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1.

Introduction
For evaluating areas, volumes of revolution etc. we need to know the
general nature of the given curve. In this chapter we shall learn the methods of
tracing a curve in general and the properties of some standard curves commonly
met in engineering problems.

2. Procedure for tracing curves given in Cartesian equations


I. Symetry : Find out whether the curve is symmetrical about any line
with the help of the following rules :

( 1) The curve is symmetrical about the x axis if the equation of the curve
-

remains unchanged when y is replaced by- y i.e. if the equation contains only
even powers o f y.

(2) The curve is symmetrical about the y axis if the equation of the curve
-

remains unchanged when x is replaced by- x i.e. if the equation contains o nly
even powers of x.

(3) The curve is symmetrical in opposite quadrants if the equation of the


curve remains unchanged when both x andy are repl aced by- x and y.
-

(4) The curve is symmetrical about the line y = x if the equation of the
curve remains unchanged when x andy are interchanged.
II. Origin : Find out whether the origin lies on the curve. If it does, find

the equations of the tangents at the origin by equating to zero the lowest degre
terms.
III. Intersection with the cordinate axes : Find out the points of

intersection of the curve with the coordinate axes. Find also the equations of

the tangents at these points.


IV. Asymptotes : Find out the asymptotes if any.
V. Regions where no part of the curve lies : Find out the regions of the
plane where no part of the curve lies.
VI Find out dyldx : Find out dy/dx and the points where the tangents
are parallel to the coordinate axes.

EngMrering Mathemat -

If

Tracing of Corwes

(7-2)

3. Common Curves
You have already studied quite in detail straight line, circle, parabola,
eJiipse and hyperbola, includi ng rectangular hyperbola. We shall briefly review
these curves.
Rectangular Coordinates

(a) Straight Line:


General equation of straight line is of the form ax +

by + c = 0.

To plot a straight line we put y = 0 and find x. Also we put x = 0 and find
y. We plot these two points

and join them to get the required line.

Some particular cases of straight Jines are shown below.


(i) Lines parallel to the coordinate axes.
y

y
x=h

y=k
X

Fig. (7.1)

Fig. (7.2)

(ii) Lines passing through origin


y

y=mx
m<O

y=mx
m>O
X

Fig. (7 .3)

Fig. (7.4)

(iii) Lines making given intercepts on coordinate axes.


y

Fig. (7 .5)

General equation of circle is :il


g,- h) and radius=

2 + J2- c

Fig. (7 6)
.

j + 2gx + 2/y + c = 0. Its centre is

Engineering Mathematics

II

Tracing of Corves

(7- 3)

(i) Circle with centre at origin and radius

and
2 + j2- c.

(ii) Circle with centre at (- g,- f) and radius


are shown below.
y

Fig. (7.7)

Fig. (7.8)

(iii) Circle with centre on the x- axis and passing through origin.
Its equation is of the form x2 + i 2ax = 0.
y
-x

Fig. (7.9)

Fig. (7.10)

(iv) Circle with centre on they-axis and passing through origin.


Its equation is of the form x2 + i 2by = 0.
y

Fig. (7.11)

Fig. (7.12)

(v) Circle with centre on the axes but not passing through origin.
Its equation is of the form x2 +
y

Fig. (7.13)

l 2gx + c = 0, .-r? + i 2fy + c ='


y

,_Fig. (7.14)

JTat:mg

v- ..,,

or .;orves

(vi) Circle touching both axes.


Its equation is of the form :Xl + l 2ax :;t 2ay+ a2 = 0.
y

Fig. (7.15)

l- 4x + 4y + 4 = 0
2
2
Sol. : We write the equation as (x - 2) + (y + 2) 2 = 2
Ex. 1 : Draw the circle :Xl

Its centre is

(2, -2) and radius = 2.

It is shown on the right.

Polar Coordinates
Fig. (7.16)

(a) Straight line


If We put X =rCOS 8, y = r Sin

8 in the equation Of the Straight line

ax+by+c=O
we get,

ar cos e + br sin e + c = 0

i.e.

cos

b sin e

(i) A line parallel to the initial line.


If a line is parallal to the initial line (or the

.:. = 0

x- ax is) at a ditance p from

it then, from the figure we see that its equation is


rsin e =p (It

p
0

is clear thatrsin e = p, if the line is


e =- p, if the line is

above the initial line andrsin

Fig. (7.17)

below the initial line.)

(ii) A line perpendicular to the initial line.


If a line is perpendienlar to the initial line (or the
x-

axis) at a ditance p from it then from the figure we

see thatrcos6=p

(It is clear thatrcos e = p, if the line is to the right


of the pole and rcos a =- p,
if the line is to the left of the

Fig. (7.18)

pole.)
. 0

Fig. (7.19)

(iii) A line through the pole (or the

origin)

If a line passes through the pole and makes an

Engineering Mathematics

ang l e

II

Tracing of Corves

(7- 5)

a with the initalline then every point on the line has coordnates (r, a),
0= a

where r is positive or negative. Hence the equati on of a line is

In particular the equation of a line making


e = 1t/4.

an

angle of 45 is

(b) Circle
If we put X= r cos e. y = r s in e in the equation
of the circle with center at the origi n and radius a i.e.
in x 2 + y 2 = a 2 we get , r 2 = a 2
If We put X = r COS () y = r sin 0 in the equation
(a, 0) and radius a i.e. in

of the circle with center

Fig. (7.20)

(x- a) 2 + y 2 = a 2 i.e. in x 2 + y 2- 2ax = 0


we get r 2 -

2a r cos e = 0:. r = 2a cos e

This is the equation of the circle with cen ter (a, 0)


and radius a in polar coordniates.

If we put

= r cos e, y = r sin 0 in the

equation of the circle


with center (0, a) and

Fig. (7.21)
x

2 +

radius a i.e. in

(y- a) 2 =a 2 i.e.

we get, r 2 -

2ar sin e

x
=

2 + y 2-

i.e. r =

2ay = 0

2a sin e

This is the equation of the circle with center (0, a)

and radius a in polar

coordniates

Fig. (7.22)

If We put X= r COS 0, y = r sin 0 in the equation


of the cricle with center (a, a) and touching both
the coordniate axes in the first quadrant
X

Fig. (7.23)

(x- a)2 + (y- a)2 = a2


2
i.e. in x + l- '2ax- 2ay + a2 = 0

i.e. in

we get the equation r 2 - 2ar. (cos

Ex.

e +sin 0) +a 2 =0 in polar coordniates.

