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Syllabus

Gordon Albright School of Education

ECC 514: Introduction to School-based Counselling Skills


3 Credits
Effective: Fall 2016

Access to the Internet is required.


All written assignments must be in Microsoft-Word-compatible formats.
See the librarys APA Style Guide tutorial for a list of resources that can help you use APA style.

FACULTY
Faculty Name: Carol-Anne Haring
Contact Information: caharing@cityu.edu

COURSE DESCRIPTION
This course gives the future school counsellor an introduction to the fundamental skills needed to
facilitate therapeutic change in childrens lives. Topics include interviewing skills, establishing a
therapeutic alliance and professional documentation for intake and referral. Candidates review regional
policies and guidelines related to the scope of practice for school counsellors in a multicultural context.
This course gives the future school counsellor and educational leader an overview of how a wellorganized counselling program contributes to childrens growth and a positive school climate. The course
provides a foundation to therapy skills that is further developed during the program and related practica.

COURSE RESOURCES
Required and recommended resources to complete coursework and assignments are listed on the
My.CityU portal at Library>Resources by Course.
Text:
Hess, R. S., Magnuson, S.L. & Beeler, L.M. (2011). Counseling children and
adolescents in schools. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publications

CITYU LEARNING GOALS


This course supports the following City University learning goals:

Professional competency and professional identity

COURSE OUTCOMES
In this course, learners:
Apply reflective listening and solution-focused counselling skills.
Understand the importance of family systems and human development in school counselling
programs.
Understand ways to co-ordinate school based and multi-discipline services.
Understand the spectrum of roles and responsibilities of the School Counsellor.

CORE CONCEPTS, KNOWLEDGE, AND SKILLS

Strategies for reflective listening


Delivery systems for school counselling services
Elements of diversity in student population
Family systems and human development relevance in school counselling programs

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Interpretation and analysis of report data


Roles and responsibilities of the school staff

OVERVIEW OF COURSE GRADING


The grades earned for the course will be derived using City University of Seattles decimal grading
system, based on the following:
Overview of Required Assignments

% of Final Grade

Counselling Skills Tapes and Reflection

25%

Multidisciplinary Meeting Participation

25%

Survey of School Counselling Services

30%

Attendance and In-class Participation

20%

TOTAL

100%

SPECIFICS OF COURSE ASSIGNMENTS


The instructor will provide grading rubrics that will provide more detail as to how this assignment will be
graded.
Counselling Skills Tapes and Reflection
Candidates will work towards mastery of open listening skills through practicing reflective feeling
statements, accurate paraphrasing and summarizing statements in responses to the lead. This practice is to
be done without asking questions!Candidates will pair off and take turns being the client and counsellor
for ten minutes each. The clients responsibility is to bring a topic of genuine dissonance to the session so
that the counsellor can then reflect authentic feeling responses.

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HIGH FACILITATIVE RESPONSE on the counsellors part include providing:


1) A feeling focused response; 2) Clarifying, summarizing response.
LOW FACILITATIVE RESPONSE on the counsellors part include providing:
1) Analyzing or interpreting; 2) Advising or evaluating; 3) Providing generic, non-specific support.
The taping requirements are:
a) Complete audio or videotape: an 8-10 minute session using only the basic skills of paraphrase,
reflection, and summary with a cohort member of the class acting as a client.
b) The candidate must pass both requirements A and B before grade is issued.
c) The candidate must complete Form One while reviewing the audio (video) tape and before
submitting the assignment for grading. Form One should never be completed from memory.
REQUIREMENT A: The candidate is required to successfully complete 8 to 10 minutes of reflection,
paraphrase, and summary with ease and without asking any questions. Each attempt (session) will have a
Form One submitted clearly numbered in relation to the practice attempt on the tape. Form One is
available as Appendix A to this syllabus.
REQUIREMENT B: The candidate has met the level 4 requirements of the Ivey et al. Carkhuff
Empathy Rating Scale, shown in Appendix B of this syllabus. Level 4 indicates that all responses meet
average empathy level. There should be an absence of any 1, 2 or 3 statements. Repeat taping sessions
until level 4 is met.
Upon completion, each student will type a transcript of two specific sections of the session which they
would like to improve on. They are then to suggest alternative responses to these sections. Candidates will
bring their edited work to class for discussion and peer review. They will cue their tapes to specific points
of dialogue and solicit feedback or alternative strategies.
Components
Clarity of Tape Recording
Accurate completion of Form One
Ease of responses / comfort level
Level of empathy
Depth of self critique and improvement on two sections of tape

