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• Soaps have been used for more than 3000 years. In ancient
times, soaps were made from plant ashes (contain potassium
carbonate) and animal fats. Plant ashes were dispersed in water,
and fat was added to the solution.
Ash + Lime boiled Caustic Potash

(K2CO3) (CaO) (KOH)

Caustic Potash + Animal Fats boiled Soap

• Animal fats contain fatty acids which helped to get the process
started. In the end of the Middle Ages, slaked lime used to
causticise the alkali carbonate. Through this process, chemically
neutral fats could be saponified easily.
• The introduction of the Leblanc process for the production of soda
ash from brine and by the work of a French chemist, Michel
Chevreul, who showed that the process of saponification is the
chemical process of splitting fat into the alkali salt of fatty acids
(that is, soap) and glycerin help in the manufacturing of soap.
• Soap is the sodium or potassium salts formed when a fatty acid
that contain 12 to 18 carbon atoms per molecule is neutralized by
an alkali.
Fats or vegetable oils + concentrated alkalis soap

• Soap is cleansing agent made from animal fats or vegetable oils

by saponification.
• Saponification is the alkaline hydrolysis of ester using alkali

• Some examples of soaps are shown below.

a) Sodium palmitate, C15H31COONa

b) Sodium oleate, C17H33COONa

c) Sodium stearate, C17H35COONa

The process through which soap is prepared

• Soap is prepared by heating fats and oils with an alkali such as

sodium hydroxide, NaOH. The oil and fat malecules are
hydrolysed to form glycerol and fatty acids. This process is also
known as saponification as is the reverse of esterification.
Saponication of oils or fats
O l
R”— C—O—CH + 3H₂O l
O OH—CH₂ fatty acids
R”’—C—O—CH₂ glycerol

Neutralization of fatty acids


Salt or fatty acids or soap

• The fatty acids formed react with sodium hydroxide, NaOH a form
a salt and water. This salt is the basic form of soap.
• The soap produced can be precipitated by adding sodium
chloride, NaCl to the reaction mixture. Sodium chloride, NaCl
reduces the solubility of soap in water. As a result, the
precipitation of soap occurs.
• The preparation of sodium palmitate when glyceryl tripalmitates
(ester) is boiled with concentrated sodium hydroxide, NaOH
solution, saponification occurs and a mixture of sodium palmitate
(soap) and glycerol is obtained.

The structure of soap molecule

• When soap is dissolved in water, it will dissociate and produce
sodium ions and carboxylate ions (RCOO-). For example, sodium
stearate dissolves in water to form sodium ions and stearate ions.
C17H35COONa (s) + water C17H35COO- (aq)

sodium stearate stearate ions

+ Na + (aq)

• The active substance in soap is the carboxylate ion, for example,

stearate ion. The stearate ion consist of two parts : the ‘head’ and
the ‘tail’. The ‘head’
O id negatively charged and the ‘tail’ is a long
hydrocarbon chain.

• The ‘head’ contains the -C-O- ions which dissolves readily in water
(hydrophilic) but does not dissolve in oil. Conversely, the ‘tail’
contains a long hydrocarbon chain which is insoluble in water
(hydrophobic) but dissolves readily in oil.

• Soaps made from palmitic acid are known as sodium palmitate.

Figure 5.2 shows the structure of the palmitate ion in soaps.

• The figure 5.3 9a) shows the molecular model of palmitate ion
and Figure 5.3 (b) shows the simple representation of the
structure of the palmitate ion.

The molecular model of the palmitate ion.

The diagrammatic representation of the soap ion.

• Detergent is the salt formed when an alkyl hydrogen sulphate
is neutralized by an alkali
• Detergent is synthetic cleansing agent made from
hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum fractions.
• Detergents can be classified into three main types, depending
on the charge on the detergent ion.

a) Anionic detergents where the head of the detergent particle

contains a negatively charged ion.
Example: R – O – SO3-Na+ (Sodium alkyl sulphate) charged

b) Cationic detergents where the head of the detergent

particle contains a positively charged ion.
Example: R – N (CH3)3+BR- charged

c) Non ionic detergents

Example: R – O – CH2CH2OH

• There are two types of anionic detergents :

a) Detergent molecule with a benzene ring such as sodium

alkylbenzene sulphonate.

