Introduction
For evaluating areas, volumes of revolution etc. we need to know the
general nature of the given curve. In this chapter we shall learn the methods of
tracing a curve in general and the properties of some standard curves commonly
met in engineering problems.
( 1) The curve is symmetrical about the x axis if the equation of the curve

remains unchanged when y is replaced by y i.e. if the equation contains only
even powers o f y.
(2) The curve is symmetrical about the y axis if the equation of the curve

remains unchanged when x is replaced by x i.e. if the equation contains o nly
even powers of x.
(4) The curve is symmetrical about the line y = x if the equation of the
curve remains unchanged when x andy are interchanged.
II. Origin : Find out whether the origin lies on the curve. If it does, find
the equations of the tangents at the origin by equating to zero the lowest degre
terms.
III. Intersection with the cordinate axes : Find out the points of
intersection of the curve with the coordinate axes. Find also the equations of
EngMrering Mathemat 
If
Tracing of Corwes
(72)
3. Common Curves
You have already studied quite in detail straight line, circle, parabola,
eJiipse and hyperbola, includi ng rectangular hyperbola. We shall briefly review
these curves.
Rectangular Coordinates
by + c = 0.
To plot a straight line we put y = 0 and find x. Also we put x = 0 and find
y. We plot these two points
y
x=h
y=k
X
Fig. (7.1)
Fig. (7.2)
y=mx
m<O
y=mx
m>O
X
Fig. (7 .3)
Fig. (7.4)
Fig. (7 .5)
2 + J2 c
Fig. (7 6)
.
Engineering Mathematics
II
Tracing of Corves
(7 3)
and
2 + j2 c.
Fig. (7.7)
Fig. (7.8)
(iii) Circle with centre on the x axis and passing through origin.
Its equation is of the form x2 + i 2ax = 0.
y
x
Fig. (7.9)
Fig. (7.10)
Fig. (7.11)
Fig. (7.12)
(v) Circle with centre on the axes but not passing through origin.
Its equation is of the form x2 +
y
Fig. (7.13)
,_Fig. (7.14)
JTat:mg
v ..,,
or .;orves
Fig. (7.15)
l 4x + 4y + 4 = 0
2
2
Sol. : We write the equation as (x  2) + (y + 2) 2 = 2
Ex. 1 : Draw the circle :Xl
Its centre is
Polar Coordinates
Fig. (7.16)
ax+by+c=O
we get,
ar cos e + br sin e + c = 0
i.e.
cos
b sin e
.:. = 0
p
0
Fig. (7.17)
see thatrcos6=p
Fig. (7.18)
pole.)
. 0
Fig. (7.19)
origin)
Engineering Mathematics
ang l e
II
Tracing of Corves
(7 5)
a with the initalline then every point on the line has coordnates (r, a),
0= a
an
angle of 45 is
(b) Circle
If we put X= r cos e. y = r s in e in the equation
of the circle with center at the origi n and radius a i.e.
in x 2 + y 2 = a 2 we get , r 2 = a 2
If We put X = r COS () y = r sin 0 in the equation
(a, 0) and radius a i.e. in
Fig. (7.20)
If we put
Fig. (7.21)
x
2 +
radius a i.e. in
(y a) 2 =a 2 i.e.
we get, r 2 
2ar sin e
x
=
2 + y 2
i.e. r =
2ay = 0
2a sin e
coordniates
Fig. (7.22)
Fig. (7.23)
i.e. in
Ex.
and radius
the line y
(3, 0)
3 is (x 3) 2 + y 2 = 3 2
.,

