is Not Idleness


[R]est is indeed not idleness, nor is it a wasted
opportunity for productivity.
Rather, constructive internal reflection is
potentially critical for learning from ones past
experiences and appreciating their value for future
choices and for understanding and managing
ourselves in the social world.

Perspectives on Psychological Science 7(4) 352 364.

COS Photography 2014


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Default Mode Network in Disease

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Default Mode Atypicalities


Atypicalities in default mode functioning have
been found to be related to social-emotional
symptoms in schizophrenia, autism, attention
deficit disorder, anxiety disorders, depression, and
other conditions.

Perspectives on Psychological Science 7(4) 352 364.

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Atypicalities in ADHD
Lapses of attention are associated with
attenuated deactivation of the default mode
network.
Task-related default mode deactivation has been
shown to be attenuated in attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder relative to controls.

J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2011 Jul;52(7):761-71.

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Atypicalities in Alzheimer's
[C]erebral amyloid-beta (A) deposits have clearcut abnormalities in resting state functional
connectivity in key regions, suggesting that A
deposition is associated with a disrupted
functional connectivity within the default mode
network, even in the absence of a task.

Biol Psychiatry. Mar 15, 2010; 67(6): 584587.

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Atypicalities in Alzheimer's
[D]ecreased precuneus resting state functional
connectivity with hippocampus,
parahippocampus, anterior cingulate, dorsal
anterior cingulate, gyrus rectus, and superior
precuneus extends findings of disruptions in
Alzheimer's Disease, and highlights the
importance of integrity of the default network.

Biol Psychiatry. Mar 15, 2010; 67(6): 584587.

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Atypicalities in Autism
[It was] found that the autism group failed to
demonstrate [a normal] deactivation effect in the
default mode network.
[T]he lack of deactivation in the autism group is
indicative of abnormal internally directed
processes at rest, which may be an important
contribution to the social and emotional deficits of
autism.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 May 23;103(21):8275-80.

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Atypicalities in Chronic Pain


Rumination and catastrophizing are forms of
thought characterized by repetitive focus on
discomforting emotions or stimuli.
Hyperconnectivity of the default network is linked
to chronic pain.

Journal of Neuroscience 34 (11): 396975.

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Atypicalities in PTSD
Individuals with PTSD show stronger connectivity
with areas implicated in the default mode network,
namely enhanced connectivity between the
posterior cingulate cortex and the right superior
frontal gyrus and between the medial prefrontal
cortex and the left parahippocampal gyrus.

J Psychiatry Neurosci. Jul 2010; 35(4): 258266.

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Atypicalities in Depression
[D]epression is characterized by a failure to
normally down-regulate activity broadly within the
default mode network.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Feb 10;106(6):1942-7.

Increased functional connectivity in anterior


medial regions of the resting-state default mode
network was associated with rumination and
catastrophizing.
Biological Psychiatry 71 (7): 6117.

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Atypicalities in Schizophrenia
Patients and relatives exhibited significantly
reduced task-related suppression in mPFC.
Hyperactivation (reduced task-related
suppression) of default regions and
hyperconnectivity of the default network contribute
to disturbances of thought in schizophrenia and
risk for the illness.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Jan 27;106(4):1279-84.

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Sleep Deprivation and DMN


Recent evidence suggests that even one night of
controlled sleep deprivation in the laboratory is
associated with reduced functional connectivity
within the default mode network and anticorrelated network.

PLoS One. 2013 Oct 25;8(10):e78830.

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Controlling the Vr tti


Given the interrelationship between the default
mode network, mind-wandering, and
unhappiness, a question arises:

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Dec 13, 2011; 108(50): 2025420259.

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Is it possible to change this default


mode into one that is more presentcentered, healthier, robust and
possibly happier?
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Dec 13, 2011; 108(50): 2025420259.

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Practice of Mindfulness
Mindfulness, a core element of diverse forms of
meditation, is thought to include [at least] two
complementary components:

maintaining attention on the immediate


experience; focused attention.
maintaining an attitude of acceptance toward
this experience; choiceless awareness.

Clin Psychol. 2004;11:230241.


Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Dec 13, 2011; 108(50): 2025420259.

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Focused Attention
[F]ocused attention on a single object of
awareness (typically the breath) is intended to
help individuals retrain their minds from habitually
engaging in self-related preoccupations (such as
thinking about the past or future, or reacting to
stressful stimuli) to more present moment
awareness.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Dec 13, 2011; 108(50): 2025420259.


Gunaratana H. Mindfulness in Plain English. Somerville, MA: Wisdom Publications; 2002.

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Choiceless Awareness
Choiceless Awareness is hypothesized to
broaden the scope of mindfulness to all aspects of
experience, whether during formal meditation
practice or everyday life, via directly attending to
whatever arises in one's conscious field of
awareness at any moment.

Gunaratana H. Mindfulness in Plain English. Somerville, MA: Wisdom Publications; 2002.


Trends Cogn Sci. 2008;12(4):163169.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Dec 13, 2011; 108(50): 2025420259.

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Choiceless Awareness
[M]editators practice noticing when they are
identifying with an object, and when this occurs, to
let go and bring their attention back to the
present moment.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Dec 13, 2011; 108(50): 2025420259.

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The Meditator's Task


In other words, the meditator's task is to remain
aware from moment to moment, and selfidentification is included in the off-task category of
mind-wandering.
[T]his information-processing task is a training of
attention away from self-reference and mindwandering, and potentially away from defaultmode processing.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Dec 13, 2011; 108(50): 2025420259.