: Find the equation of the cricle in polar coordinates having centre

and radius
the line y

3. Also find the polar coordinates of its point of intersection with


x.

Sol. : The equation of the circle with centre (3, 0) and


radius

(3, 0)

3 is (x- 3) 2 + y 2 = 3 2

.,

--

----- ----------:---

WI

va-.aa

+y2-6x=O

i.e. x2

Putting X = r COS
we get

..11

,. - ..,,

2-

8, y = r Sin a

6r cos a= 0

i.e.

= 6 cos 8

The equation of the line is y = x.


Putting X
equation in
r

sin

= r COS 0, y = r sin 8, we get the


polar coordinates as

a = r cos 8 i.e. tan a = 1

Putting 8
Hence

1t/4 in

r=

:.

Fig. (7.24}

a= 1t /4

6 cos a , we get r = 6 cos

1t /4 =

the polar coordinates of the point of intersection

are

(3 J2

3 J2
.1t /4)

(iii) Parabola :
General equation of parabola is

y = ax 2 + bx + c

ay 2 + by + c.
By completing the square on x or on y and by shifting the
equation can be written in standard form as y 2 = 4ax or x 2 = 4 by.
x=

or

origin the

d
x =

Fig. (7.25)

Fig. (7.26)

The equation of the parabola with vertex at

(It, k) and

(i) the axis parallel to the x-axis, opening to the right is


(y- k)2

a (x- h)

(ii) the axis parallel to the x-axis, opening to the left is

(y -k)2 =- 4a (x- h)
(iii) the axis parallel to the y-axis, opening upwards is
(x-

h)2 = 4a (y- k)

(iv) the axis parallel to the y-axis, opening


downwards is

(x- h)2

=-

4a

(y- k)

Ex. 1: Sketch the curve r

+ 4x- 4y + 8 = 0

Sol.: The equation can be written as

r- 4y + 4 =- 4x- 4

i.e.

(y- 2) 2

Fig. (7.27)
=-

4 (x

+ 1)

Engineering Mathematics

Putting y

II

Y, x + 1

Its equation is Y
Its vertex is at

Tracing of Corves

(7- 7)
X,

- 4X.

(-1, 2) and it opens on the left.

Ex. 2 : Sketch the curve


2
x + 4x- 4y +

16

0.

Sol. : The equation can be written as


(x + 2)

(y- 3).

Putting x + 2 = X, y 3
.
2
Its equation is X = 4 Y.
-

Its vertex is (-2,

Y,

Fig. (7.28)

3) and it opens upwards.

(iv) Ellipse
The equation of ellipse in standard form is

x2
y2
-;z+t;2=

x2
y2
(a> b), -;z+ b2

=I

(a<b)
y

a>b

Fig. (7.30)

Fig. (7.29)

If the centre of the ellipse is at (h, k) the equation of the ellipse becomes

h) 2
a2

(x-

(y- k) 2
b2

-1

If a> b, the major axis is parallel to the x-axis and if a< b the major axis
is parallel to the y-axis.

(v) Hyperbola
Equation of hyperbola in standard form is

Mathematics

II

Tracing of Corves

(7- 8)
y

{0, be)

(0,- be)

Fig. (7.31)

Fig. (7.32)

(vi) Rectangular Hyperbola


If the coordinate axes are the asymptotes the equation of the rectangular
hyperbola is xy =

k or xy = - k.

xy= k

xy-k

Fig. (7.33)

Fig. (7.34)

If the lines y = + x and y = -x are the asymptotes, the equations of the


2 2
2= 2
= a , y -x
a

rectangular hyperbola are given by 2-

-l

'

x2-y2=a2

Fig. (7.35)

'

y2 -x2

a2

Fig. (7.36)

Polar equation of the rectangular hyperbola x2

by putting X = r cos e, y = r sin e. The equation is


2
2
2
2
i.e. r (cos e- sin 8) = a2 i.e. r2 cos 2 e = a
Similarly the polar equation of

l- x2 = a2 is ,:z. cos 2 e = - a2

?-

2
cos

2
a is obtained
2
2
- r sin e = a2

the other rectangular hyperbola i.e. of

Engineering Mathematics

II

Tracing of Corves

(7 9)

Parametric Equatioas
Ellipse
The parametric equations of the ellipse are X =a cos

e. y = b sin e.

Hyperbola
The parametric equations of the hyperbola are
X= a sec

e, y = b tan e or

X= a

COS/t

1, y

b sinh

1.

Parabola
The parametric equations of the

parabola l = 4ax are x =a? ,

2at.

The parametric equations of the parabola x2 = 4ay are x = 2at, y =a? .


Rectangular Hyperbola
The parametric equations of the rectangular hyperbola
xy

c2 are

x =

Curves of the form ym

ct and y = cIt.
=

xm where m and n are positive intigers.

It is interesting to note the shape of the curves whose equations can


expressed in the above form.

S ome of the curves are known to us and

be

some

will be studied in the following pages. We give below the equations and the
graphs of these curves.
y

Fig. (7.37)
(1)

y =x.

(2)

Fig. (7.38)

=x .

The staight line through

The parabola through the origin

the origin

and opening
y

Fig. (7.39)

up
y

Fig. (7.40)

Mat.tMma -II

Tracing of Corves

(710)

(3) y=xl.
Cubical parabola

(4)

? =x.

parabola through the origian


and opening on the right

The

Fig. (7.42)

Fig. (7.41)
(5)

i=.

(6)

Pair of two lines passing


through the ori gin

i=.
Semi-cubical parabola

Fig. (7.44)

Fig. (7.43)
(7)

y3

=x.

(8)

i =x2.
Semi-cubical parabola

Cubical parabola

4. Some Well-known Curves


Ex 1 : Cissoid of Diocles :Trace the curve i (2a- x) =
2at3
2at2
or x = -2 , y = -2 (S.U. 1986, 90)
l+t
l+t
Sol. : (i) The curve is symmetrical about the
:as
oN
:II
x- axis.
: )(
(ii) The curve passes through the origin and
the
tangents
at the ori gin are j = 0 i.e. the x-axis
(2a, O) x
is a double tangent at the origin.
(iii) Since

l=

-x

as

x 2a, y 0<\

the line x = 2a is an asymptote.