 :
WI
va.aa
+y26x=O
i.e. x2
Putting X = r COS
we get
..11
,.  ..,,
2
8, y = r Sin a
6r cos a= 0
i.e.
= 6 cos 8
sin
Putting 8
Hence
1t/4 in
r=
:.
Fig. (7.24}
a= 1t /4
1t /4 =
are
(3 J2
3 J2
.1t /4)
(iii) Parabola :
General equation of parabola is
y = ax 2 + bx + c
ay 2 + by + c.
By completing the square on x or on y and by shifting the
equation can be written in standard form as y 2 = 4ax or x 2 = 4 by.
x=
or
origin the
d
x =
Fig. (7.25)
Fig. (7.26)
(It, k) and
a (x h)
(y k)2 = 4a (x h)
(iii) the axis parallel to the yaxis, opening upwards is
(x
h)2 = 4a (y k)
(x h)2
=
4a
(y k)
+ 4x 4y + 8 = 0
r 4y + 4 = 4x 4
i.e.
(y 2) 2
Fig. (7.27)
=
4 (x
+ 1)
Engineering Mathematics
Putting y
II
Y, x + 1
Its equation is Y
Its vertex is at
Tracing of Corves
(7 7)
X,
 4X.
16
0.
(y 3).
Putting x + 2 = X, y 3
.
2
Its equation is X = 4 Y.

