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Embedded Systems

By,

ANITHA.P(9865990389)
AMALA BEULA.J(beulajeyagaran@gmail.com)
SRI ESHWAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

ABSTRACT

embedded
systems.

into

traditional

Current

machines

engineering
consist

of

Imagine you control all the systems

physical components providing the means

around just by a simple gesture and the

and a control system employing those means

things respond to you as if it was some

to fulfill the machines function. Together,

magic.

they build up the controlled machine, which

This

could

be

possible

with

embedded systems.

can also be called an embedded system. .

The term embedded systems is

New innovative applications in different

quite a complex one. Simply put, it is a

areas will make embedded systems as one of

combination of hardware and software that

the fastest developing technology of the near

performs the component of a larger system.

future.

A few years ago embedded technology


existed in stand alone devices such as

This

paper

deals

with

concepts

and

vending machines and copiers that did their

developments of embedded systems in

jobs with little regards for what went on

control of machines and gives a general

around them. But as technology advance to

overview of the basic components of control

connect devices to the internet and to each

systems, ranging from sensors to actuators.

other, the potential of embedded technology

Embedded Systems

has increased. Home appliances, mobile

An embedded system employs a

phones, cars, tiny micro chips, avionics etc..,

combination of hardware & software (a

are all using embedded technology.

computational engine) to perform a

High-profile embedded chips are

specific function; is part of a larger system

scaleable, generate small amounts of heat,

that may not be a computer; works in a

and

reactive and time-constrained environment.

consume

less

power.

These

are

generally preferred for their speed, accuracy

Software is used for providing features and

and reliability. As they are compact in size

flexibility.Hardware = {Processors, ASICs,

and ability to perform time-critical and task

Memory...} is used for performance (&

specific operators, embedded devices find

sometimes security)

application in all segments of industrial and


commercial

market

places

and

home

appliances.

The term embedded system can be used


for a wide range of applications and devices.
A useful definition is not easy to formulate.

In recent years,it became apparent

Boasson mentioned one characteristic that

that control systems as integral components

applies to all embedded systems: Neither the

of larger systems, should be developed and

computer

designed

mechanics,

environment in which it is embedded, nor

hydraulics, and electronics. It is important

the environment without the computer

that engineers have a good understanding of

system has any significance in itself.

concurrently

with

the implications of software technology

system

without

the

special

An embedded system employs a

Embedded

hardware:

The

embedded

combination of hardware & software (a

hardware

mainly

computational engine) to perform a

microcontroller with various peripheral ICs.

consists

of

A fixed size volatile memory such as


DRAM or SRAM and non volatile memory
such as Flash or EPROM, connected to the
microcontroller, are an integral part of the
device.

Depending

on

the

targeted

application of the device, the peripheral can


include communication device such as serial
controller, Ethernet controller, or a wireless
communication
specific function; is part of a larger system
that may not be a computer; works in a
reactive and time-constrained environment.

controller

and

other

application-specific ICs (ASICs). Many


handheld devices these days also have
sensors, actuators, keypads and graphical
LCD screens as user interfaces.

Basics of Embedded systems


An embedded systems typically
comprises the hardware, embedded RTOS,
device drivers, communication stacks and
embedded application software.

The only way a embedded machine control


system can get information about its
surroundings, is through the use of sensors
and/or sensor systems. Control signals from
the embedded control are converted into
power and/or movement through Actuators.
Sensors: During the past years a shift has
taken place from mechanization towards
automation. This implies the extensive use
of sensors (and actuators) in order to be able
to actually control (and influence) the
actions that are performed by the controlled
system.In principle the task of a sensor is
fairly simple. It transforms an input signal
that usually is difficult to handle in its
original form to a more manageable form.
Between input and output of the sensor a
number of processes take place to obtain the
desired result, as schematically shown in
Figure.

systems. All intelligent devices that perform


complex functions have an embedded
operating

system

inside.

real-time

operating system (RTOS) is built for


specific

applications

and

guarantees

response to an external event with in a


specified time constraint.

This operating

system is typically real time in nature, i.e. it


is capable of responding deterministically to
Actuators: Actuators come in many forms

time-critical external events.

and shapes. They act as the arms and legs

For example, when you suddenly

of the machine. Actuators convert control

apply brakes for your car to avoid an

signals into power and/or movement,as

accident, the intelligent gad-get responds

schematically shown in Figure below.

immediately. Imagine the plight of a driver

Control signals do not have to be of

if there is no response the result is

electrical nature, also other kinds are

obvious.

possible. The power conversion can be done

Device drivers: The lowest-level software

in

that acts as glue between the operating

number

of

ways.

system and the peripheral devices is called


the device driver. The device driver software
controls every peripheral device that is
connected to the micro controller.
Communication stacks: If the embedded
device is capable of communicating to the
external world, it has a communication
software stack running on the top of the
operating system. In order to connect to the
Internet, the embedded device needs a
TCP/IP stack.
The most common energy sources for
actuators are:

are:

