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Oct 24, 2016

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THIRD EDITION

-Generalized Hookes Law

The discussion of deformation involved only kinematics and geometry without the need to discuss the forces

which might be involved in causing the deformation. On the other hand, the discussion of stress related the

various forces to each other and determined the equations of equilibrium. Now we wish to relate the forces to the

deformations.

Relations that characterize the physical properties of materials are called constitutive equations. Some materials

(e.g., steel), when loaded, obey Hooke's law, which states that the extension is proportional to the force (or stress

is proportional to strain). Thus, in uniaxial loading (one dimension),

where the proportionality constant , which must be experimentally determined, is called Young's modulus or the

modulus of elasticity.

In general three-dimensional elasticity, there are nine components of stress and nine components of strain (of

which, due to symmetry, only six are unique). Thus, the three dimensional generalization of Hooke's law is

referred to as generalized Hooke's law, which states that each component of stress is a linear combination of all

the strain components; i.e., in index notation,

ij cijkl kl

However, the symmetries of the stress tensor implies that

This reduces the number independent components of

ij term and 3 each for the k, l terms.

we can show that the

elasticity tensor and we are then left with only 36 components that are independent.

Since the strain energy function should not change when we interchange ij and kl in the

quadratic form, we must have

This reduces the number of independent constants to 21 (think of a

symmetric

matrix). These are called the major symmetries of the stiffness tensor.

1

1

strain energy density : w ij ij cijkl ij kl

2

2

ij

w 1

1

1

1

cijkl

kl cijkl ij kl cijkl im jn kl cijkl ij km ln

mn 2

mn

2

mn 2

2

1

1

1

1

cmnkl kl cijmn ij cmnij ij cmnij ij cmnij ij mn

2

2

2

2

ij

2w

cmnij

cmnij ik jl cmnkl

kl mn

kl

2w

cklmn

mn kl

cklmn cmnkl

symmetric tensor by reducing its order. There are a few variants and associated names

for this idea: Mandel notation, Mandel-Voigt notation and Nye notation are others found.

Kelvin notation is a revival by Helbig (1994) of old ideas of Lord Kelvin.

The differences here lie in certain weights attached to the selected entries of the tensor.

Nomenclature may vary according to what is traditional in the field of application.

For example, a 22 symmetric tensor X has only three distinct elements, the two on the

diagonal and the other being off-diagonal. Thus it can be expressed as the vector

.

As another example:

Voigt notation

To express the general stress-strain relation for a linear elastic material in terms of matrices , we

use what is called the Voigt notation.

In this notation, the stress and strain are expressed as

column vectors and the elasticity

tensor is expressed as a symmetric

matrix as shown below.

11 c1111

c

22 2211

33 c3311

12 c1211

23 c2311

31 c3111

c1122

c1133

c1112

c1123

c2222

c2233

c2212

c2223

c3322

c3333

c3312

c3323

c1222

c1233

c1212

c1223

c2322

c2333

c2312

c2323

c3122

c3133

c3112

c3123

c1131 11

c2231 22

c3331 33

c1231 212

c2331 2 23

c3131 2 31

Thus, the existence of a strain energy function implies that

there are at most 21 independent material constants. That is,

the most general anisotropic homogeneous material has at

most 21 elastic constants.

For example, a material which is elastically symmetric with respect to the

xy-plane would have elastic constants which are invariant under a

coordinate transformation corresponding to a reflection through the xyplane. That is, the components of a vector x would transform according to

x x

y y

z z

1 0 0

Q 0 1 0

0 0 1

or

1

Qij ai ij no summation on i , where a 1

1

Cijkl aiim a j jn ak kp al lqCmnpq ai a j ak al Cijkl no summation on i, j , k , l

c3111 c3112 c3122 c3211

c3212 c3222 c3331 c3332 0

The number of independent elastic constants reduces from 21 to 13

c1111

c

1122

c

C 1133

c1112

0

c1122

c1133

c1112

c2222

c2233

c2212

c2233

c3333

c3312

c2212

c3312

c1212

c2323

c2331

0

0

0

0

c2331

c3131

c1111

An orthotropic material has

c

three orthogonal planes of

1122

symmetry. Thus, those elastic

c

C 1133

constants having an odd

number of subscripts equal

0

to either 1 or 2 will vanish.