Y,
Fig. (7.28)
(iv) Ellipse
The equation of ellipse in standard form is
x2
y2
;z+t;2=
x2
y2
(a> b), ;z+ b2
=I
(a<b)
y
a>b
Fig. (7.30)
Fig. (7.29)
If the centre of the ellipse is at (h, k) the equation of the ellipse becomes
h) 2
a2
(x
(y k) 2
b2
1
If a> b, the major axis is parallel to the xaxis and if a< b the major axis
is parallel to the yaxis.
(v) Hyperbola
Equation of hyperbola in standard form is
Mathematics
II
Tracing of Corves
(7 8)
y
{0, be)
(0, be)
Fig. (7.31)
Fig. (7.32)
k or xy =  k.
xy= k
xyk
Fig. (7.33)
Fig. (7.34)
l
'
x2y2=a2
Fig. (7.35)
'
y2 x2
a2
Fig. (7.36)
l x2 = a2 is ,:z. cos 2 e =  a2
?
2
cos
2
a is obtained
2
2
 r sin e = a2
Engineering Mathematics
II
Tracing of Corves
(7 9)
Parametric Equatioas
Ellipse
The parametric equations of the ellipse are X =a cos
e. y = b sin e.
Hyperbola
The parametric equations of the hyperbola are
X= a sec
e, y = b tan e or
X= a
COS/t
1, y
b sinh
1.
Parabola
The parametric equations of the
2at.
c2 are
x =
ct and y = cIt.
=
be
some
will be studied in the following pages. We give below the equations and the
graphs of these curves.
y
Fig. (7.37)
(1)
y =x.
(2)
Fig. (7.38)
=x .
the origin
and opening
y
Fig. (7.39)
up
y
Fig. (7.40)
Mat.tMma II
Tracing of Corves
(710)
(3) y=xl.
Cubical parabola
(4)
? =x.
The
Fig. (7.42)
Fig. (7.41)
(5)
i=.
(6)
i=.
Semicubical parabola
Fig. (7.44)
Fig. (7.43)
(7)
y3
=x.
(8)
i =x2.
Semicubical parabola
Cubical parabola
l=
x
as
x 2a, y 0<\
Fig. (7.45)
(iv) When
>
2a,
i is negative. Hence,
x > 2a.
(Remark :By putting X= rcos a, y = r sine, show that the polar equation
Englneertng Mathematics II
Tracing of Corves
(7 11)
>
Fig. (7.46)
(ylb)
(xla)
(S.U.1985, 2003)
Fig. (7 .47)
(111 ) smce
. . .
,v
= a
(ax)
X
'
(iv) As x 0, y
oo,
0)
x cannot be
a.
theyaxis is an
a sym ptote .
<b< c
l>O
Fig. (7.48)
nor y
Engineering Mathematics
(7 12)
II
Tracing of Corves
l is negative
l >O
x =a
x =band
x=c.
Fig. (7.49)
(b) Case II: a= b <c
The quation now becomes
2
(x a) (x c)
the xaxis.
(c, 0).
Fig. (7.50)
x
(a
y2 also increases.
y
x
(xa)(xb)2
l = (x a)3
(a,
(a, 0)
Fig. (7.52)
Engineng Mathematics 
II
(713)
x112 + y112
a112
y=x.
curve
y
is (a/4, a/4).
(ii) The curve passes through the origin and the equations of the tangents
at the origin are obtained by equating to zero the lowest degre terms.
.+
II
><
;.
,
__
(b, 0)
:. a,Z =bx2
(tv) S'mce y
Fig. (7.54)
:. y=
 a,
2
X (bx)
(a+x)
when
is infinite.
Hence x = a is an asymptote.
l is
(3a, 0)
FJa. (7.55)
Engineering Mathematics
II
Tracing of Corves
(7 14)
'
l (a  x) = x2 (a + x)
If we replace b by a and x by
 x
we get
(ax)
(a, 0)
required curve.
Fig. (7.56)
:. xi +
x3 +xl=dal
al= ax2 x3
:.
i (a+ x) = :x? (a
x)
0)
...
,.
"
Fig. {7.57)
3 + y 3 = 3axy.
3at2
y=l+t3
3at
x=l+t3,
or
(S.U. 2003)
(0, 0) and
.. X
(2a O)
1.
3a]
'2
X
Fig. (7.58)
(iii) If
x=a.
18
>
no curve beyond x = a,
Engineering Mathematics
II
Tracing of Corves
(7 15)
Fig. (7.59)
replace y by
cl
(x 
a)
(x 
same.
9al
b)2
.,Jc . y
will be the
x (x 3a)2,
a> 0.
3a,
Fig. (7.60)
=x(lr
or
t3
b by 113 and c
1,
:Fig. (7.61)
al x (x a)2
Sol. : Putting a 0 and b a we get the above
<
oo
Fig. (7.62)
Engineering Mathematics
(716)
II
Tracing of Corves
(a, 0)
x>a
When x
7
oo
or x
oo.
Fig. (7.63)
Sol. : Multiplying by 4 and then putting a=a/12 in (d) we get the above curve.
Hence, it is similar to it.
(S.U.1985)
x=b, x=O.
(a, 0)
. s
2 x(xb)
(tv) mce y =
, when x=a,
ax
y is infinite. Hence x= a is an asymptote.
(a) Trace the curve: l (4x)=x (x2)2
Fig. (7.64)
curve.
Exercise I
2.
2l=x (4.l)
3.
4.
5.
l =Xi (2ax)
6.
l (a2.l) = a3 x
(S.U.1994,97,2002,2005)
(S.U.1978,81, 88)
(S.U.1979,84,2006)
(S.U.1980,96,2006)
(S.U.1983, 85, 93)
(S.U.1984, 99, 2004)
Engineering Mathematics
II
Tracing of Corves
(7 17)
7. x2i=a2 ci )
8. al=x2(xa)
(S.U.1985)
9.
x2=i (2y)
10. al = x(a2 + x2)
11. 2l = (4+ )
12. l (ax)=
14. a2 = l(a2 /)
1 6. l(x2+ /) a2(y2)
18. x2 ( + l> = a2(y2 x2)
19. i=x36+ llx6
20. l (x.Z + 4) = + 2x
22. x2(4a2)=l(a2)
24. x5
l=5a2x2l
13.
a2/=(2a x)
15.l=d
17.x2(x2 + l> = a2(x2l)
1)(x2)( x 3))
21. x5 + l5a2y = 0
23. x4+ y4 = 2a2xy
(Hint: y2 = (x
25.
y= 1
( s.u. 2005)
+x2
27. (ax) l=a2 x
29. a4l=x4(a2)

26. x6 + l = a2x2l
28. l(x2 + a2)=x2(a2)
30. a4l+ b2 x4 = a2b2x2
31. l(a x)(x b)= (a, b >0 a> b)
[Ans.:
(1)
(2)
Fig.(7.65)
(3)
(4)
y
(0, 2a)
2a
Fig.(7.66)
Fig.(7.67)
a.JIUIIIOIIOIIII IWIUioiiiiOIIIIWiol
(5)
..
.,
\' IUJ
 ..
(6)
(2a,