Compressed air, pneumatics

Small, low power, high performance

Pressured oil, hydraulics

Compact efficient use of PCB / IC 'real-

Electricity, electro mechanics


Embedded RTOS: The concept of realtime

operating

system

Characteristics of Embedded systems

(RTOS)

is

inseparable when we talk about embedded

estate'
Maximum output for minimum size
High MIPS to power ratio
High bus bandwidth

Low interface bottlenecks

microwave

Advantages:

phones, VCRs, and digital photo cameras

Customization yields lower area, power,

ovens,

car

radios,

cellular

are just a few examples of ordinary devices

cost...

with embedded control in it. Embedded

Disadvantages:

control is used in product itself, not in the

Higher

HW/software

development

production system with which the products

overhead. Design, compilers, debuggers...

are manufactured. The use of embedded

May result in delayed time to market!

control software enables product designers

Control Systems

to design smarter products with a large

Control system is the section where

portion of its functionality embedded in the

the system senses the input by sensors and

software of the product. This results in

compares with the internal reference of the

increased

system and gives the output obtained

possibility

through the actuators as shown in figure

functionality without having to redesign the

below.

physical product. So, in a way the software

product
to

flexibility

change

or

and
add

the
new

has become the product.


Relay-based logic control:
Before

electronic

control

was

developed, relays (as well as pneumatic and


hydraulic components) were widely used as
control elements. They serve as switching,
timing and multiplying mechanisms for
input devices such as switches, push
buttons, photo-electric sensors, etc. Since
Control systems implementations:

the control is hard-wired, flexibility is low

Looking at the history of controllers, we can

and troubleshooting difficult. Today, they

distinguish six types of control systems:

are less used in the actual control functions

Black box or embedded control

but many control applications use relays in

Relay-based logic control

conjunction with the more sophisticated

Single-board control (SBC)

forms of control for isolation and other

Programmable control (PLC)

specialized electromechanical functions.

Computer numerical control (CNC)

Single-board Control (SBC):


Electronic controllers on circuit

Distributed control systems (DCS)

boards first appeared in the 1960s. The early

Black box or embedded control:


Embedded control is all around us.

ones consisted of logic modules with lots

More and more household appliances are

of discrete components like transistors,

being

of

capacitors, resistors, etc. on them with

embedded control in it. Washing machines,

which the desired control functions were

designed

with

some

form

implemented. Later on, integrated circuits

Relay-based control, SBC and PLC

(LSI, VLSI) are applied. Since no moving

are widely used in the discrete production

parts are used they are inherently more

area. The process industry is the domain of

reliable than relay-based control systems.

distributed control systems, where the

Because they are custom-made, maintenance

number of analog I/O points exceeds the

and repair can be a problem. Many original

number of discrete I/O points. DCSs are

equipment manufacturers still choose to

used where the controlled process is

design their own single-board controllers for

continuous, has a high analog content and

their own unique machine applications.

throughput, is distributed across a large

Programmable logic controller (PLC):

geographical area and where down time is

The need for more flexibility in

very expensive.

control systems has led to the development

Embedded

of the programmable logic controller, the

Machines

Systems

in

Control

of

PLC. In the early seventies, the automotive

In early days, the major part of the

industry was growing rapidly. In order to be

control was built into the physical machine,

able to react more quickly to a changing

using mechanical parts. Although hardware-

demand in the marketplace, one had to have

based control is still widely applied, major

a more flexible, easily adaptable and

developments take place in the field of

expandable control system; therefore it had

software-based control. An increasing part

to be a programmable control system. The

of the design process deals with the software

early PLCs were programmed in so-called

of the control system. The development of

relay

level

the microprocessor and subsequent gain in

programming languages like Pascal, C/C++

flexibility has contributed a great deal to this

and even Java are being used to program

Controlled machine

ladder.

Today,

high

PLC(-like) systems.

Current machines consist of a

Computer Numerical Control (CNC):


Essentially, numerical control is

physical machine providing the means, and


a machine control system employing those

nothing more than sending a sequence of

means to fulfill the machines function.

commands to a machine, that in turn

Together, they build up the controlled

interprets them and performs the desired

machine, also called an embedded system.

movementand machining actions. Before the

The term embedded system is used for a

introduction of NC these commands were

wide range of applications or devices. The

issued manually by pressing buttons and

physical machine can be considered to

switches, turning handwheels, etc. The path

consist of three subsystems: the main

information

numeric

structure, actuators and sensors. The main

coordinate values (X, Y, Z), hence the name

structure physically connects the parts of the

numerical control.

two remaining sub systems. The machine

Distributed Control System (DCS):

control system sends information to the

is

presented

in

actuators and receives information from the

control

sensors via the I/O-interface.

manipulators) or by both regulative and

The machine control system can be

error-handling

divided into five functional subsystems:

instance, robot arms). Some components are

Regulative control, also referred to as

controlled by an error-handling subsystem

direct control or feedback

only (for instance, warning lamps or safety

Error-handling control, also referred to as

locks). The intermediate layer is involved in

fault detection and isolation (FDI) or

scheduling,

exception

individual machine components, gathering

Supervisory control also referred to as

and

logic control.

compensating possible machine failures, and

The data processing subsystem stores and

providing the top layer with the required

manipulates gathered data.

information on the machine status. The top

The user interface subsystem allows the

layer allows the user to interact with and to

user to interact with the machine-control

monitor the machine.

system.