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Enhanced Functional Connectivity


[M]indfulness practice enhances functional
connectivity within attentional networks as well as
increases connectivity across broadly distributed
brain regions subserving attention, self-referential,
and emotional processes.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012; 2012: 680407.

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Better Metastable Functionality


[C]ompared with non-meditators, meditation
practitioners [have] greater rsFC between the
dorsal attention network, default mode network,
and salience network, which may index allocation
of attentional resources toward enhanced selfreflection and awareness of emotional
experience.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012; 2012: 680407.

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Thoughts/Feeling as Objects
The finding that functional connectivity or
metastability in RSN and TPNs increased with
meditation experience may correspond with
accounts of long-term mindfulness practitioners
who report experiencing thoughts and feelings as
objects without any self-reference .

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012; 2012: 680407

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Mindfulness and
Psychological Processes
Mindfulness practice has been associated with
changes in basic psychological processes, such
as improved attentional focus
,
improved cognitive flexibility
,
reduced affective reactivity
, and
modification or shifts away from a distorted or
exaggerated view of oneself
.
J Neurosci. 2009;29:1341813427.

Conscious Cogn. 2009;18(1):176186.

Emotion. 2010;10:8391.

Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2007;2:313322.

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Meditation Minimizes Self


[A]cross all mindfulness meditation conditions, the
two primary nodes of the default mode network
(the PCC and mPFC) were less active in
meditators than controls.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Dec 13, 2011; 108(50): 2025420259.

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Meditation Promotes Flexibility


[M]indfulness meditation appears to involve a shift
from a functionally restricted default mode
during rest into a more functionally integrated
large-scale network subserving attention,
salience, and self-reflection.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012; 2012: 680407.

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Less Mind Wandering


[I]nasmuch as activity in default mode regions
reflects self-referential processing and mindwandering, the current data suggest that
meditators are engaged in [mind wandering and
self-referential] processes less than their control
counterparts.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Dec 13, 2011; 108(50): 2025420259.

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Mindfulness State
The state of mindfulness is characterized by a
nonjudgmental and metacognitive monitoring of
moment-by-moment cognition, emotion,
perception, and sensation without fixation on
thoughts of past and future.

Complementary Health Practice Review. 2007;12:1530.,


Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 2008;12(4):163169.].
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012; 2012: 680407.

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Trait Mindfulness
[T]he practice of mindfulness meditation evokes
the state of mindfulness, which, when engaged
repeatedly over time, may accrue into trait or
dispositional mindfulness.

Clinical Psychology Review. 2009;29(6):560572.,


Clinical Psychology Review. 2010;30(7):849864..
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012; 2012: 680407.

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Trait Mindfulness
[T]rait mindfulness is characterized as the
propensity towards exhibiting such nonjudgmental
awareness of one's thoughts, emotions,
experiences, and actions in everyday life.

Assessment. 2006;13(1):2745.

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Trait Mindfulness
Higher levels of this trait are associated with
enhanced affect regulation
,
attentional control
, and
autonomic recovery from emotional provocations
.
Clinical Psychology Review. 2009;29(6):560572.

Consciousness and Cognition. 2009;18(1):176186.

Journal of Psychophysiology. 2011;25(4):180189.

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In Only 8 Weeks
[R]ecent research demonstrates that among
meditation-nave subjects, participating in 8
weeks of mindfulness meditation training
increases rsFC of auditory, visual, and salience
brain networks while attending to auditory
information.
Increase rsFC is another way of saying increased
metastability.

NeuroImage. 2011;56(1):290298.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012; 2012: 680407.
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Meditation & Neuroplasticity


Meditation experience is associated with
increased cortical thickness.

Neuroreport. 2005 Nov 28;16(17):1893-7.

Long-term meditation is associated with increased


gray matter density in the brain stem.
Neuroreport. 2009 Jan

28;20(2):170-4.

The underlying anatomical correlates of long-term


meditation: larger hippocampal and frontal
volumes of gray matter.
Neuroimage. 2009 Apr 15;45(3):672-8.

Mechanisms of white matter changes induced by


meditation.
Front Psychol. 2014 Oct 27;5:1220.

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Mindfulness Training Benefits


Clinically, mindfulness training has shown benefit
for the treatment of pain
, substanceuse disorders
, anxiety disorders
, and depression
, and
also helps to increase psychological well-being in
nonclinical populations
.
J Behav Med. 1985;8(2):163190.

Subst Abus. 2009;30:295305.

Psychother. 2009;23:242257.

J Cogn

J Consult Clin Psychol. 2000;68:615623.

J Psychosom Res. 2007;62:297300.

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Mindfulness Meditation Benefits


[T]here is mounting empirical evidence of the role
of mindfulness in reducing stress and improving
clinical outcomes across issues as diverse as
depression
, irritable
bowel syndrome
, chronic
pain
, and addiction
.
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 2002;70(2):275287.

American Journal of Gastroenterology. 2011;106(9):16781688.

Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 2010;68(1):2936.

2009;30(4):295305.

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Substance Abuse.

Meditation Methods
Herbert Benson's Relaxation Response (1975).

The response is a simple version of Transcendental


Meditation.
Two of four steps are essential: a mental device to
keep the mind from wandering and a passive
attitude.

Jon Kabat-Zinn's Mindfulness-Based Stress


Reduction (1979).

There are three formal techniques: mindfulness


meditation, body scanning and simple yoga
postures.
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There is much more


to be said on this topic.
I'll see you next time
to pick up where we left off!

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Special Thank You!


A very special thank you for a dear friend and
colleague who walked with me through the
toughest time of my adult life.
Mark Jankelow, RN, MSN, PMHNP

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