:(a,O)
:.
.. X
.:x =a
Fig. (7.69)
Fig. (7.68)
(7)
Fig. (7.71)
Fig. (7.70)
(9) Similar to solved
Ex. 2 (page 7.11) with
(11) Similar to
Ex. 10 above with
a=
a=
(1 0)
1.
2.
Fig. (7.72)
(13)
(14)
Fig. (7.73)
Fig. (7.74)
Engineering Mathematics
(15)
II
Tracing of Carves
(7 19)
(16)
(O,a)
Fig. (7.76)
Fig. (7.75)
(18)
(17)
Fig. (7.78)
(19) Similar to solved
Ex. 5 Case I page (7.11)
Fig. (7.77)
Fig. (7.80)
Fig. (7.79)
(23)
(22)
Fig. (7.82)
Fig. (7.81)
(24)
(20)
(21)
+,
(25)
Fig. (7.83)
Fig. (7.84)
 II
Engineering Mathematics
(26)
(7 20)
Tracing of Corves
(27)
Fig. (7.85)
Fig. (7.86)
(31)
(28) Same as 17
x=a
(\
Fig. (7.87)
(2) If on replacing r by  r i.e. if the powers of r are even then the curve
is symmetrical about the pole. The pole is then called the centre of the curve.
II.
III.
1>. Also find the points where it is zero or infinity. Find the
points at which the tangent coincides with the initial line or is perpendicular to
it. (Refer to the explanation and the fig. in
IV.
certain circle.
Ex. 1 : Cardioide
r =a (l +cos e)
(b) r =a (1 cos e)
(a)
(c)
6n
e by  e.
=a ( 1
Fig. (7.88)
+ cos
6)
Engineering Mathematics
Also when
(7 21)
II
8 = rt/2,
r = a
Tracing of Corves
and when
r=a.
8=3rc/2,
rd 8
a
=
(1
+cos
a
sin 8
:. tan l =cot
: . $=
Hence,
8)
+
'I' = 8 + l gives
1t
1t
38
8
'1'=8+2 +2 =2 +T
When
initial
initial
0, 'I'
line. When
8=
1t
line.
, 'I' = 2rt
e.
1 (b)
8 =0
8 =1t/2,
e = 1t,
when
=0;
r=a
r=2a;
8 = 31t/2,
r = a
...
(111) tan $
cos
6)
=tan
Fig. (7.89)
Hence, 'I'=8 + l gives
d8
r (Tr"
'I'= 8 +
r =a
8
2
a (1 cos 8)
a sin e
8
: l= 2
8 =0, 'I'= 0 i.e. the tangent at this point coincides with the initial
e =1t, 'I' = 31t/2 i.e. the tangent at this point is perpendicular to the
When
line when
initial lin e
1 (c)
: Squaring
=Vi cos (
we get
r =a
cos
8.
(1
+cos
(a) with
8).
a/2
in
Engineering Mathematics
II
Tracing of Corves
(7 22)
=a+ b cos 0
a>b
initial line.
(ii) Since a
>
b ,
is always
Fig. (7.90)
va l ues of rand e.
(b) Case II :
n/3
a +b
a+b/2
n/2
2n/3
1t
a b/2
ab
=b
y
1992)
a+b
initial line.
(ii) r= 0
.
z.e. e
when a + b cos 0 = 0
=
cos
(iii) When 0 = 0,
I
r
( !.!:_b ) .
Fig. (7.91)
( alb),
is n egative and at 0 = n,
origin.
[,'
L
:
< n,
=a b.