0

An orthotropic material has 9

0

independent material

constants.

c1122

c1133

c2222

c2233

c2233

c3333

c1212

c2323

0

0

0

0

0

c3131

Cijkl ij kl ik jl il jk

Cijkl ij kl ik jl il jk

ij Cijkl kl ij kl kl ik jl il jk kl

kk ij ij ji kk ij 2 ij

For stable isotropic materials state,

K 0

E 0 and 1< 1/ 2

11 2

2

22

2

33

0

0

12 0

23 0

0

0

0

0

31 0

0 11

0 22

0 33

0 212

0 2 23

2 31

E: Youngs modulus;

v: Poisions ratio;

G: Shear modulus

K: Bulk modulus (or modulus of compression)

3 2

E

E

1 1 2

E

G

2 1

2

K

E

3 1 2

ij kkij 2 ij

ii 3 2 ii

ij

11 2

2

22

33

0

0

12 0

23 0

0

0

0

0

31 0

0 11

0 22

0 33

0 212

0 2 23

2 31

kk

1

1

1 ij kk ij

or

ij

ij

ij

kk

ij

ij

ij

2

E

1

E

3 2

& .

: , ,

=

=

,

=

,

: = 0, = 0, = 0, , , 0

, :

1/

/

/

=

0

0

0

/

1/

/

0

0

0

/

/

1/

0

0

0

0 0 0

0 0 0

0 0 0

1/

0

0

0

1/

0

0

0

1/

1/

/

= /

/

1/

/

0

0

0

0

1/

1 2

=

1 2

0

1 2

1 2

0

+

1 2

=

+

1 2

=

= G

: 2 , ,

:

=

2 1+

symmetry so that its mechanical properties are, in general, different along each

axis. Orthotropic materials are thus anisotropic; their properties depend on the

direction in which they are measured ( e.g. wood, fiber-reinforced composites).

The physical properties of amorphous solids are identical in all

directions along any axis so they are said to have isotropic properties.

ij kkij 2 ij

ij

1

2

kk

ij ij

3 2

Principle of Superposition

ij , j bi ui

ij , j bi 0

ij Cijkl kl

ij 2 ij + kk ij

ij

ij ,kl

1

ui, j u j ,i

2

kl ,ij lj ,ki ki ,lj 0

ti ij n j ti

equilibrium equations : 3 equations

Hooke ' s law for linear elasticity

Hooke ' s law for linear elastic isotropic materials : 6 equations

strain - displacement equations : 6 equations

compatibility equations

traction boundary conditions

(1)

elasticity equations with prescribed body forces Fi (1) and surface tractions Ti ,

and the if the state ij(2) , ij(2) , ui(2) is a solution to the fundamental elasticity equations

with prescribed body forces Fi (2) and surface tractions Ti (2) ,

Then the state ij(1) + ij(2) , ij(1) + ij(2) , ui(1) ui(2) will be a solution to the problem with body

force Fi (1) Fi (2) and surface traction Ti (1) Ti (2)

(1)

(1)

(1)

Saint-Venant Principle

The stress, strain and displacement fields caused by two different statically

equivalent force distributions on parts of the body far away from the loading points

are approximately the same.

Saint-Venant (1797-1886)

French mathematician

and mechanician

End effect

(1) Equilibrium (stress),

(2) Kinematics or Compatibility (strain), and

(3) Stress-Strain Relations (constitutive relations)

ij , j bi ui

ij , j bi 0

ij Cijkl kl

ij 2 ij + kk ij

1

ij kk ij

E

E

1

ij ui , j u j ,i

2

ij ,kl kl ,ij lj ,ki ki ,lj 0

ij

ti ij n j ti

equilibrium equations : 3 equations

Hooke ' s law for linear elasticity

Hooke ' s law for linear elastic isotropic materials : 6 equations

Hooke ' s law for linear elastic isotropic materials : 6 equations

strain - displacement equations : 6 equations

compatibility equations

traction boundary conditions

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