Where R represents a
long hydrocarbon chain.
We can represent the detergent ion, alkylbenzene sulphonate ion,
more simply as :

b) Detergent molecule without a benzene ring such as sodium

alkyl sulphate.

We can represent the detergent ion, alkyl sulphate ion as:

R – OSO3-

The process through which detergent is prepared

i. Preparation of of sodium alkyl sulphate

i. Reaction with concentrated sulphuric acid
ii. Neutralisation with sodium hydroxide, NaOH solution

• Preparation of sodium lauryl sulphate from the production

of lauryl hydrogen sulphate followed by the neutralization
of lauryl hydrogen sulphate.
• An example of a long chain alcohol is didecan – 1 –ol,
CH3(CH2)10CH2OH. The detergent prepared from dodecan -1
–ol is called sodium dodecyl sulphate (IUPAC name) or
sodium lauryl sulphate (common name). CH3(CH2)10CH2O-
SO3-Na+ .

• Sodikum alkylbenzene sulphinates, were first used in

1940s. It can be prepared in three steps. The starting
materials for making this detergents in a long chain alkene,
RCH = CH2 , obtained from the cracking of petroleum.
• Preparation of sodium alkylbenze sulphonate

a) Alkylation – introduction of the sulphonic acid group

to an organic molecule

b) Sulphonation – introduction of the sulphonic acid

group , -SO3H to an organic molecule to form
sulphonic acid

• Alkylbenze reacts with sulphuric acid to form

alkylbenze sulphonic acid

c) Neutralisation
• Alkylbenzene suphonic acid reacts with sodium
hydroxide to form sodium alkylbenze sulphonate
The structure of detergent molecule
• Detergents dissolve in water to form sodium ions, Na+ and
detergent ions.
• The detergent ions consists of two parts; the head and the tail.
• The head is the sulphate group, -OSO3- or the sulphonate group,
-OSO3- , which is negatively charged and hydrophilic (dissolves
in water).
• The tail is the long hydrocarbon chain, which is neutral and
insoluble in water (hydrophobic) but dissolves readily in oil or
• The structure of alkyl sulphate ion in detergent

alkyl sulphate ion

Alkylbenzene sulphonate ion

The cleansing action of soap and detergent

a) When soap or detergent is added to the dirty surface
of a piece of cloth, the hydrophohic part of the soap
or detergent ions dissolves in grease. The hydrophilic
part of the soap or detergent ions dissolves in water.
b) If the water is agitated and lifted off the surface.
c) The grease is lifted off the surface and suspended in
water. The hydrophilic part of the soap or detergent
ions surround the grease.
d) The grease is dispersed into smaller drops that float
in water. Heating, rubbing, and scrubbing can help
this process.
e) When the cloth is rinsed with water, the grease
droplets will be removed.
The effectiveness of the cleansing action of soap and detergent
Property Soap Detergent

Cleaning power Less powerfull More powerfull

Ease of rinsing It is difficult to wash Rinse out well from

away all soap on clothes
clothes. The soap
that remains leave
and odour and spoils
the fabric

pH Slightly alkaline Can be controlled to

suit the cleaning

Molecular Determined by the Can be modified to

structure fatty acids found in suit the cleaning
the oil or fat used to task. For example, a
produce soap detergent can be
made specially for
cleaning toilet

Formation of Forms scum with Does not form scum

scum hard water with hard water
Additives in detergents
1. Modern detergents used for washing clothes usually contains a
few types of additives to :

a) Increase their cleaning power.

b) Make them attractive and saleable.