% of Grade
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%

TOTAL

100%

Multidisciplinary Meeting Participation


The focus of this assignment is to identify the interrelationship among and between school staff, families,
and community resources to support individual students for academic and psychosocial support. This is
not a case study of an individual child, family or agency. Candidates will gain permission to attend a
multidisciplinary meeting at their school (with appropriate permissions). Using a de-identified format (i.e.
anonymous case), candidates will briefly outline the specific issue or case and identify the roles,
responsibilities and constraints of the school /district personnel, various agencies, and parents/guardians,
if appropriate. Candidates will evaluate effective strategies for optimum communication and best practice
between the various constituents.
The instructor will provide guidelines for length of paper and additional elements, if appropriate.
Candidates will use the APA format and cite the sources of all ideas, facts and information used that are

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not their own, even if they have put the information in their own words.
Components
% of Grade
APA format and writing conventions
10%
Concise and appropriate identification of issue/case to be evaluated
20%
Clear and accurate identification of roles and responsibilities of
35%
participants
Evaluation of communication/working practices between
35%
participants
TOTAL
100%
Survey of School Counselling Services
Candidates will survey their schools to take an inventory of the school counselling delivery systems:
individual student planning, responsive services, and systems support; management systems, and
evaluation using a survey instrument provided by the instructor. An Audit Checklist for this purpose is
attached as Appendix C to this syllabus. Candidates will also gather information about current and past
needs surveys and the range and detail of student support services provided by the district to meet the
psychosocial and academic needs of the students. This survey will provide a reference point for future
coursework, the internship, and action research project for the program.
The instructor will provide guidelines for length of paper and additional elements, if appropriate.
Candidates will use the APA format and cite the sources of all ideas, facts and information used that are
not their own, even if they have put the information in their own words.
Components
Completeness of survey checklist
Level of services in relation to student needs
Evaluation of the adequacy delivery and management systems to
meet student academic and psychosocial support in the school
Use of terms and concepts from readings and lecture
APA format and writing conventions
TOTAL

% of Grade
20%
15%
35%
20%
10%

100%

Attendance and In-class Participation


Class participation is an integral part of this course. Coming prepared to class is essential because the
information, knowledge, skills and expertise they exchange with peers and instructors contributes toward
a strong learning community. It is highly important that candidates attend and actively participate in class.
Active participation is considered essential to professional training.If any part of the class is missed, the
instructor determines the amount of credit awarded for alternative assignments.
Components
Punctual attendance and preparation for each class session
Required activities/readings/homework completed
Collaborative discussions
TOTAL

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% of Grade
30%
35%
35%

Effective: Fall 2014/2015

100%

UNIVERSITY POLICIES
You are responsible for understanding and adhering to all of City University of Seattles academic
policies. The most current versions of these policies can be found in the University Catalog that is linked
from the CityU Web site.
Scholastic Honesty
Scholastic honesty in students requires the pursuit of scholarly activity that is free from fraud, deception
and unauthorized collaboration with other individuals. You are responsible for understanding CityUs
policy on scholastic honesty and adhering to its standards in meeting all course requirements. A complete
copy of this policy can be found in the University Catalog in the section titled Scholastic Honesty under
Student Rights & Responsibilities.
Attendance
Students taking courses in any format at the University are expected to be diligent in their studies and to
attend class regularly.
Regular class attendance is important in achieving learning outcomes in the course and may be a valid
consideration in determining the final grade. For classes where a physical presence is required, a student
has attended if s/he is present at any time during the class session. For online classes, a student has
attended if s/he has posted or submitted an assignment. A complete copy of this policy can be found in the
University Catalog in the section titled Attendance Policy for Mixed Mode, Online and Correspondence
Courses.