r,
0), we
r in
the point(
3
P
I[%]< 0
FIg. (7 92)
gives
some
n/2
cos 1 (alb)
point P.
of rand 0
cos
negative
1t
ab
in the figure.
Engineering Mathematics
II
Tracing of Corves
(7 23)
r =
2 + 3cos
e can be
r =
 3sin 8 is
Fig. (7 .94)
(S.U.1995,97,98,2003)
9
37tl4
7tl4
8 the
Fig. (7.95)
r
n/6
n/4
1t/4<8<31t/4
3n/4
1t
,2
a2
a
a2/2
aN2
negative
imaginary
a2
a
(iv) Consider
x2 l=
i.e. y
the equation
i.e.
l)2
n/4 and 8
a2(x2 l).
If we put from
1t/4 and
a sin n e or
r = a
cos n e
Sol. : ( 1) Since sin n8 or cos n8 cannot be greater than one in both the cases
r
radius
a.
a.
Engineering Mathematics
II
Tracing of Corves
(7 24)
(2) To find the curve r =a sin nO put r= 0. Then nO = 0, 1t, 2n, .....
1t 21t
:. O=O, n, n
Draw these lines. If n is odd there are n loops in alternate divisions and if
30
(ii) r=a cos 30.
(S.U.1999)
2n/3



n/3
'
'
'
r=a.
r= 0.
:. sin 3
0=0
:. 30 = 0, 1t 21t , ....
'
1t 1t 21t
41t 51t
:.0=0 3 3 31t 3 3
'
'
'
'
'
'
Fig. (7.96)
n/2
5nt6/
r=a. Put r= 0.
'
'
:. cos 30 = 0
'
'
'
'
0
9
3n/2
Fig. (7.97)
_ n n n sn 7n 3n
6'6'2'6'6'2
Put
(ii)
Engineering Mathematics  II
()
Tracing of Corves
(7 25)
n/2
:. 20
:. 0
0, n, 2n ....
0,
'
1t ,
3n
2
r=
0.
:. cos 20 = 0
:. 20 =:. 0=8
Sn/4 ',___
__.'
()
n/4
1t
3n
2 2 T
1t
3n
5n
2
5n
4,4,4'4
'
0000
Fig. (7.99)
in all divisions.
r=a
r =
f , 1t ,
3 7t
2
, 2n ..
Fig. (7.100)
Ex.
4: Reciprocal Spiral
r0
=a
(S.U. 1985)
Fig. (7.101)
0=. rO.
0 = ... 2n ,
r
_!I_

3n
2,
..!
2a
n ,
1t
2 ....
!I_
2n ' 3n ' n
'
1E._
1t
Fig. (7.102)
Engineering Mathematics
(7 26)
II
Tracing of Corves
as
)
0,
oo .
It may
; X
a is an
asymptote.
Ex.
5 : Equiangular Spiral r = ae be
(S.U.
Sol. : When 0 = 0
Fig.
, r
increases. When 0 
When 0 >
=a. As 0 increases
oo , r
Further, tan
:. tan
\
oo
also
dO
dr
Thus,
9 r >
<I> =
1985)
between the
Ex.
(7.104)
Fig.
: r =a (sec 0 + cos 0)
(S.U. 1979,
2004)
=a
(2a, 0)
(r sec
=a
[r.
Fig.
2 2
:. J2 (x
(7.105)
r2
cos 0
.. x +y
e + r cos 0)
[x2+y2
2
a) = (2a
x
+x
x)
(ii) When x =
The tangents at
(iii) x
a is an asymptote.
Exercise II
= 2 (1 +cos 0), (b) r = 1 +cos 0
1.
(a)
2.
r=
3.
r = 3 +2 cos 0
[I) (1
(S.U.
+ cos 0)
(S.U.
1989)
1978, 2000)
Engineering Mathematics
 11
Tracing of Corves
(S.U. 1980)
4.
r = 1 + 2 cos 8
5.
,.z = 4 cos
6.
r ( l + cos 8)
7.
r (1 cos 8) = 2a
9.
r= 3 cos 28
{7 27)
8
=
(S.U. 1981)
2a
8.
= 2a cos 8
(S.U. 1988)
(S.U. 1981, 2003)
10. r =a (1 + sin 8)
11. ? cos 28 = a2 or r2
a2 sec 28
(S.U. 2005, 06)
(S.U. 2003)
13. r =a (1 sin 8)
14. r = 2a tan 8 sin 8
[Ans. :
1. Similar to solved Ex.l (1) Fig. (7.88).
Fig. (7.91)
Fig. (7.107)
Fig. (7.106)
8. Circle
10.
Fig. (7.108)
Fig. (7.109)
Engineering Mathematics
11.
(7 28)
II
Tracing of Corves
12.
Fig. (7.111)
Fig. (7.110)
13.
y
X
Fig. (7 .112)
8. Some More Curves :
(1) Cycloids
Because of its graceful form and beautiful properties, mathematicians
call this curve the Helen of Geometry. (After all, mathematicians are not dry
as they are sometimes called !) When a circle rolls, on a straight line without
sliding any fixed point on its circumference traces a cycloid.
The curve traced by a fixed point on the cricumference of a cricle, which
rolls without sliding on the cricumference of another fixed cricle is called an
epicycloid or hypocycloid.
If the rolling circle is outside the fixed cricle the curve is called the
epicycloid and if the rolling cricle is inside the fixed cricle, the curve is called
the hypocycloid. We have seen one particular hypocycloid in Ex. (3) page
7.11.
If the radius of the rolling circle is equal to the radius of the fixed cricle,
the epicycloid is called cardioide because of its heart like shape (Cardio
Heart, eidos =shape). We have studied this curve Ex.
1 on page 7.20.
Engineering Mathematics
 II
Tracing of Corves
(7 29)
(a)
dx
dt
:.
dy
.
=a sm t
dt
dy!dt
asint
=tan
dx/dt =a( 1 +cost)
=a (1 +cost),
dy
dx
(S.U. 1987)
2
(t)
n/2
an
0
00
n/2
a( 1t/2 + 1)
()
a(1t/2+1)
an
2a
 1
0