2. Only about 20% of the substances in a detergent are cle4ansing

agents (sodium alkyl sulphate or sodium alkylbenzene
sulphonate). The other substances are additives. The examples of
addictives and their functions are described as follows :
3. Builders : Sodium tripolyphosphate (Na5P3O10)

a) Sodium tripolyphospathe is usd to soften hard water. In the

presence of sodium tripolyphosphate, Ca2+ ions and Mg2+
ions are removed.

b) Sodium tripolyphosphate increases the pH value of water.

In this way, muddy dirt can be removed.

4. Whitening / bleaching agents : sodium perborate

a) Bleaches (bleaching agents) remove coloured stains by

oxidation process. When coloured stanis are oxidized, the
colour will disappear.

b) The whitening (bleaching) agents commonly used in

detergent are sodium perborate (NaH2BO43H2O). Sodium
perborate decomposes in hot water to release oxygen (an
oxidising agent) which is responsible for the whitening
(bleaching) action.

c) Unlike chlorine, oxygen does not bleach the colour of dyes

are not damaging to fabrics. When properly used, the
perborate bleaches make fabrics whiter than chlorine
bleaches and the colourful dyes of the fabrics do not fade
when dirty stains are removed.

d) Besides sodium perborate, sodium hypochlorite, (NaCIO)

can also be used as bleaches in detergents. The IUPAC
name of sodium hypochlorite is sodium chlorate (I).
e) Sodium hypochlorite releases chlorine that bleaches with
dirty stains. However, high concentrations of chlorine can
be quite damaging to fabrics. These bleaches do not work
well on synthetic fabrics (polyster fabrics), often causing a
yellowing rather than the desire whitening. Also chlorine
causes the dyes on fabrics to fade.

5. Biological enzymes : Amylase, lipase, and protease

a) Protein stains such blood, milk, and tomato sauce cannot

be removed by the ordinary detergents because these
types of stains are insoluble in water.

b) Biological enzymes in detergents can break down fat and

protein molecules in food stains. The fatty acids, glycerol
and amino acids produced are soluble in water and are
removed during washing.

6. Brighteners

a) Figure below shows the action of brighteners. The

brighteners absorb the invisible ultra-violet and re-radiate
it as blue light.


b) Brighteners make fabrics appear whiter and brighter
because the blue light can hide any yellowing on the
fabrics. Blue light added to the yellow light reflected on old
fabrics make them look white.

7. Drying agents ; Sodium sulphate and sodium silicate

Anhydrous sodium sulphate and sodium silicate (Na2S2O3) are

used as drying agents to ensure that the detergent in powdered
firm is always in a dry condition.

8. Stabilisers

a) The functions of stabilizers is to prevents the formation of


b) In an automatic washing machine, excessive foam can stop

the pump working. So, washing powders for automatic
washing machine are made using detergents that are good
at removing and emulsifying grease, but do not produced

9. Perfumes

Perfumes are added to make clothes smell fresh and clean.

Food additive

• Food additive is any substance that is added to food in small

quantities to preserve or improve its flavour and appearance.

Uses of food additives

To make food last longer (to extend the shelf life)
To make foods taste better and look better

Types of food additives Effects on health

Preservatives: sodium Allergy: MSG

nitrite, sodium benzoate Carcinogenic: NaNO₂
Antioxidant: ascorbic acid Brain damage
Flavouring: Monosodium Hyperactivity
glutamate(MSG), aspartame
Stabiliser and thickener:
gelatin and acacia gum
Dye: azo compounds,
triphenyl compounds

Functions of food additives

Preservatives: to inhibit or prevent the

growth of moulds, yeast and bacteria that
spoil foods
Antioxidants: to prevent spoilage of food
due to oxidation by oxygen
Flavouring agents: to enhance the taste of
Stabilisers and thickeners: to improve the
texture of foods
Colouring agents: to restore the colour or
to enhance the natural colour
The rationale for the use of food additives.