SUPPORT SERVICES
Disability Resources
If you are a student with a disability and you require an accommodation, please contact the Disability
Resource Office as soon as possible. For additional information, please see the section in the University
Catalog titled Students with Special Needs under Student Rights & Responsibilities.
Library Services
In order to help you succeed in this course, you have access to library services and resources 24 hours a
day, seven days a week. CityU librarians can help you formulate search strategies and locate materials
that are relevant to your coursework. For help, contact a CityU librarian through the Ask a Librarian
service. To find library resources, click on the Library link in the My.CityU portal.
Smarthinking
As a CityU student, you have access to 10 free hours of online tutoring offered through Smarthinking,
including writing support, from certified tutors 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Contact CityUs
Student Support Center at help@cityu.edu to request your user name and password.

Tape Requirements A and B

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Name ____________________________________ Date of evaluation


________________ Attempt # _____
8-10 minutes of reflection, paraphrase, encouragement, and summary without asking any
questions.
Candidate completes Form One while listening to complete tape and before submitting for grading.
Skills Demonstrated
Listen For
(Evaluator: record notes)
Welcoming open introduction
Caring spirit; open invitational phrase
Reflection with content #1
(not how does that make you feel?)
Reflection with content #2

You feel _____________ because ____


________________________________
You feel _____________ because ____
________________________________

Paraphrase #1
Paraphrase #2
Additional reflection(s) if present
Encouraging statement: statement of client strength,
confidence stated
Effective summary of major feelings and content (major
points of only one concern)
Session has at least one counsellor statement at empathy
level 5.
Session is void of negative/detracting interaction/habits on
the part of the counsellor (no empathy level 1, 2, or 3)
Tape fully audible
Met minimum time requirement
Total absence of questions
Evaluator comments:

You feel ____________ because _____


________________________________
I notice ____________
Let me see if I understand what youve been
saying
No interruption, off-remarks, misdirection, or
comments to interrupt client process
Heard clearly
8 min. minimum-10 min. max graded
No questions apparent (neither word nor voice)

Evaluator signature _________________________________________


VOCABULARY OF A SHADING OF FEELINGS
The following paragraphs offer a sample of common feeling words and their shadings taken from a
thesaurus and dictionary of synonyms. All this list does, though, is give you a start toward developing
your own list, including regional terms or faddish terms for various feelings.
Imagine the words most commonly used by children to answer the question, How do you feel?, or
How does that make you feel? Glad, Mad, Sad, Bad, Scared
Glad
Adequate, beautiful, blissful, bold, brave, calm, capable, caring, cheerful, clever, confident, contented,
delighted, different, eager, ecstatic, empowered, energetic, energised enthusiastic, excited, exhilarated,
fascinated, free, full, genuine, gleeful, good, grateful, gratified, happy, helpful, high, honoured, impressed,
infatuated, inspired, jovial, joyous, kind, loving, nice, optimistic, passionate, peaceful, pleased, pretty,

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Points
(1-5)

proud, refreshed, relaxed, relieved, reverent, rewarded, satisfied, settled, supported, sure, vivacious,
whole, wonderful
Mad
Adamant, angry, annoyed, betrayed, bitter, bored, cheated, combative, cruel, deceitful, demeaned,
destructive, determined, diminished, discounted, disgusted, disturbed, dominated, dumped on, enraged,
envious, frustrated, furious, hassled, hateful, hysterical, ignored, imposed upon, indignant, infuriated,
incensed, insulted, irritated, righteous, righteous indignation, livid, mean, mortified, obsessed, opposed,
outraged, persecuted, pressured, put down, quarrelsome, resistant, spiteful, used, violent, violated,
vehement, vindictive, wicked
Sad (or disappointed)
Apathetic, burdened, condemned, contrite, crushed, defeated, depressed, despair, despondent,
disappointed, discontented, discouraged, disempowered, distraught, down, empty, exhausted, grief, guilty,
helpless, homesick, hopeless, horrible, hurt, isolated, left out, lonely, loss, lost, low, maudlin, miserable,
rejected, remorseful, shame, solemn, sorrowful, sorry, stunned, terrible tired, troubled, ugly, unhappy,
violated, wiped out, worthless
Bad
Evil, destructive, greedy, immoral, naughty, sneaky, stingy, too talkative
Scared
Abandoned, afraid, ambivalent, anxious, astounded, childish, concerned, confused, conspicuous,
disturbed, distracted, divided, dominated, dumb, embarrassed, fearful, flustered, foolish, frantic,
frightened, guilty, hesitant, horrified, hysterical, ignored, inadequate, intimidated, isolated, lost, jealous,
jumpy, nervous, odd, overpowered, overwhelmed, pained, panicked, persecuted, petrified, pressured,
puzzled, quarrelsome, rejected, scattered, shaky, shocked, spellbound, startled, stupid, stunned, stingy,
strange, tense, tempted, terrified, threatened, trapped, uneasy, unsettled, vulnerable, worried
The Empathy Rating Scale
(Ivey, Ivey, & Simek-Morgan, 1993, p. 27-28)