Fig. (7.45)

(iv) When

>

2a,

i is negative. Hence,
x > 2a.

the curve does not exist when

(Remark :By putting X= rcos a, y = r sine, show that the polar equation

of Cissoid is r = 2a tan 0 sin 0).

Englneertng Mathematics II

Tracing of Corves

(7- 11)

Ex. 2: Trace the curve a2 = y (2a- y)


3

(S.U. 1981,86,90, 2006)

Sol.: (i) The curve is symmetrical about they-axis.


(ii) It passes through the origin and the
x-axis is a tangent at origin.
(iii) It meets the y-axis at (0,0) and (0, 2a).

Further d y l dx. is zero at (0, 2a); the tangent at this


point is parallel to the x-axis.
3
2
2
(iv) Since x = y (2a - y) I a when y 2a
2
and y < 0, x is negative and the curve does not

>

Fig. (7.46)

exist for y > 2a and y < 0.


y

Ex. 3 : Astroid or Four Cusped


Hypocycloid : Trace the curve
213 +
213
1

(ylb)

(xla)

or X= a cos 3e, y = b sin e

(S.U.1985, 2003)

S ol. : (i) The curve is symmetrical about both


axes.

(ii) The curve cuts the x-axis in ( a, 0)

and they- axis in (0, b)

(iii) Neither x can be greater than

Fig. (7 .47)

can be greater than b.

Ex. 4: Witch of Agnesi: Trace the curve xl = a2 (.rz- x)


(S.U. 1980, 91, 92, 98, 2003, 04)
y
Sol.: (i) The curve is symmetrical about the x-axis.
(ii) The curve passes through the point

(111 ) smce
. . .

,v

= a

(a--x)
X

'

negative. Also x cannot be greatc:. than

(iv) As x 0, y

oo,

0)

x cannot be
a.

they-axis is an

a sym ptote .

Ex. 5: Trace the curve l = (x- a) (x- b) (x- c) whete


a, b, c are positive.
Sol. : We consider the following cases :
(a) Case I :

<b< c

(1) It is symmetrical about the x-axis.


(2) It meets the x-axis in (a, 0), (b,O) and (c, 0).
(3) When x < a, l is negative.
whena < x < b,

l>O

Fig. (7.48)

nor y

Engineering Mathematics

(7- 12)

II

Tracing of Corves

l is negative
l >O

when b < x< c,


whenx>c,

Hence, there is no curve to the left-of

x =a

and also between

x =band

x=c.

(4) If x> c and increases then l also increases


y

Fig. (7.49)
(b) Case II: a= b <c
The quation now becomes

2
(x- a) (x- c)

( 1) As before the curve is symmetrical about


x

the x-axis.

(c, 0).

Fig. (7.50)
x

(2) It meets the x-axis in points (a, 0) and


(3)

<a (i.e. x <c), l is negative and if


(4) If

> c and increases

(a

, 0) is an isolated point because if


a< x < c, l is negative.

y2 also increases.

(c) Case III: a < b = c


The equation now becomes

y
x

(x-a)(x-b)2

(1) The cmve is symmetrical about the


x-axis.

(2) It meets the x-axis in points (a, 0) and


(b, 0).
Fig. (7 .51)

(3) If x <a, l is negative.

(4) If x> b and increases, l. also increases.


(d) Case IV : a = b = c
(S.U. 2003)
The equation now becomes

l = (x- a)3

(a,

(1) As before the curve is symmetrical


about the x - axis.
(2) The curve meets the x-axis in

(a, 0)

Fig. (7.52)

Engineng Mathematics -

II

(713)

(3) If x <a, j is negative

(4) If x >a and increases, i also increases.

Ex. 6 : Trace the curve

x112 + y112

a112

SoL : (i) The curve is symmetrical about the line

y=x.

curve
y-

(ii) If y= x we get 2x112 = a112


:. 4x=a i.e.

x=a/4. The liney=xcuts the

is (a/4, a/4).

(iii) The x-axis is a tangent at (a, 0) and the


axis is a tangent at (0, a).

5. Some Common Lops

Ex. 1 : Strophold Trace the curvee j (a + x ) =:? (b - x)

Sol. : (i) Curve is symmetrical about the x-axis.

(ii) The curve passes through the origin and the equations of the tangents
at the origin are obtained by equating to zero the lowest degre terms.

.+

II
><

;.

-,

__

(b, 0)

:. a,Z =bx2

(iii) The curve meets the x-axis in


(0, 0) and (b, 0)
2

(tv) S'mce y

Fig. (7.54)

:. y=

- a,

2
X (b-x)

(a+x)

when

is infinite.

Hence x = -a is an asymptote.

(v) When x >band when x <-a,


negative. Hence, the curve does not exist when x > b and x <-a.

l is

The curve is shown in the figure.

(a) Trace the curve : 1' (a + x) =:? (3a - x)


(S.U. 1980, 86, 91, 20)

When b is replared by 3a we get the above


curve which is shown on the right.

(3a, 0)

FJa. (7.55)

Engineering Mathematics

II

Tracing of Corves

(7- 14)

'

(b) Trace the

l (a - x) = x2 (a + x)

If we replace b by a and x by

-- x

we get

the above curve which is shown on the left.

(c) Trace the curve : y (a+ x) =

(a-x)

Sol. : If we replace b by a in Ex. ( 1) we get the

(-a, 0)

required curve.

(d) Trace the curve

(x2 + l) = a (x2 -Jl)


(S.U. 1980, 85, 90)

The equation can the written as

Fig. (7.56)
:. xi +

x3 +xl=d-al
al= ax2- x3

:.

i (a+ x) = :x? (a

This is the same as the first equation where b = a.

x)

Ex. 2: Trace the curve .\y2 + (x + a)2 (x + 2a) = 0

Sot: (i) The curve is symmetrical about the x-axis.


(ii) The curve cuts the x--axis in (- a, 0),

0)

...

,.

"

Fig. {7.57)

(iv) They- axis is an asymptote.


x

3 + y 3 = 3axy.

3at2
y=--l+t3

3at
x=-l+t3,

or

(S.U. 2003)

Sol. : (i) The curve is symmetrical about the line x= y

(ii) The curve passes through the origin.