oo
to the xaxis.
y t
:
2a
Fig. (7.113)
dv
(b) =a (l cost) =a sin t
dt
' dt
dy
dyldt
asint
dx
dx
d;d d t
a(
 cos
t)
[t)
 cot 2
dyldx
n/2
31t/2
2n
a (7tl2 1)
an
a(3n/2 +1)
2an
2a
00
2a
1
00
an:

Fig.
an:

(7.114)
Engineering Mathematics
(c)
II
+cost), a sin
Some of
a 1
dx
=a
(1
dyldt
dy
.. dx
dxldt

[t]
tan
dyldx are
n:/2
n:
dyldx
+cost)
the values of x, y,
asint

Tracing of Corves
(730)

.n/2 + 1)
2
n:
/
2
00 a(n:/a2+1 an2a
0
1t
00
y
t
1t
=a cost)
(1.)
a y,
t 00 a(rrJrrJ22 ann a(31tl2+ 2arr.2n:
0
ydy/dx 0 a 2a0
Fig. (7.115)
dx
dt
!!r_
dy
(1
dx
dyldt
dxldt
, dt
sin t
=_E._
=
( 1 cost)
cot
dyldx are
1)
1)
00
 1
00
t= n
an
=
'
'
'
: 2a
an
:
t:: 27t
Fig. (7.116)
(2) Catenary
(S.U. 2003)
ccosh
Engineering Mathematics
II
Tracing of Corves
(7 31)
Fig. (7.117)
x =
0,y = c
cause,
cosh
0 =c.
. ce
Sm
dy
exlc
e xlc
d.:r
parallel to the xaxis.:
is zero. when
x = c,
the tangent at
(3) Tractrix
x =
.
dx
=asmt
dt
Sol.:
a cos t +
a log tan 2
a
+
2
=a sin t +
=a sin t +
a cos 2 t
( t]
2tan (f)
a sin
(f)}
[f]
sec2
tan 2
a
2 sin
(!.sm t
(1)
=
cos
(!.sm t
(f]
(1
 sin 2
sin t
dy
dt
.
=a cost
dy
dyldt
sin t
=tan t
=
=a cost.
dx
dxldt
a cos 2 t
dy
Some ofthe values oft, x, y, dx are ,
t)
= c
is
(7 32)
Engineering Mathematics  II
n
n/2
00
a
dy/dx
00
Tracing of Corves
n/2
1t
00
00
00
From the above data we see that as t  n the point on the curve is
(oo,
Fig. (7.118)
9. Some Solids
You have studied to some extent plane and straight line
in three
dimensions. We shall here get acquainted with some more three dimensional
solids such as sphere, cylinder, cone, paraboloid etc.
y=O
x=O
be written as
a'
b'
c'
x+y+z=1
d'
d'
d'
i.e.
ax +
Fig. (7.119)
by + cz= 1
z= 0.
!+2$,+!=1
y
y
X
Fig. (7 .120)
Fig. (7.121)
z =c.
Engineering Mathematics
II
2. Cylinders
Tracing of Corves
(7 33)
An equation
a,
involving
f (x, y)
O,.f (y, z)
0, y (z,
x)
0 represent
x/
Fig. (7.122)
Fig. (7.124)
(7.123)
(b) Parabolic Cylinders
4by,
x2
3. Sphere
Fig. (7.126)
a is x2
+ y2 +
4. Cone
z2
a2.
paraola in
parabolic cylinder.
Fig. (7.125)
radius
Fig. (7.127)
Engineering Mathematics
II
Tracing of Corves
(7 34)
z
z
y2+z2=x2
X
X
Fig. (7.129)
Fig. (7.131)
Fig. (7.130)
in standard form is
2
x
z2
+ 2 + 2 = 1
b
a2
c
Hyperboloid
The equations of
Fig. (7.132)
z2
++==
1
a2
c2
b2
and
a2
b2
z2
+ 2 =
c