(for

instance,
control

subsystem

coordinating

processing

data,

motorized

control

monitoring

(for

of
and

Machine control is closely related to


manufacturing control. The goal of machine
control is to perform certain manufacturing
functions in a controlled manner. Machine
control enables us to influence production
means in such a way that the manufacturing
process produces the desired products of the
correct quality at the planned time in the
required quantity.
Over
developments

the

years,

have

taken

lot

of

place

in

production methods, machine design and


machine control design. Not surprisingly,
they all influence each other. In the route
from manual work to automation we can
The machine control system can

distinguish five phases of mechanization or

also be regarded as a layered control system,

automation. The meaning of the term phase

as shown in Figure. The bottom layer

of mechanization is the extent to which a

interacts directly with the actuators and

machine or production system can function

sensors, that is, the physical machine. Some

independently, without human intervention.

components are controlled directly (for

Manual labour with tools

instance,

Specific machines

pneumatic

components).Some

components are controlled by regulative

Universal machines

Multiple link specific machines

Consumer

Multiple specific Intelligent control

products:

e.g.,

washers,

microwave ovens ...

In universal machines, control is embedded


in the machine itself, through the use of
mechanical parts like eccentrics, cams,
camshafts, springs, gearboxes, drive axis,

Automobiles (anti-lock braking, engine


control ...)
Industrial

process

controllers

&

avionics/defense applications

etc. The result depends less on the quality of

Computer/Communication

the worker and more on the quality of the

e.g., printers, FAX machines ...

products:

machine. To avoid unnecessary delays,

Emerging multimedia applications &

attention has to be paid to operating

consumer electronics: e.g., cellular phones,

procedures,

personal

work

preparation,

material

digital

assistants,

handling and tool preparation.

videoconferencing servers, interactive game

An example of an embedded control system:

boxes, TV set-top boxes...

Dryer

Multimedia: Increasing computational

Different sub systems in the dryer are

demands, and increased reliance on VLSI,

Main structure: The motor

HW/SW integration.

Sensors : Temperature sensor, humidity

Embedded software can support such

sensorActuators : Motor driver control, fan

applications as the Internet, e-mail and MP3

control

decoders
Machine control system : SAB-

C504

etc.

sophisticated

They

also

support

graphical

user

interface

screens.

The road ahead Telematics:


The impact of telematics would be really
innovative. With access to e-mail the
internet,

and

telephone

services,

car

occupants could shop and bank online,


receive traffic and navigation information,
and avail of remote diagnostics facilities
Automotive electronics:
Remember the talking car in the serial
knight rider, a fully computerized car
capable of doing almost everything a car
lover would want to. Seems like a fantasy
but the day is not far when almost all
Examples:

Consumer electronics: e.g.,

cameras, camcorders ....

automobiles would interact with computers


on dash- boards. From ordering a pizza to
booking tickets at the nearest theaters, things
would be as easy as giving orders to your

servant. Whole of which would be possible

which would grow to $8 billion by

with embedded systems.

2008.Further more, embedded systems are

Mistral software is in the process of

rapidly becoming a catalyst for change in

developing text to speech and speech

the in the computing, data communications,

reorganization technologies to give the car

telecommunications, industrial control and

occupants the ultimate comfort. Whenever

entertainment

theres a call on your mobile, you need not

applications in these as well as other areas

get jumpy at the very onset of the call. The

will make embedded systems as one of the

computer in the cars dashboard would do the

fastest developing technology of the near

job for you. GPS navigation guides you

future.

safely through the traffic. The GPS interface

Bibliography
J. Albus, A.Barbera, and R. Nigel. Theory
and practice of hierarchical control.
M. Boasson. Embedded systems.
www.electronicsforu.com
Simon Embedded systems.

in the car pinpoints your exact location on a


map. In case GPS signal cant be received
due to high density of tall buildings or other
magnetic interface, the dead reckoning
technique, which works for short durations,
guides you effectively. The system is also
loaded

with

GSM/CDMA

protocol

standards.
Biomedical solutions:
The biomedical chord developed by mistral
is a centrelised patient monitering system
that allows remote monitering of up to 32
patients at a given time through a central
computer. It can process of maximum of 32
channels usin the state-of-the-art DSP in a
PC environment.
Economy:
The world of embedded systems is a
dreamers

paradise

with

unlimited

possibilities. According to the global market


size for embedded software development
alone was $7 billion in 2001, which is
expected to reach $20 billion in 2003 and
$31 billion by 2005.For India are $400
million. $750 million and $1.1 billion
respectively. In India R&D in embedded
system was worth $1.1 billion in 2001,

sectors.

New

innovative