(iii) The curve intersects the line x = y in

(0, 0) and

.. X

(m)Smcey=-(x+a) (x+2a)lx, xcannot


be positive.
x cannot be less than- 2a.
Ex. 3: Folium ofDecartes. Trace the curve

(-2a O)

-1.-

3a]

'2
X

(iv) The line x + y +a = 0 is an asymptote.


(v) If x < 0 andy< 0, l.h.s. is negative while

r.h.s. is positive. Hence, no prut of the curve is in the


third quadrant.
Ex. 4

Fig. (7.58)

Trace the curve a2l = x2 (a 2 - x2)

Sol. : (i) The curve is symmetrical about both the axes.

(ii) The points (0, 0) (a, 0) and(- a, 0) lie on the curve.

(iii) If

x=-a.

18

>

a, l is negative., Hence there

no curve beyond x = a,

Engineering Mathematics

II

Tracing of Corves

(7- 15)

Fig. (7.59)

Ex. 5: Trace the curvee i

(x- a) (x- b)2

Sol.: We have already dicussed the above curve in Ex.

L.ase III on page 7.12.

replace y by

The shap of the curve will remain unchanged if y


i.e. the shape of the curve of the equation

cl

(x -

a)

(x -

same.

(a) Trace the curve:


(S.U. 2004,06)

9al

b)2

.,Jc . y

will be the

x (x- 3a)2,

a> 0.

Sol.: Replacing c by 9a, a by zero and b by

3a,

we get the above curve. The curve is shown on


the right.

Fig. (7.60)

(b) Trace the curve


x=t

=x(l-r

or

t3

Sol.: Replacing a by zero,

b by 113 and c

1,

we get the above curve. The curve is shown on


the right.

:Fig. (7.61)

al x (x- a)2
Sol. : Putting a 0 and b a we get the above

(c) Trace the curve:


=

curve. The curve is shown on the right.


When

<

0, y is imaginary and there is

no curve for x < 0


When x -7

oo

or x -7- oo, y -7 oo.

Fig. (7.62)

Engineering Mathematics

(7-16)

II

Tracing of Corves

(d) Trace the curve: 3al=.l- (a-x)


(S.U.1980,85,89,97)
Sol. : Putting c= 3a, a=0 and b=a we get the
above equation. The curve is shown on the right.
y

When 0 < x < a, y is real and when x>a,


is imaginary. Hence, there is no curve for

(a, 0)

x>a
When x

--7

oo

or x

--7- oo, y --7

oo.

Fig. (7.63)

(e) Trace the curve: al=4.l- (a-x)


(S.U.1984,95)

Sol. : Multiplying by 4 and then putting a=a/12 in (d) we get the above curve.
Hence, it is similar to it.

(f) Trace the curve: al=x2 (a-x)

(S.U.1985)

Sol. : Putting a=a/3 in (d) we get the above curve.

Ex. 1 :Trace the following curve l (a-x )=x (x-b)2, a>b


Sol. : (i) The curve is symmetrical about the
x-axis.

(ii) The curve passes through the origin.


(iii) The curve intersects the x-axis at

x=b, x=O.

(a, 0)

. s
2 x(x-b)
(tv) mce y =

, when x=a,
a-x
y is infinite. Hence x= a is an asymptote.
(a) Trace the curve: l (4-x)=x (x-2)2

Fig. (7.64)

Sol. : Putting a = 4 and b = 2 in the above equation, we get, the required

curve.
Exercise -I

Trace the following curves


1.

al=x (a2 - .l-)

2.

2l=x (4-.l-)

3.

a2l=.l- (x- a) (2a -x)

4.

5.

l =Xi (2a-x)

6.

l (a2-.l-) = a3 x

(.l- + 4a2)= 8a3

(S.U.1994,97,2002,2005)
(S.U.1978,81, 88)
(S.U.1979,84,2006)
(S.U.1980,96,2006)
(S.U.1983, 85, 93)
(S.U.1984, 99, 2004)

Engineering Mathematics

II

Tracing of Corves

(7- 17)

7. x2i=a2 ci -)
8. al=x2(x-a)

(S.U.1985)

9.

x2=i (2-y)
10. al = x(a2 + x2)
11. 2l = (4+ )
12. l (a-x)=
14. a2 = l(a2 -/)
1 6. l(x2+ /) a2(y2-)
18. x2 ( + l> = a2(y2 -x2)
19. i=x3-6+ llx-6
20. l (x.Z + 4) = + 2x
22. x2(-4a2)=l(-a2)

(S.U. 1979, 2002)


(S.U. 1981, 94)

24. x5

l=5a2x2l

13.

a2/=(2a -x)

15.l=d
17.x2(x2 + l> = a2(x2-l)

1)(x-2)( x- 3))
21. x5 + l-5a2y = 0
23. x4+ y4 = 2a2xy
(Hint: y2 = (x

25.

y= 1

( s.u. 2005)

+x2
27. (a-x) l=a2 x
29. a4l=x4(a2--)
-

26. x6 + l = a2x2l
28. l(x2 + a2)=x2(a2-)
30. a4l+ b2 x4 = a2b2x2
31. l(a x)(x- b)= (a, b >0 a> b)
[Ans.:
(1)

(2)

Similar to the previous


Ex. 1 with a = 2

Fig.(7.65)
(3)

(4)

y
(0, 2a)
2a

Fig.(7.66)

Fig.(7.67)

a.JIUIIIOIIOIIII IWIUioiiiiOIIIIWiol

(5)

..

.,

\'- IUJ

- ..

(6)

(2a,

--

--

:(-a,O)

:.

.. X
.:x =a

Fig. (7.69)

Fig. (7.68)

(8) Compare with solved Ex. 5 Case II


(page 7.12)

(7)

Fig. (7.71)

Fig. (7.70)
(9) Similar to solved
Ex. 2 (page 7.11) with
(11) Similar to
Ex. 10 above with

a=

a=

(1 0)
1.

2.

(12) Similar to solved


Ex. 1 page (7.10)
with a= a /2.

Fig. (7.72)
(13)

(14)

Fig. (7.73)

Fig. (7.74)

Engineering Mathematics

(15)

II

Tracing of Carves

(7- 19)
(16)

(O,a)

Fig. (7.76)

Fig. (7.75)
(18)

(17)

Fig. (7.78)
(19) Similar to solved
Ex. 5 Case I page (7.11)

Fig. (7.77)

Fig. (7.80)

Fig. (7.79)
(23)

(22)

Fig. (7.82)

Fig. (7.81)
(24)

(20)

(21)

+,

(25)

Fig. (7.83)

Fig. (7.84)

- II

Engineering Mathematics

(26)

(7- 20)

Tracing of Corves

(27)

Fig. (7.85)

Fig. (7.86)

(31)

(28) Same as 17

(29) Similar to Ex. 17.