Instructions: Before rating a candidates statement for its degree of empathy, it is critical that the context
of what the client has been saying be considered as well. Therefore, examine what the client has just said,
and also what is the clients next reaction to the candidates statement, before determining how well the
candidate is tuned in. Rate each candidates statement on the following seven-point scale for degree of
empathy. It is also possible to examine several candidates statements or an entire interview segment and
rate that for empathy. The word counsellor is used in this scale, because it was originally used with
counsellor training.

Level 1: The counsellor is overtly destructive to the interviewing process. He or she fails to attend
(sharp body shifts, major topic jumps) in a way that sharply disrupts client flow or attacks the client or
discounts information.
[Level 1 is essentially the same as an extreme Level 1 response of the Carkhuff (1969) Empathy Scale.]

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Level 2: The counsellor may be implicitly and subtly destructive, even though overtly trying to be
helpful. The distinction between levels 1 and 2 is a matter of degree and sharpness. The disagreement or
lack of attention doesnt seem as unusual here and is seen in the daily life of most people in some form.
(Also see level 5.)
[Level 2 is essentially the same as a Level 1 response of the Carkhuff (1969) Empathy Scale.]

Level 3: At first glance, the session appears to be moving normally. However, on deeper analysis, one
sees that the counsellor is detracting slightly from what the client has been saying. The paraphrase is
close, but still misses the clients meaning. Much of our daily conversation fits this pattern. As a result of
the interaction, the client is not damaged and has been listened to minimally, but counsellor responses
take away from what the client says or minimise the value of clients statements.
[Level 3 is essentially the same as a Level 2 response of the Carkhuff (1969) Empathy Scale.]

Level 4: Considered by many the minimal level for counselling, level 4 responses are interchangeable
with what the client is saying. An interchangeable response is best exemplified by an accurate reflection
of feeling, paraphrase, or summary that catches the essence of what the client has said.
[Level 4 is essentially the same as a Level 3 response of the Carkhuff (1969) Empathy Scale.]

Level 5: In addition to an accurate paraphrase or reflection of feeling, the therapist adds a mild
interpretation or a probing question or interpretation that not only catches the major meanings of the
client, but adds something new to facilitate growth and exploration. The interpretation may be subtle in
that it may be stated as a reflection with cognitive content or a paraphrase with interpretation imbedded in
the statement.
Generally speaking, level 5 may require the use of influencing skills or open-questioning techniques
(except during the audio or videotape in ECC 601 or 602). Ineffective use of these questioning,
influencing, or confrontation skills at this point, however, may return the counsellor to level 2. As one
employs the influencing skills, the possibility for error increases.
[Level 5 is essentially the same as a Level 4 response of the Carkhuff (1969) Empathy Scale.]

Level 6: The counsellor is truly becoming an intentional person. Attending and influencing skills are
used in combination with the many qualities of empathy (concreteness, immediacy, and so on) to provide
a more effective and facilitating level of counselling. Patterns of movement symmetry and movement
complementarity often are shown during the session.

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[Level 6 is essentially the same as a Level 4+ to 5- response of the Carkhuff (1969) Empathy Scale.]

Level 7: The highest level of counselling is one that relatively few counsellors attain. In addition to
solid, effective, intentional demonstration of the many microskills and qualities of empathy, the
counsellor is totally with the client, yet apart and distinct. For some this can be termed a peak
experience in a relationship. Direct mutual communication is shown at this stage in its full dimensions.
[Level 7 is essentially the same as a Level 5 to 5+ response of the Carkhuff (1969) Empathy Scale.]

References:
Carkhuff, R. (1969). Helping and human relations (vols. 1 and 2). Troy, MO: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.
Ivey, A.E., Ivey, M.B., & Simek-Morgan, L (1993). Counselling and psychotherapy: A multicultural
perspective. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

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