Fig. (7.133)
==
k, I k I >
k are
hyperbolas.
7. Paraboloids : We
Fig. (7.134)
Fig. (7 .135)
Engineering Mathematics
II
Tracing of Corves
(7 35)
+y
2
=b ,
y =X + 6,
3.
2+ 2
a
=y
2
y=x , y=1,X =1,X =2
4.
2
y=x , y=x+2,x=1,x=2
5.
6
2.
2
2
x + y = ax, ax =by
2
x +i=by,ax=by
7.
8.
2
2
2
 y =1,X  y =2,X)' =4,xy=2
xy= 2  y
9.
l)
2
(cos 8 +sin 8) =2asin 8 cos 8 or (x+ y) (x +
2
14. x4 + y4 =2a xy or
2
15 x6 + y6 =a2x y or
=
2
l) =2axy
2a sin8 cos8
sin 4 8+cos 4 8
a
78
. 2 8 cossm
6
6
sin 8+cos 8
19.
l =4x,
y=2x 4
21.
2
2
A cone and paraboloid given b y z =x +land z =x2 +
A paraboloid +
2
2
4 x  Y ,
4
3x2 +
y2
4
Engineering Mathematics
[Ans. :
(1)
II
Tracing of Corves
(7 36)
(2)
x2+y2=b2
Fig. (7.137)
x2+y2=2
Fig. (7.136)
(4)
(3)
y=1
X
( 6, 0)
x=1 x=2
Fig. (7.139)
Fig. (7.138)
(5)
(6)
X
X
Fig. (7.140)
Fig. (7.141)
(7)
(8)
X
X
Fig. (7.142)
Fig. (7.143)
Engineering Mathematics
(9)
Tracing of Corves
(7 37)
II
(10)
Fig. (7.145)
Fig. (7.144)
(12)
(11)
(2, 0)
X
X
Fig. (7.146)
(13)
Fig. (7.147)
(14)
Fig. (7.148)
Fig. (7.149)
(15)
(16)
Fig. (7.150)
Fig. (7.151)
Engineering Mathematics
II
Tracing of Corves
{7 38)
(18)
(6, 3)
(1, 1)
:Fig. (7.152)
Fig. (7 .153)
(19)
(20)
(2, 7)
(1, 1)
Fig. (7.154)
(22)
(21)
Fig. (7 .136)
Yt
Fig. (7 .156)
(23)
Fig. (7.158)
:Fig. (7 .157)
(24)
Fig. (7 .159)
Engineering Mathematics
(25)
II
(7 39)
Tracing of Corves
Fig.
(7.160)