(30) Similar to Ex. 17.

x=a

(\
Fig. (7.87)

6. Procedure for tracing curves given in polar equations :


I.

Find out the symmetry using the following rules.


( 1) If on replacing

e by - e the equation of the curve remains unchanged

then the curve is symmetrical about the initial line.

(2) If on replacing r by - r i.e. if the powers of r are even then the curve
is symmetrical about the pole. The pole is then called the centre of the curve.

II.
III.

r for both positive and negtive values of e.


e which give r =0 and r =oo .

Form the table of values of

Also find the values of


Find tan

1>. Also find the points where it is zero or infinity. Find the

points at which the tangent coincides with the initial line or is perpendicular to
it. (Refer to the explanation and the fig. in

IV.

Find out if the values of

greatest or least value of

6 (b) page (2.11))

r and e lie between certain limits i.e. find the

r so as to see if the curve lies within or without a

certain circle.

Ex. 1 : Cardioide
r =a (l +cos e)

(S.U. 1991, 95)

(b) r =a (1 -cos e)

(S.U. 1986, 90)

(a)

(c)

Vr =Va cos (e/2)

6-n

Sol. : 1 (a) : (i) The curve is symmetrical about


the initial line since its equation remains
unchanged by replacing
(ii) When

e by - e.

e =0, r = 2a and when e =7t, r =0.

=a ( 1

Fig. (7.88)

+ cos

6)

Engineering Mathematics

Also when

(7- 21)

II

8 = rt/2,

r = a

Tracing of Corves

and when

r=a.

8=3rc/2,
rd 8

Now tan$= (Tr"

a
=

(1

+cos

-a

sin 8

:. tan l =-cot
: . $=

Hence,

8)
+

'I' = 8 + l gives

1t
1t
38
8
'1'=8+2 +2 =2 +T

When

initial
initial

0, 'I'

line. When

8=

1t

line.

i.e. the tangent at this point is perpendicular to the

, 'I' = 2rt

i.e. the tangent at this point coincides with

e.

(iv) The following table gives some values of rand

1 (b)

(i) The curve is symmetrical about the initial line.


(ii) When

8 =0

8 =1t/2,
e = 1t,

when

=0;
r=a

r=2a;

8 = 31t/2,

r = a

...
(111) tan $
cos

6)

=tan

Fig. (7.89)
Hence, 'I'=8 + l gives

d8
r (Tr"

'I'= 8 +

r =a

8
2

a (1- cos 8)
a sin e
8
: l= 2

8 =0, 'I'= 0 i.e. the tangent at this point coincides with the initial
e =1t, 'I' = 31t/2 i.e. the tangent at this point is perpendicular to the

When
line when
initial lin e

(iv) The following table gives some values of rand

1 (c)

: Squaring

=Vi cos (

we get

r =a

cos

8.

This is the cardioide similar to the cardioide shown in


place of a.

(1

+cos

(a) with

8).

a/2

in

Engineering Mathematics

Ex:. 2: Pascal's Limacon


(a) Case 1

II

Tracing of Corves

(7- 22)

=a+ b cos 0

a>b

(i) The curve is symmetrical about the

initial line.
(ii) Since a

>

b ,

is always

(iii) The following table gives some

Fig. (7.90)

va l ues of rand e.

(b) Case II :

n/3

a +b

a+b/2

n/2

2n/3

1t

a-- b/2

a-b

=b
y

When a = b we get r= a (l +cos 0),


the cardioide

shown in the ex. 1 (i)

(c) Case III : a < b

1992)

a+b

(i) The curve is symmetri cal about the

initial line.
(ii) r= 0
.
z.e. e

when a + b cos 0 = 0
=

cos

(iii) When 0 = 0,

I
r

( !.!:_b ) .

Fig. (7.91)

=a+b and is maximum.

(iv) When e = cos -1

( -alb),

= 0 i.e. the curve passes through the

is n egative and at 0 = n,

It may be noted that to plot a point

origin.

[,'

(v) When cos

L
:

< n,

=a-- b.
-

r,

0), we

rotate the radius vector through 0 and

r in

opposite direction in this position. For example, to get

3, 45), we rotate the radius vector from OX


through 45 into the position OL. We have to measure

the point(-

3
P

-I[-%]< 0

along OL a distance- 3 i.e. we have to measure a distance

FIg. (7 92)

3 not along OL, but in opposite direction. Producing LO


toP so that OP = 3 units we get the required

(vi) The following

gives

some

n/2

cos -1 (-alb)

point P.

of rand 0
cos

1 (-a/b) < e < 1t

negative

Note that we get a loop inside another toop as shown

1t

a-b

in the figure.

Engineering Mathematics

II

Tracing of Corves

(7- 23)

Ex. : Trace the curve r = 2 + 3cos 8


(S.U. 2007)

Sol. : Following the above line we see


that the curve

r =

2 + 3cos

e can be

shown as on the right.


y

(d) Pascal's Limacon is also given by


r = a + b sin 8 where the y-axis becomes the
initial line.
For example, the curve

r =

- 3sin 8 is

shown in the neighbouring figure.


5

Fig. (7 .94)

Ex. 3 : Bernoulli's Lemniscate ,2

a2 cos 28 or (x2 + l> 2 a2 ( -l)


=

(S.U.1995,97,98,2003)
9

37tl4

Sol.: (i) Since on changing r by- r the equation

7tl4

remains unchanged, the curve is symmetrical


about the initial line.
(ii) Since on changing 8 by

8 the

equation remains unc hanged the curve is


symmetrical about the pole.
(iii) Considering only positive values of

Fig. (7.95)
r

we get the following table.

n/6

n/4

1t/4<8<31t/4

3n/4

1t

,2

a2
a

a2/2
aN2

negative

imaginary

a2
a

(iv) Consider

x2 -l=

i.e. y

the equation

i.e.

l)2

n/4 and 8

a2(x2 -l).

If we put from

3n/4, we see that 8

1t/4 and

8 = 3n/4 are tangents at the origin.