• To make sure that certain food remains edible throughout the

• A considerable number of food is harvested seasonally. In such
cases preservatives are added to make sure that they do not
get spoilt, and remains edible after along time.
• Additives such as vitamins B, C, and D, and minerals such as
iron is added to improve the nutritional value of foods which
may be destroyed during food processing.
• Food additives are used as an artificial sweeteners for diabetic
• Food additives such as potassium iodide in table salt is used to
reduce the incidence of goiter.
• The use of food additives such as vitamin C in fruit juices
prevents scurvy, vitamin D in milk and vitamin A in margarine
prevent rickets.
The effects of food additives on health and the environment.

• Additives in food should be limited. This is because all the

additives used are chemicals, and over a long period of time
they may have adverse effects in our body. Moreover, no
additive has been proven to be 100% safe. Scientific
knowledge should be applied in the management of food
o The excessive use of the flavouring agent monosodium
glutamate (MSG) is harmful, because it causes headaches,
poor vision and dries up the throat, giving rise to unnatural
o Food additives such as sodium sulphite, MSG and some
food colours can cause allergic reactions in some people.
o Food additives such as sodium nitrate is carcinogen.
o The excessive intake of nitrites over a long period can
cause brain damage.
o Food additives such as tartrazine can cause hyperactivity.

The functions of food label.

• To let the consumers know about the nutrient content, food
additives used, expiry date, halal or non-halal, whether
containing any permitted or prohibited chemicals or whether
the food is good or bad for health.

Life without food additives.

• Food spoilage occurs. Food supplies will be reduced and there
will be food shortage around the world.
• Deficiency of vitamins and minerals in foods because the
nutritional value of foods may be destroyed during food
• Malnutrition happens especially among the younger
generation due to the loss of appetite because foods do not
look attractive, do not taste delicious or smell good.

 Chemical compounds that are used as medicine to heal any sort
of ailment is known as drugs

Traditional medicines

 Traditional medicines are derived from mostly different types of

plant parts or animal parts. They are generally less harmful over
a long period of time when compared to drugs.

Examples of traditional medicine and their uses.

PlantLocal nameUsesAloe veraLidah buayaSap used to

relieved pain from burnsBetelSirehLeaves relieved sore
eyesBitter gourdPeriaFruit used to cure
diabetesCoconutKelapaYoung coconut water reduces
feverGarlicBawang putihReduces infection and
hypertensionGingerHaliaReduces inflammation and
improves blood circulation and
digestionGinsengGinsengRoots maintain good
healthHibiscusBunga RayaLeaves relieves headache and
hair lossTurmericKunyitCures pimples

Type of modern medicineFunctionExamplesAnalgesicsRelieve

The painAspirin,
types of modern medicine, their examples
paracetamolAntibioticsKill and functions.
or inhibit
growth of infectious bacteriaPenicillin,
streptomycinPsychotherapeutic medicinesControl
symptoms of mental illnessStimulants,
Side effects of medicines

• Both traditional and modern medicines have side effects

• Some traditional medicines help people lose their weight by
speeding up their metabolism. The side effects are an increase in
blood pressure and heart rate
• Birth control pills are an example of modern medicine. Women
who use them experience side effects such as hypertension,
acne, and abnormal bleeding.

Correct ways of using medicines

• Use the correct amount or dosage and using it for the correct
• For example, using antibiotics to treat infections caused by
viruses is drug misuse. This is because antibiotics have no effect
on viruses.
• Drug abuse is using drug for its intoxicating effect. For example,
the use of Morphine, Viagra and ecstasy pills.
The significance of chemicals in the world today and its side effects.

• Chemical have become an integral part of today’s lifestyle.

Each and every toiletry, cosmetic, or food that we use or
consume is some way or the other related to chemicals. From
the moment we get up from bed, the toothpaste we use to
brush our teeth, the soap, the shampoo and detergent that we
use and the breakfast cereal that we eat have some form of
chemical or other.
• However, chemicals are not 100% organic friendly. For this
reason, before eating preserved food we should think whether
we can possibly replace it with some other organic food, or
while using cosmetics or toiletries, we should choose the ones
that have reduced chemicals.
• A life without chemicals is impossible. Hence, it is up to us to
use them wisely and sparingly.
NO. MAKTAB : 409/050