7. Curves of the form
r =

a sin n e or

r = a

cos n e

Sol. : ( 1) Since sin n8 or cos n8 cannot be greater than one in both the cases
r

cannot be greater than

radius

a.

a.

Hence, the curve wholly lies within the circle of

Engineering Mathematics

II

Tracing of Corves

(7- 24)

(2) To find the curve r =a sin nO put r= 0. Then nO = 0, 1t, 2n, .....
1t 21t
:. O=O, n, n

Draw these lines. If n is odd there are n loops in alternate divisions and if

is even there are 2n loops one in each division.

(3) To trace the curve r =a cos n 0 put r= 0 Then,


1t 1t 31t 51t
nO=- 2 '2, 2 2 , . ...
'
1t
1t 31t
51t
:. 0=2n
2n
2n
'
'
'
in alternate divisions and if
Draw these lines. If n is odd there are n
n is even there are 2n loops one in each division.

Ex.1 : Three-leaved Rose

30
(ii) r=a cos 30.

(S.U.1996, 97, 99, 2004)

(i) r=a sin


Sol.

(S.U.1999)

2n/3

-----

--

---

: (i) The curve consists of three loops

lying within the circle


Put

n/3
'
'
'

r=a.

r= 0.

:. sin 3

0=0
:. 30 = 0, 1t 21t , ....
'
1t 1t 21t
41t 51t
:.0=0 3 3 31t 3 3

'
'
'

'
'
'

Fig. (7.96)

Draw these lines and place equal loops in alternate divisions.


9

n/2

(ii) The curve consists of three loops


lying within the circle

5nt6/

r=a. Put r= 0.

'
'

:. cos 30 = 0

'
'
'
'

_2: 2: 31t 51t


:. 30 = 2'2'2'2

0
9

3n/2

Fig. (7.97)

_ n n n sn 7n 3n

--6'6'2'6'6'2

Draw these lines and place equal


loops in alternate divisions.

Ex. 2 : Four leaved Rose


(i)

r= a sin 20 (S.U.1978, 1980)

Sol. : (i) The curve consists of four


r= 0, sin 20 = 0

Put

(ii)

r=a cos 20 (S.U.1997, 2003)

(2 x 2) loops lying within the circle r =a.

Engineering Mathematics - II
()

Tracing of Corves

(7- 25)

n/2

:. 20
:. 0

0, n, 2n ....

0,

'

1t ,

3n

2-

Draw these lines and place equal loops


in all divisions.
(ii) The curve consists of four (2 x 2)
loops lying within the circle r = a . Put

r=

0.

:. cos 20 = 0
:. 20 =:. 0=8

Sn/4 ',___

__.-'

()

-n/4

1t

3n

2 2 T

1t

3n

5n
2

5n

4,4,4'4

'

0000

Draw these lines and place equal loops

Fig. (7.99)

in all divisions.

Ex. 3 : Spiral of Archimedes

r=a

Sol. : Let us consider first only positive values of


0. When 0 = 0,

r =

0, so the curve passes through

f , 1t ,

the pole. As 0 increases


and so on we see that

3 7t
2

, 2n ..

increases and the point

tracing the curve goes away from the pole as shown


in the neighbouring figure. When 0 oo, roo.

Fig. (7.100)

If we consider negative values of 0 also


we get a curve shown by dotted line. (Fig. 7.101)

Ex.

4: Reciprocal Spiral

r0

=a

(S.U. 1985)

Sol. : Let us first consider only positive values


of e. From the values considered below we see
that as 0 increases r decreases. This means as 0
increases the point tracing the curve goes nearer
and nearer to the
pole and when

Fig. (7.101)
0=. rO.
0 = ... 2n ,
r

_!I_
-

3n

2,

..!

2a

n ,

1t

2 ....

!I_

2n ' 3n ' n

'

1E._
1t

Fig. (7.102)

Engineering Mathematics

(7- 26)

II

Tracing of Corves

Further from the above values we note that

as

-)

0,

oo .

If we consider negative values

of 0 also we get a curve shown by dotted line.

be noted that the line

It may

-;- X

a is an

asymptote.
Ex.

5 : Equiangular Spiral r = ae be
(S.U.

Sol. : When 0 = 0
Fig.

, r

increases. When 0 -
When 0 ->

=a. As 0 increases
oo , r

Further, tan
:. tan
\

oo

also

dO
dr

<I>= a bee =t;


<I> i.e. the

Thus,

9 r ->

<I> =

1985)

between the

tangent and the radius vector is a l ways


constant. Hence, the name equiangular.

Ex.

(7.104)

Fig.

: r =a (sec 0 + cos 0)

(S.U. 1979,

2004)

Sol. : The equaition can be written as


r2

=a

(2a, 0)

(r sec

=a

[r.

Fig.

2 2

:. J2 (x-

(7.105)

r2

cos 0

.. x +y

e + r cos 0)

[x2+y2
2
a) = (2a
x

+x

x)

(i) The curve is symetrical about x-axis.

0, y = 0. Further i +2:l- = 0 are the tangents at the origin.


the origin are imaginary. The origin is an isolated point.

(ii) When x =
The tangents at
(iii) x

a is an asymptote.

Exercise II
= 2 (1 +cos 0), (b) r = 1 +cos 0

1.

(a)

2.

r=

3.

r = 3 +2 cos 0

[I) (1

(S.U.

1978, 80, 93, 94, 97)


(S.U.

+ cos 0)

(S.U.

1989)

1978, 2000)

Engineering Mathematics

- 11

Tracing of Corves

(S.U. 1980)

4.

r = 1 + 2 cos 8

5.

,.z = 4 cos

6.

r ( l + cos 8)

7.

r (1 -cos 8) = 2a

9.

r= 3 cos 28

{7- 27)

(S.U. 1980, 99)

8
=

(S.U. 1981)

2a
8.

= 2a cos 8
(S.U. 1988)
(S.U. 1981, 2003)

10. r =a (1 + sin 8)
11. ? cos 28 = a2 or r2

a2 sec 28
(S.U. 2005, 06)

12. r2 =a2 sin 28

(S.U. 2003)

13. r =a (1 -sin 8)
14. r = 2a tan 8 sin 8
[Ans. :
1. Similar to solved Ex.l (1) Fig. (7.88).

2. Similar to solved Ex. 1(1).

3. Similar to solved Ex. 2 (a) Fig. (7.90).

4. Similar to solved Ex. 2 (c)

5. Similar to solved Ex. 3. Fig. (7.95).


6. Parabola opening on the left.

Fig. (7.91)

7. Parabola opening on the right.

Fig. (7.107)

Fig. (7.106)

9. Cricle similar to the previous


one with a= 3/2

8. Circle

10.

Fig. (7.108)

Fig. (7.109)

Engineering Mathematics

11.

(7- 28)

II

Tracing of Corves

12.

Fig. (7.111)

Fig. (7.110)
13.

14. See remark under


Ex. 1 page (7 .10) See Fig. (7 .45).

y
X

Fig. (7 .112)
8. Some More Curves :
(1) Cycloids
Because of its graceful form and beautiful properties, mathematicians
call this curve the Helen of Geometry. (After all, mathematicians are not dry
as they are sometimes called !) When a circle rolls, on a straight line without
sliding any fixed point on its circumference traces a cycloid.
The curve traced by a fixed point on the cricumference of a cricle, which
rolls without sliding on the cricumference of another fixed cricle is called an
epicycloid or hypocycloid.
If the rolling circle is outside the fixed cricle the curve is called the

epicycloid and if the rolling cricle is inside the fixed cricle, the curve is called
the hypocycloid. We have seen one particular hypocycloid in Ex. (3) page
7.11.
If the radius of the rolling circle is equal to the radius of the fixed cricle,
the epicycloid is called cardioide because of its heart like shape (Cardio
Heart, eidos =shape). We have studied this curve Ex.

1 on page 7.20.

The cyloid is generally given in one of the following forms.

(a)x=a(t +sint),y=a(l +cost) (b)x=a(t-sint),y =a(l +cost)


(c) x =a (t + sin t), y =a (1 - ccis t)

(S.U. 2004, 07)

Engineering Mathematics

- II

Tracing of Corves

(7- 29)

(d) x ""a (t --sin t), y =a (1 -cost)


Sol.

(a)

dx

dt
:.

dy

.
=-a sm t
dt
dy!dt
--asint
=-tan
dx/dt =a( 1 +cost)

=a (1 +cost),
dy
dx

(S.U. 1987)

2
(t)

Some of the values of x, y and dyldx are


-n

-n/2

-an
0
00

n/2

--a( 1t/2 + 1)

()

a(1t/2+1)

an

2a

- 1

From the above table we see that at t

0
-

oo

- n and at t = n, the tangents are


Further at t = 0, the tangent

parallel to they-axis. Th ese points are called cusps.


is parallel

to the x-axis.

y t

--:

2a

Fig. (7.113)
dv
(b) -=a (l- cost) --=-a sin t
dt
' dt
dy
dyldt
--asint
dx

dx

d;d d t

a(

- cos

t)

[t)

- cot 2

Some of the values of x, y, dyldx are

dyldx

n/2

31t/2

2n

a (7tl2 -1)

an

a(3n/2 +1)

2an

2a
00

2a

-1

00

From the above table we see that at t = 0 and t = 2n


parallel to they-axis. These are cusps. Further at
the x- axis is the tangent.
t=O

an:

---------

Fig.

an:
---------

(7.114)

the tangents are

= n, y = 0 and dy/dx = 0 i.e.

Engineering Mathematics

(c)

II

+cost), a sin
Some of
a- 1

dx

=a

(1

dyldt

dy

.. dx

dxldt

--

[t]

tan

dyldx are

-n:/2

-n:

dyldx

+cost)

the values of x, y,

asint

----

Tracing of Corves

(7-30)

---

.n/2 + 1)

-2

n:
/
2
00 a(n:/a2+1 an2a
0

1t

00

y
t

1t

=a -cost)
(1.)
a y,
t 00 a(rrJrrJ22- ann a(31tl2+ 2arr.2n:
0
ydy/dx 0 a 2a0
Fig. (7.115)

dx
dt-

!!r_

dy

(1

dx

dyldt
dxldt

, dt

sin t

=_E._
=
( 1 -cost)

Some of the values of x,

cot

dyldx are

1)

1)

00

-- 1

00

t= n

an
=

'
'
'
: 2a
an
:
t:: 27t

Fig. (7.116)
(2) Catenary

(S.U. 2003)

If a heavy uniform string is allowed to hang freely under gravity, it hangs


in the form a curve called catenary. Its equation can be shown to be
y

ccosh

Engineering Mathematics

II

Tracing of Corves

(7- 31)

Its shape is as shown in the figure


y

Fig. (7.117)

Its lowest point is at


when

x =

0,y = c

-cause,

dirtance c from the

cosh

0 =c.

Further, we see that y = c co s h ;

Hence, if x is replaced by - x the equation remains the same. Hence, the


curve is symmetrical about they-axis

. ce
Sm

dy

exlc

e -xlc

d.:r
parallel to the x-axis.:

is zero. when

x = c,

the tangent at

(3) Tractrix
x =

.
dx
-=-asmt
dt

Sol.:

a cos t +

a log tan 2

a
+
2

=-a sin t +

=-a sin t +
a cos 2 t

( t]

2tan (f)

a sin

(f)-}
[f]

sec2

tan 2
a

2 sin

--(!.sm t

(1-)
=

cos

--(!.sm t

(f]
(1

- sin 2

sin t

dy
dt
.

=a cost

dy
dyldt
sin t
=tan t
=
=a cost.
dx
dxldt
a cos 2 t

dy
Some ofthe values oft, x, y, dx are ,

t)

= c

is

(7- 32)

Engineering Mathematics - II

-n

-n/2

00

-a

dy/dx

00

Tracing of Corves

n/2

1t

00

00

00

From the above data we see that as t - n the point on the curve is
(oo,

0) and as t 0 the point is(- oo, 0).


t = n/2

Fig. (7.118)
9. Some Solids
You have studied to some extent plane and straight line

in three

dimensions. We shall here get acquainted with some more three dimensional
solids such as sphere, cylinder, cone, paraboloid etc.

1. Plane : The general equation of a plane is

y=O

linear of the form a'x+ b'y + c'z+ d'= 0 which can

x=O

be written as
a'
b'
c'
-x+-y+-z=1
d'
-d'
d'
i.e.

ax +

Fig. (7.119)

by + cz= 1

Simplest planes are


whose

yz plane whose equation is x = 0; the zx plane

equation is y = 0; the xy plane whose equation is


z

z= 0.

!+2$,+!=1
y

y
X

Fig. (7 .120)

Fig. (7.121)

The planes parallel to the coordinate planes are x =a, y = b,


The plane ax+ by+ cz = 1 cuts off intercepts 1/a, 1/b,
axes. Still more common form of the plane is
+l'.+=l
a
b
c

z =c.

1/c on the coordinate

Engineering Mathematics

II

This plane cuts off intercepts

2. Cylinders

Tracing of Corves

(7- 33)

An equation

a,

b, con the coordinate axes.

involving

only two variables represents a

cylinder in three dimensional geometry. Thus,

f (x, y)

O,.f (y, z)

0, y (z,

x)

0 represent

cylinders in three dimensions.

(a) Right Circular Cylinders :


x2 + y2 = a2 is a right circular cylinder, whose
generator is parallel to the z-axis. Similarly,

y2 + z2:: !J2 is a cylinder whose generators are


paralel to the x-axis. z2 + x2 c2 is a cylinder
=

x/

Fig. (7.122)

whose generators are parallel to they-axis.


z
..

Fig. (7.124)

(7.123)
(b) Parabolic Cylinders

The equation y2 = 4ax represents

two dimensions. But in three dimensions it represents


The equations z2
shown

4by,

x2

3. Sphere

Fig. (7.126)

: The equation of sphue in

a is x2

+ y2 +

4. Cone

z2

a2.

: The right circular cone given

by x2 + y2 = z2 is shown in the following figure


7.129.
The other two cones y2 + z2 x2 and x2
z2 y2 are shown in the following figures
7.130 and 7.31.
=

paraola in

4cz also represent parabolic cylinders as

standard form i.e. with center at the origin and

parabolic cylinder.

the following figures.

Fig. (7.125)

radius

Fig. (7.127)

Engineering Mathematics

II

Tracing of Corves

(7- 34)
z
z

y2+z2=x2

X
X

Fig. (7.129)

Fig. (7.131)

Fig. (7.130)

5. Ellipsoid :The equation of ellipsoid

in standard form is
2
x

z2
+ 2 + 2 = 1
b
a2
c

The sections of the ellipsoid by planes


parallel to the coordinate planes are ellipses.
6.

Hyperboloid

The equations of

Fig. (7.132)

hyperboloid of one sheet and two sheet are


respectively
x2

z2
+-+-==
1
a2
c2
b2

and

a2

b2

z2

+ 2 =
c
-

The hyperboloid of one sheet is shown on the


right. Sections of the hyperboloid of one sheet parallel

to the xy-planes are ellipses and sections parallel to


x

yz-plane or zx-plane are hyperbolas.


z

The hyperboloid of two


sheets

Fig. (7.133)

is shown on the left.

Sections of this hyperboloid by planes paralles


to the xy-plane i.e. z

==

k, I k I >

are real ellipses.

Sections of this hyperboloid by planes parallel


to the zx-plane i.e. y =

k are

hyperbolas.

7. Paraboloids : We

Fig. (7.134)

shall discuss here only one

elliptic paraboloid given by


2
x
2z
-+-==2
a
b2
c

Fig. (7 .135)

Engineering Mathematics

II

Tracing of Corves

(7- 35)

Sections of this paraboloid parallel to the .xy-planes are ellipse. Sections

parallel to the yz-plane or the zx-plane are parabolas.

Sketch the following figures.


2
2
2
1. y=x ,x +y =2

+y

2
=b ,

y- =X + 6,

3.

2+ 2
a

=y

2
y=x , y=1,X =1,X =2

4.

2
y=x , y=x+2,x=-1,x=2

5.
6

2.

2
2
x + y = ax, ax =by

2
x +i=by,ax=by

7.

8.

2
2
2
- y =1,X - y =2,X)' =4,xy=2

xy= 2 - y

9.

10. y=x2 -3x, y=2x

11. i=-4 (x-1), l =-2 (x-2)


12. a2 x2 =4l (a2
13.

-l)

or x=asin 2t, y=asin t

2
(cos 8 +sin 8) =2asin 8 cos 8 or (x+ y) (x +

2
14. x4 + y4 =2a xy or

2
15 x6 + y6 =a2x y or

=
2

l) =2axy

2a sin8 cos8

sin 4 8+cos 4 8
a

78
. 2 8 cossm

6
6
sin 8+cos 8

16. x4-2.tya2+a2l = 0 or ? =2atan 8 sec2 8 - a 2 tan 2 8 sec2 8


17. y=x2 -6x+3, y=2x-9

18. y 3x2 - x-3, y=- 2x2 +4x+ 7


=

19.

l =4x,

y=2x- 4

21.

A cylindrical hole in a sphere.

20. y=4x-x2, y=x


22.
23.

2
2
A cone and paraboloid given b y z =x +land z =x2 +
A paraboloid +

l =az,and the c ylinder +l =a2

24. The paraboloids z


25. y=4x(1 -x)

2
2
4 -x - Y ,
4

3x2 +

y2
4

Engineering Mathematics

[Ans. :
(1)

II

Tracing of Corves

(7- 36)

(2)

x2+y2=b2

Fig. (7.137)

x2+y2=2

Fig. (7.136)
(4)

(3)

y=1
X

( 6, 0)

x=1 x=2

Fig. (7.139)
Fig. (7.138)
(5)

(6)

X
X

Fig. (7.140)
Fig. (7.141)
(7)

(8)

X
X

Fig. (7.142)
Fig. (7.143)

Engineering Mathematics

(9)

Tracing of Corves

(7- 37)

II

(10)

Fig. (7.145)

Fig. (7.144)

(12)

(11)

(2, 0)

X
X

Fig. (7.146)

(13)

Fig. (7.147)
(14)

Fig. (7.148)
Fig. (7.149)
(15)

(16)

Fig. (7.150)

Fig. (7.151)

Engineering Mathematics

II

Tracing of Corves

{7- 38)
(18)

(6, 3)
(-1, 1)

:Fig. (7.152)

Fig. (7 .153)

(19)

(20)

(2, 7)

(-1, 1)

Fig. (7.154)
(22)

(21)

Fig. (7 .136)

Yt

Fig. (7 .156)
(23)

Fig. (7.158)

:Fig. (7 .157)
(24)

Fig. (7 .159)

Engineering Mathematics

(25)

II

(7- 39)

Tracing of Corves

Fig.

(7.160)